University of Florida reCenter for Latin American Studies
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32601 VOLUME 5, NO. 2 DECEMBER 15, 1969
WHITHER T MILITARY
A Summary Look at the Alit y overnment of Peru and Its Political Programs
This feature article was written by out P ch programs are exceeded presumably of lower-class parentage. Leon G. Campbell, a Ph.D. candi- in Lat erica only by the socialist During the same period an estimated
date in Latin American History at the regime ba wfh has warmly 94% of the directors of Per's largest
University of Florida. Mr. Campbell praised e via' generals. Ger- corporations were born either in Lima
received his B.A. degree from Stan- tainly thes re no;bemedalled mili- or on the coast.' The result of such ford University; he served in the tares acting o of a small social and racial divergence has been
United States Army prior to returning group of oligarchs who control them. to inhibit the officer from entering the for his M.A. degree at the same The soldier as radical reformer in social elite. Excluded by birth from
institution. From 1968 to 1969 he was Latin America is a relatively new such association, the military has a Fulbright-Hays Research Fellow in phenomenon and one that bears ex- tended to become increasingly hostile Peru and Spain doing doctoral re- amination. Who are these men? Why towards the upper class with which it search in the field of Peruvian colonial did they act when they did? More can neither identify nor join. history. He is married and has three important, why have they acted in Partially to offset this exclusion, the children, such an unusual fashion?Pataytoosethsxcuin e
army has stressed education as a
To understand the military regime means of self-advancement and has The military coup which ousted in Peru, it is necessary to be aware of adopted a strict professional ethic. President Fernando Belainde Terry the changes which have taken place Through the military academy, boys on October 3, 1968 was not totally un- in the military institution during this of lower class origin have reached the expected. In a country which did not century. While it is no doubt true that top of the military profession. Presihave a civilian president until 1872, the army in Peru, during the colonial dent Velasco, who rose through the and one in which the military has and early republican periods, tended ranks to become Chairman of the deposed constitutionally elected pres- to align with the upper classes due to Joint Chiefs of Staff, is a case in point. idents several times during the pres- the coincidence of their social origins Advancement in the army is based on ent century, a golpe militar is always or aspirations; such is no longer the merit. Of all the Division Generals a distinct possibility. What has dis- case. To some degree this is due to serving between 1940 and 1965, no tinguished the military government the broadening of the educational in- less than 80% had graduated in the headed by General Juan Velasco Al- stitution, permitting middle class' top quarter of their class at the acadvarado has been the broad program youths to enter more lucrative civil emy.2 The Center for Higher Military of institutional change which it has careers in the fields of medicine, en- Studies (CAEM) forms an inteleffected. Six days after assuming gineering, or law. Moderate pay lectual crucible for the officer corps.8
power, the government nationalized scales, unglamorous duty stations, and Company and Field grade officers the International Petroleum Company decreasing defense functions have all spend a year studying subjects such as (IPC), a wholly owned subsidiary of meant an attendant loss of prestige economic development and national Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued for the military institution. One direct integration, taught by civilian intelat $208 million. Since then it has re- result of such factors has been the lectuals of liberal and even leftist perorganized the country's banking and emergence of an officer corps which suasion. It is here that officers learn tax system, established free primary is mestizo in physiognamy and of that the well-being of all Peruvians and secondary education, established lower social origin than its immediate must be considered in assessing the diplomatic relations with Russia, en- predecessors. According to a recent capacities of a civilian government. acted new water and irrigation legis- study, 56% of the men holding the The Peruvian military is concerned lation, and passed a revolutionary rank of general in the army during with development as well. In a counagrarian reform bill designed to re- the period 1955-1965 were born in try which has a chronic shortage of ort landholding patterns through-, the sierra or selva regions of Periu, technicians, military engineers since
1960 have outnumbered cavalrymen.4 again. This time, however, it would with this program, they will be a long Experience in the sierra fighting guer- choose to rule Peri6 itself. Within the way on the road towards achieving rillas and building roads has taught officer corps of Peri' one can find all the social transformation which they them what the actual conditions are. stripes of political persuasion. To feel is the key to Peru's development. It is not illogical, therefore, for them characterize the institution as politi- Should they fail, the combination of a to consider themselves as the best cally monolithic is dangerously mis- huge foreign debt and decreasing equipped group to deal with Per4's leading.7 When it acts, therefore, one capital investment might combine in numerous social and economic prob- can be sure that an internal consensus the form of unemployment and inflalems. has been reached. When it did act, tion to bring them down. Much will
During the turbulent 1920s and the institution overthrew the Belai'nde also depend on how the army treats
1930s the army was forced into a government.8 legitimate dissent, both within its
marriage of convenience with the Commentators have variously ranks and without, during this critical
rural-urban elites in a power struggle termed the junta as "Communist," period. Should Velasco falter, a against the Alianza Popular Revolu- "Peronist," and Nasserist," among coterie of moderate generals might be cionaria Americana (APRA) Party, other labels. Velasco, himself, more expected to stage an institutional
and its leader, Haya de la Torre, who appropriately, used the term national- counter-coup against him. In Per-, sought to control the army and whose ist. This, in fact, seemed to form the as elsewhere in Latin America, naprograms were anathema to it. As extent of the junta's program as it tionalism, so valuable a tool in rolate as 1962 the army intervened to sought to rally public opinion behind evoking a revolution, by itself wil be prevent Haya from capturing the it in the face of U.S. threats to invoke unable to sustain one, and economics, presidency. What distinguished the the Hickenlooper Amendment which which hardly ever brings about such
1962 coup from its predecessors, how- would cut off aid and end Peru's sugar change, will, in the final analysis, ever, was the fact that it was institu- quota. With the passage of this danger determine its success. tional in nature, ruled not by a charis- through negotiations, the government matic officer but by the Chairman of has taken other steps in a move to re- FOOTNOTES
the Joint Command who represented capture support among the Peruvian all three branches of the service. Hop- people which has been declining of 1. Einaudi, Luigi, "The Peruvian ing to improve the image of the mili- late. Ultimatums have been issued to Military: A Summary Political Analytary, which has been sullied by Gen- U.S. mining companies to insure con- sis," Rand Corporation Memorandum eral Odria's former dictatorship, the tinued capital investment and fuller RM-6048-RC, (Santa Monica, Calif., junta held elections and withdrew exploitation of their properties. Free 1969.) p. 6.
from politics, placing their faith in public education has been pro- 2. Ibid., p. 7. Bela'mde, whose reform program co- claimed. The most dramatic step to 3. McAlister, L. N., The Military in
incided with their own in many re- date has been the passage, last Feb- Sociopolitical Evolution: Four Case spects. ruary, of an agrarian reform bill Studies. Center for Research in SoBetween 1962 and 1968 Belaunde which has resulted in the expropria- cial Systems, (Washington, D. C.,
let the Peruvian ship of state largely tion of the large coastal sugar and forthcoming). steer its own course, however, re- cotton properties owned by the most 4. Einaudi, p. 11. steeid oer cra, inowatin, an powerful interests in Peru. 5. See Richard Goodwin, "Letter
siding over graft, inflation, an a pofrom Peru," The New Yorker, (May monetary devaluation. Most galling of To predict the future of Peru is to 17, 1969), pp. 41-109 passim. all was his failure to solve the prob- speculate. One certainty, however, is 6. Einaudi, p. 17. lem of the IPC, which was operating that the military intends to rule for 7. Ibid., pp. 11-12. on the strength of a questionable 1826 some time as one spokesman said, "un- 8. Goodwin notes that the final deed to the La Brea-Parifias proper- til the ship of state rights itself, how- vote, held in September of 1968. was ties which granted to the holder sub- ever long that may be." The recent 29-7 in favor of staging the coup. (p. soil ownership of the underground cabinet resignations of two moderate 88).
mineral wealth in violation of the con- generals and their replacement with stitutional provision that such wealth stronger nationalists indicate that probelonged to the state. Belaiinde's ap- grams such as agrarian reform and On the Calendar
parent willingness to negotiate an tax reform will be vigorously pursued. issue which all literate Peruvians con- Dissent against the military has been Dr. Matthew Edel, Assistant Prosidered an affront to their national evident, especially among university fessor at Massachusetts Institute of dignity, and his agreement to pur- students whose organizations the Technology, will be the speaker at chase the fields which IPC now con- army has outlawed, and there is some the February 4, 1970 meeting of the sidered a political liability was a situa- speculation that a leftist coalition Latin American Colloquium. Dr. tion the military found unacceptable? could form among groups which up to Edel, who has authored several artiAs early as 1960 the Peruvian Joint now have tacitly supported the new cles on agrarian reform and communCommand had spoken out against the government. Certainly with the ity development and who has written IPC.6 By 1968, Belaiinde's party, Ac- Hickenlooper threat eased, the army a book, Food Supply and Inflation in ci6n Popular, was splintered, and a can no longer appeal to national unity Latin America, will speak on "The stagnant economy made an APRA alone as a basis of support. Much of Strategy of Cuban Economic Devictory in the 1969 presidential elec- the government's success will depend velopment." In his talk he will discuss tion a virtual certainty. Convinced upon the extent to which it can secure economic planning and policy implethat it had erred in leaving the overhead capital to implement the mentation in Cuba with a view to the
government in civilian hands in 1962, agrarian reform program. Should way in which goals for economic dethe military determined to move these new military managers succeed velopment may be achieved.
COLLOQUIUM, OCTOBER 29, 1969
"Higher Education in Spain and Peru"
Speaker: Mr. Peter A. Fraenkel, these changes will have a significant society. Now the system no longer fits Assistant to the Vice President, Divi- impact, much more so than in other the situation. Limited accessibility to sion of Education and Research, parts. While the Spanish reforms will the schools is one of the major probFord Foundation. Born in Bolivia of have little influence on education in lems. In 1967, only 20% of the chilGerman-American extraction, Mr Per6', Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia; dren ages 10 to 17 and only 3% of Fraenkel acted as Assistant to the Colombia, Ecuador, Central America those in the 18 to 24 age bracket were Cultural Affairs Advisor, United and sections of the Caribbean area enrolled in school. While the percentStates Military Government, Ger- will be greatly influenced. Many of ages are much higher for children many, 1947-48; was Assistant to the these countries have sent delegations under 14, the figures for those over President at Indiana University for to Madrid to investigate the proposed 10 years of age are inflated due to the next fifteen years; and in 1962, new Spanish model. Since there are the fact that many of them are alumjoined the Ford Foundation where certain similarities between Latin nos libres (students officially enrolled, he has spent much of his time in the American and Spanish universities, but studying on their own and not in Andean countries. Mr. Fraenkel has such as the lecture-repeat course in- a classroom). Another difficulty is that just returned from Spain where he is struction method, ome of'the reforms the southern and rural provinces have working with university development may be carried into parts of the Latin fewer students than the more urban projects. American public university systems provinces, resulting in a disparity in
which, generally speaking, are not the opportunity to go to school. Also, Education in Spain, known to be now on a par with that of Spain. the dropout rate at all levels of the very inadequate for modern times, is Three essential features, Mr. Fraen- educational process is very high. In in the midst of some remarkable de- kel stated, are prerequisite for an the year 1961-62 only 17% of those velopments. A major educational re- understanding of education in Spain who had entered high school entered form, one which is seemingly incom- today. First, Spain has been late in the university, and in 1967 the droppatible with the political system Of arriving in the modern world; it has out rate at each grade level of elethe last thirty years, is underway un- missed two industrial revolutions and mentary school was running close to der the direction of Vidal Palaci, has turned inward. Second, Spain has 20%. Spanish Minister of Education. Legis- been isolated, partly due to the afore- Presently, at age 10 common elelation, envisioning the changes sug- mentioned lateness and partly due to mentary school ends, with all elemengested by Palaci and his team of ex- the effects of the civil war, 1936-39. tary education ending at age 14. perts, was introduced into the Spanish Only in the last decade has there Then, beginning with secondary Cortes and appears to have a good been a general opening of the country school, private and church schools chance of passing, although, perhaps, to the outside world. Third, the provide most of the educational opwith amendments. Spanish oligarchy, different from portunities. There are few public secThe effects of this new approach other European aristocracies, has suf- ondary schools. Due to each of these to education will be significant, for fered from this lateness and isolation. private schools charging tuition, acthe planning and preparation has Eeyn elzstapltcly csiiiyt neuaini ral
reached a stage where the momentum Eeyn elzstapltcly esbiyt neuaini ral
forchage as ecoe iresstale. Spain is approaching the end of an reduced, and even if one can afford To harpoe the efom is tled era. Despite the almost universal pre- to go, the quality of the education Tha partpaftoefry soiety wth lem- occupation with what might come given in these schools varies greatly. tophaiamodr moetd, aditional-next, it is evident that the political All this is in contrast to Peni where
schol cnstuctonimpove curi- system synonymous with the era in secondary school is free for everyone culum and the infusion of a new question, has changed considerably aderlmn srpdyepnig
spirit into the classroom. Envisioned is since the 1940s. The trend, in its hesi- The universities, the apex of the a system that will provide free public tant three steps forward two steps Spanish educational system, also have education for everybody for the first backward manner, has moved in the suffered from limited accessibility eight years, to be followed by a three general direction of liberalization. and restricted course content. Howyear comprehensive high school This proposed educational reform is ever, despite the weaknesses of the course open to selected students on a indicative of this trend, university system and incompatibility
tuition paying basis. Beyond that, a The economy, which was in terrible with a booming economy, increased reasonably unified higher education shape in the 1940s, improved in the torsanringspainSaih system is proposed, with greater em- 1950s and has made very impressive universities produce some of the phasis on research in education. Fif- gains since 1961. Although the eco- world's best minds-well trained, genteen institutes of educational sciences nomic expansion has been somewhat teel, articulate, versatile and very will be established at various univer- uneven, it is estimated that the humanistic. sities and the curricula and teaching growth rate in 1969 may run as high The new reforms envision raising methods will be changed. To finance as eight to ten percent. On the basis the enrollment in school by 1971 to all these improvements, the educa- of this rosy picture of economic 1,000,000 in primary school, 565,000 tional budget will be sharply in- growth rests the hopes for financing in secondary school (up from 149,000 creased from its 1968 figure of the proposed educational reforms. in 1967) 58,000 in vocational schools twenty billion pesetas, the increase Up until the present, the Spanish and 25,000 in higher education. Specbeing financed by higher taxes. educational system has been designed ial emphasis will be placed on schools
In some parts of Latin America to serve a rigid, urban oriented, class Continued on Page 8
Six Scholars Join Conference on for Inter-American Affairs, will give the hard working nature of the
the principal address for the confer- people, the friendly, fun-loving, and "Universities in ence at 8:80 p.m. Friday, February cooperative attitudes of the children,
Six additional well known scholars 27th in Ballroom B of the Reitz and the seeming emotional adjusthave accepted invitations to partici- Union. The title of Mr. Crimmins ment of the people to their lot. They pate in the Core Group for the con- address is "Toward a More Mature surround themselves with religious
ference on "The United States Pres- Partnership: The Nixon Administra- objects and pictures, farm animals, ence in Latin America: Universities tion's Latin American Policy." and frequent flower gardens. Most of
in Transition." The conference, which the people work as obreros in the
will be held February 25-28, 1970, is Five UF Students Work on surrounding areas at varying wage
being sponsored by the Center for ACICCA scales.
Latin American Studies, University of Project Bogota In addition to the main project of
building the community center to be
Florida. This past summer five University used for meetings (there is no church
The six additional participants are of Florida students spent nine weeks in the neighborhood), ACICCA also Dr. Gino Germani, Harvard Univer- working in a community aid project worked on taking a census of the sity; Dr. Orlando Albornoz, Instituto in Bogota, Colombia. Working in the barrio, teaching English in the barrio Societas, Caracas, Venezuela; Prof. barrio Lucero Alto, south and above school, and, prior to school opening, Juan Manuel Maiguaschca, Adlai BogotA, from July 1 to September 1, organizing recreational activities for
Stevenson Institute, Chicago; Dr. 1969, were students Larry Cohen, the youngsters. The students also asGuilardo Martins Alves, Rector, Uni- Kitty Collier, Jeff Fenster, Jan Leder- sisted dental and medical students versity of Paraiba, Brazil; Dr. Hen- man and Linda Mildowitz, all of who came in on weekends to give
rique Tono, Vice Rector, Universidad Dade County, Florida. They were medical treatment to the people. Six
del Valle, Cali, Colombia; and, Sir joined by one student from Florida of the students also spent three weeks Philip Sherlock, Association of Carib- State University ard twelve from the completing a school in the town of bean Universities and Research In- University of Tennessee at Knoxville. Somondoco, about 125 miles northeast stitutes, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica. The eighteen students went to of Bogota'.
These six join a distinguished group BogotA as part of a project sponsored The project was completed with of scholars who will form the Core by the Florida-Colombia Alliance. In the end of summer. Lack of materials Group that will participate in the Bogotd they lived with Colombian has hindered further efforts in the
discussions following summations of families around the city and worked area, but the students came away papers on specific topics presented with students from several Bogota most impressed with the cooperation at the beginning of each period, universities. The major project as- and help they had received. All five
Those giving summations of papers signed to them was the construction of the University of Florida students and leading the respective discussions of a community center in Lucero Alto. have returned to the Gainesville camare: Dr. Reuben Frodin, Ford Foun- This project was organized by the pus and resumed their studies. dation; Dr. Raul Urzuia, Catholic Uni- Acci6n Communal Inter-Universitaria versity, Santiago, Chile; Mr. Augusto Centro C o 10 m o A m e r i c a n o LATIN AMERICAN
Franco A., Instituto Colombiano Para (ACICCA), a community action el Fomento de Educaci6n Superi6r, group that operates out of the office URBAN RESEARCH
BogotA, Colombia; Dr. F. M. Tiller, of one of the binational centers in The Latin American Urban Annual, Director, Center for the Study of Colombia, the Centro Colombo-Amer- announced in the December 15, 1968 Higher Education in Latin America, icano. Coordinators for the program issue of the Latinamericanist, will apUniversity of Houston; Dr. Robert were Otto Benavides and Pedro Bel- pear under a new name, Latin
Arnove, Ford Foundation representa- tran. American Urban Research. The jourtive in BogotA, Colombia; Professor The community center project was nal, which is being published by Sage Rudolf Atcon, Pan American Union; instigated at the request of the Publications, in cooperation with the and Dr. Luis Alberto Sanchez, former inhabitants of Lucero Alto who had Center for Latin American Studies, Rector, University of San Marcos, appealed to ACICCA for assistance. University of Florida, is co-edited by Lima, Per'. The work was carried out jointly, Felicity M. Trueblood, Assistant ProThe final session, Saturday Feb- with the students digging trenches, fessor of Comprehensive English, Uniruary 28th, will consist of a summa- pouring concrete, assembling roof versity of Florida and Francine F. tion of the efforts of the Core Group supports and putting on the roof. The Rabinovitz, Assistant Professor of Poand other participants. The first part bricklaying was done by the people litical Science, University of Califorof the summation will be done from a of the barrio who had experience in nia. Latin American viewpoint by Dr. such work. The funds for the project The purpose of Latin American
GermAn 0. E. Tjarks, Visiting Profes- came from the city of BogotA. Urban Research is to provide a series
sor of History, University of Florida. Lucero Alto, which has the repu- of projected annual reviews of urban The second part will feature a North tation of being one of the better of studies in Latin America. American viewpoint to be presented the poorer barrios, overlooks BogotA All sales and distribution of the by Dr. George Waggoner, Dean, Uni- from atop a five hundred foot hill. Latin American Urban Research are versity of Kansas. The roads are bad; there is no elec-- being handled directly by Sage PubliThe conference will be held in the tricity or running water; most of the cations, 275 South Beverly Drive, J. Wayne Reitz Union on the campus inhabitants suffer from dysentery; Beverly Hills, California, 90212. All of the University of Florida at overcrowding is a serious problem; inquiries should be directed to the Gainesville. Mr. John Hugh Crimmins, and life is generally hard. But, despite publisher in care of Mrs. Sara M. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State these conditions, the students noticed McCune.
COLLOQUIUM, NOVEMBER 17, 1969
"Machismo: A Look at Behavior"
Speaker: Dr. David M. Monsees, marriages. In addition, the overall tured such a person as a Don JuanJr., Assistant Professor of Sociology, reading level, in terms of content, is an insecure person with an emphasis University of Florida. Dr. Monsees low as compared to the general on sexuality and sexual virility outreceived his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. Colombian population. Not surpris- side of marriage. He looked upon the degrees from the University of ingly, Candelaria has a very high hombre completo as a product of a Chicago. He did his doctoral disserta- birthrate. pathological rather than a cultural
tion on "The Male Role in Family Utilizing the 1955 study of Dr. problem. Stycos also felt that the attiAcceptance of and Use of Birth Con- J. Mayone Stycos dealing with Puerto tudes of the hombre complete would trol in Candelaria, Colombia." Dr. Rico, a 1959 study by Stycos, Reuben lead to higher fertility. Pitt-Rivers saw Monsees joined the faculty of the Uni- Hill and Kurt Bach, also on Puerto in machismo a concept of honor, with versity of Florida in September 1969. Rico, and the studies of Sir Julian the macho seeking both honor and Pitt-Rivers and Oscar Lewis as pre- prestige. To Oscar Lewis, the macho A behavioral index of reported sex- liminary points of reference, and us- was the brawling, aggressive type, a ual activity constructed as part of a ing the information gathereda from the person who felt compelled to try and family planning study done in the Candelaria project as a basis, a be- outdo everyone else in just about small rural town of Candelaria, havioral index of reported sexual ac- everything-including sex. Colombia, has disclosed some unex- tivity was constructed. Sample re- From these studies one would expected results in the attitudes of quirements for the study were couples pect that the high machos would those males classified, according to living together with the wife between want big families with children their interview responses, as machos. the ages of fifteen and forty five and closely spaced. One would expect Instead of expressing attitudes sup- with both partners available for inter- that they would not discuss something posedly characteristic of the sexual views. Some eight hundred couples such as family planning with their virility and aggressiveness commonly were eligible. Every other household, wives, much less listen to or heed associated with the term machismo, minus those who disqualified them- their advice. One would expect that preference for large families with selves in some manner, was inter- the male would establish masculine children closely spaced as to age, for viewed. Of the 824 couples finally superiority in the relationship with little discussion with the wife about interviewed, three groups emerged- his wife, leaving the more egalitarian the responsibility of family planning, those who exhibited high macho char- concepts to the low macho. However, and for male supremacy in general, acteristics, those in a middle range, the results, when compiled, showed the results indicated opposite atti- and those showing low macho tenden- that everything came out wrong tudes. cies. For purposes of comparison, the in terms of what one might have exThe study was made as part of an middle group was discarded. pected. High machos showed them
evaluation of a family planning pro- The responses to three questions selves to be significantly (statistigram being conducted by the Comit6 included in the interview formed the ally) more in favor of a smaller Universitario de Investigaciones sobre basis for the construction of the index, family size and of more space bePoblaci6n (CUIP), Universidad del Each respondent was asked 1) when tween children. Also, they were Valle, Cali, Colombia. CUIP director, he or she first had sex, 2) how fre- significantly more inclined to talk to Dr. Ramiro Delgado Garcia, Dr. Al- quently he or she engaged in sex, and their wives about family planning and fredo Aguirre Castafio, director of the 3) how often he or she had an orgasm. to listen to them. The high macho Candelaria family planning project, High machos were classified as those group also exhibited in their reand Dr. Hernan Mendozo Hoyos, who had engaged in sex before age spouses, a decidedly more egalitarian
chief, division of population, Asocia- fifteen, who had sex more than once approach towards their wives. The ci6n Colombiano de Facultades de a week and who always had an low macho group, on the other hand,
Medicina (ASCOFAME), lent inval- orgasm. Low machos were those who while differing little from the high
able support and guidance to the had not had sex before age seventeen macho on the spacing of children, project, which concentrated strictly and who had intercourse once a week wanted a larger family. He did not on the rhythm method in its study. or less. Two-thirds of the females fit talk to his wife about family planning
Candelaria is a small, rural town of into the low macho category, and con- with the same frequency, and he was 5,000 people with a 25% annual turn- sistently the females reported lower not as inclined to listen to whatever over rate and a 10% annual growth rates of activity than their male suggestions his wife might make. A rate. A majority of the males of the counterpart. Due to the relative con- less egalitarian relationship with his town, about 60%, are employed in stancy of the variance between male marital partner was noted. Also, althe sugar industry, while many others and female responses, the male re- though the differences were not of a work in nearby Cali. The town is spouses alone were used in construct- statistically significant nature, wives
poor, with worker income averaging ing the behavioral index. of high machos tended to be pregnant
about one dollar a day and with much Previous studies, those by Stycos less often than low macho wives and evidence of malnutrition. 70% of the (1955), Stycos, Hill and Bach (1959), high machos tended to have fewer people were born in rural areas; 15% Sir Julian Pitt-Rivers (1968) and children out of wedlock than low of the males and 25% of the females Oscar Lewis, in particular, have por- machos. In addition, high machos of the town have never been edu- trayed the macho in varying terms. were much more cooperative throughcated; and about 35-40% of the Stycos, in 1955, using the term hom- out the interviewing process than low people are united by common-law bre completo instead of macho, pic- machos.
Dr. Monsees offered four possible and to gain social and group approval a better measure of reported sexual explanations for these responses. Us- by giving what he thinks to be the behavior, (2) establishment and valiing Kendell's Tau-C, a .38 correlation answers that will be socially accept- dation of a scale of social desirability was found between income and able. The fourth possibility is that response set, (3) development of an sexual activity; the higher the income family responsibility is more impor- improved measure of sexual attitudes, the greater the activity. Linked with tant to the high macho-as a matter (4) the examination of a broader this economic factor is education. A of honor-than attitudes often attri- range of socio-economic classes and .26 correlation was found between in- buted to machismo, given a state of cultures, and (5) the investigation of creased education and higher sexual poverty, malnutrition and deprivation different aspects of honor (such as activity. Thus, the socio-economic (such as exists in Candelaria). If a family responsibility) in hopes of refactor is one possibility. The second man was not responsible to his family lating such aspects to fertility attipossibility is that of a desire to co- he would lose more honor than if he tudes and sexual activity in an emoperate with the interviewer (techni- failed to prove himself to the world pirical manner. Also, another possically known as the acquiescence re- sexually; he would be less of a man. bility would be additional investigasponse set) even if it means faking In evaluating the responses Dr. gation of the acquiescence response
one's answer. A .55 correlation to such Monsees came to a number of con- set to better determine personality cooperation was found, casting doubt clusions. Recognizing that Candelaria characteristics of the macho. on the first possibility due to the is, by its rural, isolated nature, atypi- However, with regard to the four higher statistical correlation. A third cal of much of Latin America, gen- possible explanations for the responses possibility can be classified as social eralizations for the entire continent, received, given the limitations of the dfhe t response t; tve dese based on this research cannot be study, Dr. Monsees expressed his feelof the respondent to give answers made. Also, he noted, the study dealt ing that all four are taking place, but
that would be more socially desir- with only one aspect of machismo, that possibilities 3 and 4 (social
able or acceptable. This was parti- not the entire concept. As for that desirability response set and family
cularly a factor since the interviewers aspect, due tre nature of the con- responsibility) are more plausible were from the public health service trol project, the data are not conclu- than the socio-economic and/or the and the respondents might either fear trol prouet th dtare not on the s cio-econsmic a/o nth
them or want to impress them. More sive enough to determine which of the acquiescence response set alternaspecifically, while the individual four suggested alternatives is correct tives. Still, the only way to ascertain might be a macho, and while it might or the most significant. More studies the answer is to do further research be highly desirable for him to ex- are necessary for a better determina- with improved measurement technipress machismo, he might be fibbing tion about the nature of machismo, ques and to use a broader strata of constantly to please the interviewer studies such as (1) development of people on the socio-economic ladder.
COLLOQUIUM, DECEMBER 3, 1969
"Race Relations in Brazil and the United States"
Panel: Mr. Leon Campbell, doc- uttered throughout Brazil. Studies may be equated; the upper class is altoral candidate in Latin American done in various areas of the country most entirely white and most of the
history, University of Florida, Moder- indicate this to be the case. Second, discrimination is against the lower ator; Miss Maxine Margolis, Assistant the attitudes of women giving birth class blacks. And, finally, job discrimProfessor of Anthropology, University are significant. Those who give birth ination is evident in some twenty Braof Florida; Dr. John V. D. Saunders, to a light skinned child are proud; zilian cities. Also, discrimination in Professor of Sociology, University of those who give birth to a child darker accomodations is practiced, although Florida; Dr. Joseph S. Vandiver, than themselves are considerably less it is against Brazilian law. While such Professor of Sociology, University of so. A woman is considered to have a discrimination is done by class, it Florida; Dr. Augustus Burns, Assist- "bad stomach" if she gives birth to a follows that the Negroes who are in ant Professor of Social Sciences and child darker than herself. What it the lower class are the ones most disof History, University of Florida. amounts to is that caucasian features criminated against. To emphasize the
are considered to be more virtuous inapplicability of the Freyre thesis, The format of the discussion in- than Negroid and, hence, preferable. Miss Margolis concluded by noting: eluded opening statements by each of The Brazilian "ideal" is to be a to say there is no discrimination in
the panelists, followed by questions moreno, that is, one with caucasian Brazil is to say there is no discriminafrom the panelists to each other, and features-straight long dark hair, and tion in the United States. concluded with questions directed to a good deep suntanned appearance. Throughout her presentation, Miss
the panel from the audience. For pur- Third, and closely related to the sec- Margolis used the word Negro to poses of the program, the presenta- ond point, the claim by Brazilians mean the Brazilian term preto tions by the panelists did not neces- that they are becoming more homo- (black) and not mulatto or any other
sarily reflect their personal views. geneous really means that they are racial shade. She explained that there
Miss Margolis opened the discus-, thinking in terms of becoming whiter. are different stereotypes for mulatsion by quoting Gilberto Freyre's con- Fourth, a look at the class structure toes and other racial groupings. cept of Brazil as a racial paradise. shows that, while a few Negroes, such In taking a differing and more optiThat concept, noted Miss Margolis, is as Pel6 the soccer player, have had mistic viewpoint towards Brazilian a myth for a number of reasons. First, great success, Negroes tend to be, racial relations, Dr. Saunders cited derogatory stereotypes of Negroes with few exceptions, in the lower the historical background and evoluand of Negro features are frequently class. Thus, race and class structure tion of racial relations as a basis for
saying there is relatively little dis- point is the observation by one Bra- ing to the fore. No longer is the black crimination in Brazil. Using accounts zilian employer that he considered looking up toward that which is unby travelers as far back as slave times, blacks more friendly, trustworthy, and attainable. Dr. Saunders emphasized the differ- cooperative than many whites. Thus, Dr. Vandiver concluded by noting ent nature of the relationship be- Dr. Saunders concluded, color is not that some militant blacks are not altween races. One traveler, Henry Kos- so significant in Brazil as class, ways representative of the black cornter, noted that slaves were much more Turning to the United States, Dr. munity and that white fears of blacks, kindly treated in Brazil than in the Vandiver took the position that, while black protest, and riots often distort British West Indies. John Agassiz, there is definitely a racial problem black themes in the mind of the comparing slaver, in Brazil with the and while there is much room for im- white. But, the very fact the black institution in is own country, provement, progress has been made can now express himself and his am claimed that slaves worked more in the field of United States racial is the surest sign of progress. Not long closely with and with a more friendly relations in recent years. ago it was not possible, or if a black
mtituee thawa the ase indthe Slavery in the United States was did speak up, no one listened. Uitre Stas as erae ithMr dehumanizing and even its legal abo- Dr. Burns picked up the discussion
Unitd Sate. AGeran ritr, ar-lition came to pass for reasons of from another viewpoint. While agreetins, came to much the same conclu- military advantage, The post Civil ing with Dr. Vandiver that historicalsion.* War period saw the creation of a ly one has to be overwhelmed at the
In a, similar vein, Dr. Saunders caste system that imposed segrega- changes in race relations in the last noted that there were many ways for tion by legal and extra-leal measures. fifty years, it can be termed progress a slave to be manumitted in Brazil Not too many years ago, Negro pro- only if one accepts Dr. Vandiver's and that evidence indicates many tests against this system involved the basic premise-that the black man were set free. Henry Koster wrote risk of physical harm or exile for the wants "in7 to the mainstream of about this practice and noted that protester. Howeve, more recently, American society. History, noted Dr. masters were reluctant to prevent protest has become more feasible, and Burns, does not mean a thing to the manumission when it had been with these protests has come some black man today. The narrowing of earned. Ways of earnig manumis- hope for success in breaking down the income gap has not made an imnsion included buying one's freedom, some of the barriers. The trend has pact on the black community and the being freed at the time of a family been in the direction of progress away black masses have not seen any tangicelebration, or being set free upon the from the caste system. ble results from programs that have
death of the master. For their part, For example, in the North, mass been initiated. As a result, the youthslave couples often asked the master aah ntepr ftebak u foAeia edrhsbcm
and his wife to be Godparents for toapatyso the prth ofd thewaks fueir Afro-meIc leahs becomegte
ther cilden.own community was widespread. as to opt for a separatist culture and
Dr. Saunders also pointed out that Now, this has changed, and no longer, turn his back on integration, then the the Portuguese had acquired a social as a result of protests and riots, is United States is in for trouble, perplasticity during the Moorish occu- there the concurrent problem of inak- haps insoluable trouble, in the future.
patin ad, ubsquetly brugh in the whites aware of the problems The question becomes-is there no racial prejudices with them to the ofthe black community. Barriers enough time for the black to get "in" new world. White fathers would against blacks are continuously fall- or will he take another course and
recognize, in many instances, their ing, and while this is often dismissed create an entirely new situation? mixed blood children and, thus, keep as 'tokenism, certain breakthroughs During the question and answer them out of the lower social categories have made qualified blacks peculiarly session, a number of points emerged. if not gaining for them the same ac- in demand, particularly in the case of The problems in the two countries ceptance as legitimate children re- the academic community. Similarly, are obviously quite different. In Braceived. Thus, as with the treatment of more blacks, as witness Mayors Carl zil, the question really is: what is slaves, a long established tradition of Stokes and Richard Hatcher, are em- meant by class? Is it money, educaracial tolerance can be observed. barking on political careers. tion, family heritage, or is it race? The
Today, what foreigners take for Socio-economical progress is also problem is, as Miss Margolis noted,
racial prejudice is often a measure of being made. Each year since 1963 has differentiating between class discrimclass prejudice. Referring to Donald shown a narrowing of the median in- ination and race discrimination. Both Pierson's extensive study, Negroes in come gap between the black and Miss Margolis and Dr. Saunders Brazil, done in the 1930s, Dr. Saun- white groups. More educational facil- agreed the former existed; it is the ders pointed to the findings that indi- ities have opened doors to blacks in latter that is in question. As for the cate the reasons whites prefer not to recent years and now there are greater United States, both Dr. Bumns and Dr. marry blacks are those of social class, educational opportunities for blacks Vandiver agreed that racial discrimisuch as fear of lowering their social in the United States than exist in nation was, and is, a serious problem. status, rather than race. People pre- many parts of the world. In the United States, the term Negro
fer to marry in their same class and Concurrently, progress has been denotes many more shades of color race; a high class white is not likely to made in overcoming the identity than in Brazil and the problem is not marry a low class white. Also, Dr. crisis. Instead of looking up to white- one of debating the existence of disSaunders noted that while whites oc- ness as a virtue and instead of trying crimination but one of ascertaining cupy most of the top places in to marry light or use skin whiteners, whether blacks in the United States
society, a few blacks have made it to blacks are adopting black hairstyles, want to be part of the mainstream of the top. Social mobility for the black black fashions, and black pride. The American life and whether they still is not impossible. In support of that concept of "black is beautiful"is corn- adhere to traditional American values.
Colloquium FACULTY NOTES AND COMMENTS
Continued from Page 3 Dr. Alfred Hower, Professor of Por- Dr. Robert W. Bradbury, Professor
in rural areas and in Galicia. In addi- tuguese and Spanish, and Dr. Richard of Economics, has contributed Chaption, an individual will be able to Preto-Rodas, Assistant Professor of ter Six, "Socio-Economic Perspectives terminate his studies at more than two Portuguese and Spanish, are complet- for a Latin American Common Marpoints within the system. ing their edition of Cr6nicas Brasil- ket', to a recently published book,
The church hierarchy, Mr. Fraen- eiras, a Portuguese reader with notes, The Movement Toward Latin Amerikel noted, has given its approval to exercises and vocabulary. Plans indi- can Unity, Robert Hilton, editor these reforms although there is some cate that the book will be published (Praeger, 1969). Dr. William Wooddivision on the issue between clerical under the auspices of the Center for ruff, Graduate Research Professor of liberals and conservatives. A goodly Latin American Studies, University Economic History, and his wife number of church schools have of Florida. Helga, contributed Chapter Twelve,
agreed to lower tuition and accept Dr. Hower was chairman of the "The Role of the United States in
state controls in exchange for state Portuguese-Brazilian Section of the Latin American Economic Integrasubsidies. The primary opponents South Atlantic Modem Language As- tion," to the same book. within the church are the old arch sociation (SAMLA), held November Dr. Raymond Crist, Graduate Refalange members and some of the 6-8, 1969 li Atlanta, Georgia. During search Professor of Geography, has
church school administrators. The this session Dr. Preto-Rodas read a written an article, "Geography, communists are also opposed to the paper entitled "Anchieta and Vieira: which appeared in the September reforms. Concerning additional teach- Drama as Sermon, Sermon as Drama 1969 issue of the Professional Geogers and schools for rural areas, it is be- in Colonial Brazil," and Candido grapher. Another article entitled lieved that schools in these areas can Munumer, graduate student in Span- "Some Aspects of Population Trends be expanded or children bussed to a ish, presented gne on "Freudian in Historical Perspective in Southeastschool in one of the larger towns, and Themes in the Early Plays of Nelson em South America" appeared in Geogthat teachers will be forthcoming due Rodrigues." Also attending the raphy of Population. In addition, Dr. to increased interest in the teaching SAMLA meeting were Dr. Francis C. Crist will be traveling to Manaus and profession and the accompanying im- Hayes, Professor of Spanish; Dr. John Leticia from December 24, 1969-Janprovement in teacher salaries. J. Allen, Associate Professor of Span- uary 5, 1970 to continue his studies on
Comparing the present Spanish ish; Dr. Fernando Ibarra, Assistant penetration of the humid tropics by schools with those in Latin America, Professor of Spanish; and Dr. Bohdan settlers and colonists. Mr. Fraenkel reiterated that, overall, Saciuk, Assistant Professor of Spanish. Dr. Lyle N. McAlister, Professor of the Spanish universities were better, Dr. Richard Preto-Rodas' mono- History, will chair a joint session of
but he noted that in certain fields, the graph, Negritude in the Poetry of the the American Historical Association sciences in particular, Latin American Portuguese Speaking World, has been and the Conference on Latin Ameriuniversities are superior. Also, private accepted by the University of Florida can History to be held in Washington schools in Latin America are, on the Press for publication and will appear D. C. on December 29, 1969. The whole, quite good. The generalizations shortly. topic of the session will be "The Uses
about the universities applied to Periu, Dr. Alfred Hower has received a of History by the Social Sciences." but Peru, in offering free secondary Faculty Development Grant for the Dr. Neill Macaulay, Associate Proeducation, seems to be ahead at that period January to June, 1970 to con- fessor of History, attended the level. There are many other dissimi- duct research in Lisbon and London Twenty-First Annual Student Conlarities not the least of which is that on the journals published by the early ference on United States Affairs enthe general institutional framework nineteenth century exiles in London. titled: "Foreign Policy Directions for and social structure is more favorable In addition, the University of Texas the Seventies", held December 3-6, for educational development in Latin Press will soon release the Brazilian 1969 at the United States Military America. Yet, Spain is making strides novel Marcor6 (written by Antonio Academy, West Point, New York. Dr. toward a major educational reform Olavo Pereira) translated by Dr. Macaulay chaired a nineteen man
and this may affect goodly segments Hower and Dr. John V. D. Saunders, panel that dealt with the topic "Latin of Latin America. Professor of Sociology. America, Part II."
Apc Stephen C.-"O'Connell
Gainesville, Florida 32601