University of Florida
Center for Latin American Studies
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32601 VOLUME 5, NO. 1 NOVEMBER 1, 1969
SPIRITISM IN MODERN BRAZILIAN SOCIETY
The feature article was written by school for mediums, and academic by immortal spirits created by God.
Dr. Parke Renshaw, who received his and commercial courses, or receive Their mission is to evolve from a state Ph.D. degree from the University of medical attention, legal counsel, and of original ignorance, through the Florida in August, 1969. Dr. Ren- many other services. Spiritism is con- learning of the truth and the practice
shaw is married to the former Eunice sidered by its adherents to be the ul- of the good, to eventual perfection. Whiting; they have four children. The timate in philosophy, religion, and This is accomplished through succesRenshaw family lived in Brazil for fif- science, and its highest expression is sive incarnations on this and other inteen years where Dr. Renshaw, an the charity taught by Jesus Christ, the habited planets. Illnesses, maladjustordained minister, filled several posi- only "perfectly evolved spirit" of ments, inequalities, and apparent intions with the Methodist Church. Dr. whom we have knowledge. "Outside justices, it is believed, are in retribuRenshaw is presently Assistant Pro- of charity there is no salvation" is a tion for our rebelliousness and willful fessor of Sociology, Florida Atlantic ubiquitous Spiritist motto. ignorance in previous existences.
University, Boca Raton, Florida. The autonomous local centers are These and other circumstances offer
reluctant to share authority, and city- opportunities for expiation and for Each week, many thousands of Bra- wide associations are usually weak, spiritual progress. Those who have zilians seek healing, counsel, and a where they do exist. However, there the gift of mediumistic capacities direction for their lives in spiritistic can be enhanced prestige for local must use them in the service of others, sessions which range from the drum- leaders when they represent their so- receiving and channeling the messhaken voodoo rites to orderly, low- cieties in federations of state and na- sages and energy of "disincarnate" key s6ances in austere rooms graced tional level. The Federafdo Espirita spirits for healing and counsel, and only by a picture of the severe coun- Brasileira heads a strong movement also ministering to ignorant, rebellitenance of Allan Kardec. This article for unification of Brazilian Spiritists. ous, or needy spirits. These latter are concerns the origin, rise, and signifi- It operates one of the largest publish- believed often to lodge in living percance of the Spiritism of Kardec, and ing endeavors in Brazil, from which sons, and to cause physical and menof the way in which it looks down up- have come nearly three million copies tal disorders. The many ramifications on the Afro-Brazilian 'low spiritism" of books "psychographed" by Brazils of the doctrine (and increasingly those of macumba (voodoo) and Umbanda, most famous medium, Francisco Can- which give to Brazilian Spiritism its
a self-styled "Christian white-magic" dido (Chico) Xavier, as well as the unique aspect of a mysticism which is in which are fused witchcraft, Christ- works of Kardec and others. at once scientistic as well as sentiian charity, and the reincarnationist The doctrinal basis of Spiritism con- mentally religious and charitable) are doctrines of Allan Kardec. For the sists of teachings which are claimed to the subjects of the frequent doctrinal Kardecists, the term Spiritism refers have been transmitted by "Superior study sessions. only to their own movement, and it is Spirits" through spiritualistic mediums Although it has been found that so employed here. to a Parisian pedagogue, Hippolyte most Brazilian Spiritists owe their inThe 1950 census reported 824,553 Leon Denizard Rivail, in 1853-54. In itial contact with the movement to Spiritists in Brazil. This figure, how- 1857, he published, under the spirit- their search for the cure of nervous or ever, is low; it is estimated that the given pen name "Allan Kardec,' the physical disorders, with the passage number is now between two and three "codification" of these teachings, Le of time those who remain as adherents million. These persons meet as local Livre des Esprits, which was followed are increasingly oriented around the societies in "centers", which range by Le Livre des Mediums (1861), L' doctrinal norms and institutional from family groups to great institu- Evangile Selon L'Espiritisme (1864), goals of the local "centers" and state tions such as the Federacio Espfrita and other works.1 Kardee organized and national federations of centers. do Estado de Sao Paulo. In the great, a Spiritist society and founded the The seance declines in importance for gray building of the Federaqdo in Sdo Revue Spirite, which is still published many, as the doctrinal "gnosis" and/ Paulo, over 10,000 persons each week This "true and ultimate philosophy" or the charitable programs consume attend doctrinal studies, seances, a teaches that the universe is inhabited more of their time and interest.
Kardecism finds most of its adher- intellectual life. It was instrumental cies. Spiritism, in many cases, has ents among the relatively well-educa- in preparing the way for acceptance of been able to accomplish this, providted of the middle classes. This means such a doctrinaire approach to religion ing at the same time a religious uncthat it is almost entirely an urban as Kardec's-with its peculiar provi- tion for family life. phenomenon; according to the 1950 sions for mystical experience-as over 4. Spiritism came upon the Brazilcensus, 80.1 per cent of the Spiritists against the traditional authoritarian ian scene at a time when the previwere located in five states which con- assertion of dogma by the Church. ously unquestioned religious monoptained 49.9 per cent of the national 4. The personalism of Brazilian so- oly of the Roman Catholic Church population. These are the states ciety2 lends attractiveness to the indi- was about to give way to a condition Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, the vidualistic, lay character of Spiritism of religious pluralism, with Protestant
former Federal District, Sdo Paulo, among people long alienated by the bodies, social groups such as Masonand Rio Grande do Sul) which con- clerically dominated liturgy (often lit- ry, Positivism as a religion, and the
tain the bulk of Brazil's urban popu- tle understood by even the educated), Africanist cults presenting themselves lation and industrial development, the hierarchical authority of the cler- as religious alternatives. The two metropolitan areas of Rio gy, and the Church's. control over Areas for future research include
and Sdo Paulo alone contained 26.4 "non-religious conduct." the Spiritist reactions (of aggressive
per cent of all Spiritists in Brazil. 5. Certain features of this same per- change or withdrawal) to the incurIn large cities, their numbers in- sonalism have been related to an im- sions of the Afro-Brazilian groups, the clude relatively high proportions of mense dissatisfaction with the tradi- directions taken by Spiritist instituyoung adults, with great emphasis tional dogmas concerning eternal des- tionalization, the charity programs in
upon healing and the solution of per- tiny-Heaven and Hell. This has the face of modern impersonalization
sonal problems. Larger proportions of made the Spiritist evolutionist theod- and of the welfare state, the Spiritist the membership in small cities are icy extremely attractive, particularly family and the educational programs composed of families, with a greater to the educated. An intellectualized of the movement, the effects of "spiritrepresentation of older persons and charity-motive has replaced the long- guidance" upon the professional dethose of higher educational and pro- standing motivation of" fear as the cisions of government and military fessional attainment. As might be ex- basis of the traditional morality. Moral men, physicians, psychiatrists, lawpected, the proportion of blacks and political conservatism remain, but yers, and business men; and compariamong the members is low. Large they are founded more upon a 19th- sons of Spiritism in Brazil with that of
numbers of upper class and profes- century, optimistic philosophy than other countries, particularly the other sional men 'follow the doctrine" upon medieval religiosity, major former Iberian slave-holders,
through private study of the works 6. This intellectual stance identifies Cuba and Colombia.
of Kardec and Brazilian writers, and itself with modern science because of through individual "consultations" its basis in a simplistic evolutionism FOOTNOTES
with mediums, rather than by identi- which was considered daring a cen- 'In the 1880's, Le Livre des Esprits
flying themselves with the petit bour- tury ago and in an academic type of was translated into English as The geois atmosphere of the local centers. positivism which dates from the same Spirits' Book. Kardec's works have
The uneasy prejudice felt by many era. had far more editions in Portuguese
Brazilians against the idea of "traffic Certain aspects of and changes in than in any other language, including with the dead is frequently overcome the structure of Brazilian society have French, and millions of copies of them with relative ease when they actually been propitious for the development have been sold in Brazil. A Brazilian attend a Spiritist session and encoun- of the unique forms of Brazilian Spir- Spiritist press has recently reprinted ter apparently sincere people earnest- itism and for its rapid expansion: The Spirits' Book, for export to Engly attempting to "do good" through 1. The agrarian society left room land. Anglo-German spiritualism gentheir efforts at communication with for only a small, politically impotent erally rejects belief in reincarnation, the spirits. Among the major reasons bourgeoisie in the urban centers. This and has had little interest in Kardecfor the cultural legitimacy enjoyed by class has always identified itself with ism. Spiritism in the eyes of millions of the upper class, without being accep- 2On the qualities related to this Brazilian people are the following: ted by the latter. Spiritism took root personalism" (often denoted by the
1. There is a widespread instru- in this urban bourgeoisie with lead- uncritical use of the term "individualmental, or pragmatic, view of religion, ership often drawn from the upper ism"), see Thales de Azevedo, Social carried over from "folk Catholicism," classes, especially in Rio, and grew as Change in Brazil (Gainesville: Univerwith its emphasis upon the miracu- this middle sector expanded with the sity of Florida Press, 1962), Ch. III; lous, and from the folkloric healing development of the cities and of ed- Joao Cruz Costa, A History of Ideas mystique, which has been focused to ucation, and with the growth of gov- in Brazil (Berkeley: University of Cala large degree on practices derived ernmental, commercial, and industrial ifornia Press, 1964); and Jose Hon6rio from Africans and Indians. bureaucracies. Rodrigues, The Brazilians, Their
2. The folk-Catholic practices in- 2. The growth of Spiritism has been Character and Aspirations (Austin: volving the veneration of the saints greatest among those middle sectors University of Texas Press, 1967). provide a culturally accepted basis for of society in which modern, urban communication with the spirits of conditions have brought about the BIBLIOGRAPHY
those no longer alive in this world. dispersal of families, on an increasing Azevedo, Thales de, Social Change in
3. The rationalism of 19th-century scale, into small, conjugal units. Many Brazil (Gainesville: University of French thought, particularly as ex- socio-economic functions formerly car- Florida Press, 1962). pressed in Comte's Positivism, was a ried out by the extended family must Cruz Costa, Joio, A History of Ideas major formative influence in Brazilian now be fulfilled through other agen- (Continued on Page 5)
HEW APPROVES RESEARCH GRANT ON members of the Universidad del Valle,
AYMARA LANGUAGE dealing with topics of significance
to Colombia. The first project was a
The Institute of International Stud- INEL. He has also been employed study of the relationship between ies, United States Office of Education, at INEL and at the Universidad Ma- vaue orientation s eosoi Department of Health, Education, and yor de San Andr6s. At INEL he was value orientation and stages of socioWelfare has approved a grant of $29,- responsible for editing a news bulle- economic development of top leaders 907 to Dr. Martha J. Hardman-de- tin in Aymara. and students in three Colombian
Bautista, Associate Professor of An- Sefiorita Juana Vdsquez, the other cities. The second was a study of thropology, University of Florida, for teaching assistant, is also from La Paz population trends of the Cauca Valresearch on the Aymara language of and has attended many of the Aymara ley in which the city of Cali is located. Bolivia and Peri. The research, which courses offered at INEL. She is a will be conducted under the sponsor- member of the department of native This second project was supported by ship of the Center for Latin American languages at the Institute. Miss Vas- a separate grant by the Rockefeller Studies, University of Florida, will be quez is one of the first women to be Foundation to the Universidad del aimed at providing an analysis and used in the training of people to speak Valle. The anticipated date for comdescription of Aymara, the produc- Aymara.
tion of a three to five thousand item Dr. Hardman-de-Bautista, Sr. Ya- pletion is December 1970. computerized dictionary of the lan- pita and Srta. Vsquez will be aided A comprehensive report on these guage, and the development of five on this project by a graduate student, projects will soon be published. Dr. basic units for the teaching of Ay- Mrs. Laura M. Barber. During the Irving L. Webber, Professor of Socimara. The grant, which provides for fall quarter this group will analyze ology, University of Florida, and Field the full time participation of two na- Aymara and will prepare basic dia- Director of the project from its inceptive speakers of Aymara, will extend logues, tapes, exercises and other mathrough September 1970. terials needed to begin to teach the tion until August 1969, will serve as
Aymara is spoken by approximate- language. At the start of the winter editor. Other contributors include ly one million people, most of whom quarter, January 1970, the University two University professors, two U. S. are residents of Bolivia. Since ap- of Florida will be the first in the Uni- historians, three Universidad del Valle proximately one-fourth of the people ted States to offer the language as a of Bolivia speak only Aymara and regular course. A continuation of the sociologists and four University of
since little work has been done on the course will be offered in the spring Florida doctoral candidates. The anlanguage, either in the United States quarter. ticipated date of publication is late
or Bolivia, the project will be of as- 1970.
sistance to all those working to incor- Rockefeller Foundation At present there are two University
porate the large group of Aymara
speakers into the national economy of Grant Extended of Florida faculty members and one
Bolivia. Also, the project will assist The Rockefeller Foundation has ex- doctoral candidate resident in Cali Bolivia government workers, Peace tended for an additional year, until and working with the Universidad del Corps volunteers, United States AID August 31, 1970, its grant to the Uni- Valle. Dr. James C. Dixon, Professor personnel and others who are working versity of Florida for a cooperative of Psychology, recently assumed the with such peoples. teaching and research program with duties of chief liaison officer, joining
In order to carry out all the pur- the Universidad del Valle, Cali, Co- Dr. Cornelis Goslinga, Interim Proposes of the project, two native speak- lombia. Under provisions of the grant, fessor of Latin American Art and Hisers of Aymara are now in residence at which started in July 1966, the Unithe University of Florida. In addition versity has furnished professors and tory, who is now in his second year to working on the analysis of the lan- doctoral candidates in the disciplines with the project. In addition to his guage and the preparation of the die- of sociology, history and political sci- other duties, Dr. Goslinga is complettionary, they are assisting Dr. Hard- ence to teach, to work with the fac- g man-de-Bautista in the preparation of ulty of the Universidad del Valle in g research for a book on Colombian teaching tapes. They supply accurate programs of joint research, and to act colonial art. conversational dialogues and act as a as advisors for the organization of pro- Dr. Webber, who has resumed his check against external cultural influ- grams in the social sciences. teaching duties at the Gainesville
ences affecting pronunciation. During the first three years of the campus, states that much of what was
Sefior Juan de Dios Yapita Moya, program, the Universidad del Valle originally proposed for the program the senior teaching assistant, was born established separate departments of has been accomplished, despite a difin Compi, Bolivia, and attended pri- sociology and political science and exmary and secondary schools in La panded activities in the field of his- ficult period of growth for the UniPaz. He graduated from the Instituto tory. Several Universidad del Valle versidad del Valle. Much research has Comercial Superior de la Naci6n faculty members have or are presently been completed with Colombians in(INCOS) in accounting and attended pursuing graduate studies in these volved in all phases of activity. Unithe Instituto Nacional de Estudios fields in the United States. varsity of Florida participants have
Linguisticos (INEL), graduating in In addition to the above, the pro- ve oloa paricpan e
1966. Since then he has completed gram has several other facets and pur- gained valuable experience and esresearch on Aymara and has taken a poses which have resulted in research, tablished a viable relationship benumber of courses on the language at in cooperation with Colombian staff tween the two universities.
COLLOQUIUM, SEPTEMBER 18, 1969
"Towns and Cities of Minas Gerais"
Speaker: Dr. Yves Jean C lair Le- executives and workers, their shops, Concurrently, there has been a populoup, Charg6 of Research in the Cen- schools, and hospital, all company lation boom. As a result, future land tre National de la Recherche Scienti- owned and geared to serving the op- development, to a radius of fifty fique and Chargg of teaching in the eration of a factory or mining facility, kilometers, has been laid out-streets, Inst it ut des Hautes Etudes de 1' were much in evidence. Since Minas distant suburbs, and even country Am~rique latine in Paris. A native Gerais produces much rich iron ore clubs. of Paris, Dr. Leloup has held a num- and quantities of bauxite, gold, and In response to questions, Dr. Leloup ber of faculty positions in various diamonds, plus the all important noted that the cycles marking the inparts of the world and has spent four charcoal used in place of coke in most dustrial development of Minas Gerais years teaching and conducting re- steel plants, these company towns are were, first, textile industrialization, search in Minas Gerais. He is pres- important to the economic develop- then, mining and the establishment of ently working on a geographical study ment of Brazil. So too are the gold primitive steel plants, and finally, the of the cities and towns of Minas and diamond cities, such as Ofiro Pre- development of basic industries such Gerais from the viewpoint of land- to, which developed from the mineral as steel, electronics, aluminum, and scape and demographic explosion, wealth of Minas. Oi0ro Preto is an cement. Also, agriculture related inexcellent example of the old colonial dustries such as canneries, dairies andMinas Gerais is one of the booming town, with many of the original hous- slaughterhouses are much in evidence. areas of Brazil. It is a state that es and a number of old churches still As for Belo Horizonte, its growth is clearly shows, through its landscape in use. Another type of town is the due to its prime central location in and its architectural construction, second generation town, usually a cat- what has become a booming region, three phases of growth and three stag- tle or agricultural town. .These towns and is not a primary result of high es of development. Due to emigra- were not laid out in any regular pat- density industrialization in the imtion to other nearby areas, the state tern or in the normal Iberian style. mediate area. The speaker noted that is not growing at as fast a rate as the Such towns have a population of ap- most modem industries, relatively rest of Brazil. Nevertheless, there proximately 40,000 people and have speaking, have gone to Sd.o Paulo and has been tremendous development several main shopping streets in the actually there are only 30-40,000 inand change in Minas Gerais since the downtown area. dustrial workers employed in Belo
turn of the century. The number of people and the size Horizonte. Thus, Belo, Horizonte has
In what was described as a slide of the business area are two main fac- emerged as an administrative, compresentation rather than a lecture, Dr. tors in distinguishing the second gen- mercial, and financial center of a rapLeloup briefly described the nature eration town from the regional center. idly growing state which, itself, is in of his research, its thrusts and struc- The regional centers had approxi- the center of an even more rapidly ture. He then went on to illustrate, mately 70,000 people in 1960 and growing nation. through slides, the landscape of Mi- have now grown to about 100,000 innas Gerais, the types of community habitants. Typical of such centers Report for USDA
structure found there, the changes are the cities of Uberaba and Uber- Nearing Publication
that have taken place in the cities la~ndia. An extensive study, compiled under
over the decades, and the evidences Finally, there is the capital of the the auspices of the Department of of planned urban development. His state of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte. Agricultural Economics of the Unislides showed various phases of urban Now a city of over 1,000,000 inhabi- versity of Florida has recently been development from the early colonial tants, it includes a combination of completed. It deals with the effects cities to the present, and illustrated forms; vertical centers, shopping dis- of changing trade systems in Latin the changes brought about in these tricts, and kilometer after kilometer America on United States agricultural cities by the gold cycle, increased of unorganized housing stretching as exports. The study, which began in tourism, and modern development, much as thirty kilometers in each di- March 1967 under contract with the
Minas Gerais was shown to have a rection. The favelas are also present, United States Department of Agridiverse landscape, complete with hills, perched mostly on the hills or in the culture, was directed by Dr. W. W. crystalline plateaus, large areas of marshland. The capital is a busy McPherson, Graduate Research Prosedimentary rocks (mostly in the north commercial center replete with sky- fessor, Department of Agricultural and west) and some karstic topog- scrapers, new educational facilities, Economics. Antonio Gayoso, doctorraphy-all interspersed by forests and middle class European style apart- al candidate in the same department, various types of settlements. Pro- ment style buildings, and a 130,000 conducted much of the research and ceeding from the simplest to the most seat athletic stadium. However, as the preliminary writing of the report, complex, one saw the initial stage of Dr. Leloup pointed out, most of this and Dr. Robert W. Bradbury, Profestertiary activity, otherwise known as development has been quite recent. sor of Economics, University of Florthe roadside vendas or shops. Then In 1900 Belo Horizonte was an admin- ida, served as consultant. The study, came the hamlets, followed by ex- istrative town of some 10,000 people. which is one of a series prepared for amples of Brazilian towns with their After 1940, the town became more the Department of Agriculture, has administrative center, shops, and, in vertical in appearance, and now the as its primary objective the determnisome cases, a small hospital. Coin- third generation buildings, such as the nation and evaluation of the effects of pany towns, with their housing for skyscrapers, are much in evidence. Latin American economic integration
USDA Report COLLOQUIUM, OCTOBER 16, 1969
on United States agricultural exports
to that region. "The Peruvian golpe de estado, October 1968"
Major emphasis was placed on the
Central American countries grouped Speaker: Mr. Leon Campbell, doc- cision made to intervene, it moved
in the Central American Common toral candidate in Latin American his- quickly, and having seized power, it
Market (CACM) and on the South tory at the University of Florida. Mr. has shown no signs of relinquishing
American countries plus Mexico which Campbell received his B.A. and his it until its "revolution" is effective. are linked together by the Latin M.A. from Stanford University and is
American Free Trade Association doing his dissertation research on the The IPC affair, which sparked the (LAFTA). Each country in the two reorganization of the Peruvian mili- military takeover, has a long history.
trade groupings were visited by an tary in the 19th century. He was in Based upon an ancient 1826 deed, the economist on the project's research Lima at the time of the golpe. IPC operated on a unique basis that
staff, who interviewed individuals in- caused controversy within Peru. Alvolved in the trade integration move- On October 3, 1968, about 2:30 though the company paid high taxes, ment and collected information and a.m., tanks and men of the Peruvian its claims to the subsoil rights caused documents not easily obtainable in the armed forces moved on the Plaza de animosity. An offer to transfer these United States. Economic and statis- Armas in Lima, Peri and ousted Pres- rights to Per u in 1967 did not settle tical analyses were used with an em- ident Belaunde Terry from office. On- the issue because the move was conphasis on time trends and factors ly seventy men actually executed sidered by Peruvians as a good deal
causing variations in these trends, golpe in the Plaza, but by morning it for the company. Hence, when PresResults have been compiled and was an accomplished fact, mnin dent Belaunde proposed a settlement
written up in preliminary form. Final eral Juan Velasco Alvarado was n- that favored IPC, the army moved to ublication will come in two stages: stalled as President of Peri. displace him
tirst, a ten to fifteen page summary casualties--one wourided. The whole story is of considerable
for general distribution and later, a Military intervention in the Peru- importance to United States foreign comprehensive report complete with vian political system is not new. In- policy makers. Intertwined with the full details and procedures. deed the general feeling amongst the IPC problem were such matters as the
Project Director McPherson, in officers seemed to be that the army 1962 preventive coup, the subsequent commenting on the study, noted that should step in and do the job it had cutoff of United States military aid, there was "no reason to expect there failed to do in 1962 when it staged a the reversal of that cutoff when the will be any major changes of a sud- preventive coup to block an imminent Peruvian government called the Uniden nature" in the years ahead as a APRA victory but then turned over ted States bluff in 1967, the spectre result of the report. He noted that power to an elected official and re- of the Hickenlooper Amendment, and the problems in Latin America can- turned to its purely military functions. the occasional seizure of United States not be overcome in any short period A number of factors seem to have led tuna fishing craft in what Peruvians of time. The major agricultural items to the decision to intervene, but there claim to be their territorial waters. emphasized in the study included is little doubt that the issue of the U. The emergence of the new military such foodstuffs as wheat, rice, corn, S. owned International Petroleum government, with all that proceeded vegetable oils, poultry and the im- Company (IPC) was the final catalyst it and with all the changes it has portant commodities of cotton and that set the machinery in motion. brought about, should cause the Unitobacco. The final report, represent- Mr. Campbell stated that knowl- ted States government to recognize ing two and a half years work and at edge of the Peruvian military is lim- the Hickenlooper Amendment as a least one trip to each country, should ited due to the secrecy surrounding dead letter and to take into account be of considerable assistance in de- it, a secrecy that has been increasing the new nationalism that is on the termining how the United States can since the Leticia incident of 1941. upswing. effectively develop its agricultural ex- However, data are available on some port opportunities in Latin America of the Peruvian officers and on the Mr. Campbell pointed out that iaand elsewhere. size of the military budget. The ar- being the new government is diffimy has, it seems, become increasingly ctt. Some have called it Nasserist, Bibliography auoomu yrmohrsca rus othe's Communist or Peronist, while
Biblioraphyautonomous from other social groups. President Velasco terms it nationalist.
(Continued from Page 2) Its defense function has been limited, I r tain nstoted chanest
in Brazil (Berkeley: University of in recent years its prestige has de- It has certainly instituted changes, but California Press, 1964). lined, it has been excluded from the the effects of these changes, as well as
Renshaw, J. Parke, "A New Religion exclusive Peruvian social cliques, it the future of the government itself,
for Brazilians," Practical Anthro- has been made to feel inferior, it has remain in doubt. Refinancing of the pology July-August, 1966), pp. 126- become much more professionalized, foreign debt will be a key factor in
32. and, finally, it has become increasing- its success or failure.
Renshaw, J. Parke, A Sociological An- ly pragmatic. The army traditionally In the next issue of the Latinamerialysis of Spiritism in Brazil (unpub- has been opposed to APRA's radical- canist, Mr. Campbell will present a listed Ph.D. dissertation, University ism, but recently the military itself follow-up article in which he will deal of Florida, 1969). has been growing more radical while in much greater detail with the subWarren, Donald, Jr., "Spiritism in Bra- APRA has become more moderate. ject of the military, the IPC, the
zil," Journal of Inter-American Stud- Therefore, though the army normally golpe, the new government, and the ies, Vol. 10, no. 3 (July, 1968), pp. continues to proceed cautiously, once subsequent implications for both Peru
392-405. key officers were polled and the de- and the United States.
CENTER SPONSORS CONFERENCE ON
"UNIVERSITIES IN TRANSITION" FEBRUARY 25-28
From February 25-28, 1970, the to be discussed in the session. A lead- ted States government vis-a-vis Latin Center for Latin American Studies ing scholar will summarize a prepared American universities. will sponsor a conference in the J. paper which will then be discussed by The third period will be devoted to Wayne Reitz Union, University of the session group. At the conclusion a discussion of problems faced by
Florida campus. The theme of the of each period, a group of approxi- those who advocate a United States
conference will be "The U. S. Pres- mately twenty invited observers will model for Latin American universience in Latin America: Universities in participate in the general discussion ties. Dr. Arnove, formerly of SIDEC, Transition." Dr. Richard R. Renner, of topics considered during the period. Stanford University, and now with Associate Professor of Education, will The conclusions developed during the Ford Foundation in Bogota, will act as program chairman, these discussions will then be present- lead that portion of the discussion
Featured participants and discus- ed to the general public at the final dealing with the effect on Latin sion leaders will include: Dr. Reuben session which will be held on Satur- American universities of institutional Frodin, Ford Foundation; Dr. Raul day, February 28th. factors such as the Peace Corps and
Urzfia, Catholic University, Santiago, During the first period of the con bi-national centers. Prof. Rudolf AtChile; Mr. Augusto Franco A., Insti- ference, Mr. Frodin, of the Ford con, of the Pan American Union, will de review integrated university reform
tuto Colombiano Para el Fomento do Foundation, will present a North efforts in Latin America. Educaci6n Superior; Dr. F. M. Tiller, American viewpoint concerning Latin Director, Center for the Study of American universities and the func- Period four will feature Dr. Luis AlHigher Education in Latin America, tions of United States foundations in berto Sanchez, former Rector and University of Houston; Dr. Robert Latin America. Dr. Raul Urziia, Professor, la Universidad de San MarArnove, Ford Foundation representa- Professor of Social Sciences at Catho- cos, Lima, Periu, discussing the reletive in BogotA; Prof. Rudolph Atcon, lie University, Santiagb, Chile, will vance of United States models for Alberto Sanchez, former Rector, Uni- present a Latin American viewpoint. Latin American university developversity of San Marcos, Lima, Peril. The second period will feature Mr. ment. Period five will consist of a
The format will differ from that of Augusto Franco A. of the Instituto preliminary summation and a discusmost conferences. The program will Colombiano Para el Fomento de la sion of salient points developed in prebe divided into five periods dur- Educaci6n Superior, BogotA, Colom- vious discussions. ing the first two days, with a sum- bia, and Dr. Frank Tiller, Director of The final session, on Saturday Febmation session scheduled for the third the Center for the Study of Higher ruary 28th, will be open to the genday. Each period will be divided Education in Latin America, Univer- eral public. Dr. GermAn 0. E. Tjarks,
into sessions with a working core of sity of Houston, discussing the Latin a Latin American, and Dr. George approximately fifteen scholars who American and North American view- Waggoner, a North American, will possess wide competence in the fields points regarding the role of the Uni- present the final summation.
Faculty Notes and Comments
Dr. William E. Carter, Director, factors: (1) maize is the principal problem of lowland development, Center for Latin American Studies, staple crop in both highlands and however. The present levels of techUniversity of Florida, recently com- lowlands, and (2) slash and bum, as nology in lowland Guatemala permit pleted, with the assistance of Samuel practiced by these Guatemalans, is several possible developmental states, C. Snedaker, a new book entitled New fairly simple. Plant cover is classi- each with its concomitant social arLands and Old Traditions: Kekchi fied more by size and density of rangements. Absentee landlords prize
Cultivators in the Guatemala Low- growth than by specific associations private ownership of vast tracts of lands. The book, which was pub- or particular species; basic cultigens land, and migrant Indians seek freelished by the University of Florida are few; soils are typed according to dom of movement for rotating crops Press, is part of the second series of the simple categories of color, drain- and for disposing of the fruits of these Latin American Monographs spon- age, and texture; and common tools crops. Thus, a conflict arises between
sored by the Center for Latin Ameri- consist of merely an axe, a machete, use of the land, as defined by one can Studies, University of Florida. a dibble, a digging stick, and fire. cultural system, and the use of labor,
Taking a pioneer Kekchi-speaking With a minimum of technological as defined by another. Until a better
community as a case study, Carter adjustment, a milpero can go from compromise can be worked out bedescribes in detail the adjustment highlands to lowlands and back again. tween the two systems, a continuation Guatemalan highlanders make when Never does he have to undertake the of the present developmental stalethey spontaneously migrate to the type of major systemic change that mate seems inevitable. lowlands. He argues that they quick- the migrant from the high Andes must Dr. Lyle N. McAlister, Professor of ly succeed in working out an agricul- face when he moves into the Ama- History, University of Florida, recenttural system capable of giving them zonian lowlands. The fact that ly returned from Spain where he spent both a solid subsistence base and size- Guatemalan highland farmers can nine months doing research under the able amounts of goods for export. cope so successfully with conditions sponsorship of a Fulbright-Hays Latin This is made possible by two main in the lowlands does not solve the American Area Study Fellowship. Dr.
Faculty Notes Lima, Peru." The grant is for a nine Fulbright-Hays
month period commencing July 1969. Grants, 1970-71
McAlister's research was conducted Dr. Saunders will also continue his for the most part in the Archivo de work as a consultant with the Ford Some forty United States GovernIndias, Sevilla, and was concerned Foundation. ment grants under the Fulbright-Hays
with social structure and social change Dr. T. Lynn Smith, Graduate Re- Act are available for university lecturin Mexico during the late eighteenth search Professor of Sociology, gave a ing and advanced research in five and early nineteenth century. He is paper entitled "The Transplantation Latin American countries during the now in the process of writing up the of Socio-Cultural Traits, Complexes 1970-71 academic year. material for publication in book form. and Systems and the Modernization The grants range from three to ten
While in Spain, Dr. McAlister also of Latin America" at the Rural Soci- months in duration and are divided did research in the Manuscript Col- ological Society conference held in into several categories. In addition to lection of the Biblioteca Nacional in San Francisco, August 28-September the regular grants there are several Madrid and in the Archivo de Siman- 2, 1969. From there, Dr. Smith went travel-only grants, and one country is cas; he conducted a faculty-student to London whbre he delivered a paper offering maintenance grants to supseminar on the subject of his research on the question "How High is the plement travel grants offered retired at the University of Sevilla and, in Birthrate in Colombia," at the General professors. Seven of the grants are addition, traveled extensively through- Assembly of the International Popula- for Argentina, one for Chile, six for out Spain and Portugal. tion Union held September 3-12, 1969. Brazil, eighteen to twenty for ColomDr. McAlister also attended the Continuing on his tour, Dr. Smith bia (including the travel grants for rethird meeting of the United States- then went to Rome to attend the 22nd tired professors), and eight for EcuaMexican Historians held November 4- Conference of the International So- dor. 9, 1969 at Oaxtepec, Morelos, Mexico. ciological Institute held September All those interested in obtaining He was one of the commentators in 14-21, where he presented a paper more information about any of these the third session which was entitled dealing with "Socio-Cultural Systems grants should contact the Committee "Historiography: Eighteenth Century That Obstruct the Modernization of on International Exchange of Persons, and the Revolution for Indepen- Agriculture in Spanish America." Conference Board of Associated Redence." The meeting was under the On October 30, 1969 Dr. Smith and search Councils, 2101 Constitution
general chairmanship of the noted his wife, will leave for Sao Paulo, Avenue, N. W., Washington D. C., Mexican historian, writer, and econ- Brazil to attend the ceremonies at the 20418. omist, Daniel Cosio Villegas. recently opened T. Lynn Smith LabCaptain Raymond Toner, USN oratory of Modern Linguistics, a
(Ret.), Assistant Director, Center for school named in Dr. Smith's honor. Dr. Raymond E. Crist, Research Latin American Studies, attended the Dr. and Mrs. Smith will be the guests Professor of Geography, recently comconference of the Florida-Colombia of the Unido Cultural Brasil-Estados pleted work on a new book entitled Alliance at Santa Marta, Colombia, Unidos of Sao Paulo. While in Sao Venezuela: Search for a Middle September 21-26, 1969. Captain Ton- Paulo, Dr. Smith will give a series of Ground. Co-author of the book is er then continued on to Vifia del Mar, three lectures on varied topics. He Dr. Edward P. Leahy of the UniverBuenos Aires, and Rio de Janeiro to and his wife will also visit Bel6m, sity of Miami. It was published in collect data for a series of articles on Rio de Janeiro and Piracicaba, Sao August 1969 by Van Nostrand Reinthe ABC navies. He recently pub- Paulo, while in Brazil before returning hold Company as part of its Searchlished in the August 1969 issue of Uni- November 12. In addition, a book light Books series. Dr. Crist has also ted States Naval Institute Proceedings comprised of twenty two selections recently authored chapter thirteen in an addendum to his article "The Latin from Dr. Smith's published and un- a book edited by Mazafer and CaroAmerican Military: Genesis and Eval- published works is due to be released lyn Sherif and published in 1969: Inuation," which appeared in the No- December 1, 1969 by Doubleday as terdisciplinary Relationships in the member 1968 issue of the Proceedings. part of its Anchor Book series. Also, Social Sciences. Crist's contribution is
Dr. David Bushnell, Professor of another article by Dr. Smith, "Studies entitled "Human Geography and History, is spending the academic of Colonization and Settlement," was Neighboring Disciplines." Two other year 1969-1970 teaching at the Na- published in the winter 1969 issue of articles that Dr. Crist recently wrote tional War College, Washington, D. the Latin American Research Review. have also appeared in print: they are, C. Dr. Bushnell has recently com- Dr. Irene Zimmerman, Librarian, "Influences of some physical and culpleted a new monograph entitled El Latin American Collection, University tural factors on the socio-political evoSufragio en la Argentina y en Colom- of Florida Libraries, was on leave lution of Colombia," published in Rebia hasta 1853. The book was pub- during the spring quarter 1969 to vis- vista Geografica, Rio de Janeiro (June lished in Buenos Aires in 1968. it various South American libraries in 1968), and "Conceptos Generales sobre
Dr. John V. D. Saunders, Professor order to collect data for a "state of la Colonizaci6n en la Montafia Peruof Sociology, has received a grant art" study of the current national bib- ana," published in the March 1969 isfrom the Population Council, New liographies of Latin America and to sue of Estudios de Poblacidn y DesaYork City, with a supplementary study on a comprehensive scale cur- rrollo, Lima, Peri.
grant from the Social Science Coun- rent bibliographies of the social sci- Dr. Dale B. Truett, Assistant Procil, University of Florida, for a popu- ences in Latin America. Dr. Zim- fessor of Economics, spent July and lation study entitled "Acceptance of merman has now returned to her August in Mexico at Financiera NaciFamily Planning Services and Coin- duties with the Latin American Col- onal doing research for a study on the munication of Family Planning In- lection, University of Florida Librar- effect of the 1962 decree concerning formation in a Private Program in ies. automobile manufacturing on the sub-
Faculty Notes ings of the conference which are due Russell Ramsey, doctoral candidate
to appear in the near future. in Latin American history and resequent development of the Mexican Dr. Andr6s Su6.rez, Professor of search associate, Center for Latin automotive industry. This research Latin American Studies, gave a lec- American Studies, has just completed project was sponsored by the Center ture October 3, 1969 at a conference a book entitled Peasant Revolution, for Latin American Studies, Univer- sponsored by the Center for Latin 1950-1954: The Vietminh in Indosity of Florida. American Studies, University of Pitts- china, the Hukbalahap in the Philip.
Dr. G. Alexander Moore, Associate burgh, on the subject "Leadership, pines and the Guerrillas of the EastProfessor of Anthropology, gave a pa- Ideology, and Political Party in the ern Plains of Columbia. This comper at the meeting of the American Cuban Revolution." The lecture, and parative study of three revolutionary Society for Ethnohistory entitled "The others given at the conference, will be movements will be published in NoAztec 'Empire' as a Federative Mon- published sometime next year. vember by Carlton Press, Inc. of New
archy." The meeting was held at Dr. John W. Freels, Assistant Pro- York. Ramsey, who recently resigned
Ithaca, New York, October 25, 1969. fessor of Political Science, traveled to as Major, United States Army, also Colombia last summer under the has completed a pamphlet "Internal
Dr. Thomas L. Page, Assistant Pro- sponsorship of the Center for Latin Security in Latin America: The Co-. fessor of Political Science and Direc- American Studies and the Institute of lombian Experience" which will be tor, Latin American Data Bank, Urni- Social Sciences, University of Florida, published by the Armed Forces Staff versity of Florida, has been appointed to study the Asociaci6n Nacional de College, Norfolk, Virginia, for use as to a task force on data Archives man- Industriales as an interest group in a study text at that school. agement by the International Social the political system. Dr. Elizabeth S. Wing, Assistant
Sciences Council. He will serve from Dr. William Tyler, Assistant Prof es- Curator, Florida State Museum, has 1969 to 1973. sor of Economics, has joined the fac- completed a preliminary report for
Dr. Charles A. Hoffman, Assistant ulty this fall after spending three her study of "Faunal Remains ExcaProfessor of Social Sciences, attended years as a visitkzig Professor of Eco- vated From Several Sites in Sinaloa the Third International Congress for nomics at the Brazilian School of Pub- and Nayarit, Mexico." The research the Study of Pre-Colombian Cultures lic Administration, Getulio Vargas is part of a program for the study of of the Lesser Antilles, July 6-12, 1969. Foundation, Rio de Janeiro. Dr. Ty- cultural and human remains in the At the conference, he delivered a pa- ler, who received his Ph.D. from the area and is concerned with identificaper on "Cultural Implications From Fletcher School of Law and Diplo- tion and analysis of associated faunal the Mill Reef Site in Antigua and macy, also acted as a consultant for remains, with the hope of gaining a Palmetto Grove, Bahamas." The pa- AID during the last six months of his greater understanding of prehistoric per will be published in the Proceed- stay in Brazil. life in that part of Mexico.
Center for Cam1fpus
Gainesville, Florida 32601