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Y University of Florida
Center for Latin American Studies
Cultural Aspects of Local Government in Brazil Personal honor is another important factor. A strong sense of honor has the effect of closing certain alternaThe Feature Article was written by Ron L. Seckinger, tive courses of action to the political actor, i.e., those Ph.D. candidate in the Department of History. He courses of action which he perceives to be personally
received his A.B. from Duke University in 1963 and his degrading or humiliating, or which he thinks might M.A. from the University of Florida in 1964. Ron has discredit his family's name. ist returned from a year in Brazil doing field research
on his dissertation, "Politics in Mato Grosso, 1821- Notions of what constitutes proper or permissible be1851." He is married and has one child. havior in elections should also be considered. Brazilian
municipal politics have been governed by a single
The concept of political culture is a useful tool for the rule-of-thumb: "there is only one shame: to lose.'3 study of local government and community power, Any political resource is considered legitimate, includwhether contemporary or historical. Political culture ing intimidation, violence and fraud. Violence is exeris the complex of attitudes toward politics held by the cised through the extra-legal use of the institutional individuals and groups of a society; more succinctly, means of social control (police, army, national guard), it is "the subjective orientation to politics.", This and also outside of the institutional framework by brief article will point out some of the most salient of hired killers (jagun~os, cabras, capangas). Under such the cultural influences on local government and politics conditions, elections often become ritualistic endorsein Brazilian history. ments of the party in power.
In the first place, Brazilian politics are particularistic; Yet another cultural factor is the patrio relationship, i.e., political actors and governmental institutions do the roots of which lie in the historical economic depennot treat individuals and collectivities on the basis of dence of the rural masses on the wealthy 6lite. In general, impersonal standards, but rather on the basis return for protection and economic security, the rural of the particular characteristics of these *individuals workers have abrogated all decision-making to the and collectivities. Special consideration given to rela- patrol (boss), fighting his wars and delivering their tives and friends is one example of particularism in votes to his candidate. This political subordination Brazil; nepotism is common. Another example is of the many to the few exists even when direct ecomandonismo, the persecution of one's enemies. A poli- nomic dependence is not involved. Since governtical boss from the backlands expressed the distinction mental institutions treat people according to their between friends and enemies in this fashion: "For individual characteristics (i.e., the pressures which
friends, bread; for enemies, the club." Another local they can exert on the political system) rather than chieftain gave a different form to the same sentiment: according to impersonal standards, the individual "To friends, one does justice; to enemies, one applies without his own base of influence must establish a the law.' Given this attitude, it is not suprising that relationship with a powerful patrio who can intervene bipartisan politics on the local level are rare. Generally in his behalf; in return, the individual offers political speaking, an office-holder is bound less by legal norms loyalty to his protector. By thus securing the acquiesgoverning conduct in office than by the demands which cence of the masses, the powerful few maintain their relatives, friends and political allies can make of him. monopoly of political decision-making.

Most important of all is the status of the extended 4. The best discussion of the primacy of family ties family as the basic unit of social and economic organi- in contemporary Brazil is Charles Wagley, "Lusozation. From the beginning of colonization, the low Brazilian Kinship Patterns: The Persistence of a degree of the division of labor and the relative weak- Cultural Tradition," in Politics of Change in Latin ness of political and religious institutions left the America, ed. Joseph Maier and Richard W. Weatherfamily unchallenged as the basic social institution, the head (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964), 174point of reference by which the individual defined his 189. For historical treatments, see Luiz de Aguiar relationships with other persons and collectivities. Costa Pinto, Lutas de Familias no Brasil. (Introduguio The primacy of the family hindered the development ao seu estudo) ("Brasiliana," 263; Sio Paulo: Conmof "citizen" attitudes toward government; the welfare panhia Editora Nacional, 1949); and Nestor Duarte, and status of one's family were usually held to be more A Ordem Privada e a Organizagio Politica NacionaL important than devotion to abstract legal norms. The (Contribuigio i sociologia politica brasileira) ("Brapolitical importance of kinship ties has declined with siliana," 172; 2nd ed.; Sgo Paulo: Companhia Editora the growth of new foci of social organization with Nacional, 1966), especially Chapter Four.
competing interests and loyalties, such as professional
societies, labor unions, and political parties; yet family 5. One of the few case studies of local politics is Marloyalties st.ll pervade Brazilian society and remain a cos Vinicios Vilaqa and Roberto Cavalcanti de Albucrucial determinant of political behavior.4 On the local querque, Coronel, Corn4is ("Coleg'o Tr6pico," 3; Rio level, political factions are, for the most part, alliances de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro, 1965). But the best of extended families. These alliances are often ce- models of Brazilian municipal politics are those presmented by marriages between members of the different ent in such novels as MArio Palmirio's Vila dos Confamilies, thereby giving the highest sanction to politi- fins and Chapadio do Bugre; Jorge Amado's three cal arrangements. novels set in Ilh6us, Terras do Sem Fim, Sio Jorge dos
Ilh6us, and Gabriela, Cravo e Canela; Enrico VerissiIn the ultimate analysis, the aim of a family or mo's trilogy, O Tempo e o Vento; Bernardo Elis' political faction is to incorporate municipal govern- O Tronco: and Wilson Lins' Os Cabras do Coronel. ment into its organization, that is, to make the
government a mere extension of the family or faction.
For this reason, the division between the public and OUR NEW FORMAT
private sectors is nebulous. The resources of a public The present issue of LATINAMERICANIST is the office are lumped with the private resources of the first to be set in offset type. Our publication was first incumbent, who may embezzle public monies for his issued in 1964 and for most of the time until the last
own use, award jobs or contracts to friends and rela- issue in October, 1968, it was mimeographed on legaltives, or use his authority over public institutions such size sheets. We foresee several advantages in the new as the judiciary or the police to crush his enemies. format, the most important being that librarians can As the preceding comments have indicated, there is a now file the-letter-size LATINAMERICANIST withtremendous gap between ideal and actual political out difficulty. In addition to the present issue, there
behavior. Political actors make free use of the rhetoric will be three more issues of LATINAMERICANIST and symbols of constitutional government, but their during the remainder of the academic year. Your actions are determined mostly by personal considera- comments and recommendations are invited. tions and not by legal norms.
The cultural factors discussed here have ,been weak- COLLOQUIUM, OCTOBER 9, 1968:
ened in recent years by urbanization, industrialization, improved means of communication, and the emergence "The Negro as a Second-Class Citizen in the
of national political parties. Yet their influence has Americas"
by no means been eradicated. The study of local
government in Brazil, whether in the present or in the Panel: Dr. David Bushnell, Associate Professor of past, can benefit from the consideration of these and History, Moderator; Dr. Augustus M. Burns, III, Assisother cultural aspects.' tant Professor of Social Sciences; Dr. Solon T. Kimball, Graduate Research Professor of Anthropology;
Footnotes Dr. Richard Preto-Rodas, Assistant Professor of Portuguese.
1. Sidney Verba, "Comparative Political Culture," in Dr Preto-Rodas opened his remarks with the observaPolitical Culture and Political Development, ed. Lucian ir. Preto-Rodas opened his remarks with the observe W. Pye and Sidney Verba (Princeton: Princeton Uni- tion that Brazil constitutes a refreshing change in versity Press, 1965), 513. approach to the question of color. The absence of a
color problem is universally agreed upon in Brazil, but
2. Victor Nunes Leal, Coronelismo, Enxada e Voto. the usage in Brazil of more than three hundred terms
O municipio e o regime representativo no Brasil (Rio to denominate color indicates a highly developed color de Janeiro: No pub., 1948), 23-24, 200n. See also consciousness rather than the absence of a problem.
Maria Isaura Pereira de Queiroz, "O mandonismo local Racial consciousness in Brazil is manifested in the na vida politica brasileira," in I.NE.P.-ANHEMBI, statistics which attempt to measure the 'aryanization'
Estudos de Sociologia e Historia (Sgo Paulo: Editora of the population. Professor Preto-Rodas commented Anhembi, 1957), 194-301. on the process of branqueamiento in Brazil and noted
that it could be called with equal accuracy 'mulattiza3. Leal, Coronelismo, Enxada e Voto, 23. tion.' The social advantage of light color is a very old

distinction in Brazilian society and betrays the pres- whites were filled by white women rather than with ence of neo-colonial attitudes in its society today. Negro men. Dr. Preto-Rodas illustrated the presence of racialconsciousness by a brief literary survey in which he Reviewing the history of segregation in the U.S., noted in some detail the growth of the 'negritude' Dr. Burns noted that it had its beginning in the concept and the absence, until fairly recently, of Negro period of Reconstruction. Racial policies have had poetry from Brazilian literature. He felt that the dissenters since Emancipation and in some areas the development of the 'negritude' concept should not be minority view became the majority view. In concludinterpreted as indicative of a feeling of alienation on ing he commented that changes have occurred and the part of the Negro. Changed attitudes towards the the situation is at present flexible but the future of the Negro have been noted in the writings of Roger Bas- Negro in North American society is unpredictable. tide and Rabassa. The concept of 'negritude' has
manifested itself in the growth of self-consciousness Professor Kimball noted that the topic lends itself to amongst the Negro element of the population. Pro- contrasting two types of civilization: the Mediterranfessor Preto-Rodas summarized four themes which ean and the Northwest European. In both societies are discernible in Brazilian Negro literature of recent there was a plantation system of agriculture and the years which spring from this self-consciousness. The institution of slavery. However, there were, and are, themes he noted were "having built the country you marked differences in the style of life in Brazil and now want us to leave, ". .rejection from our country," the United States. Behind the difference is the fact "(emancipation is a fraud," and "we are tired of living of Calvinistic orientation in the U. S. and the cavalier, in the cellar of society." tolerant attitude allowing for greater inter-personal
relations which exist in Brazil. The problem we arc
In Brazilian society the presence of racial conscious- dealing with is couched in clear terms but the reality ness and social distinctions. based on color are evident is a cultural problem involving more than race. To be to a non-Brazilian. The fact that there are no blacks fully understood, it must be analyzed in terms of hisin the upper echelon of the Navy or the Army, that, tory, customs, religion, etc. the first black diplomat was only appointed in the
1960's and the need to pass an Equal Accommodation Professor Kimball particularly stressed the need to Act within the last two years, are all indicative of a appreciate the differences in culture between the varivalue system militating against the Negroes. Professor ous peoples who came from Africa. The differences Preto-Rodas concluded that until the Brazilians admit are enormous and have never been explored. American that a problem exists imminent legal solutions to the scholarship must look at the cultural origins of segregationary practices which occur are unlikely. Africans. Such an approach to the problem might go
Thefou aras n wichtheNego i fre t ac an in some way towards explaining the attitudes of United Thche ourares ine whCrivl thea Neroisfre otcladbi States whites and Brazilian whites. Professor Kimball whi cecels ar reCariva, Mcummbae Nihatclubs examined the racial problem of the United States in ando Socer. r. retnooda d cmteod thatte terms of ethnic origins. Newly arrived groups in the colorgines areo braig down aenterm old pte United States, he noted, have always been militated cNging refo Paov ins.tecne o ayoh against, irrespective of racial origin. 'The Irish in
Negr refrm mvemets.this country provide a good example. The Negroes Dr. Burns' comments were directed at the place of the were not different in this respect but one should not Negro in North American society. The definition of overlook the fact that they were not a totally subject second-class citizen in the United States has changed people. At the beginning of the Civil War, one-fourth radically from the definition of twenty years ago. The of the Negroes in this country were free. The rivercaste system of that period was strict. The general boat accommodations for passengers were divided on attitude which prevailed can be illustrated by the the basis of fares, not race. Free blacks did not, incident of Booker T. Washington being invited to the however, have eciual opportunity and to this extent White House and the ensuing shocked reaction of the they were second-class citizens. Second-class citizenmajority of people. The mental attitudes which this ship is the denial of free and full participation in the reaction manifests did not change noticeably from the life of the society. time of this incident until about twenty years ago.
Dr. Burns noted that the definition of second-class Returning to his previous theme of the African backcitizen could not be so clearly expressed nowadays as grounds of the Negroes in the United States, Professor prior to World War IL. Exclusion is assaulted in Kimball pointed out that the southern states were present-day United States society. Indications of a never culturally homogeneous. In fact, before the changed attitude can be found in the areas of employ- 1880's it was the most culturally heterogeneous area ment practices and the acknowledgment by politicians of the United States. Three different traditions preof the 'freedom of choice' doctrine. vailed, a Piedmont tradition, a plantation tradition
and a small farmer tradition. Different attitudes toThe impetus of the movement to improve the position wards the Negro prevailed in the three areas. In the of the Negro in the U. S. society can be traced to the Piedmont tradition, many people employed blacks on equalitarian propaganda of the Second World War. a day-wage basis and opposed slavery on religious After the war this theme was taken up by scholars. grounds. The hill country of the South found slavery Dr. Burns noted that during the war itself the position generally abhorrent and many joined the Union army. of Negroes did not improve significantly. Economically, The slavery tradition was strongest in the plantation the Negro's position deteriorated, jobs left available by area the black belt.

The response on the part of the Negro was equally COLLOQUIUM, OCTOBER 23, 1968:
diverse. In certain areas of the South independent
Negro farmers were highly successful on occasion, "'The Impact of Current U. S. Policy on
whereas share-cropping was disastrous. Professor Kim- Latin America"
ball is of the opinion that the small farmers who
came from an African farming tradition took advan- Panel: Mr. Thomas Page, Assistant Professor of Politage of the opportunities, whereas those from non- tical Science, Moderator; Dr. Andr6s Sudirez, Professor farming backgrounds (nomads, etc.) were incapable of Latin American Studies; Mr. GermAn Urioste, of successful farming. Scholarly treatment of Negroes Graduate Student in Engineering. does not recognize sufficiently this difference of back- In hsoeigrmrs r aelmtdhscm
groud. reatentof te Ngrofamiy i toogenralments to Brazil with which he is familiar. During the by scholars; the Moynihan Report is a good illustra- Summer of 1968 he was able to assess the extent of tion of this weakness. Research is very inadequate Brazilian interest in U. S. politics as manifested and extraordinarily limited on the question. through opinion polls. Two indicative questions were
asked by the polls which can be summarized as "Are
Turning to Brazil, Dr. Kimball referred to the paradox you interested in the U. S. elections?" and secondly, noted by Professor Preto-Rodas of the refusal of the "Would the election of Hubert Humphrey be a good Brazilians to admit the existence of a racial problem. thing at the present time?" In response to the first He also referred to the fact that blackness is associated question, 62 per cent said they were not interested with lower standards of living and limited aspirations. and approximately 30 per cent said they were. The When you have a high position, you are no longer implication of these figures, according to Professor considered black. On the other hand, Professor Kim- Page, was that interest in the elections in Brazil was ball noted black Brazilians have never been made to not high. Later, Professor Page reflected that considerfeel that Brazil is not their country. ing the predominant interest in domestic politics, the
figure of 30 per cent should not be considered too low.
Speaking of the Spanish Americas, Dr. Bushnell drew In response to the second question the vote in favor. a dividing line between the Andean Highlands and of Humphrey was approximately 38 per cent. HumMexican Highlands and the rest of Spanish America. phrey is not known in Brazil and the majority of peoThe two highland regions do not have Negro popula- ple did not know he had been nominated. A universal tions and may be excluded from an inquiry of this reaction noted by Professor Page was regret and disapkind. In areas of both heavy and light Negro popula- pointment over the death of Senator Robert Kennedy. tion, the attitude noted by Dr. Petro-Rodas towards The general conception of U. S. policies in Brazil is 'bleaching out' prevails. Dr. Bushnell commented that that they are primarily geared to protect U. S. insuch bleaching hopes are futile. The black population terests. The U. S. support of the Castello Branco resides in the lower strata of society both socially and regime after he came to power in 1964 is seen as 'one economically. There are no black presidents, arch- aspect of this policy. Professor Page also noted that bishops or bankers. The Negro is becoming increasing- members of the U. S. Embassy staff with whom he ly aware that integration has been almost automatic spoke appeared overly concerned with Communism through the marital customs for years without pro- Professor Suirez' remarks were based primarily upon pelling the Negro into higher economic strata. His a recent visit to Costa Rica. His information was response to this situation has not been 'black power.' largely gleaned from conversations with politicians and This would be out of the question, .if only because of public figures. His main emphasis was placed on the the small percentage of the population that the Negro opinion that Latin American leaders were very interconstitutes. In the Caribbean where much higher per- ested in the forthcoming elections. Three trends are centages of the people are Negro, cultural integration discernible among those who showed interest.
is muh clser.1. Conservative: This group looks to the U. S. to
Durig te qeston erid, D. PetoRods ntedpreserve order, if necessary by use of the Marines and Durig te qeston erid, D. PetoRods nted Special Forces. The groups which compose this segthat the higher the Negro gets in the labor market, ment of the population favor private enterprise as the more doors that are closed to him. The question against government planning. This attitude manifests of 'aryanization' was also taken up again. It was itself vis-a-vis the United States in a preference for pointed out that mixed marriages tend to be less private foreign investment rather than foreign governproductive and, therefore, the process of 'aryanization' ment loans and international aid. The conservative will take a very long time. In response to the question gop n h oiia ate ywihte r
of whether or not consciousness of racial inequalt ropsend thepepoliticaliparey whic fvrmthare in Latin America was an exported demonstration effect rneresentedn pampher themitry ahnd fagvormit from the United States, Professor Preto-Rodas said inervmentioe inbteira contryefomned govenment the ideas was common in Brazil but not generally beoes morte libseratadvefommnedta.p accepted. Professor Kimball, when questioned about poe ytecnevtvs the successful Negro small farmers, said the phenom- 2. Liberals: This group encourages the Alliance for enon was not a question of racial memory. Homogeni- Progress. They look to the U. S. for encouragement in zation, he commented, may appear to be so complete the matter of implementing moderate liberal reforms. as to eradicate cultural traits but it cannot discount Professor Su~rez noted that this group is very disapthe possibility of retention of such traits. We need pointed with the results of the Alliance for Progress research on the question. to date. The disappointment can be gauged by the

fact that influential people who have been connected U. S. property in Bolivia would be less tolerant than with it have suffered in terms of their reputation. that of either of the other two candidates. Similarly Disappointment is particularly keen among the tech- with foreign aid, the 61ite fear Wallace will curtail nocrats who had high hopes for the Alliance. These funds whereas both Nixon and Humphrey would retain people, Dr. Sudrez commented, may well become the present programs. Mr. Urioste'noted that U. S.
revolutionaries eventually, aid has not helped Bolivia to develop and this has had
3. Radicals: The people who make up this segment a disillusioning effect on certain sections of the intelof he olticl secrumhav n unfyig hilsopy.lectual leaders. The students as a group are not ofThe prota pecrum hodae noufing philo.S.ophay interested in the U. S. elections and do not see the
Theyarenotprepredto eal iththeU. Sonany U. S. as a source of solutions to Bolivia's problems. terms. None of the political candidates for President Oereason noted for the U. S. failure in the area of. of the United States has adopted a platform with which economic development is that much of the funds going they would associate themselves. Although they differ to Bolivia end up in Swiss banks under private acin the means towards revolutionary change, they are counts. unified as to the ends they wish to achieve. Briefly,
the conservatives look to Nixon. The liberals are not After the opening presentations, the panel responded happy with Humphrey, whom they do not know, and to questions. In response to the question as to whether are generally disillusioned. the lack of Latin American interest in the U. S. elecProfessor Sudrez went on to comment on the type oftinwadutohefctatheaddtsar military coups which have occurred in El Salvador. He similar, Dr. Sudrez reiterated 'that in his experience, used these as an illustration in order to give some interest was keen among all politicians and that close insight into the different attitudes toward the political contact is maintained with U. S. officials in Latin
poesprevailing in Latin America. The coups in American countries in order to keep abreast of developpESslao aebe ylcl nntr n atr ments. Mr. Page felt that in Brazil the lack of interest
is discernible in the way a coup develops. The presi- toy belefmor from ixo' winnin Texte electtion. dent of the Junta normally forms a political party and th enfmre iso noxn' feeling abou Huprybcueletisn is elected head of the State. He stays in power during lareyukoadi is nofeigaot clpe whicsetiono this term of office, then selects his successor and lreyukonadi sntcerwihscino leaves. In contrast to the commonly held notions the political spectrum would gain from his election.
abou copsthegovrnmnts esutin frm cup3Mr. Orioste felt that the lack of interest was due in in El Salvador have been liberal, at least since 1948. Blvat novmn ndmsi oiis
There are several political trends in the El Salvador To the question, "Do any of the candidates offer army. If the conservatives win in the United States, anything new for"Latin America?" Dr. Su~vrez thought Professor SuArez is of the impression that they will that the Latin American policy would be basically the also dominate in El Salvador. same as at present. The Latin American officials
Mr. Urioste's remarks were set in the context of involved with A.I.D. are not happy with the future of Bolivia, his native country. He pointed out that the program, nor with the prospects for their own Bolivia was not typical of Latin American countries careers as a consequence of having been connected with from the standpoint of ethnic composition. Bolivia it. Mr. Page thought that we would see an increased has a much higher percentage of Indians than the dependency on U. S. military by Brazil. The U. S. normal Latin American country. In Boli~ra the Indian military have constantly been mending their fences segment of the population constitutes more than 75 during the 1940's and 1950's; with Richard Nixon this per cent of the nation. Mr. Urioste outlined some of would not be likely to change. It is noteworthy that the major characteristics of the Indians and their the Military Attach6 in Brazil is a Brigadier General, background, dwelling on their Inca heritage, the highest-ranking military figure in the U. S. Diplomatic Corps. Mr. Urioste felt that Nixon would mainUntil 1952 the Indians were downtrodden and lived tain the same policy as his predecessor toward Bolivia. like slaves on the large farms. The year 1952 is signi- The discussion then turned to whether interest in the ficant because it marks the time of the revolution U. S. elections correlated with geographic distance which brought Paz Estensorro to power. At this time from the United States. Dr. Su~rez noted that discritical starvation conditions existed in Bolivia and tance was of some consequence but not an important Paz established relations with the United States. determining factor. Mexico, it is true, shows intense Since that time the level of living of the Indians has interest in the elections, but so also does President improved but not much beyond mere subsistence. Frei in Chile. The Christian Democrats in Chile stand
The cities of Bolivia are similar to those of any Latin to benefit from a Democratic victory in the United American country. Mr. Urioste estimated the popula- States. Mr.PaecnurdwtD. uezHefl tion of Bolivian cities at about 20 per cent of the total that, in piaeonrelith Dr urea felrmnat population, of the interest shown in Brazil toward U. S. politics.
He felt that Brazilian lack of interest could be partially
Speaking of the U. S. elections, he noted that interest explained by the absence of colorful personalities in was restricted to a small 6lite. The general feeling the election race. Mr. Urioste was of the opinion that amongst this group is that the U. S. will maintain its interest in the elections was a function of the relationpresent policy towards Bolivia if either Humphrey or ship a particular country had with the United States. Nixon wins the election. They fear Wallace because The concluding question to which the panel addressed they anticipate his reaction to the periodic stoning of themselves concerned the Latin American press cover-

age of the U. S. elections. Mr. Urioste replied that the In the second part of the poem, Martin Fierro has Bolivian press gave inaccurate accounts and felt this become a less passionate, apparently more compromay stem from the absence of strong interest in the mising person. The transformation in his outlook on elections. Mr. Page considered that the better quality life is indicated in the conversation with his son. newspapers in Brazil gave better coverage to the elec- Many people consider that HernAndez compromised tions than many U. S. papers. In particular, he noted himself in writing the second part. Sr. Squirrd disathe quality of reporting in 0 Estado do Sifo Paulo. grees with this school of thought, pointing out that Such newspapers are only read by a small middle class Hernfndez recognized some of the values of the civiland the newspapers read by the majority c6ntain little ized life and was not simply writing in a manner he foreign coverage. believed would be accepted. The second part .of the
poem, Sr. Squirrdi maintains, is a more serious intelIn conclusion, the panel commented on the current lectual effort and that this, in itself, is a sufficient image of the United States in Latin America. Mr. reason why HernAndez should be more qualified in Page judged it to be a racist one in which President his judgments. Sr. Squirrd read passages from the Johnson is seen as having lost control. The image of poem and commented upon them to illustrate point the United States is largely determined by the level of style and emphasis. of education of the particular person. Dr. SuArez felt it contained, a strong anti-American bias. During the question period which followed, Sr. Squirr6
reflected that a greater familiarity with the literature
of the Latin American countries would help to reduce
COLLOQUIUM, OCTOBER 28, 1968: the misunderstanding concerning them which is widespread at present. Books, such as Martin Fierro, pro"The Social Relevance of the South American vide insights and an avenue for understanding the
Epic Poem, Martn Fierro" values and aspirations of the average rural Argentine
in the latter part of the 19th century and are, to a
Sr. Rafael Squirrd, Director of the Department of considerable extent, still valid today. Cultural Affairs of the Pan American Union was the
guest lecturer on this occasion. The poem, Martin Fierro, was written in two parts by the Argentine
writer, Jos6 HernAndez; the first part, El gaucho LATIN AMERICAN URBAN ANNUAL
Martin Fierro was written in 1872 and the second part,
Vuelta de Martin Fierro in 1879. The work is pre- Assistant Professors Francine F. Rabinovitz, Political sented as the narrative of the gaucho, Martin Fierro, Science, and Felicity M. Trueblood, Comprehensive as he describes his flight from Argentine political English, will serve as co-editors of the Latin American authorities, and his life as a fugitive and refugee on Urban Annual under the auspices of the Center for the pampas and amongst the Indians. The work is Latin American Studies, University of Florida, Gaines
well-known throughout Latin America as primarily an villa. The first issue will be published in late 1969 Argentine national poem in praise of gaucho language or early 1970. and virtues.
Sr. Squirru stated that he believed the work to be a The Annual will function as a series of projected ankey for understanding the social and political real nual reviews of urban studies on regions outside the oe time. Idrtnmigt e osidered a Bilial rety United States. The volumes will present a sampling of the time. It might be considered La Biblia Criolla. of research on selected aspects of Latin American The poem enjoyed an immediate success with the urbanization, rather than a one-year retrospective gente del campo because it expressed the hopes and uraiatorthrta.aoeyerrt.setv yeanings ofheunde ro Inecaseiti ixp dthe w s n d review of current developments in scholarly work on yearnings of the underdog. Initially, it was ignored by Latin American urban problems or a comprehensive the intellectuals. By the time of the publication of the survey of what has been done in the field since World second part interest had been aroused and the second War Two. The Annual's aim is to aid researchers and part of the poem had a much more wide-spread and policy planners in better systematizing comparisons critical reception. of many dimensions of cities and urbanization in Latin
Martin Fierro may be validly considered as an homage America. by HernAndez to the disappearing figure of the gaucho. It is envisioned that each volume will contain an At the time of its publication, the pampas were being overview essay on recent urban research on Latin incorporated into the developing industrial life of the America, reviewing trends shown in theoretical studies country, at least to the extent of being crossed by and field investigations of significant urban problems railroads and cattle were no longer being herded over and programs; a series of seven or eight articles on vast areas of the pampas. Sr. Squirrd pointed out the various dimensions of urban structure, policy, and spontaneous quality which characterizes the first part process including models and typologies for the study of the book. Martin Fierro is a man of nature, reacting o inc n modes and tbpo o fort su of Latin American cities and urbanization, reports of
in a passionate and aggressive manner to the "civiliz- work on institutional, cultural, and environmental ing" forces with which he is faced. For him "la tierra es conditions and/or studies of policies or decisions or chica." The gaucho is represented throughout the events; and a bibliographical review discussing recent work as a man of honor. Sr. Squirrd observed that the publications of interest to those specializing in urban origins of the gaucho, Martin Fierro, were unknown, affairs within Latin America. a characteristic which affords parallels with Christ and
other outstanding historical persons. The Editors invite submissions in any of the four

official languages of the hemisphere, although English velopment of the Peruvian Amazon and its Incorporais preferred. Correspondence and manuscripts may tion into the National Economy," at the Center of be directed to either editor: c/o Center for Latin Peruvian Studies and the Gallery of Art and Culture American Studies, Room 450 College Library, Univer- in Lima, Peru. Dr. Crist spoke under the auspices of sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. the Ford Foundation through its Center for Development and Social Studies in Lima. Dr. John Saunders,
Director of the Center for Development and Social
Studies in Lima, is a professor of Sociology, University
of Florida, who has been on a leave of absence for the
past eighteen months. He will return to the University
FACULTY NOTES AND COMMENTS of Florida this month.
Dr. T. Lynn Smith, Graduate Research Professor of Dr. Stanislav Andreski, currently Visiting Professor in Sociology, has recently published, or will publish the the Department of Sociology at the City College of following articles: the City University of New York, will deliver a lecture
in the Latin American Colloquium Series entitled
"The Changing Foundation of Latin American Cities," "Student Rebellion in Latin America in the Light of The Americas, Journal of the Franciscan Academy of the European Experience" on December 4th. History, Washington, D. C., Vol. XXV, No. 1, p. 70-84, Dr. Andreski is a native of Poland, presently a resi,July 1968. dent of England. He has taught in South Africa, Chile
"Agricultural-Pastoral Conflict: A Major Impediment and Nigeria. Amongst his published works are the in the Process of Development," Journal of Latin following, Military Organization and Society (Univ. American Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, of California Press), The Uses of Comparative SociFlorida, January 1969. ology (Univ. of California Press), Parasitism and Subversion: The Case of Latin America (Pantheon Books).
"Los dos grandes sistemas sociales en Am6rica Latina: Dr. Andreski will also give a lecture to the Sociology problemas de estabilidad y cambio," Anuario de Socio- Seminar Sy641 in Urban Sociology on "The Problems logia de los Pueblos Ib6ricos, Instituto de Estudios and Perspectives in Contemporary Sociological TheSindicales Sociales y Cooperativos, Madrid, Afio I, ory." Vol. III, p. 42-57, July, 1967. Dr. David T. Geithman, Assistant Professor of Eco"Urbanizaci6n y la planificaci6n urbana en Am6rica nomics, has published a lengthy article, "Colombia Latina: aspectos demogrficos," Inter-American Plan- To-Day: Dimensions of Tradition and Transforraning Society, Cali, Colombia, Vol. II, Nos. 5, 6, p. 36- tion," in the November 1968 issue of Business and 51, marzo, junio, 1968. Economic Dimensions, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, Gainesville. This issue
Dr. Irving J. Goffman, Professor of Economics, and of the periodical is devoted to a study of Colombia. Mr. Dennis Mahar, Graduate Student in Economics, Dr. Geithman's article is an extract from the first presented a joint paper, "Aggregate Public Expendi- chapter of a book expected to be completed in the tures in Selected Developing Nations: Six Caribbean Spring of 1969 entitled "The Colombian Experiment: Countries, 1940-1965," at the Southern Economics Political Parties, Factions and Elections Under the Association Meeting held in Washington, D. C., No- National Front." vember 7-9, 1968. The study is an attempt to measure
statistically common behavior in the public expendi- Captain Raymond J. Toner, USN (Ret.), Assistant tures of Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Hon- Director, Center for Latin American Studies, published duras, Panama, Haiti and Guyana. It is a compara- an article, "The Latin American Military," in the tive study based on a model originally devised for the November 1968 issue of the United States Naval InstiUnited Kingdom. tute Proceedings, p. 65-73. He is currently doing
research for another article, "The Interior Roles of the
A seminar conducted by Dr. Stanley Ross, Director A.B.C. Navies." of the Institute of Latin American Studies, University
of Texas, was held at the University of Florida on Mr. and Mrs. Ripley Bullen of the Florida State October 15th. The purpose of the seminar was to Museum will attend the 3rd International Congress
disseminate to representatives of institutions of higher for the Study of Pre-Columbian Cultures of the Lesser learning in Southeastern United States information Antilles, to be held at Grenada, W. I., July 5-12, 1969. relative to a new fellowship program for Latin Ameri- Mr. Bullen will act as Chairman of the Conference and can Studies, funded by the Ford Foundation. The Mrs. Bullen as the Secretary-Treasurer.
new program will be administered by the Foreign Area
Fellowship Program and will focus attention on cur- Dr. Andr6s Suirez, Professor of Latin American Studrent problems of development in Latin America. Prior- ies, will participate in a panel on the subject, "Revoluity will be given to applicants in the fields and disci- tion in Latin America," to take place in February 1969 plines of agriculture, education, science and technology, at Beloit College, Beloit, Wisconsin. Dr. Sutrez is curthe social sciences and management. rently working on a paper, "The Cuban Variant in the
Socialist World," for the M.I.T. Center for InterDr. Raymond Crist, Graduate Research Professor of national Studies, Cambridge, Massachusetts. He also Geography, recently delivered a lecture on "The De- recently read a paper, "The Castroistic Way for Latin

FACULTY NOTES: University of Florida is providing technical assistance
in agriculture in Guyana over the next two years. America," at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Souther~n InOtbrDs.TyJ.C haCaim ,Dert
Political Science Association which took place in mnOtoer Anima Scine Dae. C .uMnh u, Chairman,at
Gatlnbug, Tnnesee Novmbe 79Department of Agronomy, and Dr. Kenneth R. Tefer.
Dr. David Bushnell, Professor of History, has returned tiller, Chairman, Department of Agricultural Economfrom a brief visit to Colombia in connection with re- ics visited Guyana to develop specific programs in search on the compilation and preliminary analysis of which the Institute will cooperate. Colombian election returns 1825 through 1930. Dr. Bushnell is particularly interested in obtaining election SCHEDULE OF EVENTS
returns of the 19th century. The study will be part of January 20: Latin American Colloquium: "A Pessia general compilation of Colombian statistics projected mistic Projection of Latin American Economic Develfor publication under the auspices of Universidad de opment." The speaker will be William P. McGreevey, los Andes in BogotAt in early 1969. Assistant Professor of History and Acting Chairman,
Dr. E. T. York, Jr., Provost of the Institute of Food Centerforati Amke eriatde,.nvriyo and Agricultural Sciences and Dr. J. C. Dickinson, II alfrnaIBrely Assistant Director of the Center for Tropical Agricul- April 11-12: Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Conture, visited Guyana in September to review the De- ference on Latin American Studies. Topic: "Aspects velopment Plans of the government of Guyana. The of Latin American Development."
Lynn Walker
400 Engineering
Center for
Latin American
Gainesville, Florida 32601