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The University of Florida LATINAMERICANIST is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of eve r month. Items for publication should be submitted to the edit R. J. Toner, 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday pree ing the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves th1 rig to select and edit all material. Colleges or other institution i terested in Latin American Studies which desire ,4'be place n the mailing list may apply by calling university 1,tensio 2. or write: The Center for Latin American Studies, 0 brary, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 326
Volume IV, No. 1 October 11, 1968
TABLE OF CONTENTS MACHADO DE ASSIS
Feature Article 1 On April 25, 1968, Dr. Antonio Candido., Professor of
Colloquium 3 Literary Theory and Comparative Literature at the
Cali Project 5 University of Sio Paulo, addressed a combined meeting
Faculty Notes 5 of the Latin American Colloquium, the Brazilianh ". hips 7 Portuguese Club and the Language and Literature Club
Calendar reverse-side at the University of Florida, on the subject, "'Machado
de Assis:, Points of View."
Contrary to the canons of romanticism, by which great literary figures must suffer obscurity and tremendous handicaps, the life of Machado de Assis (1839-1908) was basically normal. He was recognized as a great writer in his own lifetime, and in 1895, was unanimously chosen president of the newly founded Brazilian Academy of Letters. Unfortunately, Machado's overwhelming recognition in Brazil was countered by an obscurity on the international scene, partly because he wrote in Portuguese, and partly because "literary fame depends in great part on the political prestige of the writer's country," Only in recent years has his work begun to be recognized in the United States and a few Latin American countries. That his work is being well received now, in different cultural settings, so long after its composition and first acceptance, speaks well for its timelessness and universality.
From the time Mchado de Assis reached maturity as a writer in the 1880's, his work has received varying treatment at the hands of his critics. The first critics lauded his writing for its finesse. Machado's refined and dignified style, heavy with allusion, euphemism and implication, gave to his works the deceptive appearance of simplicity. A new interpretation of Machado de Assis, which may be termed "psychological," was ushered in., in the 1930's, with the biography written by Lacia Miguel Pereira and the analyses of Augusto Meyer. This new school of critics attempted to relate the man to his work in a reciprocal relationship. A feature ofthis view was its stress on the abnormal in M ,echado's writings. Pereira and Meyer, in particular, noted the element of ambiguity in the novels and short stories; a revelation which rendered necessary a more attentive reading. This ambiguity clearly indicated that beneath the simple exterior of his prose lay a complicated co&smos, usually dismal in nature. Professor Candido felt that at this stage of criticism there was an excessive preoccupation with finding in the athor's
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life support for 'hat appears in his books o e-vers. He noted, however, that
much of our present insight into Machado's work took form with these studies in which Machado is no longer simply the "subtle ironist or the elegant craftsman of maxims according to academic conventions," bat rather the creator of a world of paradox. In the 1940's another trend appeared with critics like Afranio Coutinho and Barreto Fimlo, which may be termed "Christian Philosophy." These writers emphasized "the existential anguish" of Machado de Assis, disassociated from biographical considerations.
Professor Candido mentioned several important stylistic features of the work of Machado de Assis, which include his use of the elliptical and the fragmentary. Also noted was his intervention in the narration, much in the manner of Laurence Sterne, whom he admired, which was a way of creating a misleading atmosphere of frivolity, and of accomplishing temporal leaps. There was also his way of leaving things unresolved, and even of devising situations which were not to be unraveled. His suggesting of the whole by means of the fragmentary, of "emotion by means of irony, and greatness by means of banality," gives his writings a contemporary aspect. By this style the author maintains a neutral stance and thus adds to the intensity of his stories by means of "the most unconcerned moderation." As Professor Candido stated it: "Like Kafka, and like Gide, but contrary to Dostoievski, Proust, and Faulkner, the torments of man and the iniquities of the world appear in him naked and without rhetoric, aggravated by the aforementioned stylistic neutrality. His technique consists, as in the ironists of the eighteenth century, in suggesting the most tremendous things in the most candid manner, or in implying, as if it were the contrary, that the exceptional act is the norm, and that the commonplace act is in fact the abnormal one. In this we find the motive for Machado's modernity, irrespective of his archaism."
Professor Candido analyzed some of the recurring themes in the writings of Machado de Assis as they appear in various of the author's novels and short stories. One of the basic problems taken up in the work of Machado de Assis is identity, involving both the "fragmentation of personality" and "the problem of reason and madness; which attracted the critics' attention from an early stage, and which is considered to be one of the main undercurrents of his work." An illustration of the first is found in the short story, "0 Espelho (The Mirror)," which presents the case of a young man, appointed an ensign in the National Guard, who goes to the country to spend some time at his aunt's farm. While there he is highly praised-on his position, and his aunt and her slaves address him as Yh. Ensign. When this chorus of praise is removed and the young man suddenly finds himself alone for some days on the form, he arrives at the verge of "spiritual dissolution," from which he is spared when the idea occurs to him that he should put on his uniform and spend some time in front of the mirror every day. "This solution indicated that his personal integrity depended mainly on the opinions and reactions of others towards him. The power of the story lies mostly in the skillful symbolic utilization of the uniform and the monumental mirror in the emptiness of the deserted farm thus contriving a modern allegory on the fragmentation of personality." To illustrate Machado's handling of the problem of madness, as an example the short story entitled, "0 Alienists (The Psychiatrist)." In this story, a doctor founds an institution for the treatment of the insane, but ends up doubting the validity of his therapy when he finds that practically all of the townspeople are being committed to the hospital. The psychiatrist concludes that no one is "immune to the solicitations of manias, vanities, or lack of reasoning. In conclusion we are left with several questions: Who was crazy? Were they all crazy? And if they were, doesn't that mean that nobody really is crazy?
Another problem arising frequently in the work of Machado de Assis is the relation between reality and imagination, which is the axis around which Proust's great novel revolves and a problem which both authors' analyze in connection with jealousy. In the novel, Dom Casmurro, Machado de Assis te"s the story of Bento Santiago, a lawyer, who, after the death of his longtime and faithful friend. becomes convinced that the friend had betrayed him with his wife. Bento, through whose narrative Machado tells the story, gathers evidence and builds with it the structure of his belief which revolves principally around the fact that his son very much resembles his deceased friend. However, the reader is not able, on the evidence, to decide for or against the guilt of Bento's wife. And, within the context of the story it does not matter very much whether Bento's conviction is true or false, since in either way the result is the same: Bento's personal and family life is ruined. In this novel, since reality is never established we may ask, how can an act be evaluated? This is another problem in Machado de Assis, one.. according to Professor Candido, which "brings him close to Joseph Conrad in Lord Jim or The Secret Sharer, and which has been one of the main themes of contemporary existentialismasin Sartre and Camas." In the novel Esad e Jac6 (Esau and Jacob), Machado
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presents a situation in which the making of an ethical decision, the opportunity to choose an option, is denied to a young lady whm is loved by twin brothers, Pedro and Paulo, who are the complete antithesis nf eachother. She is unable to choose between them since each brother alone is in effect only a half, and she dies without making a choice. The theme of option is further developed in Machado's obsession with perfection, a subject which he explored in his short story, "Um homem celdbre (A Famous Man)o" It is the story of a socially and professionally successful composer of polkas who is dissatisfied because of his apparent inability to compose 'serious music. He tries continually, but the only result, throughout his life, is more polkas. He, too., is denied the alternative; the solution is thus to act as-possibility allows, not as one would like to act. In this terrible, but apparently humorous tale, the spiritual impotenceof man cries out as if from behind the bars of a prison.
The theme of irrationality, another aspect of Machado's relativistic point of view, is plumbed in the short story, "Singular Ocorrencia (Singular Occurrence)," the account of a woman who has a common law relationship with-a man to whom she is faithful except for a single lapse. When the woman expresses her sorrow over the occurrence, the couple is reconciled and the woman is never again unfaithful. The woman's lapse from her normal code of behavior remains unexplained and we cannot say whether devotion or infidelity is more characteristic of her, "A few years after Machado wrote this work," noted Professor Candido,- "Freud would show the fundamental importance of lapses, and of the so-called inexpressive ways of behaving. These occur quite frequently in the work of Machado de Assis, revealing to the attentive reader the deep contradiction of the human soul."
Professor Candido lastly considered a theme in the works of Machado de Assis which has received little critical notice but which attracts him most: the transformation of man into an object for other men, "one of the curses," as he stated it, "linked to the lack of true freedom, spiritual and economic." This theme is presented most forcibly in.two of Machado's major works, the novels, Mem6rias P6stumas de Bras Cubas, translated as Epitaph of a Small Winner, and Quinces Borba, translated as Philosopher or Dog? The former is narrated by the hero from his grave; the latter tells of a school teacher who inherits .a large fortune with the condition that he should take care of his benefactor's dog which has the same name as the deceased. But with the money, the teacher, Rubio, also inherits his friend's madness. The fortune is squandered in ostentation: and in the support of parasites who profit from his loss, and at the end of the book, Rubi~o, penniless and insane, is left to die alone. "A cause secret (The Secret Cause)," a short story whose leading character, Fortunato, is a sadist, deals also with the theme of man tzpnsformed into an object for others. Fortunato, who enjoys seeing animals and-other people suffer pain or discomfort provides the situation whereby his wife and a friend fall in love. He then stands by, knowing that their moral scruples will prevent fulfillment of their love, enjoying, in the closing words of the book, "that explosion of moral grief, which was long, very long, deliciously long."
"If Machado de Assis had maintained himself at the level of his disenchanted aphorisms, or if he had been content with the manipulation of psychologically ambiguous situations," in the opinion of Professor Candido, "he perhaps would not have been more than one of the heroes of decadence, as Viana Moog has called him. But above that, there is in his work a wider and more modern interest, the fact that it discreetly included a social thread in the desolate picture of his nihilism. In all of his books one can note a constant preoccupation with status, the movement of classes, and the power of money. The predominantly economic factors in bourgeois society are the springs which move his characters, the most unpleasant of which are always men of impeccable bourgeois. appearance, people who are perfectly integrated into the mores of their class."
Professor Candido concluded his remarks with the thought that the full effect of Machado's writings cannot be conveyed in a lecture, and that therefore his audience should forget everything he had said and go directly to the works of Mchedo de Assis.
THE U.S. AND LATIN AMERICAN On September 25, 1968, Dr. William Woodruff, GradECONOMIC INTEGRATION uate Research Professor in Economic History at the
University of Florida, delivered an address in the academic year's first .Colloquium: "The Role of the United States Government in Latin American Integration."
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Dr. Woodruff stated that regardless of good intentions, the U6 S& government can do little to encourage the economic integration .of -Latin Ame'rica To make integration a major goal -of S. Sfo)big policy is to deal with the periphery of. the problem of economic deve4opme i nLatin Adinica. -The heart of the problem lies 'in the need fbr indigenous changes which can only 'be made in the light of-.the total situation of each country, and, certainly can only be effective if made by- the people of those coun.tries themselves. To fe9ten a European and North American pattern of economic growth and development upon twetieth century Lati in Americe is to assume that the United States has -the only rational economic system .ahnd that all others are the result 6of ignorance or error. Nothing could be more absurd. The fact is there is no norm which Latin Americen countries have somehow failed to.reach, or for that matter to which. theyshould struggle. .The health 'f the United States .s not the result of superior economic knowledge) or the application of a rational economic process. It is the result of a uniquely favorable historical situ8ation- World colonization by the Europeans and North Americans is the crucial and neglected, factor explaining economic growth and development in the past two cnatures. No-economic prescription can hope to recreate for others the favorable circumstances that North 'America knew at an earlier stage -of its history. The econhmi iitegration.of the United- States in the nineteenth century (the United States beig the first great CommonMarket): did not precede but followed 'successful regional e* elopment. Similarly,. theb-Zollverein and the European Economic Community were integrating what was. L.A.F.T.A., on the contrary, is attempting to integrate what it hopes will be. Absence of economic integration is not
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an important source of Latin American eciinmic ills; its growing adoption can only have a most limited 'effect. To-the argument that the United States ought to provide trade concessions on grounds of equity, to encourage integration., the speaker- said that while equity was a laudable principle it had never determined the foreign policy of sovereign states. International idealism cannot be the axiom of U. Si foreign policy.
Dr. Woodruff believes that itiis a lack of historical sense (i.e., what we did they can do) as well as the present spate of universal theories and idealistic solutions S(i.e., all will be well if you do as we say) that has led to on unjustifiable emphasis being placed upon industrialization and urbanization as the primary and true sourceeconomic progress. Quite apart from the ambiguity that surrounds this term industrialization, it is no argument at all to sey that because industrialization became the dynamic factor in the northern hemisphere at- one period in history, it must necessarily become the dynamic factor in Latin': America today. There is a false assumption thatindustrialization is the cause anhd not the effect of development, economists'have, become so obsessed with the idea of industrialization being -the El Dorado of the modern age that they have forgotten that it'takes an already rich country to industrialize and eat well at the same time. The fact is that the circumstances in which indistri-" alization became the-dynamic factor in the northern hemisphere and those in Latin America today are entirely dissimilar. Certain North Atlantic countries did not .
become rich because they indastrialized; the first. countries to industrialize vere already relatively rich (quite apart from having favorable social and technological traditions). For those who appeared late on the international scene in the nineteenth. century (i.e., Japan and Germany), industrialization could only be achieved by great sacriTfice.
Not only are:the historical conditions less favorable to, Latin American. d6untries, we should also realize that discussions abodt the industrialization .of Latin American countries, -,which supposedly will be encouraged"by economic integration, ate carried 'on. remote from the cost of induced development. If we :want -to. know what it costs to develop a country in the absence of those favorable nineteenth century conditions, 'we need only look at Israel, remembering how small Israel is compared with the whole -of. Latin.-America. Now if it has taken such a gifted.people as the Israelis determined as they are to come as far as they have, with the extraordinary financial assistance they have received, one is prompted to ask (even in narrow financial terms} what fedtastic sum is required to obtain an equal advance throughout the countries oft Latin'' America..? Because of this, it is unrealistic to expect or even to encourage anything but a very modest increase in the industrialization of most Latin American countries. Economic integration will not begin to solve the problem of the cost of induced development. Undoubtedly, a degree of industrialization will proceed in Latin America, bu.$. its path will be utterly dissimilar. from that taken by industrializing societies at' an earlier period.
Dr. Woodruff ended by stressing that what is emerging in-Lotin--America "s a qualitative new order not a quantitative expression and extension of the nineteenth d century Iidustrial Revolution. He did not advocate a passive attitude or isolationism, or race
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superiority, or selfishness, or apathy, but purposive action based on an intelligent understanding of the depth of the problems that confront us. No one doubts that there is a long-term sound purpose for some of the aims of E.C.L.A. and L.A.F.T.A.; within limits, a degree of integration is feasible, but it will take much time. And, it can never occupy the role which its present advocates ascribe to it. Unless there is a complete reassessment of commitments away from present idealistic, universal solutions, our present actions will result in bitter disillusionment for all concerned.
CLAS PROJECT In February 1966 a Cooperative Teaching and Research ProIN CALI, COLOMBIA gram was established between the University of Florida
and the Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. The project was financed by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation of $230,000. The major purposes of the program were to strengthen the teaching staff at the Universidad del Valle in the fields of history, political science and sociology and to engage in research in the Cauca Valley.
Dr. Irving Webber, Professor of Sociology at the University of Florida, is Field Director of the project and Professor of Sociology at the Universidad del Valle. He has served since the initiation of the program and will remain until August of 1969. This year Dr. Webber was joined by Dr. Cornelis Goslingsa, Visiting Professor of History at the University of Florida. Since the program was begun, four graduate students have held assignments at Cali. In the year 1966-67, Mr. Stephen Rozman (political science), Mr. David Coombs and Mr. Selwyn Hollingsworth (sociology) were staff members and in the academic year 1967-68, Mr. Eric A. Wagner (sociology) joined the project. These were all advanced Ph.D. candidates.
All visiting staff members regularly participate in the teaching program of the Universided del Valle. Professor Goslings is offering a course on the history of Latin American Art in the Divisi6n de Filosofia, Letres e Historfa. Professor Webber is conducting a seminar in Sociologle General to be followed in the second term by a seminar in Sociologia Mdica.
Four main research projects have been conducted by personnel connected with the project. Mr. Rozman studied political parties in Colombia. Mr. Wagner completed a sociological investigation of the ecology of Cali. Professor Webber, Profellor Alfredo Ocampo Z., Mr. Hollingsworth and Mr. Coombs collaborated in research on the relationship between values and levels of socio-economic development in three Colombian cities. The results of this research have been presented in a paper entitled "Value Orientations and SocioEconomic Development: A Colombian Inve tigation," a Spanish-language version of which was read at the Segundo Congreso Nacional de Sociologla, Bogota, August 12-14, 1967.
The intial phase of the project terminates at the end of the academic year 1968-69, completing the three-year period covered by the Rockefeller grant.
FACULTY NOTES In 1958, Dr. David Niddrie, Professor of Geography, published a monograph on land ownership and usage in Tobago, West Indies. During December of this year, Dr. Niddrie will return to the island to study the many changes that have taken place in the ten years since his monograph was published. The changes in land ownership and usage brought about by government policy, economic pressures and general development will be related to the data published in the 1958 monograph.
Associate Professor Suglyame lutaka, Department of Sociology, attended the Second World Congress of Rural Sociology at Enschede, Netherlands, August 5-10. Professor Iutaka presented a joint paper with Dr. E. Wilbur Bock on "Rural-Urban Migration: the Controversy in Latin America." Professor alutaka then attended the 36th International Congress of Americanists at Stuttgart, F.R.G., August 11-18, where he read a paper on "The Process of Urbanization in Brazil in the 20th Century."
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Dr. Robert W. Bradbury, Professor of Economics, received a grant-in-aid from the Center for Latin American Studies for field work in Mexico from August 15 through September 8. Dr. Bradbury up-dated his information about economic changes in MexEco with ,s pedialreferene to the industrial centers of Monterrey and Mexico City.Dr. Edmund E HdgeOh- Assistant Profespor of Geography, departed on.September .1 to supervise the field investigation.in Brazilian Amazonia. of doctoral candidate, M.. Jefry H. Williams.. Mrl. illiams is ;studying the Urman hierarchy in Amazonia. .
Assistant Professor of History, Neill W. Macaulay, Jr., received a grant-in-aid from the Center for Latin American Studies for research in Colombia. Dr. Macaulay's research during the past summer dealt with revolutionary movements in the Caribbean area during the period 1945-54, This was the period of the -!ga-ibbean legion" a shadowy group of
-iberal and radical. revolutionaries dedicated-to the overthrow of theCaribbea. dictators, Trujillo, .Sooza and P4rez Jimdnez.
Dr. Rosa sa,. Assistant Librarian in the -Documents :section of the University of Florida Library, .will travel to Quito, Lima, Santi.go,,-Asunci6nl and La Pa. in November. The purpose of Dr. Mesa's visits will be to discuss the University of Florida's Latin American Government Documents Program with the various foreign ministries and government agencies. In addition, she will arrange:for an increase in the receipts of documentary' materials from these sources and acquire, .by: purchase and/or exchange, documentsineeded to fll gaps in the existing collection in the Latin American Government Documents in the diversity of Florida Libraries.
Gr date .Reearchi Professor of Sociology,,Dr. T. Lynn Smith and Miss Felicity Trueblood editor Pouth.Eastern Latin .Americanist, will attend.;. the annual meeting of' the Latin American ,Association at New York-on November 7-9,, Dr. ,Smith will present a paper)' "Socio-Cultural'Systems that impede the Production of Food in Latin America." Smith, an associate editor of the Latin American Research Review, the official journal
of the Association,.ill also attend the sessions of the editorial board of the Review.,
Vice Prpsident Fderick -. Conner and Dr. William E.? Carter, Actig Director of the Centr for Latin American Studies,' will represent. the University of Florida in a meeting of Heads of Caribbean Universities to be held-,in San Juan, Puerto Rico from .November 21 to 23, 1968. The purpose of the meeting is to promote cooperation and inter-institutional development among a.ll Caribbean universities.
Assistant Professor Thomas L. .Page, Director of the Latin American Data Bank:at the University of Florid and Systems Engineer Mario-Padr6n, a Research Associate attached to the' Center, attended a pre.planning meetingon Data Banks in the Caribbean at'Mona, Jamaica on October 4 and 5. The Conference, agreed to propose to the November meeting of' Heads of Caribbean Universities that a Caribbean Data Bank be.established to consist of sCpar3te national data.archives, coordinated by a Central Data Clearing House, which would'be responsible for maintaining a general inventory of each member's holdings. An Interim Committee was established.-to stimulate discussion amongmembers to promote development of member archives. It is. anticipated that the first meeting of the Technical Committee will take place in San Juan, Puerto Rico in February 1969.
An article by Professor William E. Carter appeared in the American Anthropologist, Vol. 70, No. 2, April 1968 (238-263)., "Secular Reinforcement in Aymara Death Ritual.' According to the author.."death ritual offers a primary channel for the study of values and general life orientation. As a source .of complex symbol sets, it clarifies and reinforces relationships among the living as well as between the living, and dead;E': In the .article each symbol is described in. terms, of its relationship to manifest functions social structure, ecology., dogma and other characteristics. Among the Aymara, "the most consistently reinforced attitude is found to be that of negativistic fatalism."
Solon T. Kimball, Graduate Research-Professor of- Anthropology at the University of Florida, co-authored .an article which appeared in the May .1968 American Journal of Sociology. The article, "Commun ity, Study: Retrospect pnd,Prospecty" says that the ne,- emphasis in.commiunity studies is on principles ofprocess an dynamic aspects of com- munity, in contrast to earlier descriptive and taxonomic,orientation.
Dr. W. E. Carter will represent the University of Florida at the organizational meeting of a National Consortium for Latin American Studies to be held in New York City on November T-9. The Consortium is sponsored by the Latin American Studies Association.
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TEACHING OPPORTUNITIES Latin American Teaching Fellowships Fletcher
FOR ADVANCED GRADUATE STUDENTS School of Law and Diplomacy Tufts University:
Teaching feLlowships for 1969-70 are available with preference given to applicants in the social sciences, business administration, economics, history and law. Requirements include the completion of two years of graduate work. There are no citizenship requirements. Financial arrangements are worked out on an individual basis; an exclusively supported Fellow would receive a monthly average income of $500. Application forms may-be obtained from Latin American Teaching Fellovwships, Fletcher -School of Law and Diploimacy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts. Applications should be completed before March 30, 1969.
N.D.F.L. Fellowships at the University of Florida; The Center for Latin American Studies received twenty-three N.D.F.L. Graduate Fellowships for studies in Latin American languages and areas during the academic year 1968-69. The total cost of these fellowships amounted to $94,085. Gra uate students are encouraged to apply now for these fellowships during the 1969-70 academic year. Applications may be made on the' standard forms for financial aid and must be submitted by February 1, 1969..
Other Sources of Financial Aid: Students are requested to consult a recent mimeographed statement prepared by the Center entitled, "A Selected List of Major Fellowship Opportunities for Graduate Studies in the Latin American Field," for more information on grant availability in 1969. Ectra copies.may be obtained at the Center office, 450 College Library.
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SCHEDULE OF EVENTS.:
On April 11 and 12i 1969- the Center for' Latin American Studies will host the annual meeting--of the Southeastern-Conf'erence on Latin 'American Studies. the topic will be "Aspeets of-Latin Aerican Development The eCenter for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, will hoSt a regional meeting and luncheon.. October 15 in-the J. Wayne Reitz Unioi. "Dr. StanileyR. Ross, .Director of the Institiute of Latin American Studies at thelUhiversity of Texas, will inform invited representatives from southeastern institutions about a -new graduate fellowship program in Latin American Studies sponsored by the.Ford...Foundation*. This program is intended to replace the Foreign Area Fellowship Program. The meeting will be held in Room 349 J. Wayne Reitz Union at 9"00 a.mi and the luncheon in Room 233-34 at 12:00 noon ... .- :....
LATIN AMERICAN COLLOQUIUM.SCHEDULE Fall Quarter .
September 25: The Role of the United States Government in Latin American Economic
October 9: Panel -The Negro as a second class citizen in..,the Americas
October 23: Panel The Impact of Current U. S. Politics on Latin Americans
November 6: The Negro as a second class citizen in the Americas Part II: Violence
as a means of protest
November 20: Insurgency and Civil Action
December 4: Latin American student rebellion
COLLOQUIUM: October 23, 8 p.m., Latin Amnerican Colloquium Room "The Impact of Current
U. S. Politics on Latin Americans." This topic will be discussed by a
panel of speakers consisting of Andrds Sudrez, Professor of Latin American
Studies; Thomas L. Page, Assistant Professor of Political Science, and a