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The University of Florida LA TINAMERICANIST is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of every month. Items for publication should be submitted to the editor, R. J. Toner, 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday preceding the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves the right to select and edit all material. Colleges or other institutions interested in Latin American Studies which desire to be placed on the mailing list may apply by calling university extension 2224, or write: The Center for Latin American Studies, 450 Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
VOLUME III, Nos. 14 and 15 May 31, 1968
TABLE OF COIITENTS SYMPOSIUM ON
page ENGLISH-SPEAKING CARIBBEAN
Caribbean Symposium 1
L. A. Colloquium 8 From April 9-11, 1968, a five-session symposium on TraFaculty Notes 10 dition-.and Chalige in ta English-Speaking Caribbean was
Questionnaire Attached held at the University of Florida. Each of the five
sessions began with a paper delivered by one of the Caribbean participants*, followed by the remarks of a discussant from the University of Florida faculty. This symposium was part of the larger Second Inter-American Symposium on Common Hemispheric Problems which met in several locations in the Southeastern United
States from April 1-19.
The first session, held on Tuesday, April 9, at 9:30 a.m., dealt with the "Relation of
Law and Development." The main speaker was Senator Maurice Tenn of Jamaica and the discussant was Duane Wall, Assistant Professor of Law,vUniversity of Florida. Senator Term organized his remarks in accordance with the symposium themes of tradition and change in the British West Indies (Jamaica, Trinidad, Guyana, Barbados and the Associated States).
Senator Tenn began by mentioning the various aspects of culture, inherited from the
colonial period, which are shared by all the countries in question. These include such
things as the psychology of a history of slavery in a plantation economy; the psychology
of a small white landed-elite oriented toward Great Britain as the mother country; the
migration of East Indian indentured servants; a merchant class consisting of Arabs, Jews,
Chinese and high-caste East Indians whose descendants have entered the traditional professions, acquired university education, and entered politics; the tradition of a benevolent British Colonial administration which modified the worst abuses of the master-slave relationship; the psychological safety valve of migration to Britain, the United States and Canada; the inheritance of the British legal system, jurisprudence and the Westminster parliamentary system; extremes of wealth and poverty; and the emergence of a small
Senator Tenn stated that all countries in the British West Indies share certain objectives of development. All need to expand their economic base, increase national product
*Biographical data on these speakers were given in the April (Vol. III, No. 13) issue
of the Latinamericanist.
LgT/4 VZk/,71V eOL/CP-1,
/r7 Gain esville, Florida
Volume III, Nes, 14 and 15, May 31, 1968 Page 2
and income, create greater employment opportunities, and increase educational opportunity. Also, since the countries are agricultural-export oriented, there must be a shift to the production of local foodstuffs and the introduction of light industries, to achieve a balanced economy. To effect these changes, law is important since change will best come about through the development of parliamentary democracy along the lines of
the Westminster model, in order to insure the political stability which will help in attracting foreign investment capital. Because much of this capital will be coming from the United States, the British West Indies has become extremely sensitive toward United States' policy and influence. All other isms have been rejected, as the values of middle class America are imported and woven into the fabric of middle class West Indian society. For the changes and developments to be effective, Senator Tenn insisted
inherited law must be retained in its basic features and altered to suit local conditions.
The British West Indies has, in the Westminster model of parliamentary democracy, a tool for shaping its destiny. This model has provided a dynamic legal and political framework for the area through the creation of a broad-based two-party political system which inhibits large-scale class conflict and allows a cabinet, through majority-party control of the legislature, to pass majority-sponsored legislation. However, the Westminster model, and some of the specific legal provisions the area has inherited, often work to the detriment of democratic and economic development. Senator Tenn gave several examples of the ways in which certain basic legal concepts must be changed to fit present needs in the British West Iadies.
As an example of British law which is ill-suited to local conditions, mention was made of the family and inheritance laws which currently work hardships on groups such as the East Indians in Guyana who, by custom, do not register their unions with civil authorities and thus see their children suffer legal disabilities because of their "illegitimacy." Another problem results from iractionalization ef peasant lands, and large holdings by the elite. A legal minimum or a legal maximum should be imposed on the ownership of agricultural lands. In the field of revenue, taxation laws, which are based upon customs duties and indirect taxation, place a great burden on the unemployed masses. These and other inadequacies of inherited British common law must be modified to fit local conditions. Such change as does come, however, must come through the present political framework if development is to be achieved at all.
Senator Tenn next noted some specific factors which inhibit the working of the Westminster model in the British West Indies.- First, the West Indies have inherited Westminster conventions without the social setting and spirit of compromise which allow them to function optimally. Second, there is a tendency now for the majority party to attempt, through unfair or illegal means, to entrench itself in power. It was noted in this connection that since independence, no original government party has yet lost office. Although factors such as these militate against the proper functioning of the system, it was Senator Tenn's conviction that the system can be salvaged if intelligently adapted to the local scene, and if the ruling elite recognizes that it must make concessions and abide by democratic procedures An insistence now to further promote self-interest will only produce greater cynicism and cause people to lose faith in their institutions and their ability to change social cQnditions through customary channels.
In concluding his remarks, Senator Term pointed out that the United States can aid in development, as it already has to a certain extent through the Agency for International Development (AID), in water supplies, indigent housing, roads and education. He cautioned against giving financial aid indiscr~minately since this will only serve, as in the past, to enrich the party in power and to further entrench it in its control. Such aid must be administered through non-political channels if the United States is not to contribute unwittingly to further cynicism and anti-American sentiment. As a final comment, Senator Tenn cited the need for good political studies of the British West Indies which may help in promoting the favorable political adjustment so essential to further progress.
Professor Duane Wall, as discussant, agreed with 'Senator Tenn in emphasizing the need for political stability in the area as a necessary condition for attracting foreign investment capital. The countries must create favorable conditions for investment through the development of good transportation systems and trained skilled native labor through improved education. He suggested that certain power groups may be able to act as checks on arbitrary governmental acts and thus stabilize conditions in the area.
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During the discussion period several measures were suggested which would help involve law in development. These included: 1) incentive legislation; 2). building a massbased political party; and 3) strengthening the people's faith in the system. Senator Tenn again..stressed the need for maintaining basic established conventions, as a prerequisite for progress, but he also struck a note of urgency in stating that political improvement is necessary now, so that people will not completely lose confidence in the system and take things into their own hands.
In the second session, held on Tuesday afternoon, the subject under consideration was "The Artist in West Indian Society." The main speaker, Anthony deVere Phillips, is an historian from Barbados. The discussant was Cornelis Goslinga, Interim Professor of History, University of Florida.
Mr. Phillips noted that the historian must look to non-traditional sources, such as the novel, to supplement his more traditional findings.
In the case of the British West Indies, the near non-existence of literature prior to the 1950's can be a valuable indicator for understanding the area's development. The slave society of the West Indies was not conducive to the development of literary talents. Plantations were like factories; the plantocracy sought merely to make profits and return "home" to England. There were few schools and no universities. Only with the end of the slave system in 1838 did new possibilities arise, but even then society was still very limited, and a middle class only slowly emerged. The scholars who did arise went to England for university education, and when they returned they went into professions such as medicine and law.
The small size of the island communities, widespread illiteracy, colonialism, absenteeism and a philistine elite help to explain the slow emergence of forms of cultural expression such as the novel. The society still looked to England for its standards and values, and when the novel began to develop later in the 19th Century, it barely reflected social conditions and was usually written by members of the-planter class, such as Herbert de Lisser. By the 1930's, however, the rise of organized labor movements and mass political parties brought an end to the 100-year span designated as "the post-Emancipation period" (1838-1939). Demands for constitutional and political advance and for economic improvement were made by a new class of leaders whose strength rested on mass support. Cultural mationalism began to be asserted and there soon followed a period of literary flowering accompanied by a.revival of folklore in such forms as the steel band (developed in Trinidad after 1945), the calypso, mento, John Conor dances, folk songs and Carnival.
Mr. Phillips made mention of the fact that most novels still are not widely read since the population is only about four million and is spread over 1500 miles in -various islands and Guyana. Most are functionally illiterate and of those who areliterate, the greater number never read a book. Thus most novels sell under '3,000 hardcover copies and their authors generally have to migrate, usually to England, where they earn their living as free-lance journalists. So great has been the West Indian'migration to England that West Indians now dominate the field of commonwealth literature. This migration has caused problems since the writer, as creative artist, is cut off from his source of inspiration. The problem of a limited local market has also spawned a debate over the use of creole English. If such English is used, local flavor is captured, but if local flavor is captured with creole English, then the work loses its universal appeal. Another result of this exile is the avoidance, by West Indian authors, of protest or didactic novels.
Several genre have developed in the new West Indian novel which, according to Mr. Phillips, may be classified as follows: 1) the peasant type which is concerned with people in the mass, represented by the writings of George Lamming, Stephen Selvon and Roger Mais; 2) the middle or upper class portrayals which concern themselves with political or social morality, as exemplified in the writings of John Hearne of Jamaica; and 3) historical novels such as those of.Victory Reid and Edgar Mittleholzer.
Mr. Phillips brought his remarks to a close with the following general conclusions: 1) the West Indian writer, because of a limited local audience, cannot speak exclusively to his society; 2) novels are important principally to the educated elite of the islands;
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3) there is a growing feeling that only through mass media can society as a whole be influenced, and that therefore the artist should direct his efforts into these channels, especially since the book is' now becoming obsolescent.
Professor Goslinga, in his remarks, .compared the literary development of the EnglishSpeaking Caribbean with. the somewhat similar experience of the Dutch Antilles, including the problem of restricted Audience. Noting the Spanish and French influences on developments in the Dutch-controlled areas, Professor Goslinga questioned Mr. Phillips on the degree of similar outside influence on the writings of the English-speaking areas, and also on the incidence of n6gritude in British West Indian literature. Mr. Phillips responded that the English-Speaking Caribbean has had little or no contact with, or influence from, non-Epglish authors. On the question of nigritude, Mr. Phillips an-s.,red that there has been ,ery little incidence ofIt among West Indian authors.
In the discussion period the point was made that althoughh a colonial mentality still exists in the area, there is a decided trend toward the development of a "West Indian" genre. On the question of n gritde the participants agreed that its lack can be
explained by the desire of the Negro to accommodated, although it was also 'felt that Negro self-awareness will eventually develop Tihn-the West Indies. Several of the Caribbean participants noted that the East Indian element is being stressed in literature now, especially in novels:dealing with iGuyaia and Trinidad Mention was also trade of the cosmopolitanism in th_ writings of est Indians which reflects the area's general pattern of acceptance of differences without emphasis on them; a view which has resolved, to a point, certain tensions of a Multi-racia1 society. Finally, it was pointed out that in literature, as in law .and politics, there has been a recent re-evaluation of received norms among West India"ns
Andrew Camacho, a sociplogist, mathematician and educator3 born in Guayana, spoke, on Wednesday, April 10,. at 9:30 asm', on "The Heritage of British Education in the Caribbean." JHis presentation dalt. with the British-based educational system of the Caribbean and the current need for re-evaluating accepted procedures and tradition in the light of modern, local needs. The discussant for this sessicn was Neill W. Macaulay, Jr., Assistant Professor of History, University of Florida.
Mr. Camacho began by noting that the educational system of the British West Indies may be considered a sub-syptem of that of'England. It is- elitist, and as late as 1926 former slaves were,,scantily provided with education, except for a select few. Course content remains British, and therefore unrealistic in its West Indian setting. Latin and Greek are stressed in a curriculum calculated, if not deliberately aimed, in the words of Mr. Camacho, at the production of "contented cows." British culture and values are considered paramount, with the result that apathy and a built-i-n feeling of inferiority are products of the system. The idea is accepted that the West Indies has no history or value of its own,4. Neither geography, history nor biology deal with local yhenomenAs Also, ,French is widely taught instead of Spanish, in spite of the proximity of Spanish-speaking areas. ,The resultant intellectual isolation and irrelevance is not widely felt however, since British education is linked with patriotism, and"its harmful aspects: such as indoctrination and 'the fostering of telings of second-class citizenship, are forgotten. It is imperative .at this time, Mr. Camacho::insisted, to investigate the system and adapt. it radically to local circumstances and needs.
The first requirement for change isthat West Indians begin with their own experiences and base a:.,new-methodology on.them. For example, British English, a reign language to any, could be replaced by theteaching of West Indian English. Mr. Camacholdid' warma however, against wholesale condemnation and counselled for the retention of the favorable aspects of the British system. For example, the system appears to have inculcated a respect for law and order, which must be retained in essence, but not to the point where stability becomes equivalent to stagnation. .He also favored borrowing pertinent. features from the educational systems of the United States and Sweden,
Mr. Camacho was basically sanguine about the prospects for change. One change that. is being currently implemented- is the teaching of Spapish. Another is the appearance of comprehensive reform plans such as the 1968 Draft Plan for Education in Trihidad and. Tobao;: this envisions change over.a broad spectrum. Reformists should, according to Mr.E'Cainacho, aim-at changing the attitudes of parents, teachers; students' and administrators, for these are the elements that bave. to be convinced of the necessity for
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change. The revolution in education must be directed by knowledgeable, balanced
educators who, through dialogue with interested groups, can help define the problem.
In the past such people have often abdicated their responsibility.
Professor Macaulay's comments put the problem into the wider context of hemispheric experience. .After first registering agreement with Mr. Camacho that British education has been no unmixed blessing for the West Indies, Professor Macaulay compared
the educational experiences of other areas in the Americas characterized by sizeable slave-holding, and found developments similar to the West Indian. Education in the Southern United States, for example, was at least as,')litist as in the West Indies.
Adding the experience of Brazil to the comparisons Prof. Macaulay noted that in all three of these former large slave-holding areas, education had suffered. The elite
in such areas had to send their sons out of the area for education. Under these
circumstances, only a few select sons of freedmen could be educated., In the Southern
United States, training for negroes has traditionally been in manual skills. In
contrast, in the West Indies, with the exodus of the white elite at the end of the col0i-al period, Negroes have been trained to take over some jobs formerly held by
the white elite. This vital difference has meant that more favorable race' relations
have developed in the West Indies than in the United States.
In the discussion period several complicating factors were suggested which could
work against change. It was felt that on the university level the status appeal of
an Oxford-Cambridge education retards the development of high-quality university
education in the West Indies. Senator Tenn felt that law, being basically British anyway, would best be learned in England, and that it would be economically unwise
* for the area to invest in its own law faculty. This view was hotly contested,
although it was admitted that the scarcity of funds certainly called for the estab. lishment of definite priorities in educational development. Mr. Camacho indicated
* that a rechanneling of resources is needed and that education in the area should be
as' free from dependence on British procedures as possible. An example of such a
change would be the establishment of a local certificate of recognition to replace the British one. The present aim of reformers should be, Mr. Camacho-p.laimed, to provide basic education for all, up to ages. ,4 or 15. He also admonished against using Great Britain as a whipping boy. The ball is currently on the West Indian side' of the court, he asserted, and the situation demands West Indian initiative.
Pat A. Thompson, a businessman from Guyana, spoke on Thursday, April 10, on "Metropolitan Influences on the Caribbean Economy." Mr. Thompson defined metropolitan
areas as those larger areas of the world with which the West Indies has had dealings.
(Traditionally the area was Great Britain, but now the United States and Canada play
important roles in the West Indian economy.) The University of Florida discussant
:for the session was Research Professor Raymond Crist of the Geography Department.
Mr. Thompson described the British West Indies as an area of derived values and
attitudes received during the colonial era. These values and attitudes or traditions must first be understood and then altered where necessary. Mr. Thompson
cited some of the most debilitating elements of the past which still work against
the economic advancement of the area: 1) the establishment of sugar as the dominant crop; 2) 100% foreign-owned corporations, with consequent repatriation of profits
and adverse balances of trade and payments; 3) the making of major operating decisions abroad, resulting in a continued lack of skilled native managerial personnel;
4) the holding of all senior management posts by expatriates; and '5) the historic
lack of any incentive for internal capital accumulation.
.The catalyst, in terms of a radical change, was World War II and its aftermath, in
particular the combination of economic depression in the area and widened travel and
education which brought to light better ways of ordering life. Intellectuals and
trade-union leaders got into politics and gave a new impetus to changing attitudes.
The critical factor, however, was the achievement of universal adult suffrage, which
can be a tool for changing the power structure. Gradual changes 'are beginning to
occur in the partial diversification of agriculture, the introduction of light
manufacturing, and the development of tourism.. Also of importance has been the move
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away from 100% expatriate business holdings and management, to shared holdings and increased native participation in decision-making.
The immediate -eeds, to help maintain a- forward movement after the current heady enthusiasm wears off, are the rapid expansion of education and the attainment of political stability in the area. Regional cooperation, another necessity, is hopefully to be furthered by recent developments such as CARIFTA (the Caribbean Free Trade Area), the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), and integrated tourism There has also been increased interest in the OAS (Trinidad and Barbados have already joined) 'and the Alliance for Progress.
Mr. Thompson indicated that the United States, the United Kingdom axi Canada can play important roles in this process of change.. The United States, -he suggested; should be willing to free the direction of money by having it handled through a regional institution such as'CARIFTA, CEB, or the University of the West Indies. Metropolitan areas could help by providing markets for West Indian light industry, perhaps even through preferential tariff treatment. Also, there is a need for an established market for such basics as sugar (since traditional industries still loom large), which the metropolitan areas, especially the United Kingdom, could attempt to maintain.
.Mr. Thompson stressed the need for regional cooperation if the area is to keep from falling into economic depression. He also suggested that if Great Britain joins the European Economic Community without providing favorable trade considerations for its former colonies, then the West Indies may be forced to turn, as Mr. Thompson euphemistically phrased it, to "non-traditional metropolitan areas.
Professor Crist expressed agreement with Mr. Thompson's basic analysis of-the ills and promise of the British West Indies. He cited the lack of regional cooperation as an unfortunate but habitual frame of mind in the area. professor Crist suggested ,that it is necessary for development groups in the countries involved to decide which products could best be imported with the realization that the area :ah never hope to become completely self-sufficient so that efforts may be concentrated more efficiently in fewer areas.
In the discussion period which followed, Senator Tenn took. issue with Mr. Thompson's implication that an increase in native managerial personnel will necessarily mean greater local control of businesses He felt that the employment of local management personnel has hot usually meant a shift in the decision-making process in favor of the local area, since such personnel are often used as fronts, and the basic decisions continue to be made in foreign countries. Mr. Thompson felt, however, that this situation is changing and,that the Booker Subsidiary in Guyana, of which he is Executive Director, is a good example of a businesswhich will "evolve gradually into a Guyana-controlled concern. Here again the question of urgency was raised and it was stressed that the masses are not going to wait for slow evolution and that while this development is proceeding, attention must be paid to the masses
-of the unemployed. The problem of unemployment must be tackled now or violent uphe vals will render all development plans useless.
Although it was agreed that at present the British West Indies possess only the putward forms of power, with actual power residing in the metropolitan areas, there was the feeling that only self-help will get area economies moving. CARIFTA was seen as a start in this direction, perhaps to be followed by subsequent alliances with LAFTA and EEC, for selected industries.
The fifth and final session of the symposium, held on Thursday at 9:30 a.m., featured Gordon K. G. Sharp, a Jamnaican businessman, as the principal speaker, and Robert W. Bradbury, Professor of Economics, University of Florida, as discussant. Mr. Sharp spoke on the "Prospects of Developing an Entrepreneurial Class in the EnglishSpeaking Caribbean."
With the rapid economic growth in the Caribbean .over the past eighteen years, a new group of entrepreneurs has emerged comprised, of persons of European, African, Middle Eastern, Chinese and Indian ethnic backgrounds. The rise of this group was based on the change in the economic power structure which has been taking place, since about 1950, with the development of major industries such as bauxite, oil, sugar, citrus,
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and tourism. This economic growth has also introduced a conflict of overseas ownership against local managers and the political goals of developing a local capital market. In recent times, however, this conflict has been somewhat alleviated by the growth of public companies comprising both new enterprises and established businesses. In fact, one of the elements of a favorable investment climate in the area is the current feeling that-the forward movement of entrepreneurial enterprise will not be stopped by government intervention.
Measures which can insure sustained development are a stress on education, which will help increase the skilled labor supply, and the establishment of training centers for local. personnel, by business. The second cycle in independence for the West Indies, now that political autonomy has been achieved, is economic independence. In this vital second cycle the entrepreneurs will be the pressure group which will keep the economy and investment atmosphere healthy. It is only through sustained economic development that social freedom can come to be a reality, supplementing political freedom, for the people of the West Indies.
MF'i Sh ap concluded by emphasizing the continuing need for international capital, since construction cannot be totally financed by local capital (despite insurance and personal savings), at the same time he pointed out that the entrepreneurial class is working for the development of local managerial talent and helping to promote social mobility and a greater possibility for individual advancement according to abilities. Considerable economic growth may finally result, he thought, from the simultaneous sponsoring of small local industries and greater sectional cooperation among the various states of the British West Indies.
Pr 'Teb tradbury, commenting on Mr. Sharp's observations, noted also that the British West Indies has suffered in the past from a lack of local capital and entrepreneurial ability. This can be partially alleviated through the training of business leaders in business schools in countries such as the United States, even though for a time old
family ties will probably block ascent according to ability, which this type of training implies. There was also seen need for business-trained persons in government top decide on business matters. CARIFTA was praised by Professor Bradbury as a good start which inay later be added to by association with a Latin American common market. CARIFTA, he noted, has several advantages such as a common political and legal heritage, and common languagee among its members (unlike LAFTA), which should ease its path. Besides the advantage of a single language, the area also benefits from the possession of a stable currency- and fromra the fact that the degree of economic development is nearly the same in all the countries.
The discussion period was concerned principally with the problem of who is to lead social change in the Caribbean. Mr. Sharp expressed the view that politicians are too wrapped up'in political maneuvering and other considerations to effectively promote social change through economic development, and that the entrepreneur will more likely consider the
economic viability of various development programs. Irving Goffman, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Florida, asked why the West Indies should expect foreign" entrepreneurs to act in the local interest, or if they do not, what steps could be.t, ken to induce them to do so? Mr. Sharp suggested that sufficient legal safeguards could bei established to protect against arbitrary or harmful actions by foreign entrepreneurs. Senator Ten countered with the remark that loyalty to the corporation will, of necessity, lead to conflicts and compromises with local needs. Mr. Sharp, however, felt that since the corporation has a vested interest in a stable economy and development, that this consideration will normally insure proper action.
Gathering some of the loose strands in the discussion, Mr. Thompson noted that .theie are tree stages of'development being considered in the present situation: 1) the past achieve m&nit of political independence and local political rule; 2) the present stage of managerial class growth with a degree of local control of business through a) management, b) shareholding, and c) government-level supervisory boards; 3) a future, hoped for, level of local ownership and control of most of the economic activity in the area. This final stage will be reached only after much conflict with foreign interests over the gradual achievement of truly dominant local control.
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Mr. Sharp, developing a new line of thought, expressed the conviction that the future direction of West Indian development will be generally towards a middle-class society. He noted also a current political emphasis on the distribution of wealth to all classes. However, he stressed that development must be planned and guided if its full effects are to be felt in achieving continued progress.
Returning. to. the subject of ocial inequalities in- West Indian society, Senator Tenn made mention of the fact that tn Jamaica, 1% ofi.the .population controls 70% .f the wealth. He felt.that this controlling group must somehow be educated away from their rigidly elitist position, especially in the face of high unemployment and'grinding poVetty among the majority of the people. He again emphasized that time is simply 'ot on the side of gradual change, and that the problems of the dispossessed of society must be dealt with fairly
and quickly, along with plans for development.
Discussion next proceeded to the present need for- basic'fobd.imports throughout the area, and it was strongly urged that more local dairy products and vegetables be produced. As Senator Tenn noted in this regard, referring to Jamaica, the only way to break down economic isolation is for the plantocracy,-,to plant some of their acreage now devoted to sugar, to vegetables, which will be sold in part toother islands, and thus increase regional contacts and cooperation. The realization that an export economy has contributed greatly to the isolation of the various countries making up the British West Indies, was clearly brought home in this and other remarks, which called for. greater economic interaction,.. Mr. Camach6 cited th( Trinidad-owned'British West Indies Airlines (of'which TWA is a partial owner) As' ah'. example of a type of2 activity which will strengthen economic ties in the.area and partly overcome the insularity which is helping to hinder progress.
David L. Niddrie, Professor of Geographby,-ahd University of Florida coordinator for the u. ... ai' .ai b lnvritinls
section of the symposium heid at th .University; brought the symposium to a conclusion by summing up some major points !that had been raised. In particular he thought that.thez.. stress on the traditional was especially helpful since it added depth to the remarks
which were made and provided a good context:for understanding future needs., He closed by congratulating the paticipants on the success of the .symposium and expressed' .confidence in the ability of W Indian leadership to bri'g the area to full political and economic independence .
LATIN AMERICAN On May :8, At 8 p.m. in the Latin American Colloquium Room,
COLLOQUIUM Daniel Kubat, Visiti-g Associate Professor of Sociology;
Sugi.ama. Iutaka, Assodiate ProfesObr 6f Sociology; and Thomas L. Page, Assistant ProfessOr of. Political Science, took part in a panel diddlussion on "Power Dimentions of Population Research in Latin Americas"
Professor Kubat first defined the topic with some introductory remarks. Since World War II, he noted, there has been a growing concern in this country.dVer global poptlation increases,-including; 6f course, the high rate of increase in most of Latin America. A major element of this concern, .is the conviction that an excessively high birth rate lessens a countryts chances for political stability abd economic.development. The ideological orientation of this approach,..-however, renders the subject of population research a sensitive one with Latin American governments
The specific power dimensions of population- research, As noted by Professor Kubae e' arise from the dominant position of the U:.ited Stat in the hemisphere, and its status quo mentality; implicit in its concern about population growth in underdeveloped countries. The social scientist who travels to a Latin A mericah country to congdct. population re-search is -often viewed as- an itfiltratcr, especially since in general,these societies are not really convined'of the viability or the propriety of social research. Aside from the basic problem of cross-cultural communication and the invasion.of privacy involved in personal interviews about sexual behavior, there is :6ften the suspicion that:the :North American is simply an *agent of his government in :its .attempt to apply imperialistic.control to yet another aspect of Latin American life.
Population research, in itself, carries the connotation that population growth has reached an undesirable level in the country being studied. Also, the researcher's. questions are seen to imply, indirectly, such contradictory and value-laden convictions as: people have7no business having large-families,":or, those with small families must have something wrong with them, tc. 'Finally, 'he basic ideology of Latin American
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countries is pro-familstic,..and their governments, as a rule, do not wish to eoie ut in favor of birth limitation measures.
There are also procedural problems, associated with the researcher's need for equipeit, staff, office space, and some identification with the local power structure (political' and industrial leaders): He will be hampered without adequate facilities and staff but must also avoid an overly elaborate physical set-up. There is also the question of how closely the researcher should identify with the power structure.. Professor Kubat .suggested affiliation with a medipal school to lend the acceptable ara.b'f medical tience to the research. However, even.official sponsorship does not~ssure admission tohouseholds, especially those of a higher cultural level where invasion of privacy..is moe easily. felt and resented.
A final problem, which arises once the data are collected, is what to do with the findings. The result may be simply an additional item for the researcher's vita, furthermore, if the data are promulgated in the country studied there is often the problem of the sensitivity of the research.
Professor Iutaka, referring specifically to Brazil, added several pertinteiobservations deriving from his experience with population research in.t ht country. He6td that Brazil has, throughout its history, encouraged population increase :o promd e colonization of its vast interior. This attitude is still prevalnt, and can be 'seen. in one of its facets in the example of .the 1960 census takers, who. wee pai c d ng to the
number ofpeope tabulatd ,Also, Brazil has federalize .es er areap,: 5ereby allowing the ar~y,:to .prevent. nearby foreign nationals from.se~ptlin on Brazilian. soil, and is encouragi-ng prompt .settlement of these areas.. t4-~ face of this on-going Brazilian policy social scientists and others, usually outsiders, are insist.igon.the necessity of population control. Thus, population research in Brazil is seen as a foreign enterprise connected with family planning; popularly considered an instrument of government to limit family size. There is great antipathy among Brazilians toward the idea of government involvement, in- decisions regardipng:the,.proper number of children per family, and even though many couples do limit the-n.upber of childre in.ntheir failies, they react against the concept,of government copr.ol implicit in the idea of family planning.
Professor lutaka also made the point that population research projects in Brazil, and. in most of the rest of Latin America must be kept out of the newspapers and generally out of the limelight. In this regard, he contrasted the freedom of action which he. enjoyed (wi.th o-fiital support) on his project in Rio de Janeiro, with the diffi es :encountered by Professor. Kubat, whose research project in S-o Paulo was blocked after hs -over-zealous local:supporters, seeking national recognition for the project,. publicized it in several newspapers.
Professor Page added to the previous comments by contrasting the images of population.
resiejr.( ih cmnonly. held.in the United. States with those held in Latin America.' If the,. UniteO: States, .offtoial..policy proceeds along the assumption that underdevlped countries::can develop only. if they adhpre to measuress of, population contrpl.. High rates cf population growth can retard or-even set back development and..economic .grow-.h. This policy base is further strengthened by the belief, as expressed by President Johnson, that five dollars invested in population control are equivalent to $100.00 invested in economic development. In Latin America, such reasoning is viewed as a type: of conspiracy through which the United States hopes toeey their courier underdeveloped. Professor-Page pointed out:.. hat all segments of .Ltin America .,socie ies even those most -opp sed politically, agree on the insidiousness of population research and., the evil of population control. Even Marxists join in blocking .family planning information and research in response to feelings of national solidarity evoked through such opposition.
Professor Page stated that his experience in Latin America has indicated that the upper classes generally agree with the necessity for population control, but realize the political inadvisability of expressing such views publicly. In fact, they find themselves obliged to oppose, as good nationalists, the proponents of population research and control. However, such activities are carried on, often by natives, and statistics are compiled and information disseminated, sometimes through "fronts."
Volume III, Nos. 14 and 15, May 31, 1968 Page 10
The panel seemed to be in agreement that opposition to population research and control conducted by foreigners is often tied to anti-American nationalism. The Unitdd Statea,
iswseen-.in this-context as a staunch advocate of the status quo. Professor Kubat
mentioned the scepticism expressed by some Latin American s who asked why the United
States would want to pay to discover workers' attitudes on family planning. AAlso, mny, were, convinced that the money to research such projects comes exclusively from "government" sources.
FACULTY NOTES Cornelis C. Goslinga -Interim Professor of History, Univers y
of Florida, will spen. the academic year from August 1968,'. t May, 1969, as a. member of the faculty of the Un.yersidad del Vaile in Cali, Colombia,
where he will teach a lower and upper division course on the History of Art in Ltin
Lyle N. McAlister, Professor of Historyi-, University of Florida has received a FulbrihtHays research grant for nine months of study in Spain from:-September 1~98 to Jund,
.1969. Professor McAlister will conduct research on social structure and social. change
in Mexico, 1780-1830, in Seville at the Archivo General de Indias, in Madrid at the
-Biblicteca Nc ional, and in Simacas at the Archivo General. He will return to the SUniversity of Florida in the Vall of 1969. or .
Irving J. Goffman, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Florida, has
received a summer grant from the Center for Latin American Studies for research on public expenditures in developing countries, using Costa Rica, the Dominica ,Republic, Haiti,. Honduras. Panama, and British Guiana as-case studies. Professor Goffman's
research in the area of Latin American developments is part. of a larger study on the
-question of public expenditures in the developing countries of the world. The purpose of the studryis to determine the nature of.public expenditures, in order to determine Swhy they behave as they do!in developing.countries. The research aims at developing a theory of public expenditures in the process .of .economic development and to find evi_ .,ence, if any, of the contribution of public expenditures to th@ development of pre_pr semi -industial1 areas.
T. Lynn Smith, Graduate Research- Professor of Sociology, was in Peru during the. week of
April 21,- to consult 'ith the Centro de Ede udios de Poblaci6n y Dessarrolip; Whle
there, Professor Smith also lectured at various universities and cultural-seter.,
i-:n luding the Catholic University, Agrarian University, the Office of the Censusiand the SInstituto de Estudios Pe-ianos.
A paper by,Professor Smith entitled; "El Mejoramiento de los Sistemas Agricolas -en F.Colombia. has just been published in Les Problhmes Agraires des Amnriques Latines,
Paris: Centre Nation6l de la Recherche Scientifique, 1967. This volume is composed of the proceedings of a Conference- on Agrarian Problems in Latin Americai orgapzed by the
Centre, which Professor Smith attended in Paris during October, 1965. .US-The.. Senate .Foreign Relations-Committee hearings, A Survey of the: Alliance for, Progress,
heid in late February of 1968, have recently been published. Cont. gained in them. (pp. 10,6) is a statement by Profeszor T. Lynn Smith on "Problems of Agriculture is Latin America." Also included in the appendix to the volume is a study by ProfessorSmith
(pp. 265-271i) entitled, "Growth.of Population in Ceintral and S thAmerica, 1940-70."
Professor Tony J. Cunha., Chairman of the Department of Animal Science,, Uiversity of .: 10.Florida, served as a member of an Advisory Committee to evaluate the proposed .J'Interational Agricultural Research Center" to be established by the Ford and Rokefgller
Foundations alt Cali, Colombia. The Committee met in New York City on April 2.and 24.
latinamericanist university of florida
Volume III, Nos. 14 and 15, May 31, 1968 Page 11
Professor Tony J. Cunha served as Chairman of the second "Latin American Beef Cattle Conference" held in Gainesville on May 1. The Conference, which was given in Spanish, was attended by-ninety-one persons from fifteen Latin American countries. The cattlemen also stayed for the Beef Cattle Short Course held on May 2-4. Simultaneous translation was available for the Short Course. The Center for Tropical Agriculture, which helped the Department of Animal Science with both events, had all papers translated into Spanish for the cattlemen who attended. Professors Cunha, Hugh Popenoe, Director of the Center for Tropical Agriculture, and Marshall 0. Watkins, Director of the Agricul-. tural Extension Service of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, were each presented with a "Diploma of Honor" from the Minister of Agriculture of the State of Yucatan, Mexico. The group from Mexico presented the diplomas.
SUMMER QUARTER The Center for Latin American Studies, in cooperation with the Center for Tropical Agriculture, will offer, for the third consecutive year, a basic course in Spanish for faculty members desiring to acquire or improve their functional knowledge of the language. Gerald W. Petersen, Assistant Professor of Spanish, will conduct the class, the basic course of which will meet during the first five weeks of the Summer Quarter at the following times:
204 McCarty Hall 7:00-8:30 a.m. Monday-Friday
204 McCarty Hall 3:30-5:00 p.m. Monday-Friday (if sufficient enrollment)
The first class will meet on June 10. Enrollment will be limited to about twenty-five per section. During the second half of the Quarter (beginning July 15) a more advanced conversation course will be offered. The course will meet at a time and place convenient to the majority of those who are interested. Faculty members interested in the course should contact the Center for Latin American Studies for application forms or information.
THE SENATOR GEORGE A. SMATHERS The awards for the contest year ending in 1967
PRIZE IN LATIN AMERICAN LAW were as follows: First Prize, $350 no award
made. Honorable mention, $150 divided among the following students: Mr. James M. McCarthy, for his paper entitled "The Florida Citrus Industry: Its Relation to American:Trade Policy, and the Possible Usurpation of United States Markets by Latin American Citrus Industries"; Mr. Robert E. Muraro, "Taxation of Shareholders of Foreign Corporations"; and Mr. Joseph E. Warren, "The Brazilian Capital Market Act."
Rules for the contest year ending September 1, 1968 will be found on the Law School bulletin board. A further $500 will be available for the contest year ending September 1, 1969. The contest is open to law students and to graduate students not majoring in the Law School, who are enrolled in the annual seminar, Law and Development: Latin America (LW 678).
Volume III, Nos, 114 ondc 15, m~ay 31l, 1968
~eginning with this -Issue, the Latinamericanist will contain occasional supplements which will provi-de infornati.-on on research. and- teaching 'opportunities for IUni ver;3ity of Florid6. faculty- and. gradua be s tudentsy :t chlry neestsilanAmie. n
prviig thssrieh'~fer for Latin*-American-Studies hopes to assure full dissemination 'of Infqrnatlon i.-n -avi able,graits, in the. field'of Latin American studies. The supplem-.t. wi-l cantaih dhly brief mention of such grants Interelsted po-rsons are asked to *7onct the,C.enter- :tor fitl. information. on particular prograhis,
" ecig bliportn-dties:'
*' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 Fubih-asAt'Lc~rn ponments Abroad for 1969...70. Application. be-fore
qup 1,0,'56 isre~mmnde'.-Scolas'ho expect to hold lectures8hips abroad
under-othcr'auspi:ces t-bah~ the Tltlbxiight program and who desire travel-only grants may apply until Feboruary 1, 19069 for grants for travel to be undertaken in the academic year 1969-70.
*The Inst-itut~e of 14odIcn Largui~ges in Washington, D. C. has occasional openings in
Latin.'Arnric a, forteache'rs- of English 'as a fp'reign- .jangiiage* Assignment is
u -fly"'ra yer d mqy-be rin'4d'. 'Expe iene 'or tri~ iti modern, linguist irthodologf' s~ h ghly desirable. '
T _e Tatin A-crca ,Tahng'el lows hips -program provides 12-18 month teaching and
resec6rch 2u(llo 'iss to United States pre-doctoral students. Fellows K.1.1 fill teaching posts in latin Amrerican universities. Writi-n&-a'd speaking, 'iieixcy *in the language of the counti-y is ~.~2ie. plctosmust be received by March. 30 precc-ding the acac.emic year in which participation in the_...gram isr'desi.red,
"TeCanal Zone and Puerto Rico provide openings in their school systems fo,.
teachers 4o wi.sh:tto '.ave e,_Terience in d" ar~e?.of essentia!1y'Hf6kgdqidid.
Research_0pport-unitte.:. ,* ..~
rpbt-sAt. ReseaicchiAppointments Abroad for 1969-70. June 1l, 19' is
- the c'los-h date -for application, but scholars who expect to conduct research abroad under other auspices than the FuJlbright program and who desire travel-only. grants my make a-pplication as 7.7t.e as *Febru~ry 1, 1967 for grants for travel, to be. under'tak~h'in the academi-c year 1969-70.
Recruitment, -for.4Teaching: an'd, Admi istrative Posts:
~ T~rainlSchools Serviee conducts a personnel .prog-rwm for re-crultIng screening, and recpmuending;teachers -and administrators .for Spts in Abirican-sponsred., Schf0o1.Is abroad.':
T*'he"'Overseas-Educational Service, as one of its functions, assists in the recrtuiting of teachers and administrators for positions. in colleges. and* universitiesabroad.
*The- Qffid'&'f Edueation assists 'in the'. recruitment. of wel!qualified'Ameriicon ediudute 's-fr,.smil aara the te-chnical'assistance programs in education condutdbs' UNESCO.* The Office of Education is the recommending agency and UNESCO is the
*The United'States information Agency recruits United States teaching and admiis* trative personnel frthe Binational Centers which operate in the pincipal cities of Latin America and elsewhere, Successful candidates receive training in Washington or overseas, after which they nmist remain at their overseas posts for at least two years from the time of arrival.
latinamericanist university of florida
Volume III, Nos. l4 and 15, May 31, 1968
To readers of the Latinamericanist:
The staff of the Latinamericanist is hopeful that you find our publication of interest and value. It is our aim, through this newsletter, to disseminate information about faculty and graduate students at the University of Florida involving activities dealing with scholarly interests in Latin America. In order that we may improve our publication and eliminate unwanted mailings, we ask that you respond to the following:
(Cut along this line)
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If your answer is yes, please return this section of the questionnaire,
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