Center for L~atin Unziversqity
American Studie~s"s of Florida
The University of Florida LATINAMERICANIST is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of every month. Items for publication should be submitted to the editor, R. J. Toner, 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday preceding the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves the right to select and edit all material. Colleges or other institutions interested in Latin American Studies which desire to be placed on the mailing list may apply by calling university extension 2224, or write: The Center for Latin American Studies, 450 Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601,
Volume III, No. 10 January 19, 1968
TABLE OF CONTENTS LATINAMERICANIST
page RESEARCH FEATURE
Feature article 1
Conference 2 Joseph Spinelli is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department
News 3 of Geography, University of Florida. He received his
Faculty 4 B.Sc. (cam laude) in 1963 and his M.A. in 1966, both
Calendar reverse side from Ohio State University. Mr. Spinelli's dissertation title is: "Present Population Settlement Patterns and Population Composition as Related to Historical Land Tenure in St. Vincent, West
Indies, 1763 to the Present." Mr. Spinelli made a field reconnaissance trip to St. Vincent in August and September, 1967 under a grant from this University's Center for Latin
American Studies. He is 28 years old.
LAND TENURE, LAID USE AND by Joseph Spinelli
POPULATION IN ST. VINCENT,
W. I. A RECONNAISSANCE This brief paper presents the results and observations
of a preliminary field reconnaissance trip to the island of St. Vincent, West Indies, to ascertain what data were available in the island
archives and government records. The data obtained will permit the author, after completion ac his field research, to fill in the background of patterns of historical land
tenure, land use, as well as population composition and settlement from 1763 to the
The investigation took place during August and September, 1967. A visit to the Secretary to the Chief Minister was made in order to determine the government offices which
would most likely have the required historical sources and maps. The most logical place
for this was the Department of Lends and Surveys. Here the work pertaining to delimiting present boundaries is concentrated. When land is subdivided for any purpose, it is the task of the Lands' Department surveyors to map the change and record it on a master
cadastral map. At present, the island is in the process of up-dating the cadastral
Records were located here in the archival vaults which showed the historical lay-oat of
the property lines from the late 18th century to the present. The original survey map
Center for O /
Gainesville, Flo rida
Volume III, No. 10, January 19, 1968 Page 2
of the island was made in 1764 when St. Vincent was turned over to British control as one of the "Ceded Islands" in the Windwards, following the Seven Years War in Europe. At that time, the newly acquired territories were laid out in property lots; to be given as grants for service to the crown, to be sold to individual settlers with the hope of rapidly peopling the islands with loyal British subjects, or reserved to the powerful Carib tribes.1
It is possible to trace some of the land grants and purchases from the earliest recording in the 1770's to the present day. This cannot be done for the entire island because some of the records have been lost or destroyed over the years. However, it may be possible to take a sample of some of the large land grants for the production of sagar cane and to trace the subsequent subdivision of rights to the land.
After the abolition of slavery, in 1838, many of the land owners, for one reason or another, sold part or all of the estates to former slaves. More often, this land was marginal, comprising the most ansuitable parts of the estates for peasant farming.2 Some early manuscript maps show the location of the individual estates, with descriptions of land use, such as the acreage devoted to negro provision grounds, to the sugar mill workings., various crops and other details. Often. when the estates were sold, in part or in toto (especially when the encumbered estates were forced into sale), the names of'y- were recorded on the maps, with the acreage and purchase price.
In order to trace the subsequent ownership of land, it will be necessary to examine the records of the Registry Office, which has on file the deeds to property. The difficulty of historical reconstruction of land ownership is increased by the general lack of property deeds dated prior to 1860. In 1854, the passage of the Encumbered Estates Act, allowing the re-issue of title to new buyers of estates. did not t~ka effect in St. Vincent until about 1860. From that time, it becomes possible more readily to trace such changes in land ownership.
The study of historical geographical aspects of land use has been made more difficult by the dearth of records of any kind on the island itself. Much of this information will have to come from sources which are scattered in the various archives holding data records pertaining to the British Windward Islands as a group. The most readily available source in St. Vincent is the Annual Report of the Botanic Gardens (since 1964 called the Report of the Department of Agriculture). At present, there is no ap-to-date land se map of St. Vincent. The only known one is being prepared by the United Nations Physical Planning Unit stationed in Barbados, which is mapping all of the Windward Islands. This map, however, will not be finished until the serial photographic work of St. Vincent is completed sometime daring the spring of 1968.
Population composition and settlement movements are to be studied from the information to be found in the island censuses taken in 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1911, 1921, 1931o 1946 and 1960. Most of these contain statistics relating to the composition of population, but only in very general terms. It may not be possible to study the spatial variation of population characteristics below the parish level, a unit corresponding approximately to the county in the United States.
1fDavid L. Niddrie, "Eighteenth-Century Settlements in the British Caribbean,'T Transactions and Papers of the Institute of British Geographers, Publication No. 140 (1966), p. 76.
(The above article will be continued in the next issue of the Latinamericanist.
AFRICA-LATIN AMERICA The conference on Africa and Latin America: Human
CONFERENCE EVALUATED Mobility and Social Change in Two Continents, held at
the University of Florida from November 29 to December 2, 1967, was evaluated and brought to a close by Dr. William Woodruff, Graduaste Researcn Professor of Economics., who sat in on all of the sessions of the conference, Professor Woodruff's summary and constructive criticism provided perspective, and also raised some important points to be considered.
Positing the non-comparability of the two areas, Professor Woodruff stated that what in fact emerged from the conference was not a comparison between two continents, Africa and Latin America, but a Juxtaposition of both to Europe and the United States. Defining t-cne distinctive quality of Western civilization as dynamism and the acceptance of change, Professor Woodruff maintained that it is this, and not industrialization per se, which is the key to the impact of the West on other cultures. This impact has h uneven
latinam erican ist university of florida
Volume III, No. 10, January 19, 1968 Page 3
effects and has often been a disintegrating force which can destroy cohesive societal values. Thus, most changes produced or desired must be considered from both negative and positive aspects. Apropos of this Dr. Woodruff felt that there should have been more 'cross-pollenization" between sociologists, anthropologists, and doctors, who often stressed the exclusively negative, or positive elements of the same problem.
Dr. Woodruff pointed out that progress has its price, and that we should not assume that every area of the world *will, or should, become industrialized and urbanized. Neither should we assume that Western culture holds the answers to the ills of other cultures, especially when basic misconceptions can distort programs of assistance. In this regard, Professor Woodruff noted that the advocacy of comprehensive birth control measures for Africa flies in the face of the fact that Africa is basically, contrary to popular assumption, an underpopulated continent. Among the subjects which he felt required additional discussion were: nutrition, education, and mobility of mind' or outlook, as distinct from bodily mobility
The conference yielded, perhaps, a major result in underlining the conviction that Africa and Latin America do not compare readily, that it is rather the contrasting ways in which each has received the impact of Western culture which give them their distinctive qualities, within the lines of the conference themes of human mobility and social change.
The discussion period of the final session touched on the dangers inherent in the examination of Africa and Latin America from the viewpoint of a third culture, and may indicate that future conferences dealing with the two areas will have to come to terms with latent ethnocentric assumptions and perspectives.
AFRICAN ART EXHIBIT In conjunction with the recent African-Latin American
Conference, an exhibition of African art was held at the University Gallery, University of Florida, through December 20, 1967. The exhibition was opened on November 29, with a lecture, "Some Problems of African Art," by anthropologist Dr. Philip J. C. Dark, chairman of the Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University. The sixty-three items in the exhibition were loaned by the American Museum of Natural History in New York for the special showing.
Gallery Director Roy Craven, commenting on the items exhibited, noted that since the emergence of Cubism and Expressionism, which looked partly to primitive art for stimulation, our culture has broadened its formerly narrow concept of art to include the products of "primitive" peoples. While stressing the fact that all of the objects displayed have a basic utilitarian function and "have nothing whatsoever to do 'with art as
we understand it in the West," Mr. Craven felt that "these objects speak directly to as all with meanings which are basic (and) natural to all men regardless of their forest
or urban environment."
LATIN AMERICAN The Latin American Colloquium meetings for 1968 got
COLLOQUIUM underway on Wednesday, January 17, with a discussion
of research methodology by Dr. Richard Renner, associate professor, College of Education, University of Florida. Colloquium meetings, which will be held on the average of two per month, are under the student aRirectorship of
Roberto Ibgrguen who is pursuing doctoral studies with a Brazilian specialization, in the History Department.
Dr. Renner spoke before an ample audience in the Latin American Colloquium room in the College Library. His topic was "Ecuadorian Secondary Education: Reformers Identify Their Problems." Dr. Renner, who received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas. has visited various Latin American countries under sponsorship of the experimental schools program of the International Cooperative Administration (ICA). The data presented by
Dr. Renner were drawn mainly from Ecuado:".cn publications housed at the University of Florida, which he examined during the summer of 1967 while under a University of Florida Graduate School Summer Research Grant.
Dr. Renner stated that he conducted a study of Ecuadorian secondary education in particular because of the enthusiasm and dedication he has personally found among Ecaa-
Volume III, No. 10, January 19, 1968 Page 4
dorian educators, and because of the vigorous dialogue maintained, during the 1950's, among Ecuadorians interested in educational reform. This dialogue was partly recorded in professional journals, books, reports, etc., and Dr. Renner's study is based almost entirely on these sources, vhich he indicated emanated mainly from Quit.o. His study is a survey of scholarly opinion expressing itself on Ecuadorian education. Limiting himself, in his talk, to a small portion of his data, Dr. Renner dealt solely, in his formal remarks, with public secondary education.
Most of Dr. Renner's presentation consisted of quotes taken from the writings of reformminded Ecaedorians. Inputting forth these sample-statements, Dr. Renner did not attempt to develop.a central theme, but instead isolated certain currents which he derived directly or through inference from his material. One characteristic which Dr. Renner found to be general in the vritings.of these Ecuadorians was a lack of specificity. This he attributed mainly to political pressures and an attitude among them that they must accept as limits certain insurmountable obstacles, such as those spawned by cultural inertia and favoritism. He found that the failure of most of the writers to mention the adverse effect which political influence has on the system, indicated their own fear of reprisal. The especially harmful aspects of this political influence, as .serious a handicap as poor pedagogy, are the inefficiency and low morale produced by the appoint ments of unqualified persons to important posts. He also maintained that while the reformers recognized the value of increasing scientific and technical training they also feared that such training might undermine the country's humanistic orientation.
While he felt the reformers-were at fault in ignoring the degrading effects of political maneuvering, Dr. Renner isolated some of the basic problems afflicting Ecuadorian..public secondary education generally agreed upon by Ecuadorian writers: 1) the excessive concern with quantity in course content, and the corresponding over-emphasis on memorization, which :in turn induces a superficial handling of subjects and a decrease in student interest, 2) scholarships, while available, rarely go to those most in need, 3) the high drop-out rate aggravated by lack of facilities and funds, which makes it nearly impossible for astudent who has failed .one course to make up that course without repeating the entire academic year, 4) the Sierra and the coast operate on different annual schedules, thus causing a transfer student from either section to lose a year. In summing.ap the effect that these reformers have had on the system, Dr. Renner cited the implementing of occasional reforms and the importance of simply keeping alive,the spirit of reform.
In the discussion period which followed the talk, further aspects of the problem were brought out. In answer to a question on the efficacy of foreign experts in helping to solve problems as consultants, Dr. Renner opined that provided the outsider can-sufficiently overcome his tendency to transfer ideas without cultural compensation, he can be of great value in uncovering fresh approaches. However, Dr. Renner felt that the foreign expert is valuable chiefly to the extent to which he can implement his suggestions with financial backing. A final point, and perhaps-an intrinsic defect in the public secondary system in Ecuador, as described by Dr. Renner, was the fact that although only a very small percentage of its students ever continue their education beyond the secondary level, the secondary schools are geared predominantly to the training of students for universities.
UF PROFESSOR PUBLISHES Dr. Francis C. Hayes, associate professor of Spanish,
-BOOK ON LOPE DE VEGA University of Florida .nas written a book on the noted
Spanish dramatist, Lope de Vega. Released in December 1967, by Twayne Publishers of New York, the book was on display at-the meeting of the Modern Language Association of America, December 26-29, in Chicago.
"Spanish-speaking people know all about Shakespeare, but many English-speaking people do not know about Lope who.is-Vwidely quoted in the Spanish-speaking areas and was one of the world's most prolific writers," Dr. Hayes says.
His book gives a comprehensive 20th Century reinterpretation of Lope (1562-1635) and includes a topical guide to the proverbs and sayings in Lope's work. Dr. Hayes has collected the largest file of Spanish-American proverbs in existence, housed in manuscript at the University of Florida College Library, and has published a number of studies on folk gestures.
Slatinamericanist o university of florida
Volume III, No. 10, January 19, 1968 Page 5
PARAGUAYAN Dr. Emmett L. Williams, Professor of Education, UniverEDUCATIONAL PROJECT sity of Florida, has been named director of a project
to improve programs in American dependent schools in South America. The University of Florida has been working in recent years on such a program with the American School in Asunci6n, where Dr. Williams will conduct a one-week seminar in January, 1968. The project, which is funded by the Department of State through the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education, sponsors an annual seminar in South America for teachers and administrators.
LIBRARY ASSISTANCE Mr. John G. Veenstra, Assistant Director of Libraries,
PROJECT University of Florida, is a Ford Foundation consultant
on a project of library assistance to the Universidad Nacional in Bogot6 and the Universidad de Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia. The Universidad Nacional began in 1966 the task of centralizing the administration of its library holdings With assistance from the Agency for International Development (AID), the Ford Foundation and several libraries in this country, including that of the University of Florida. Prior to 1966, each faculty had custody of its own holdings. and was separately responsible for acquisitions. The project is just beginning in Medellin bat the Universidad Nacional has already received $1,000,000 from AID for constraction of a library building, and the Ford Foundation is providing help for the training of personnel, the acquisition of a basic reference collection and equipment to prepare for centralization. AID has furnished funds for six Colombian librarians to spend two years each in further library science specialization in the United States, as well as for eight other persons to come for three months each to work in U.S. librariesin order to observe techniques employed. One of the eight, Teresa Rodriguez., has just finished her three months' in-service training at the University of Florida,, and two more trainees are scheduled to arrive in February for three months.
The University of Florida is also increasing its acquisition of Colombian publications through gift and exchange, partly as a result of this mutually beneficial assistance program.
Dr. Lyle N. M1cAlister will present a paper entitled, "The Impact of Militarism on Latin America,"' at the Inter-American Forum to be held on January 27 and 28, in St. Louis, Missouri. The Forum is under the joint sponsorship of the Catholic Inter-American Cooperative Program and St. Louis University
TROPICAL AGRICULTURE The Center for Tropical Agriculture, a unit of the
BROCHURE Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University
of Florida, has just published a brochure outlining its organization, courses taught., research, technical contracts, and opportunities in tropical agriculture.
The opening paragraph of the brochure sets forth one of the principal reasons for the creation of the Center for Tropical Agriculture: "The tropics are the earth's most diverse and productive environment. Extensive areas are endowed with a year-round combination of abundant solar energy and rainfall for optimum plant growth. Yet, most of the world's hungry people are living in the tropics. The reasons are complex. Technology which has been successful in the mid-latitudes has often not been applicable to the tropics because of the differences in environmental and cultural factors. Concern about low food production in those parts of the world where rates of population growth are excessive is becoming a critical issue in world affairs."
For further information, write: Director
Center for Tropical Agriculture
120 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Individuals or institutions desiring to receive the Center for Tropical Agriculture Newsletter will be placed on the mailing list upon request.
Volume III, No. 10, January 19, 1968 Page 6
Frederick V. Gifun, graduate student in the History Department's doctoral program, with interest in Brazil, has recently been appointed assistant editor of the Latinamericanist.
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
Latin American Colloquium meetings:
January 24: Professor Oscar G. Ramos, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia, now visiting professor at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, will speak on
"Cronistas in Nueva Granada."
February 7: Professor Davi Carneiro, of Paran6, Brazil, currently visiting professor
at Howard University in Washington, D. C., will talk on the "Evolution of
Brazilian Teaching of History and Historiography.
February 21: Dr. Cornelis Goslinga visiting professor of:History, University of
Florida, will present a talk entitled: "The Greatest Act of Piracy inth
All Colloqauiam meetings will be held in the Latin American Colloquium Room in the College Library beginning at 8 p.m.