Cente for atinUniversity American Studies lof Florida
The University of Florida LATINAMERICANIST is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of every... month, Items for publication should be submitted to the editor, N 10 9 R. J. Toner, 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday preced- % ing the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves the right to select and edit all material. Colleges or other institutions interested in Latin American Studies which desire to be placed on the mailing list may apply by calling university extension 2224, or write: The Center for Latin American Studies, 450 Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
Volume III, No. 2 October 28, 1966
TABLE OF CONTENTS LATINAMERICANIST
Feature Article 1 This month's feature article is written by J. Gerald
Research 3 Feaster, a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of AgriNews 4 cultural Economics, University of Florida. Mr. Feaster
Faculty 6 received his BS in Agriculture in 1964 and his MSA in
Calendar reverse side 1966, both from the University of Florida. His thesis
was: "Farm Managerial Decision-Making of Shifting Cultivators in a Tropical Area." He did his research in British Honduras during the summer of 1965 under a grant from the Center for Tropical Agriculture, University of
Florida. Mr. Feaster is 24 years old and married.
INNOVATIVENESS OF by J. Gerald Feaster
TRADITIONALISTS IN The survival of mankind depends no less on the innovaLATIN AMERICA tiveness of the farmers of the world than it does upon
the military strength of nations. As appalling as it may seem, the innabitants of this planet may number 6 billion by the year 2000. In 2000
the population of Latin America is expected to total 600 million as compared to around
200 million today. If the 'present rates of growth of t e world populations continue
unabated for the next generation. people in all the economically underdeveloped areas
will face the grim specter of starvation unless (1) agricultural production is greatly
expanded and (2) the world food distribution systems are vastly streamlined.
In facing the challenges for increasing world food production, the operational decisions
of farmers everywhere help set the pace with which agticultural growth takes place.
The attitudes of farmers in Latin America toward agricultural change are keys to economic
growth because the Latin American economies are structurally based upon agriculture.
This can be envisioned from the fact that in Latin America over 50 per cent of the popalation is now engaged in occupations related to agriculture. The range is from around
25 per cent in Argentina to 84 per cent in Honduras.
In Latin America most of the producers of basic food crops are peasant-type operators.
This implies the excessive use of man for power and labor. It also infers that each farmer produces but little over and beyond the subsistence needs of his family. How
Volu ne II. No,, 2; October 28, 1966 Page 2
then, under such a cultural milieu., can agricultural development be spurred? ,1hat environmental and cultural situations influence overt action? Are attitudes and actions so
*!rCloxible that change leading to economic growth is impossible?
?" k~ A.:gn o theabove gaesti-ons among others, the Hopan 1.4 y n I ns of 'San
Antonio, Toledo District, British Honduras, were surveyed in 1965. These Indians lived on a government reservation and practiced a system of farming called "shifting cultivation." This system is also referred to in literature as "fire" or "slash and burn" agricultL'xe. Growers depend upon the ecological processes of nature for plant nutrients.
Similar ways of farming are found in most Latin American countries. It is estimated that in the tropical areas of the world 200 million people derive their livelihood from some form of shifting cultivation. So long as populations were sparse and new lands were to be had simply for the taking, this system amply met the needs of the users. Now that the numerical spread of populations has reduced the acreage of open lands, traditional systems of faring can no longer meet the demands of the hour.
The 1965 stL-dy in British Honduras strongly suggests that agricultural traditionalists are willing to respond to opportunities to increase production by altering enterprise combinations, This does not mean that they are openly opposed to their traditional way of life or that they are actively seeking alternative methods of agricultural production. On the contrary, the relative stability of underdeveloped and isolated cultures implies that their cultures supply most af the recognized needs of their members. It is only when changes in ways of living upset this balance that the stark issues of reality are laid bare. It is at this point that willingness to innovate or not to innovate becomes a critical factor.
In the United States, the innovativeness of a farm operator is often rated by the number of recommended farm practices the individual has adopted. In semi-primitive cultures where agricultural practices are almost uniformly traditional, this measurement has little diagnostic value. Among the San Antonians of British Honduras, attitude and opinion statements were used to determine innovativeness.- This seems to have been a practical application of an attitude scale, and it is logical to assume it would be an equally valuable tool in other underdeveloped areas.
All the statements used to determine attitudes in the British Honduras survey were so worded that individual attitudes toward both innovation and traditionalism would be revealed. A methodology consisting of both item and multiple regression analysis was employed to construct statistically significant attitude scales from the responses. One tool of measurement developed was an innovation scale, another was a traditionalism scale, and a third a composite attitude scale. The letter was a combination of the first two.
A positive desire on the part of San Antonians for economic improvement in agricultural technologies was revealed by the attitude scaling devices developed. Over 80 per cent of those interviewed expressed an interest in learning new ays to farm. To a certain extent they had already become adoptors. Theynow use an insecticide to control "wee-wee" ars (atta cephalotes); they produce rice for cash income; they buy seed rather then save it from their harvests; and they have given up handicrafted items (pots and pans) for manufactured ones. Also, as do many others in Latin America, they maintain contact with the outside world by "tuning in" on their transistor radios.
To better understand the attitudes and actions of these agricultural traditionalists, multiple regression analyses aided in isolating factors which were associated with the charges in traditional attitudes as revealed by attitude scaling techniques. As would be expected, higher levels of living and better than average education were social characteristics identified as promoting change. Goals., aspirations, governmental contacts and seasonal off-farm employment also contributed to the modification of traditional attitudes. Conversely, increases in family size and in age were factors which were directly related to the continuance of traditional values.
In developing our international relationships through AID, the Peace Corps, and similar organizations, attitude probing approaches could be employed to determine levels of acceptability to proposed agricultural development programs. The British Honduras study seems to indicate that the initial impetus for change mast originate outside the confines of a traditionalistic community. In the early stages of development it seems necessary t it government and commercial farmers should play major roles in the diffusion of knowledge.
In a world fall of tensions and threats against the survival of mankind, little time remains for the reshaping of the world's agriculture. Fortunately, "backward" peoples
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Volume III, No. 2, October 28, 1966 Page 3
will undoubtedly press their energies to secure higher levels of living, if given the opportunity and knowledge. Attitude probes are one means to explore the mind and tap the responses that lead to innovation, and hopefully, to supplying the food needs of the world. Attitude probing approaches should be particularly relevant to the economic development of Latin America, especially in the allocation of scarce resources and services, a task which now confronts every nation in Latin America.
LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCH This month's issue continues the listing of titles of
AT UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA theses and dissertations completed at the University
LISTINGS ARE CONTINUED of Florida during 1965 and 1966.
Anyone wishing microfilm prints of dissertations should write directly to: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Theses, however, are not available on microfilm. Requests for prints of theses should be addressed to: Inter-Library Loan Librarian, Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. Please do NOT write to the Center for Latin American Studies.
Symbols used are: AS-Agricultural Economics, APY-Antnropology, ES-Economics, GPY-Geography, HY-History, JM-Journalism, IA-Inter-American Studies, PCL-Political Science, SHSpanish, SY-Sociology.
Baker, George E. HY MA "The Seven Cities: The Role of a Myth in the Discovery
and Exploration of America"
Caldera, E. Y. SY MA The Population of Venezuela: A Demographic Analysis"
Ciccarelli, Orazio HY MA "An Introduction to the Foundationaid Rise of APRA" De Hoop, Herman HY MA "The-Role of General Rochambeau in Haiti During 1802"
Dickinson, Joshua GPY MA "Forest Use and Deforestation in a Mexican Ejido"
Farr, Kenneth IA MA "Luis Marioz Marin: His Role in the Development, Leadership, and Influence of the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico"
Fennell, Lee C. IA MA "The Intransigent Radical Movement: An Attempt at Democratic Solutions for Argentina"
Ford, Edward J. ES MA "Public Expenditures in Haiti: 1934-1960"
Fullmer, Thomas JM MA "A Critical Analysis of how Selected Florida Newspapers
Reported the Cuban Revolution"
Graham, Lawrence PCL PhD "The Clash Between Formalism and Reality in the Brazilian
Gregg, James L. PCL !MA "Political Parties and Interest Aggregations; Gqatemala:
A Case Study"
Hoffman, Paul E. HY MA "The Background and Development of Pedro Men4ndez' Contribution to the Defense of the Spanish Indies" Ihns, J. R. IA MA "Factors Affecting Brazilian Foreign Trade"
Kidder, Frederick IA PhD "The Political Concepts of Lufis Muhoz Rivera (1859-1916)
of Puerto Rico"
Kirsch, Henry W. IA MA "The Pardo in Venezuelan Society, 1759-1812"
Mann., Arthur J. ES MA "The Growth of Public Expenditures in the Dominican
Nottebom, Carl AS MA "The Structure and Development of the Market for Gatemalan Sugaer"
Oda, Takahiro IA MA "Foreign Investment in the Non-Ferrous Metal Mining of
P4rez, Ricardo SH MA "La religi6n en la obra de Jos4 Martf"
Reems, Roland ES MA "The Col6n Free Zone of Panama"
Rozman, Stephen' PCL MA "Progress Toward Democracy in El Salvador: Political
Development Since the 1948 Revolution"
Tall, Jenna L. SH MA "El concepto de. la independencia antillana en los
escritos de Jos4 Marti y Eugenio Marfi de Hostos" S6nchez, D. C. SY MA "Sociological Study of Eduacation in Chile"
Santos, Maria IA PhD "El Ateneo de la Javentud: Su influaencia en la vida
intelectual de M4xico"
Selcher, Wayne IA MA "The Administration of Galo Plaza Lasso in Ecuador,
1948-1952: A Step Tpoward Stability"
SymeS, Martha APY MA "Guendalain, Oaxaca: A Study of Scale in a Mexican.
Wiarda,. Howard J. PCL PhD "The Aftermath of the Trujillo Dictatorship: The Emergence of a Pluralistic Political System in the Dominican Republic"
Volume III, No. 2, October 28, 1966 Page 4
Wikoff, L. C. SY MA "A Study of the Growth of' Population Centers in Brazil"
Yamada, Mutsuo HY MA "The Cotton Textile Industry in Orizaba: A Case Study
of Mexican Labor and Industrialization During the.Diaz Regime"
Criderp R. Don IA MA "The Brazilian Revolation .of 1964."
Flanders, Loretta PCL MA "The APRA Pafty of Peru:, The Evolution of a Reformist
Hansen, Barten J. IA MA "Economic Life in Momostenango, Guatemala"
Mulnolland, James IA MA "Spanish Influence in the Poetry of Joao Cabral de Melo
THE Mrs. Helen King Corpeno, recently returned from GuateLATIN AMERICAN male where she conducted research for her doctoral dis)COLLOQUIUM sertation on the participation of the Guatemalan Indians
in the country's political system, addressed the first meeting of.the Latin American Colloquium on Wednesday, October 12.
Mrs. Corpeno, who received her B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Florida and is presently a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Political Science, emphasized research problems she..encountered in Guatembla while working on her dissertation, entitled "The Process of Political Socialization of the Guatemalan Indians."
During her stay in Guatemala, which was then under a state of siege, Mrs. Corpeho referred to herself as a "sociologist." explaining that the mention of.the word '!politics" or even "political socialization" was not wise in any sense. Political socialization, she stated, is accomplished through home and school training in politics or "thro gh.some traumatic event that serves to interest an individual in politics where he was not interested before." As an example of the latter, she cited the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944., which had as its stated purpose "the integration of the Indian."
Mrs. Corpeio encountered difficulty in defining the term "Indian." Should the definition be a cultural or a racial one, she asked. Are educated Indians still to be considered "Indian"? If being Indian is to be "traditional," how do you measure "traditional"? And the Indians themselves, resenting the very word Indio, which is regarded as an insult, preferred to be called naturales or indfgenes. Mrs. Corpeho finally used Dr. Richard Adams' classification or Gatemalan Indians: Traditional, Modified, Ladinized, and New Ladino.
Because of the country's lack of integration, the study was confined to the single Department of Quezaltenango. Mrs. CorpeBo worked in the cities of San Juan Ostancolco, Cantel and Estgncia.
The Indian groups that were studied fall into two categories: the Mam and the Quich4, the latter being more active politically and taking great pride in their Indian heritage. The leaders of both groups tend to be either "traditional" types who have risen through the customary hierarchy or those who have joined a national political party.
Whether "traditional" or not, the Indian leaders invariably wished to be interviewed in the company of their friends, providing Mrs. Corperio with a concensus of several views rather than an individual reply to her questions. The questionnaire that she prepared was soon dropped when found not to apply to local circumstances. Respondents were very self-conscious of their being "Indian" and the need for finding ways to remove this defensiveness became a distinct methodological problem. Beginning an interview by inquiring about "economic conditions" usually sparked easy conversation, as did attempts to portray the interview as a "competition" to see if the leaders of one village were as "Iwell informed" as those of a neighboring village. With religious subjects, it was sometimes useful to begin and end an interview with readings from the Bible. Along with avoiding overtly political questions, Mrs. Corpeno sought to avoid all "threateningsounding" queries. Even the length of the interview was important since the Indians, speaking Spanish as a second language, would tire after forty-five minutes.. In all cases, she was careful to free herself from association with any group or person before it appeared that she favored them.
In the survey of Indian leaders, Mrs. Corpe~o found that all placed their group before the party; they felt that they must represent the Indians first. In general, Mrs. Corpeno concluded that "there are not a lot of Indian leaders in Guatemala," and said that her greatest problem was getting enough case studies to make a generalization.
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Volume III, No. 2, October 28, 1966 Page 5
THE UNIVERSITY The University of FlErida has ftr mamy years maintained
AND an active Latin American program and within the last two
LATIN AMERICAN years has greatly expanded its efforts. The Institute
AGRICULTURE of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) has played a
very important role in this expansion. At present the JFAS has formal programs in Costa. Rica, Guatemalas, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and Jamaica. The work in Costa Ric6 Vas recently the subject of a book entitled Fertile Lands for Friendship, edited by Daniel E. Alleger, Associate Agricultural Economist at the University of Florida, who served in Costa Rica from 1956 to 1960.
Dr. Hugh Popenoe, Director of International Programs in Agriculture, attributed the rapid growth of such activities to-the uniqueness of the State of Florida. "Florida," he said, "is gifted with a subtropical climate similar to many Latin American countries which are geographically close. Florida also has the fastest rate of agricultural growth in the United States, approximately ten times the average of all the other states for the past decade.- Since agriculture is Florida's largest income-earner) this experience is most useful to those nations which are trying to build their economies on an agrarian base."
The technical assistance programs themselves are as varied as the countries involved. In Costa Rica the University concentrates on improvement in the production of food crops, more effective planning in agriculture at the national level, and several regional agricultural development projects.
A recent $160,000 contract was signed by the University with the Batelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio, for a bio-environmental study of the proposed new sea-level canal in Panama. Studies will also be made in Colombia on a possible alternate route. Specifically, the University will make a detailed study of the agricultural system and the food chains to determine where radionuclides might accumulate in the food chains if nuclear devices are used for excavation of the proposed canal route.
Jamaica is the site of a program to improve agricultural engineering as well as develop vegetable crop production and the dairy industry.
Now in its sixth year in Guatemala, another extensive project deals with the development of agriculture in the humid tropics. A 5,000 acre tract of land on the Atlantic coast has been made available for the project. Research has been of an inter-disciplinary nature, which, besides agriculture and ecology, includes anthropology, palynology, history and public health. This research should provide a basic understanding of the factors which limit the development of agriculture in the humid tropics. The IFAS also has a grant from the Creole Foundation to sponsor activities which further the development of Venezuelan agriculture or improve the training of Venezuelan students.
Certainly of no lesser importance are the programs conducted by the Department of Agriculture in the State of Florida itself. Many of its experiment stations, especially those in the southern part of the state are working almost exclusively on tropical crops and management practices. On campus, the Department of Agricultural Economics has presented daring the past half-year a series of seminars on the economic development of agriculture conducted by outstanding visitors in the tropics. The proceedings of these seminars will be published in a book edited by Dr. W. W. McPherson.
One result of the IFAS' activities is that about one-fourth of the students enrolled in agriculture at Gainesville come from tropical countries desirous of learning from Florida's experience techniques they may apply to their own countries. And the number of foreign students is increasing.
A pleasant by-product of all this activity was pointed out by Dr. Popenoe: "In Central America alone twenty-two graduates of the University of Florida are now faculty members of their respective universities and schools. Also, one Ministry of Agriculture, two colleges of agriculture, and three vocational schools of agriculture are now headed by former Florida students and faculty. These alumni provide a firm bridge of friendship and mutual understanding between our countries."
Volume III, No. 2, October 28, 1966 Page 6
BRAZILIAN-PORTUGUESE The first meeting of the year of the Brazilian-PortuCLUB MEETS guese Club was held in the home of Dr. John V. D.
Saunders, Associate Professor of Sociology, and was attended by some sixty,students, faculty, staff and guests. Parke Renshaw, graduate student in Sociology, was elected President, and Emily G. Reitz, graduate student in Political Science, was elected Secretary-Treasurer. The outgoing president, Wayne Selcher, a Ph.D. candidate in Political Science) conducted the meeting, and the faculty sponsor, Dr. Alfred Hower, Professor of Portuguese, introduced the new members of the-. faculty: Dr. Richard Preto-Rodas, Assistant Professor of Portuguese, and Professor Antonio 01iviera-Marques, Visiting Associate Professor of History. The purpose of the Club :is -.to complement Brazilian and Portuguese studies on the campus th~u~gh varied programs of general interest. It is hoped that this will enable members to further their understanding and appreciation of Brazilian and Portuguese life and culture.as well as their competence in the Portuguese language. The Club is open to all speakers of Portuguese; meetings are held monthly.
FACULTY NEWS flr.E. T. York, Jr., Provost of the Institute of Food
- and Agricltural Sciences, recently announced the appointment of Dr. Hugh Popenoe as Director of the newly-established Office of International Programs in Agriculture. Activities of this office include: the administration of the Center for Tropical Agriculture, contracts and grants, foreign student activities, participant training and foreign visitors.
Dr. York visited British Honduras during the period May 3-29 as a member of a tripartite team including participants from Canada and England. The group was assigned to study the future development of the colony after independence from Great Britain is achieved.
A symposium on tropical nematology was held at the American.Phytopathological Meeting in Deytone Beach, Florida on August 23-26. The papers are being edited by Drs.:V. G. Perry and G. C. Smart, Jr., of the University of Florida and will be published by the Center for Tropical Agriculture in a book entitled Tropical Nematology.
SCHEDULE OF EVENTS
The next meeting of the Latin American Colloquium will be field on November 9, at 8:00 p.m., Room 215, Florida Union. The guest speaker will be Dr. Martin C. Needler, Director, Division of Inter-American Affairs, University of New Mexico. Dr. Needlerts topic will be: "Race, Structure and Politics."