,ewer for Latin University
oerican Studies ofFlorida
The University of Florida 'LA TINAMERICANIST is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of every month. Items for publication should be submitted to the editor, R. J. Toner, 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday preceding the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves the right to select and edit all material. Colleges or other institutions interested in Latin American Studies which desire to be placed on the mailing list may apply by calling university extension 2224, or write: The Center for Latin American Studies, 450 Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
Volume II, No. 1T June 3, 1966
NOTE: The LATINANERICANIST regrets that due to the unusually large number of requests from private individuals to be placed on the mailing list, only those requests submitted by universities or other institutions with an interest in the field of Latin American Studies can be honored. All those presently on the mailing list will continue to receive the LATINANERICANIST each month.
TABLE OF CQM=15 LATINAMERICANIST
Feature Article 1 This month's research feature is written by R. Don
Current Research 1 Crider, who is currently enrolled in the doctoral proNews 5 gram in the Department of Sociology at the University
Faculty 6 of Florida. He received his B.A. from Kent State UniVisitors 6 versity in Ohio and his M.A. in Latin American Studies
Calendar Reverse side from the University of Florida. He spent 1963-64 as
a Pan American grantee in Brazil, conducting research
for his master's thesis, "The Brazilian Revolution of 196," from which the following article is an excerpt. Mr. Crider is 29, married and the father of two children.
THE POWER CONTENDERS by R. Don Crider
IN THE BRAZILIAN
REVOL ION OF 196 The Brazilian Revolution of 1964 has had profound
implications in the relations between the nations of
the Western Hemisphere. The ripples from this occurrence have had, of course, even greater ramifications within Brazil. And yet the movement which brought Gen. Castelo Branco into power has thus far denied definition. It has some of the characteristics of a cuartelazo., a coup d'4tat and a social revolution all rolled into one. Despite the difficulty with nomenclature, however, when observed from the point of view of power relationships, the movement does fall into a characteristic pattern. Charles Anderson has developed a framework which facilitates the analysis of power relationships and which, with hindsight at least, appears to be eminently appropriate for our purposes.1
Volume II, No. 17, June 3, 1966 Page 2
First of all, his thesis states, there are a certain number of power contenders on the scene, all grappling for power or a share of it. Second, new members are admitted to the system if and when they fulfill two requirements in the eyes of the existing power structure (which, in turn, is composed of power contenders who have already fulfilled these two conditions): (1) the new contenders must demonstrate a "power capability"2 sufficient to pose a threat to existing contenders; and (2) they must be perceived by other contenders as willing to abide by "the rules of the game," to permit existing power contenders to continue to exist and operate in the political system.
Tn Latin America, furthermore, there are basically three ways of ratifying power relationships: (1) election, (2) revolution, and (3) coup d'6tat.
The election is a way of "demonstrating" power capability; it measures and confirms it, and is part of the political process, but it does not assume the finality, the legitimacy, the symbolism, even the sacredness that it does in our and other societies here and in Western Europe. An election, in Latin American generally, and in Brazil specifically, is only tentative, pending the outcome of negotiations with other power contenders.3
TDe second manner of demonstrating power capability is via revolution. This would normally occu' when some group or groups of power contenders have been eliminated from political participation. Their elimination is a result of their refusing to abide by the rule and to accept the conditions for entry. They, furthermore, refused to abi2.e by the rules for they (the revolutionary forces) were demanding change greater than that which could be provided by the traditional system. In other words, they demanded the elimination of some of the traditional power contenders, for example, the Church, military, or landowning class, and thus, they violated the conditionsfor entry into the political system.
Change is accounted for in the classic system of Latin American politics, but at a pace that is too slow for some of the newer power contenders. For some, revolution by eliminating some power contenders and power capabilities, promises to
change the pace of change, to make the Latin American political system more compatible with those of advanced Western .nations, which themselves eliminated certain archaic power capabilities through revolutionary techniques several centuries
The peculiar character, then, of non-revolutionary political change would be best exemplified in terms of a system which permits new power contenders to be added to the political structure, but is so designed that older political factors are not eliminated.
The final way of ratifying power relationships is the coup d16tat (usually a military take-over). When one or several elements among the established contenders prohibits the functioning of government because of obstructionism or other such tactic, and the system is threatened by the admission of a potentially "dangerous" power contender to the political arena, a military dictatorship, or simply military intervention into the normally civilian sphere, may be the most satisfactory remedy to preserve the system intact.5
Jogo Goulart was admitted to the inner circle of power contenders by the "demonstration" of political power: he had twice been elected to the vice-presidency. When, as a result of the Quadros resignation, he laid claim to the presidency (a claim which had the full backing of the Constitution), his wish was granted only in part; he was permitted to assume only a watered-down version of the presidency as it was constituted under parliamentarianism. Only by more demonstration -- strikes, r4ots, rallies and finally another election, the plebiscite of January, 1962 -- was he able to achieve full presidential power. He was able to do this only because a majority of the established contenders were willing to believe him when he said that he would abide by the rules.
Goulart had, however, as his political base, groups which are by definition anti-status quo, namely, organized labor. The latter, as a "modern" phenomenon, is a late arrival to the political scene. As it demands more of the political pie, some establishedd power contender is naturally going to receive less. The redistribution of the benefits of society is a slow and arduous task. Goulart, while personally belonging to the old established elite, the wealthy, privileged, landed aristocracy, he was chained to a political base which was constantly pressing for a little more of this and a little more of that. The more Jango pushed, in order to maintain his base, the more he alienated the other sectors of society, or power contenders, if you will. He continued to press for more indi-ridaal power and for more power for his base by means of more "demonstration" of his political capability: the symbolic use of manifestation, strikes, and even violence.
latinamericanist university of florida
Volume II, No. 17, June 3, 1966 Page 3
One of the normal responses of the other power contenders could have been, in the face of this considerable demonstration of Goulart's power, a tendency to ponciliate and bargain; but as we know, this was not the case.
1Charles W. Anderson, "Toward a Theory of Latin American Politics," (Occasional Paper Ifo. 2)., The Graduate Center for Latin American Studies, Vanderbilt University,-1963. The entire theoretical framework of this paper belongs to.Charles Anderson. The present' writer, however, must be held responsible for its adaptation to Brazil.
2Anderson defines this term as "the property of a group or individual that enables them to be influential in political affairs, in other words, a political resource." examples of this would be: semi-legitimate control of armed force; capacity to mobilize, organize and aggregate consent; capacity to create non-institutiona, violence, terror, or civic disruption; control of natural resources, or economic institutions; control of land and labor forces; control of bureaucracy, etc. Ibid., p. 7.
3Lest this explanation be overly simplistic, the reader is urged to consult in its enti ety the article by Anderson.
Ibid., p. 6.
5 id., passim.
TO BE CONTINUED: Due to the length of this article on the Brazilian Revolution and the LATINAMERICANIST's desire to continue, in this issue. the publication of current research being conducted at the University of Florida, the second half of the article will be continued in the next edition. Our thanks to R. Don Crider for approving the publishing of his article in this manner.
CURRENT LATIN AMERICAN This month's issue includes a continuation of the listRESEARCH AT UNIV. OF FLA. ing of titles of theses and dissertations and other
research currently in various stages of completion at the University of Florida. Anyone desiring more information on the topics listed in.this issue, or the previous issue., write directly to the individual conducting the research, in care of his department (i.e, History, Geography, etc.), University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. Do NOT write to the Center for Latin American Studies.
Subsequent issues will list data on research completed at the University of Florida in the field of Latin American Studies dating back to 1960, as well as additional current research topics as the titles and other information are received. Microfilm prints of completed theses and dissertations, to be published in future issues, are available directly from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The LATINAMERICANIST is indebted to John H. Williams, graduate assistant, and a doctoral degree candidate in the Department of History, who compiled the lists of research topics. In all cases the professors are listed first, followed by an alphabetical listing of graduate students by departments. Topics enclosed in quotation marks are actual or proposed titles, while those without quotation marks are approximate subject-titles. The symbols used in this listing are Ph.D., M.A., M.A.L.A.S. (Master.of. Arts, Latin American
Studies). Departmental rank is given for faculty members.
Kantor, H. (and Staff) Prof. "A Preliminary Bibliography on Latin American Political
Parties" (May, 1966)
Kantor, H. Professor Patterns of Politics and Political Systems in Latin
America (to be published by Rand-McNally, July, 1966) Austin, Kathleen B. MA Mexico's PRI: A Step Toward Democratization"
Baker, Christopher MALAS "Literacy as a Primary Determinant of Electoral Participation in Latin America"
Dee, Bleecker Ph.D. "The Emergence of New Sectors in Haitian Society,
Casey, William J. Ph.D. 'The Army and 'Civic Action' in El Salvador"
Dennison, Edward S. MA "Shifting Forces in BolivianPolitics: The Re-Emergence of Military Power Since the National Revolution" English, Burt H. Ph.D. "A Study of Costa Rica's National Liberation Party"
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Fennell, Lee C. Ph.D. "Intransigent Radical Movements in Argentina"
Flanders, Loretta MA "The APRA Party of Peru: The Evolution of a Reformist
Flashman, Irwin H. MA "The Political Idealogy of Romdn Betancourt"
Furlong, William L. Ph.D. "Local Governmentin Peru"
Graham, Lawrence Ph.D. Revision of doctoral dissertation on Brazilian CivilService for publication
Gregg, James Ph.D. "The Peralta Regime: Military Government in Guatemala, 1963-66"
Hopkins, Jack W. Ph.D. "The Government Executive in Modern Peru"
Kelly, Philip Ph.D. A Study of the Chilean Legislative System
Kim, 0 Dong MA "A Study of the Role of Political Parties, 1955-65 in.
Articulating the Needs of Various Groups in Panama" King, Helen C. Ph.D. "The Process of Political Integration of the Guate(now Mrs. Carpeo) malan Indians"
Landers, Clifford Ph.D. "The Uniao Democratica Nacional in the State of Guanabara: An Attitudinal Study of Party Membership" Ojeda, Jose Antonio MA "The Decline of the Partido RevolucionarioCuabano
(Autentico): An Analysis"
Pearson, Neale J. Ph.D. "Peasant Unions as a Pressure Group and Political
Influence in Brazil"
Article in Journal of International Affairs, Columbia University, to be published in June 1966. Also researching article on the Argentine Economy, 1940-60
Smith, Norman M. MALAS "The Role of the Armed Forces in Contemporary Mexican
Soulary, Jorge E. MALAS "Bat:'.i- and the Military"
Upson, Linus F., III MALAS "Extra-Constitutional Political Forms in Brazil"
Wagner, Eric A.. MA "Popular Participation in Mexican Political Life,
Wiarda, leda Siqueira Ph.D. "Ideology and Institultion in a Developing Nation: A
Case Study of Acci6n Democrdtica of Venezuela" Wilkerson, Loree Ph.D. "A Study of the Socio-Economic Characteristics of the
Senior Government Executives of Honduras" Worthington, Wayne MALAS "The Costa Rican Public Security Forces"
Macdonald, W. D. Professor "An Introduction to the Brazilian Legal System"
Bevensee, Fred MA "A Sociological Study of Selected Demographic Characteristics of Peru"
Clements, Harold Ph.D. "A Sociological Study of the Mechanization of Agriculture in Minas Gerais, Brazil"
Clifford, Roy A. Ph.D. "A Sociological Study of the Growth and Decline of
Mexican Population Centers"
Escalante, Carlos MA Non-MA Research... "A Comparative Analysis of Evaluation of Occupation in Two Colombian Cities; Popayan and Medellin"
Hamby, James E., Jr. MA Medical Facilities in Brazil, c. 1960
Hollingsworth, J.S. Ph.D. "A Study of the Functions of the Population Centers
in El Valle del Cauca"
Linden, Leonard L. Ph.D. "Analysis of Mortality in Latin America"
Mayer, John C. MA "Women Without Men: Sele6ted Attitudes of Some Cuban
Refugees"...also working on "The Size and Composition of the Brazilian Household"
Minnich, Herbert Ph.D. "A Sociological Study of the Mennonite Immigiant Communities in Parand, Brazil"
Sanchez, C. D. Ph.D. "Differential Fertility in Chile: A Demographid and
Sardo, Joseph PhD. "A Comparative Study of Rural Social Organization in
Sicily and El Valle del Cauca, Colombia.
S latinamericanist university of florida
Volume II, No. 17, June 3, 1966 Page 5
McAdams, Arm MALAS "The Novels of Carlos Fuentes"
Mulholland, James MALAS "Spanish Influences in the Poetry of Joio Cabral de
Spurlock, Judith Ph.D. "The Willin Be and Not to Be in the Fiction of' Unamuno"
Feaster, John G. MA "Farm Managerial Decision-Making of Shifting Cultivations"
Figueroa, Leopoldo MS "Feasibility Study for the Beef Cattle Industry in
Weiss, Joseph S. MS "Factors of Brazilian Cocoa Policy"
Widman, Carlos MS "The Rubber Industry in Guatemala"
Willingham, Wayne MA "Marketing of Staple Foods in Port-au-Prince, Haiti"
Bullen, Ripley P. Professor Research on Archaeological Investigations on Barbados,
Combe, Emile MALAS "Evaluation of a Peace Corps Program in Colombia
Kramer, Evelyn MA Aspects of Mexican Folk-Medicine
Long, George MA "Archaeological Investigations at Panama Vieja"
Symes, Martha MA "Guendulain Oaxaca-A Study of Scale in a Mexican Mestizo Village" Currently working on Caribbean Zooarchaeology at the Florida State Museum, Gainesville
LISTING OF RESEARCH WILL BE CONTINUED in the next issue.
RECIPIENTS OF Thirty-two University of Florida students have been
NDEA TITLE*VI selected to receive NDEA.Title VI Graduate Fellowships
FELLOWSHIPS for the 1966-67 academic year. This announcement has
ARE ANNOUNCED just been made by the Director of the Latin American
Language and Area Program.
These National Defense Education Act Title VI Fellowships are granted to "provide support and encouragement to individuals for advanced training in languages designated as being of critical importance to the United States and in related fields of study," according to the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. University of Florida recipients of the fellowships will be engaged in the study of either Latin American Spanish or Portuguese within a related area of study such as History, Geography, Economics, etc.
NDEA Title VI Modern Foreign Language Fellows receive a stipend of $2,250 for the academic year, plus $450 for the summer term (if attended), or $2,700 for study through the academic year and summer. In addition, all tuition and other required fees are paid. Recipients are also granted an allowance of $600 for the academic year and $120 for the summer term for each dependent, up to a maximum of four dependents.
Those awarded the NDEA Fellowships at the University of Florida are listed by area of study. The symbols after their names indicate whether the fellowship is for the Academic Year (AY), Summer (S), or Fall (F), and whether their language study will be in Spanish
(SH), or Portuguese (PE). The LATINAMERICANIST extends its congratulations to the following students.
ANTHROPOLOGY Emile H. Combe, AY, PE.
ECONOMICS John W. Leppelmeier, S-AY, SH; Dennis J. Mahar, S-AY, PE. GEOGRAPHY Marjorie Ann Bingham, AY, PE; Joshua C. Dickinson, III, S-AY, PE; James B.
Gouger, AY, PE; Jerry R. Williams, AY, PE; Nancy Ann Willis, AY, PE.
HISTORY Marcia Brown, AY, SH; Orazio A. Ciccarelli, A-AY, SH; William de Arteaga, AY,
SH; Anna Mae Giese, AY, PE; Phyllis Gue, AY, SH; Michael T. Hamerly, S-AY, SH;
Volume II, No. 17, June 3, 1966 Page 6
Paul E. Hoffman, AY, SH, J. Edwin King, A-AY, SH; Kenneth F. Kiple, S-AY, PE; Henry
W. Kirsch, AY, PE; Allan J. Kuethe, S-F, SH; Jules J. Pugach, S-AY, SH; Donald Ramos,
AY, PE; Ron L. Seckinger, S-F, PE; John H. Williams, S-AY, SH; L. Sharon Wyatt, AY,
POI!TICAL SCIENCE Christopher E. Baker, AY, PE; Edward L. Dennison, AY, SH; Lee C. Fennell, S-AY, SH; Wayne A. Selcher, AY, PE; Edward L. Soper, AY, SH. SOCIOLOGY Fred Bevensee, S-AY, SH; James E. Hamby, S-AY, PE. SPANISH Bernardo Suirez, S-AY, SH.
Dr. Robert W. Bradbury, Professor of Economics, addressed the Orlando Export Managers Seminar May 17 on the special considerations involved in exporting to Latin America. May 20, he spoke on the general topic "Latin America" before the World Trade Conference at a meeting jointly sponsored by the Gainesville Chamber of Commerce and the Jacksonville Office of the U. S. Department of Commerce.
Dr. Bradbury and Dr. A. Curtis Wilgus. Professor of Latin American Studies, will attend a colloquium on Economic Integration of Latin America at Georgetown University, June 22-24. Dr. Wilgus.will also attend .a meeting of the Advisory Council of the Inter-American Defense College at Ft. Lesley McNair, Washington, D. C., June 27.
Dr. Ripley P. Bullen, Curator of the Florida State Museum, is presently in the Caribbean area. He and Mrs. Bullen are supervising new excavations for archaeological artifacts on Barbados and surrounding islands.
Five representatives from Brazil and Venezuela-will be guests of the University of Florida School of Agriculture June 13-24 as part of a 40-member A.I.D. and U. S. Department of Agriculture sponsored tour group. Their objective is the study of production, handling, and storage of fertilizer in the United States, as well as the specialized usage of fertilizers in the production of citrus and other fruit and vegetable crops.
The South American representatives are all experts in either production, sales, or economics for the various private industries by whom they are employed. While in Florida, the group will visit fertilizer plants, equipment stations, phosphate mines and a few farms in several agricultural communities.
SCHEDULE OF EVENTS, JUNE 3 JULY 2
Apply this month to participate in the Florida Union trip to Guatemala scheduled for August 15-22. Cost will be $255 per person. For further information, or to make reservations, call ext. 2741, or visit Room 315, Florida Union.