Center for Latin University
I erican Studies o/ Florida
The University of Florida Latinamericanist is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of every month. Items for publication should be submitted to the editor, Captain Raymond J. Toner, USN (Ret.), 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday preceding the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves the right to select and edit all material. Persons desiring to be placed 'on the mailing list should call univers*ytextension 2224, or write: The Center for Latin American Studies,' 450 Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
Volume II, No. 16 iay 6, 19.6
TABLE OF COTEN S LATINAMERICANIST
FEATURE ARTICLES 1 -6 This month's research feature is written by Stephen L.
Rozman, who, after completing his qualifying examinaFACULTY 7 tions in the near future, will become a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science, University VISITORS 8 of Florida. Mr. Rozman received his B.A. degree from
the University of Minnesota and his M.A. from the UniVARIA 8 versity of Florida. He spent the summer of 1963 in El
Salvador doing field work on his master's thesis and more recently in Peru on a study of the role of the military in Pera. Mr. Rozman is 25 years of age and married to the former Nancy Erwin. He will be in Colombia during the next year as part of
a program under a Rockefeller Grant, sponsored by the Center for Latin American Studies,
University of Florida, and Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
THE MILITARY ROLE by Stephen L. Rozman
IN PERUVIAN POLITICS
The military role in Peruvian politics may be divided into eight phases, each with definite importance for the country's political system.
Underlying this eight-part division, however, has been the seemingly continual military
veto role, whereby the army--and to a much lesser extent tife'havy and air force in recent
times--has exercised the function of deposing governments that have offended its subjective
institutional prerogatives and/or the prerogatives of socio-economic strata with whom significant sectors of the military have actively associated themselves.
The creation of the Peruvian military evolved from the independence war struggles. Similar
to the situation in many other Latin American republics, the military gained power through
default following the expulsion of the Spaniards, with military caudillos filling the
resulting power vacuum. However, the institutionalization of the military took many years
to achieve, which explains the personalistic ventures by independence heroes in quest of
governmental power as a just reward for their exploits. So politicized was Peru's fledgling army that one can cnly speak of it in terms of loosely knit factions.
Sim6n Bolivar's entry into the Peruvian political scene and assumption of the presidency
in 1823 temporarily suspended active factionalism. However, his legitimacy as the succesCenter for
Volume II, No. 16, May 6, 1966 Page
sor to the Spanish crown was successfully challenged in 1826, when the proclamation of his lifetime presidency was incompatible with the undying ambitions of other independence warriors. One portentous legacy of Bollvar's short reign was his policy of making as many colonels and generals in Peru as combats and battles that he and his lieutenants had won during the entire campaign for independence. The newly gained superior rank was in many cases accompanied by a desire for still further glory.
Hence, a rapid succession of military presidents followed Bollvar's demission. So chaotic was the situation that seven different generals served as self-proclaimed presidents at the same time in 1832. A further manifestation of the bitter, often bloody, personalistic factionalism was revealed when General Orbegoso, who had recently been deposed from the presidency, became a party to General Santa Cruz's plan to join Bolivia--which the latter was presently ruling--and Peru in a confederation. Orbegoso, in return, was to become one of Santa Cruz's chief lieutenants in rulingthe confederation. Chilean intervention made the effort abortive.
The year 1841 marks the beginning of the second phase of the military's political involvement. The violent death of Marshal Gamarra in a fUtile attack upon Bolivia ended the rule by independence heroes. Henceforth, the implicit justification of continual military rule, as a reward for liberation could no longer prevail. Nonetheless, a civilian reaction was slow to follow, since the potentially powerful rural elite, which was too preoccupied with economic matters, lacked political organization; and the apparent defense of its interests by the military presidents did not motivate such organization.
A challenge to factionalism was offered by General Ram6n Castilla, who assumed the presidency in 1844 and attempted to unify both the army and the country behind his government. He succeeded for eighteen years, but, as one observer comments, "The long period of relative tranquility was discouraging to ambitious local political leaders," and factional strife greeted his departure from office.1 A brief flurry of renewed Spanish imperialism contributed to instability.
The advent of Peru's first civilian president in 1872 ushers in the third phase. Initially, the military was seriously divided, and the fear prevailed that Manuel Pardo would not be permitted to assume power, following an electoral victory over the government's military choice. When the incumbent acceded to legality, an opposition faction assassinated him and took over the reigns of government. This prompted "a wave of indignation ...among the people of Lima and Callao," who arose and killed the military insurrectors, burning their bodies in front of the Cathedral.2 The military was taught a lesson it would never forget. Never again would it proclaim an exclusive right to rule. The policy of ambitious military officers now became one of aligning themselves with the'newly created civilian parties, including the one which sponsored Pardo's triumph, and some gained the presidency by this means. Worthy of comment is the fact that the civilian political gains were the work of the growing bourgeoisie, who, unlike the landed elite, were unsuccessful in having their claims and demands satisfied by the ruling military officers. However, their involvement stimulated similar activity in the political system on the part of their rural counterparts. No president subsequent to 1872 has ignored the interests of either of these two sectors with impunity.
The War of the Pacific and Peru's defeat brought on the fourth phase of the military's role. In the words of one student of Peruvian militarism, "The Peruvian army, for fifty years involved in extramilitary functions, too politicized and hardly militarized, was incapable of defeating a truly military army.-" 3 Anti-militarism was rampant in the wake of the war, and the Partido Dem6crata, headed by the liberal NiciAas de Pidrola, was founded on the platform of removing the military from politics The;military reacted by creating a cult of personality to glorify the heroeds of the war loss with the aim of repairing their tarnished institution. As part of this campaign, the military itself created a political party, the Partido Constitucional, led by General Andrvs Avelino Cceres.' Since C6ceres also received the support of the increasingly conservative Partido Civil, the Partido Dem6crata remained his lone organized opponent, insufficient,'to prevent his advance to the presidency and rule until 1895.
Peru's second and last mass insurrection--all further suppla1ment~ of governments ere carried out by the military--reminiscent of the 1872 effort, ended the fourth military phase, and once again the military learnd~A- lesson. Never again was it to engage in a militarism so blatant that a military political party existed. Furthermore, when future military presidents manifested desires to practice continuismo, as C6ceres did, the military as an institution acted to prevent this. Proof ofa .new military policy is revealed by the fact that four civilian presidents monopolized the presidency between 1895 and 1914. However, the Dem6cratas, whose leader served as president for four of those years, became conservative once in office.
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SVolume II, No. 16, -May 6, 1966 Pge I
An important development apparently occurred during that twenty-year span, While the mili. tary was attempting to lessen its militarism, the vacuum left by army officer wa filled by civilian politicians. Furthermore, the latter, to gain their goals sometimes encourv aged intervention on their behalf by sectors of the military, a policy which resulted in a recrudescence of both militarism and military factionalism. This led to the sixth phase of the military's political role. In 1900 a new political pemty, the Partido Liberal, was Created, and similar to the Partido Civil and Partido Dem6crata, began as a reformist party. However, itremained reformist once it achieved power under Guillermo Billinghurst in 1912. This prompted an unprecedented union of the rival rural andurban elites against thegovernment and pressure by these forces upon the military to depose Billinghurst a policy which bore fruit in 1914. This coup, according to one observer, represented "a new type of militarism, no longer that in direct benefit of the uniformed caudillos backed by the oligarchy, rather inversely, in benefit of the ruling class whom the armed forces back
.... Beginning with this coup, military supplantment of 199$rnments has also been impelled by decreases in the military's percentage of the budget.
The seventh phase of the military role is partially related to the sixth in that it reflects the military's association with the rural-urban elite. It begins as a reaction to the creation and growth of the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA) Party, and continues alongside of the more recent eighth phase. However, its character has apparently changed, moving from an opposition to APRA on mainly socio-economicigrounds to one on principally institutional grounds due to sometimes bloody clashes between Apristas and the military on the one hand, and to APRA's abandonment of radicalism on the other. The military apparently refuses to allow APRA's leader, Haya de la Torre, to become president, as witnessed by its 1962 coup to annul elections on the excuse they were fraudulent.
The eighth phase is a concerted effort by all three branches of the military to improve their public image by a withdrawal from militarism and the adoption of a principal role in Peru's national development program. The 1962 coup, contrary to its predecessors, didnot lead to the imposition.of a military-favored rule--in all cases but that of Legula ,(in 1919) a military officer. It was the first purely institutional--totally non-factional-coup, and the military's new policy was revealed when the head of the resulting junta was deposed by his fellow officers when he gave indications that his goal was to follow the tradition of using hisjunta role as a stepping-stone to the presidency.
Although the. military's role in national development, or cit~o action, is too recent for full analysis, it seems to reflect more than the genuine desire of the military to improve its public image. It is also a reaction to the new phenomenon of organized guerrilla warfare on the part of communist-oriented elements. Initially, sectors of the military feared that counter-insurgency measures were incompatible with the enhancement of their public image because they could be looked upon as a continuation of earlier episodes of military action against civilians. However, the socialization process emanating from the highly influentiql United States military mission in Pefd and the advanced military training schools in the United States and Panama which Peruvian officers attend, together with the extensive United States financial aid to both civic action and counter-insurgency) have helped change this outlook. Hence, it would not be erroneous to list the U. S. military as an interest group which has a possible influence upon the Peruvian military and might be taken into consideration along with major Peruvian interest groups in explaining recent policies of the Peruvian military.
Conclusion. How, then, has the political role of the military changed during the 1 5 years since independence? Seven developments seem to stand out: (1) internal conflicts within the army have continually lessened as caudillistic ambitions subsided, a situation with which the navy and more recently created air force did not have to contend due to the fact that they continually played relatively minor political roles which did not stimulate caudillismo; (2) coups based mainly on personalism gradually gave why to coups based on.an apparent-combination of institutional and economic factors, with institutional factors growing relatively more important in recent years--which is not to say that economic factors no longer have the potential that institutional factors have in stimulating the military to political action, because the military is apparently still'predominantly conservative and would probably come to the defense of the landed and urban elites if their interests were seriously threatened; (3) the nature of institutional factors which have promoted coups has apparently changed, with the former factors of military right to rule and political action as a defensive measure due to unfavorable wartide'situations or outcomes being replaced by budgetary factors, factors concerning the military image am6ng civilians,
Volume II, No, 16, May 6, 1966 Page 4
and the institutional relationship with APRA; (4) the military attitude toward civilian governments has apparently undergone a two-stage transition, the first occurring in 1872, when the right of a civilian to occupy the presidency was first acknowledged, and the second apparently within the last decade, when the military appeared to denounce all claim to the right to occupy the presidency periodically in a non-caretaker role; (5) the phenomenon of Aprismo has had seemingly adverse effect on the course 'of miliiarism, the hypothesis of the author being that military intervention in the political process. would have declined by now were it not for the presence of APRA as a strong political,' force which the military still apparently refuses to accept in the presidential office.
(6) the navy and air force have assumed greater political roles relative to the army as evidenced by' the 1962 coup, in which the three services carried out a concerted effort and wke kall represented on a su.p sedly equal basis in the ensuing junta; (T) the armed forces havy egun to play an extensive role in the national deVe1dopment of the country, one which is politically relevant because it indicates an effort'o the part of the military to work more extensively with a civilian government than it has previously dbne, :and, secondly, is related to the effort of the armed forces to improve-their ima ge.
F o o t n o t e s ....
1Donald E. Worcester and Wendell G. Schaeffer, The Growth and Culture of Latin America (New York: 1956), 609-610.
2Luis Humberto Delgado, El Militarismo en el Perd (Lima: 1930), 13-14.
3Victor Villanueva, El Militarismo en el Perd (Lima: 1962), 29.
CURRENT LATIN ANERICAN With this issue, the LATINAMERICANIST will begin pubRESEARCH AT -UNIV. OF FLA. lishing titles of theses and dissertations, together with the names of authors .conducting research at the University of Florida relative to the .field of Latin American Studies. In subsequent issues, additional titles of research in progress will be published as well as' data on research c omleted at the University of Florida in this field dating back to 1960.
Anyone wishing microfilm prints of completed theses or dissertations should write directly to: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. -If film is not available from that, organization, address requests for prints to: Inter-library Loan Librarian, 1Min Library University of Florda, Gainesville, Florida, 32601. Correspondence should NOT be addressed to the Center for Latin American Studies.
The following lists faculty and graduate students presently doing research according to their' departments, the:professors first and the graduate students.alphabetically. Topics enclosed inquotation marks represent actual or proposed titles while those that lack quotation marks are approximate subject-titles. The symbols used are Ph.D., M.A., M.A.L.A.S. (Master of 'Arts, Latin American Studies; an interdisciplinary degree with emphasis correspond g' to the department under which it is listed). For faculty members, their departmental raik is given.
Bradbury, R, W. Professor : The Central American Common Market (Prof. Bradbury is to
visit all the countries concerned this summer). Goffman, I..J. Assoc. Prof. A Study of Latin American Public Expenditures
Koefoi, P. E. Professor Fundamental Aspects of Economic Development In Latin
Dukes, J. E. Ph.D. "Monetary and Fiscal Policies of Brazil, 1953-61
Fogdall, J. S. M.A. "Capital Formation in the Central American Common
Lacascia, J. Ph.D. "Capital Formation in Mexico, 1958-64"
Leppelmeier, J. W. Ph.D. "Contribution of the Public Sector of Mexico to its
Lincoln, B. M. MALAS he Possibilities for the Economic Integration of
:aiti and the Dominican Republic"
Mctherson, L. Ph.D. economicc -Development of the Cauca Valley, Colombia"
Roy er, D). K. Ph.D. The Economic Development of El Salvador, 1945-65"
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Volume II, No. 16, May 6, 1966 Page 5
Simpson, G. L. Ph.D. "Economic Development and Social Change in the Isands
of St. Kitts-St. Nevis, British West Indies, 1940-60"
Crist, R. E. Professor A Geography of Venezuela (with Mr. Leahy), Van Nostrand
Searchlight Series, Publication date January 1967 Finishing an article for publication on the Latin American. way of life.
Researching a book-length study on migration from the Andes to the hot, tropical lowlands of Venezuela and Bolivia.
Hegen, E. E. Asst.Prof. The Putumayo River, estimated publication date Decem. .ber 1966.
Latin American-Studies Monograph No. 2, "Highways into Dicinsn.J C.the Upper Amazon',
Dickinson, J. C.,III Ph.D. "Distribution and Utilization of the Genus Eucalyptus in Peru and Southern Brazil"
Found, W. C. Ph.D. Y'A Study of Land-Use in Selected Land Settlements in
Jessen, E. Ph.D. "The Riverine Settler in the Middle and Lower Putuma o
Leahy, E. P. Ph.D. "The Port of Manzaiillo, Mexico"
Nissly, C. M. Ph.D. "Acre: An AmazonianFrontier of Brazil"
Schaeper, H, Ph.D. "Socio-Economic Elements in the .Utilization of Wind and
Radiant Solar Energy in the Caribbean" Stevens, R. P. M.A. "Internal Migration in Mexico, 1950-60"
Weaver, D. C. M.A, "The Effect of Hurricane Incidence on Man and Land in
the Caribbean: a Case Study"
Wesche, R J, Ph.D, "The Settler Wedge of the Upper Putumayo River"
Williams, J. R. M.A. "Teteral: A Study of A Subsistence Agricultural Village
in Southwestern Panama"
Gouger, J. M.A. "Land Use and Land Tenure in the Stamen Creek River
Valley of .British Honduras"
Smith, V M.A4. "Human Ecology of the La Palma Region Pana '
Willis, N. M.A. "Land Use in the Belize River Valley in British Honduras"
McAlister, L.N. Professor Comparative Studies of the Political Role of the Military in Latin America
Bushnell, D. Assoac.Prof. "U. S.-Colombian Relations Since 1930"
I .. ",Colombian National Election Returns, 1825-1966" Berntsen, R. MALAS "The Ecclesiastical Fueros of New Spain"
Brown, M. M.A. The-Fate of the Indian Nobility after the Conquest of
Burset, V. M.A. "A History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Puerto
Rico, 1867-1965"'.Campbell, L. G.,Jr. Ph.D. "The Reorganization of the Army of Peru Between 1'760 and
Chandler, B. J. Ph.D. "Continuity and Change in the Central Sentano of Cedr6,
Ciccarelli, O. A. Ph.D. "The Role of the Aristocracy in Peruvian Politics from
Late 19th to Early 20th Century"
Crider, R. D. MALAS "The Brazilian Revolution, 1964"
Fleener, C. Ph.D. Economic effects of the Expulsion of the Jesuits from
Fraser,D MALAS "The Agrarian Policy of Diaz, 1883-1910"
Gioia, ?.. M.A. "A Study of Sor Juana In6s de la Cruz. Social Deviant in
17th Century New Spain"
Volume II, No. 16, May 6, 1966 Page 6
Gue, P. M.A. Institutional Study of the Church in New Spain: a Case
Hamerly, M. T. Ph.D. "Movements for Independence in the Presidency of Quito,
Harfst, R. MALAS Colombian Politics in the 1940's (Gaitan's rise and
Harris, W. L. Ph.D. Certain Aspects of the Early Petroleum Industry in
Venezuela, c. 11880-1920
Hodges, G. G. M.A. "The Historiography of Rafael NUez"
Hoffman, P. E. Ph.D. "The Defense of the Indies, 1535-45, a Decade of
King, J. E. Ph.D. "The Chilean Aristocracy, 1817-50"
Kiple, K. F. Ph.D. "The Cuban Contraband Slave Trade, c. 1800-1850"
Kuethe, A. J. Ph.D. The Military Reorganization of the Colonial Army of New
Maingot, A. P. Ph.D. "The Colombian Army: a Social-Political History"
Olliff, D. C. Ph.D. "The Economic Aspects of United States-Mexican Relations
During the Reform Era, 1854-76"
Pugach, J. J. Ph.D. The Colonization Policy of Bernardo O'Higgins; Case
Study of a Project
Seckinger, R. L. Ph.D. "Municipal Government and Political Power in Cuiab4,
1790-1830: a Study of Colonial and Imperial Administration on the Brazilian Frontier"
Sims, H. B. Ph.D. Expulsion of the Peninsulares from New Spain in the
Taber, J. M. M.A. "The Taming of the Encomenderos of New Spain"
Todd, M. M.A. Mexican Natibnalism and Social Character in the late
Vasquez, M -. : :M.A., The Cro er Mission in Cuba
Williams, J. H. Ph.D. "A Political Biography ofJosd Gaspar Rodriguez de
rancia, Paraguay's El Supremo, 1810-40
Listing of research Will be continued in the next edition of the LATINAMERICANIST. This will include the Departments of Political Science, Sociology, Spanish, Agricultural Economics, Anthropology and Botany plus additional titles as they are received.
X X" ..... ..L
COLLEGE OF NURSING RECEIVES A $15,000 Rockefeller Foundation grant has just
$15,000 ROCKEFELLER GRANT been received by the University of Florida's ColFOR MEDICAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM lege of Nursing for the establishment *of 'an :
exchange program between the medical center here and the Universidad del Valle Medical Center in Cali, Colombia.
Lucille Mercadante, Assistant Dean of the College of Nursing and Director of Nursing Services in the Shands Teachin. Hospital- will coordinate the program.
Cali Hospital Assistant Director Gustavo Tortes and Nursing Services Director Zulema Plata
will spend 30 days on campus in June and July at the Shands Teaching Hospital studying the Hospital's nursing administrative process. After their return to Colombia, they will implement changes in the Cali hospital based on their observations here.
Three depiesentatives from the Cali Hospital's outpatient and public health departments will spend two months observing the outpatient program here next fal., Their professional counterparts at the Shands Teaching Hospital will return to Cali with the Colombian ealth' officials to help them implement changes they wish to make in the Cali Hospital's outpatient department.
Miss Mercadante said the program may continue beyond this year to include exchanges in all clinical areas of the two hospitals.
The grant fr this program is in addition to the recent Rockefeller Grant of $230,000 to the University of Florida for the establishment of a three-year program with the Universidad del Valle to begin this fall. This program will provide a group consisting of one University of Florida professor and three or four doctoral students each year who will assist in developing strengthened programs at Universidad del Valle in the fields of
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Volume II, No. 16, May 6, 1966 Page 7
sociology, political science and history. They will also conduct studies of urban development in the metropolotan areas of Cali.
Dr. George E. Combs, Associate Professor of Animal Nutrition, will spend May 15-21 in El Salvador conducting conferences and seminars for commercial swine producers, agricultural specialists and the staff and students at the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura.
Dr. E. T. York, Jr., Provost of the School of Agriculture, has been requested by the U. S. StateiDepartment -to. represent the United States in an economic survey of British Hondurasto'be conducted there this month. He will be a member of a tripartite team with representatives from Great Britai-aCanada.
The members of this team will be primarily concerned with analysis of local economic conditions and.grovth potentials of British Honduras and will be asked to suggest guidelines for the country's development during the next five years. This program is being sponsored jointly by all three participating nations.
Dr. Marvin Koger, Professor of Animal Genetics, has just returned from Maracay, Venezuela where he presented a paper on beef cattle breedingproblems at the first organizational meeting of the Latin American Society of Animal Science. Dr. Koger, who was in Venezuela from April 24-30 also visited some experiment stations in the country during his trip.
Dr. F. Blair Reeves, Associate Professor ofArchitecture, and Dr. Daniel P. Branch, Assistant Professor of Architecture, University of Florida, will continue this summer to conduct research on the plazas and historical buildings in Puerto Rico, These studies are sponsored jointly by the Department of Architecture and the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueio, and the University of Puerto Rico.
This summer from June 20 to August 3, the two professors will supervise twelve University of Florida architectural students in a project which will include the design of buildings in context with actual surroundings and seminars with outstanding Puerto Rican architects and planners. In preparation for this project the students have designed middle income housing, parking areas and commercial buildings for an existing site in San Juan, together with brief re-studies of four San Juan plazas. In addition Dr. Reeves, until August 29, will supervise the work of three student-assistant architects who will'document about twenty architecturally important buildings in the Municipality of San Juan under the sponsorship at the Historic American Buildings Survey with aid from the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueio.
Previous studies under the supervision of Dr. Reeves resulted in the documentation or inventory of significant historic and modern buildings on the north coast of Puerto Rico. Historic American Building Survey forms were completed for 66 buildings built prior to WW II. Originals of these forms were presented to the Library of Congress, with copies to the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueho, the Municipio de San Juan, and to the University of Florida Library. Similar information was compiled for 46 post-WW II buildings in the same area.
Another project was a re-study of the historic zone of Ponce for the Instituto de Cultura. This project resulted in an inventory of 75 buildings, each subject scrutinized from its exterior with evaluations determined by the visual quality and architectural merit. These reports have been used by the Instituto and the Puerto Rican Planning Commission. A third project was the supervision of a student design problem concerned with middle-low income housing for five towns in Puerto Rico. An article was also prepared on the architecture of San Juan for the Journal of the American Institute of Architecture, May, 1965.
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Six Ecuadorian students of Agronomy and Veterinary medicine will visit the University of Florida School of Agriculture May 8 11. These students began their month-long tour of the United States April 21 as participants in the Educational Exchange Program sponsored by the U. S. Department of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
While in the United States they will be especially concerned with the study of tropical agriculture, citrus cultivation, dairy production and beef and pork processing. The Center for Tropical Agriculture will host their three-day visit to Florida.
Gabriel Nuncio Malvetti-and Jose Diaz Bordenave of P raguay are presently in Florida to study methods of cattle production as part of a ,even-week U. S.tour sponsored by the Agency for International Development and the United States Department of Agriculture.
Their twelve-day visit to Florida was. planned to coincide with the University of Florida-'s Beef Cattle Short Course held May 5-7. The remainder of- their Florida stay will be devoted to visiting several cattle ranches throughot- the State in Clewiston' Fort Pierce, Cocoa and Bartow.
Malvetti, who is.an associate professor of Animal Science at the University of Asuncion, and Dfaz, a technical advisor for a Paraguayan cattle ranchidg concern, are participating in this program for the purpose of developing a practical herd register and performance testing program for purebred cattle in Paraguay. Before returning to Paraguay June 9, they will have visited Washington, D. C., Texas, New Mexico and Colorado in addition to their Florida stop.
Dr. William L. Pritchett', Soils Technician in the School of Agriculture, has urged that additional sources of support be sought for the foreign students now enrolled in the Center for Tropical Agriculture. Speaking during the April 22 meeting of the Tropical Soils Committee, Dr. Pritch tt explained'that the present Ford Grant funds under which the Center now operates specifically exclude subsidies to foreign students.
Five University of Florida students from Latin America assisted Florida Commissioner of Agriculture, Doyle Conner, by serving as interpreters and hosts during his reception held for Latin American visitors attending the Beef Cattle Short Course here May 4. Those helping were Dario Botero, Colombia; Peter Boza, Peru; Armando Villaroel, Venezuela; Victor Urrutia, Guatemala; and Jaime Blew, Argentina.
Mr. and Mrs. Cirus Hackenberg, University of Florida students from Brazil, were guests of honor along with other foreign students at a dinner held May 4 at the Holiday Inn by the Gainesville Fine Arts Association.