mecan Studies 01i~mri ai to Florida
Je'1er/oLa u i s
The University of Florida Latinamericanist is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of every month. Items for publication should be submitted to the editor, Captain Raymond J. Toner, USN (Ret.), 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday preceding the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves the right to select and edit all material. Persons desiring to be placed on the mailing list should call university extension 2224, or write: The Center for Latin American Studies, 450 Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
Volume II, No. 15 April 8, 1966
TABLE OF CONTENTS LATINANERICANIST
FEATURE ARTICLES 1 5 This month's research feature is written by Interim
Assistant Professor Thomas L. Page, Department of PROFESSORS 5 Political Science, University of Florida. Professor
Page received his B.A. from the University of WichVISITORS 6 ita, 1960, his M.A. from Vanderbilt University in
1963. He served two years with the U. S. Army, VARIA 6 1963-65, where he was promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
He is presently a doctoral candidate. In 1963 he CALENDAR Reverse Side did field research in Brazil. His dissertation
topic is: "Party Structure and Political Recruitment Patterns of candidates for the Federal Chamber of Deputies in the Election of 1962 in the State of Guanabara." Professor Page is 28 .years old and is married.
A PROGRAM FOR THE ESTABLISH- by Thomas L. Page
MENT OF A DATA FILE DEALING
WITH POLITICAL RECRUITMENT Almond and Coleman, in their book, The Politics of
IN BRAZIL the Developing Areas, outline a political system
model that is organized around the concepts of:
(1) political input functions, and (2) governmental output functions. Among the input functions conceptualized is that of "political recruitment." In conceptualizing political recruitment as one of the functions performed by all political systems, Almond has restated a problem that has been of major political significance since the inception of political science.
In a later publication Almond further specifies the relation of the political recruitment function to the character of political institutions and the configuration of governmental outputs--a relationship not clearly presented in the 1960 study.2 Refining his previous ideas, Almond draws our attention to the notion that: "we need to think of systems as functioning at different levels."13 Three levels of political function are suggested:
(1) system capabilities, (2) conversion functions, and (3) system maintenance and adaptation functions. System capabilities refers to the ability of the system to respond to demands generated in other systems of the environment. Conversion functions refer to the internal processes of the political system. System maintenance and adaptation functions are those functions that regulate the efficiency of the system vis h vis its capabilities and performance of conversion functions. A theory of political change then:
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. deals with those transactions between the political system and its environment that affect changes in general system performance, or capabilities that in
turn are associated with changes in the performance of the system adaptation
functions and the conversion functions.
Political recruitment and socialization are system maintenance and adaptation functions in Almond's conceptual scheme. In every political system people are recruited into political roles. They may be initially recruited from outside the political system or they may be recruited for any given political role from within the system. The performance of the political recruitment function is a political process in which various classes of political actors interact in the activity of naming men for, and placing them in office. Empirical investigation of this process would lead to an understanding of the structures that constitute the "real" party system of any given political system.
An American political scientist, Robert A. Packenham, has reviewed the status of political science research in Brazil. With reference to the problem of political recruitment, he concludes that: "for all practical purposes systematic studies of the social antecedents of national politicians do not exist . ."5 Research undertaken so far deals principally with the non-political occupations of state and local politicians. Such studies are few in number; little attention is given to the relation of empirical generalization to general political theory. Perhaps the difficulties encountered in survey research programs accounts in part for the lack of interest in political recruitment research.
As a step in the direction of describing the composition of political elites and the structures performing the political recruitment function in Brazil, I plan to start a data file organized by categories of elites with subject codes for each category. I see this work as a long term project that would ultimately provide the data base for generalizations concerning the representation of various social and economic types within Brazilian political elites. Many untapped sources of "hard" data exist. These data sources, while certainly not as useful as certain classes of survey data, could serve as: (1) the data base for the development of elite profiles, (2) identification of changes in elite composition through time, and, (3) provide some insight into the groups involved in the process of political recruitment.
The first step in this program is to specify the relevant elite categories. One might well begin with civil and military elites. Civilian elites could then be subclassified as political and nonpolitical. Civil-political elites might then be classified by position, level, and branch of government or party. This would be followed by developing a series of subject codes organized around the categories of: (1) social and economic background, (2) education, (3) place of birth, (4) age, (5) group memberships, (6) civil/military career (7) political career, (8) party and faction affiliation, and (9) political attitudes.
Data sources for this project include: (1) published biographies and autobiographies,
(2) biographical directories, (3) official documents, and newspapers. Biographies and autobiographies are perhaps the most valuable source of political recruitment data in Brazil. Works such as, Fui Secretdrio de Getdlio Vargas, by Luiz Vergara; JK: Uma Revisao na Polftica Brasileira, by Francisco de Assis Barbosa; Tempos de Janio e Outros Tempos, by Castilho Cabral, to mention only a few, can be coded by subject by the categories outlined above. There are many biographical directories available in Brazil. In a two volume work entitled, Brasil e Brasileiros de Hoje, are some T,000 subject entries giving biographical data for politicians, administrators, industrialists, military leaders, intellectuals, and others. The Enciclop6dia da Inddstria Brasileira, a five volume work, contains a number of biographical entries. Candidates for public office in Brazil must supply their age, place of birth, profession, and marital status when registering as a E:ndidate. Political parties must register the membership of their local, state, and national directorates, listing the same information. Candidate registration petitions and party directorate registrations are preserved in the files of the Regional Electoral Courts and at the Supreme Electoral Court in Brasilia. While in Brazil several years ago, I was allowed to examine candidate petitions at the Regional Electoral Court of Guanabara.
Once coded and run onto computer tapes, such data could be used to generate hypotheses concerning the representation of social and economic groups in the political system--an aspect of political recruitment that is usually treated in a very impressionistic fashion. By comparing the distribution of social and economic types within political elites by nonpolitical elites may be possible to predict the direction of future system change.
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Volume II, No. 15, April 8, 1966 Page 3
1Gabriel A. Almond, "Introduction: A Functional Approach to Comparative Politics," in Gabriel A. Almond and James S. Coleman (eds.) The Politics of the Developing Areas (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1960),.pp. 3-64.
Gabriel A. Almond, "A Developmental Approach to Political Systems," World Politics, XVII (January, 1965), pp. 183-214.
3Ibid., p. 189.
Ibid., p. 191.
5Robert A. Packenham, "A Pesquisa Polltica no Brasil: Ponto de Vista de um NorteAmericano," Revista de Direito Pdblico e Ciencia Politica, VIII (January-April, 1965), p. 1t.
For an example of the use of such data see: Henry Robert Glick, "Political Recruitment in Sarawak: A Case Study of Leadership in a New State," The Journal of Politics, XXVIII (February, 1966), pp. 81-99.
LATIN AMERICAN COLLOQUIUM TOPICS
LATIN AMERICAN MILITARY Dr. Irving L. Horowitz of the Department of SociolD:3CUSSED BY DR. HOROWITZ ogy at Washington University, St. Louis, addressed
the Latin American Colloquium on March 16, speaking on the general topic, "Military Sociology and Latin American Development."
During his very candid and outspoken presentation, Dr. Horowitz discussed portions of work being done by graduate students at Washington University who are under his guidance. His primary interest appeared to be centered around two studies related to Mexico. One suggests the resurgence of the military as a power factor in Mexican society. "Whether it is growing faster than any other sector of Mexican society is problematical," Dr. Horowitz stated.
One aspect of this development, he observed, was the growing influence of the Mexican military in the armed forces of Central America. This process has lead to occasional charges of Mexican "imperialism." While Dr. Horowitz deplores in general expansion of military influence in Latin America, he views Mexican developments as having one positive aspect; that is, the employment of universal military training to combat illiteracy, a problem no Mexican government has been able to solve. "No one leaves the army," he stated, "not knowing how to read and write."
The second study advances the hypothesis that the Mexican Revolution did not begin in 1910 as commonly accepted. The battles that were fought between 1910 and 1913 were only additional forms of the banditry common to that period in Mexico, and the actual revolutionary fighting did not begin until 1913. While Dr. Horowitz was reluctant to say whether or not he agreed with the study, he did comment that it was highly original and thought provoking.
.br. Horowitz also commented extensively on contemporary Brazilian affairs with particular emphasis on the political role of the military.
A colorful and outspoken man, Dr. Horowitz added many of his own ideas and comments regarding the present conduct of graduate study in American universities. He said, for example, that the Ph.D. degree should be awarded to candidates at the time of enrollaient and should be withdrawn only upon failure to complete the necessary requirements. This, Dr. Horowitz said, would help relieve some of the anxiety among graduate students.
He also cuGgested that it would be helpful to strip the formal curriculum for graduatestudents down to the bare essentials, leaving the student more time to work on his dis-
Volume II, No. 15, April 8, 1966
sertation. To illustrate this point, he said that he did not believe in language requirements for graduate students. "If a student needs Portuguese to do his research, he will learn it. He has no choice," Dr. Horowitz said.
He remarked that in the study of the Latin American military, sociologists are fifty years behind the novelists and thirty years behind the historians and suggested that his colleagues catch up.
HISTORY PROFESSOR OUTLINES The rise of liberalism in Latin America during the
RISE OF LIBERALISM WITHIN 19th Century was the topic of discussion during the
19TH CENTURY LATIN AMERICA final Latin American Colloquium for the winter trimester, held March 30 in the Florida Union. Dr. David Bushnell, University of Florida Associate Professor of History, led the discussion.
Dr. Bushnell, who devised a means of rating numerically the rise of liberalism in Latin American countries, said he received the idea from a seminar he taught two years ago. They had been discussing the rating of contemporary trends done by Dr. Russell Fitzgibbon and, said Dr. Bushnell, "I thought it might be interesting to check countries during the 19th Century by similar standards."
Studying the period 1825-1900, Dr. Bushnell assigned each country a certain number of points for taking particular liberal actions such as abolishing the tobacco monopolies, abolishing slavery, expelling the Jesuits, lowering the protective tariffs, and so on. Each action taken, or law passed, earned that country the appropriate number of points.
For this rough outline study, which was all DN. Bushnell would admit it as being for the present, only seven countries were included. The countries, and the order in which they ranked in liberalism in 1900, were: Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru.
To illustrate his. method of rating the countries, Dr. Bushnell chose Uruguay as his example because of the very good scores it had received in the Fitzgibbon tests, and also because its curve on the graph showed a gradual, but constant, rise with no wild fluctuations such as those which occurred in the graphs of some of the other countries. Uruguay's liberal record,.he explained, dated back to the time before the winning of its independence when it had already eliminated the tobacco monopolies, prohibited slave trade and established the principle of free birth. Such early liberal moves earned Uruguay a high score on the chart from the very beginning.
Other measures which raised Uruguay's LQ (Liberalism Quotient) during the 19th Century were the repeal of the colonial anti-usury laws, the standardization and secularization of the compulsory education system in 1877 and the establishment of laws requiring civil registration of marriages, births and deaths, ending church control in these areas. In short, according to Dr. Bushnell, Uruguay adopted nearly all the 19th Century reforms, although its best record was in economic rather than social or political matters.
He also contrasted the gradual curves of Uruguay and Venezuela with the wild fluctuations of the curves of Mexico and Colombia, whose liberal measures outstripped all the other countries in the 1870's but plunged sharply downward by 1900 when most of the ultraliberal legislation had been repealed by the new governments that had come to power.
Interesting to note is the fact that by 1900 all seven countries were within twenty points of each other on the arbitrary 100 point scale, although the spread between the curves at some points during the years studied was nearly fifty points.
Dr. Bushnell acknowledged the fact that if he were to go ahead and refine this study, the main problem facing him would be determining a fair and objective means of rating the countries according to their liberal activities. For example, the problem was raised as to whether the abolishment of the tobacco monopolies in countries having large tobacco industries and those having very small tobacco holdings should result in the sane number of liberalism points for each. And if not, how should the number of points given to each be decided fairly?
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Volume II, No. 15, April 8, 1966 Page 5
In addition, factors such as liberal laws which were recorded but not enforced have made tabulation difficult. Giving points to countries-merely because.certain laws were on their books would result in unrealistic ratings.
During the question and answer period it was suggested that some other means of presenting the liberalism quotient data might be better. Simple Yes-No check lists or ratings on a three point, high-medium-low, scale were offered as substitute possibilities.
U OF F FACULTY, STUDENTS The Thirteenth Annual Conference of the SoutheastATTEND SECOLAS CONFERENCE ern Conference on Latin American Studies (SECOLAS)
was held March 18 and 19 at the University of Miami. The theme of the conference was "Uruguay and Paraguay," and those presenting papers included Paul H. Lewis, who discussed Paraguay' s Partido Revolucionario Febrerista, andCharles J. Kolinski, who spoke on Francisco Solano L6pez. Both are formerly of the University of Florida.
Those attending the conference from the University of Florida included, Professors: Robert W. Bradbury, A. Curtis Wilgus, Capt. R. Toner, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Page, Harry Kantor, Dr. and Mrs. H. W. Hutchinson, Andros Sudrez, Felicity Trueblood, Irene Zimmerman, Nicia Villela Luz, and a number of graduate students.
All faculty and graduate students who are not already members of SECOLAS are urged to obtain memberships at $2 a year from the secretary-treasurer, Felicity Trueblood, Box 13368, University Station, Gainesville, Florida. Membership includes a subscription to the South Eastern Latin Americanist (SELA).
A resolution of condolence has been forwarded by the Director of the Center for Latin American Studies, on behalf of the faculty of the Center, to the widows and families of two former colleagues who passed away in Brazil. Professor Arthur Bernardes Weiss, Institute Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro, former Visiting Professor of History, died February 7, and Professor H4lcio Martins, Universidade de Brasilia, former Visting Professor of Portuguese, died February 9. The Latinamericanist joins with friends and faR1ies in mourning the untimely passing of these two friends and scholars.
BLOOD DONORS NEEDED Colleagues, students and friends of the late Dr. H4lcio Martins are urged to contribute blood in his name to the Blood Bank at the University Hospital. Credits resulting from blood contributions will be forwarded by the hospital to Dr. Martins' widow and child in Rio de Janeiro. This financial aid is much needed and will be most gratefully appreciated.
Hours for making blood donations are: 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. Monday through Saturday; 1 p.m. to 9 p.m. on Sunday. Appointments may be made -by calling 376-3211, ext. 5265.
Dr. E. E. Hegen, Assistant Professor of Geography, has been invited to present a paper on the problems of resource use and conservation to the Symposium on the Biota of the Amazon Basin to be held in Belem, Brasil, June 6-11.
Dr. Rene Lemarchand, Assistant Professor of Political Science, is representing the University of Florida at the Third Caribbean Scholars' Conference in Georgetown, British Guiana. This conference on Caribbean Integration and Development began April 4 and will continue through April 9.
Volume II, No. 15, April 8, 1966
Ten employees of the Guatemalan Ministry of Agriculture have just concluded a two-week program on agricultural production and marketing in Florida hosted by the University of
Florida Center for Tropical Agriculture.
The program, which began with their arrival on campus March 27, included a tour of agricultural centers in the state with stops at Winter Haven, Tampa, Homestead, Belle Glade, and Orlando. April 8, the last day of the program, was spent in.consultation with Dr. Alto Straughn, Dr. E. W. Cake, Dr. H. H. Wilkowske, Dr. Ralph Eastwood and Harry Wise of the agriculture faculty, regarding marketing and other economic problems.
Members of the Guatemalan group included the head of the Department of Seed Control, members of the departments of Forestry and Natural Resources, and soil and agricultural technicians. The second two weeks of their program will be in Georgia under the direction of Dr. L. 0. Gratz.
Professor Wilson Martins, New York University, visited the campus March 10-11, sponsored by the Latin American Language and Area Program and the Brazilian-Portuguese Club. He delivered a lecture on "A Critica Literdria Contemporanea no Brasil," and visited several classes in which he informally discussed Brazilian politics and literature.
On March 17-18 Professor Joel Pontes of the universities of Recife and Texas visited the University of Florida under the sponsorship of t1E Latin American Language and Area Program and the Brazilian-Portuguese Club. After presenting a lecture on "Manuel Bandeira aos 80 Anos" he visited classes on Portuguese language and Brazilian literature in which he discussed various Brazilian writers and literary movements.
Dr. Alfred Hower, Professor of Portuguese, has announced the visits during the past week of two Latin American scholars, Dr. J. V. Freitas Marcondes, Director of the Instituto Cultural do Trabalho, Sio Paulo, and Dr. Flavio Nobre de Campos, Executive Secretary and Director of the Courses of the Uniao Cultural Brasil-Estados Unidos in Sgo Paulo. The latter's visit was under the auspices of the U. S. State Department.
Twelve students from the Department of Architecture will be going to Puerto Rico during the B term of the summer trimester under the joint sponsorship of the Institute of Culture and the University's Center for Latin American Studies. The second to fourth year students will study the architectural problems of San Juan, through lectures at the University of Puerto Rico and seminars with architects and planners in San Juan. They will
also delve into the problem of restoration of historical buildings. Dan Branch, Assistant Professor of Architecture, will accompany the group and supervise their study.
SCHEDULE OF EVENTS, APRIL 8 MAY 7
April 10: Latin American'Club, meeting, Florida Union Social Room, 10:45 a.m.
The Spanish Conversation Club meets every Tuesday at 8 p.m. in Johnson Lounge of the
Florida Union Building.
March 30 marked the last Latin American Colloquium of this academic year. The Colloquiums will begin again in the fall.
April 22: Official end of the Winter Trimester.
Classes begin for Spring Trimester.