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ne fo Lat erican Studies

The University of Florida Latinamericanist is a publication of the Center for Latin American Studies containing matters of scholarly interest and is distributed the first Friday of every month. Items for publication should be submitted to the editor, Captain Raymond J. Toner, USN (Ret.), 450 Main Library, by noon of the Tuesday preceding the Friday distribution date. The editor reserves the right to select and edit all material. Persons desiring to be placed on the mailing list should call university extension 2224, or write: The Center for Latin American Studies, 450 Main Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.

Volume II, No. 13

February 18i 1966


With this issue, the LATINAMERICANIST introduces a new feature. This and future articles, written by individual faculty members and graduate students, will be a prdcis defining and illuminating problems of research or matters of scholarly interest.

The first contributor is Anthony P. Maingot, a 28 year-old graduate student presently completing his Ph.D. and serving as a Research Assistant in the Center for Latin American Studies. Born in Trinidad, West Indies, he received his B.A. in Latin American History from the University of Florida in 1960. Since then he has done graduate work in the Social Sciences at the University of Puerto Rico and U.C.L.A. before returning to the University of Florida in 1963 to earn his doctorate. His dissertation, The Colombian Army's Officer Corps. A Social-Political History, completion date August, 1966, will be available through inter-library loan from the University of Florida Library.


by Anthony P. Maingot

THE CONCEPT OF History as a discipline is not known for its
POLITICAL CULTURE methodological rigidity or exclusivism. On the
contrary, it can be argued that history is perhaps the most eclectic of the social sciences both in the gathering and synthesizing of its data. Aside from the criteria for internal and external critique of the sources, and the emphasis on the comprehensive utilization of all available and relevant sources, history has few other canons of method.

Recently, however, there has been a noticeable dissatisfaction with this methodological vagueness among historians dealing with the problems of underdeveloped areas. A greater self-consciousness, in terms of theory but more so in terms of method, is apparent. The type of problems studied makes this essential; the present state of the social sciences makes this more fruitful. "To have a meaningful problem whose solution will aid in illumination of human behavior over a period of time states a wellreceived recent article, is an"absolute prerequisite" of history.1 The author, however, quite correctly notes that the methodological "laissez-faire," of history, as he calls it, aside from all its advantages (which he mentions) has the disadvantage of not facilitating relations and communications between history and the other disciplines. But the fact is, it seems to me, that if we are to accept the full implications of the "absolute prerequisite" emphasized above, history is going to have to communicate with

Center for Latin Amr i! Studies


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Volume II, No. 13, February 18, 1966

those disciplines which are totally geared toward the illumination of human behavior. This communication will have to be, more or less, a one-way process with history doing most of the borrowing until it develops an appropriate methodology of its own.

Turning now to the specific application of the "absolute prerequisite" named, we can ask, for instance, what contribution can the historian make to our knowledge and understanding of socio-political behavior in Latin America, and what can he thereby contribute to an understanding of political behavior in general? The first step is methodological self-consciousness. The field of American history has made great strides in this direction, and European historians have long been aware of the need for a more systematic historical method.

The Dutch historian, Johan Huizinga, more than three decades ago was speaking of a "cultural history" as compared with a more conservative "general history." Huizinga, while including many aspects of Max Weber's approach which anteceded him, anticipated much of the contemporary social science thought on methodology. On the use of conceptual constructs, for instance, Huizinga noted that,

". the es in wie es eigentlich gewesen, if it is to have meaning' must be
determined beforehand by a conception of a certain historical and logical unity
one is attempting to delineate more precisely. That unity can never lie in an
arbitrary slice of past reality itself. The mind selects from tradition certain elements it synthesizes into a historical coherent image, which was not
realized in the past as it was lived."2

On the formulation of the question or posing of the problem, Huizinga noted the danger of unsatisfactorily formulated questions,

". scholars pounce upon the material, setting out to analyze it without really
knowing what they are looking for. The point of departure for sound historical research must always be the aspiration to know a specific thing well .
Where no clear question is put, no knowledge will give response. Where the
question is vague, the answer will be at least as vague."

Huizinga's method included two essentials: the self-conscious use of conceptual frameworks and the in-depth knowledge of a particular. area in order to formulate appropriate questions. Huizinga saw as "cultural history's" task, however, the creation of a portrait of an age or a society. Few scholars could hope to repeat his monumental accomplishments in doing this for the Middle Ages.

Briefly, what is needed is a general approach to political history which would include the methodological suggestions of Huizinga and also embody the following criteria; criteria which would facilitate the very difficult task of relating empirical historical findings to behavioral theory: (1) That the history be problem oriented and that the problem be in the general area of human behavior. (2) That it be conceptually clear and systematic in its construction and preconceived categories of data to be studied in relation to the given problem. This would facilitate cross-cultural comparison and the access to the general body of theory in the problem area.

The concept "political culture," in my opinion, provides the historian with both a challenge and an opportunity in this regard. The concept was initially developed by Gabriel Almond in 1956. "Every political system," observed Almond, "is embedded in a particular pattern of orientation to political actions." The concept was later more fully developed by Almond and Sidney Verba:

t. we employ the concept of culture in only one of its many meanings that
of psychological orientation toward social objects."5

In other words, the internalized beliefs and knowledge, feelings, and judgments and opinions about the political systems and its various parts. In short, the particular political attitudes and orientations of a given society. Of significance to the historian is the further development of the concept in a more recent work on political culture where Lucien Pye specifies that political culture, like all culture, is learned, 4t is handed down.

"A political culture is the product of both the collective history of a political system and the life histories of the individuals who currently make up the syste ; and thus it is rooted equally in public events and private experiences.

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It becomes the historian's task, therefore, to glean from his sources, both general and life history sources, the attitudes, beliefs and judgments held and expressed by the
actors about the political system in. its multiple aspects. So that while the evolution i th. nLr irstit'ions is bein traced. so is the.evolution of value patterns. Dth
give substance to the contemporary political culture of the particular nation.

Sidney Verba leads the historian to his task in the study of political culture by posing the initiating questions:

"What in the political histories of nations ought one to look at in order to.
see the impact of historical events on political culture?"7

Verba then outlines some proposed areas to look at in the historical study of a nation's

1) The degree and type of sense of national identity. How did the expressive symbols of the nation form? When did they emerge?

2) The degree of the individual's identification with -is fellow citizens. "One can look at the salient crises of a nation's history," states Verba. "in terms of the inferences individuals draw from them about their fellow citizens,"" Did the crises lead to a sense of community or were they divisive political events.

3) Analysis of the decisional process: In which way were demands for participation by new groups met.

1i) The general governmental performance of its functions.

The questions to be asked of these general areas from the point of view of the formation of political beliefs are: (1) How were these problems solved, incrementally or by salient crises (war, revolutions, etc.)? ". while incremental problem solving has an important effect on political beliefs," states Verba, "it is the salient crises that are most likely to form a peoples political memory."9 (2) Were they indeed resolved
or do they continue to be problems of the system? How were these problems phased? Did they come all at one time, or serially?

In no society is there a uniform political culture. There is a necessary distinction to be made between the culture of the power holders (elite) and the culture of the masses. The historian's decision to concentrate on one or the other will be based largely on the relative importance of the two cultures with respect to the problem of development, and on the availability of data. For most underdeveloped nations data on the mass culture is usu-lly not the type historian's deal with (opinion polls and sample surveys). The elite writes and publishes and is written about -- an obvious choice for the historian thus,

The areas for study and the questions to be asked could be modified or extended, but the important point i3 that at al times the historian is looking at and analyzing his aterials with an eye for the development of beliefs and attitudes, for "the particular pattern of orientation," toward political actions.

Space limitations make a further elaboration of the political culture approach to politLcal >istoryr impossible, It is here merely introduced for those students who take seriJusly the fact that one of the "absolute prerequisites" of history writing is that it should have "a meaningful problem whose solution will aid in. illumination of human behavior over a period of time," and. that hopefully the next step from there will be a contribution '-o the illuination of human behavior in general.


1Howard Cline, "U. S Historio;raphy of Latin America," The American Behavioral
Sc-i'ntist, (Sapt. 1964), p, 17. Emphasis added. I am not, of course, saying that this is an absolute 'prerequisite for all history writing, just as I am not saying that all
history falls within the soci-al sciences. I am here directing myself essentially to thosc who 'try to find in their subject matter a basis for comparison,; classification

Volume II, No 13) February 18, 1966

interpretation, or generalization." Cf. L.' Gottschalk (ed.), Generalization in the Writing of History (Chicago, 1963), p. v.
So"han Huiinga "The Task of Cultural History" in his Men and Ideas, (New York: Meridan Books, 1959, p6 26.
40briel Almond, "Comparative Political Systems," Journal of Politics., Volume 18 (1956)4 For fuller discussion of Almond's concept see his "A Functional Approach to Comparative Politics," in G. A. Almond and James S. Coleman, The Politics of Developing Areas, (1960) pp. 3-64. David Easton earlier had developed the concept of a political system, a very important aspect of this type approach which deserves the historian's attention. Our purpose here, however, is to introduce the concept of political culture.
5G. Almond and S. Verba, The Civic Culture, (1963) Boston: p. 13, Emphasis in original ;
6Lucian Pye, "Political Culture and Political Development," in Lucian Pye and Sidney Verba, (eds.), Political Culture and Political Development, (Princeton: University Press, 1965), p. 8.
7"Comparative Political Culture," in Pye and Verba, ibid., pp. 512-5601
8Ibid., pi 556, 911bid4,p. 555


NEW SCIENTIFIC APPROACH Dr. Andrds Sugrez, Visiting Professor of Latin
TO STUDY OF COMMUNISM American Studies at the University of Florida,
URGED BY DR. A4 SUAREZ addressed the Latin American Colloquium January 19
in the Florida Union Building. In his talk on "Some Problems of Investigating Communism in Latin America)" Dr. Sugrez stressed the need for a new and more scientific approach to the study of Communism in the Americas.

A visiting professor for the fall and winter trimesters, Dr. Sudrez is author of Cuba and the Sino-Soviet Rift, soon to be published by the Center for International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; He holds a law degree from the University of Havana and served both in government and private law practice in Cuba until he left the country shortly after the Castro take-over.

Dr, Sudrez observed that the researcher will encounter formidable barriers in studying Marxist elements from the Rio Bravo to Tierra del Fuego. Perhaps foremost among the obstacles is the fact that most Latin American "Marxists" are poorly acquainted with Marxist ideology and, hence, make poor representatives of Communism as a theory.

He specifically mentioned the official Cuban government newspaper, GRANMA, as being edited by a weak-in-theory Marxist resulting in frequent changes in the editorial position taken on certain matters, a phenomenon that greatly impedes research. The traditional Communist daily, HOY, however, is edited by a true Marxist, he continued, and is consistent in its line, so that a shift in editorial position could be of significance to the researcher.

Another major obstacle to research was seen as the scarcity of data other than that found in material published by the Communists themselves. Aside from books written by Robert Alexander and Ronald Schneider on Latin American Communism, there was almost nothing else in the field until Fidel Castro turned Cuba toward Communism. Today, a lack of serious studies on the topic still prevails.

A constant problem for researchers lies in the fact that Communist parties are outlawed in many Latin American countries, making access to their material very difficult due to its clandestine and, hence, irregular distribution.

Americans, in studying Latin American politics, are faced with still another problem according to Dr. Sugrez. He said, "After living for five years in this country, I have come to the conclusion that it is especially difficult for American students to understand Latin American politics." The reason for this, he explained, is that the United States government is based on trust and does not adequately prepare students to deal
with a government based on distrust, as most Latin American governments are. He emphasized that if U. S. citizens take Latin American governments at face value, they miss the main political mechanism hidden below the surface. He cited this as the reason

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so many Americans were deceived by Fidel Castro and hailed him as a social reformer merely because he claimed to be one.

A further obstacle for the modern researcher, Dr. Su6rez pointed out, is the dissolution of the monolithic Communist movement under the control of Moscow, an apparent effect of the Sino-Soviet split. Citing an argument of George Kennan, he implied that the resulting factionalism makes it imperative that we change both our conceptual frame of reference and our terminology, perhaps abandoning the unwieldly word "Communist." Since the term "Communism" is full of connotations, there are certain risks in using it in a scientific work. Substitution of terms such as "violent change" or "subversion" he suggested, might better serve the researcher's purpose.

Because Communists are coming to think more as citizens of their own countries rather than as members of an international movement, doctrinaire Marxist theory is giving way to the practical application of Marxist principles interpreted according to pragmatic needs. He said it is now necessary to treat Colombian Communists as Colombians, Bra-. zilian Communists as Brazilians and so on, rather than as all members of the same intenational group.

In summing up, Dr. Sugrez stated that research on Communism and research techniques must be improved not only for purely academic purposes, but also to gain the insight necessary to counter the Communist threat to Latin America more effectively. He pointed to Cuba and its unexpected adoption of Communism adding, "Everything and anything can happen in Latin America Everything seems to rest on a keg of gunpowder which can explode at any moment."

COLLOQUIUM SPEAKER STATES Adam Smith's concept that colonies have been millTHAT WEST INDIES WERE NOT stones around the neck of the Mother Country has
A LIABILITY TO THE BRITISH been disproved, at least in part, in the case of
the British West Indies, according to Dr. Richard B. Sheridan of the University of Kansas Department of Economics.

Speaking during the February 2 Latin American Colloquium at the University of Florida on the subject of the plantation history of the British West Indies, Dr. Sheridan centered his discussion on the internal organization and external relationships of the great sugar plantations of the Caribbean during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

During the boom times of these sugar plantations, Dr. Sheridan said, their holdings were valued at nearly 15,000,000 pounds sterling and they played a major part in the highly profitable molasses-rum-slave trade triangle.

Dr. Sheridan, who received his Ph.D. from the London School of Economics in 1951 and has served as an editor of the Jamaican Historical Review, said that in conducting research on the Caribbean sugar plantations he found the private papers of the prominent plantation owners of the period to be his most interesting, and one of his best, sources of information. Notable among these were the papers of Col. Samuel Martin, historically the foremost planter on Antigua, who left very complete records in addition to his book, The Art of Plantership.

While in the West Indies on a Fulbright Research Grant, Dr. Sheridan said that he expected to find that few of the islands' records had survived the ravages of time. To his surprise, however, he discovered quite complete records on file in Spanish Town's city hall. The records of personal property inventories and annual crop reports were especially useful to him in reconstructing the actual conditions that existed at the time of the sugar plantation boom in the Caribbean.

In his talk, which he termed more of a "progress report" than a final report on his studies, Dr. Sheridan mentioned a growing group of new scholars in the West Indies who are also very interested in the history of their islands. He added that as descendants of Negro slaves, many of these scholars have begun to identify quite closely with the new growing nations of Africa.

Volume II, No. 13, February 18, 1966

Dr. Sheridan concluded his talk by circulating among the audience numerous examples of historical documents, maps and other materials which provided useful information for his study.

$1,000 SUMMER (C
for study in South America this summer.

e Inter-American Housing and Planning Center INVA) .of the Pan American Union, BogotA, Coloma, has announced it will offer a limited number $1,000 research fellowships to American students

These fellowships, which will provide round-trip travel expenses and living expenses in Bogot6 from June to September, are open to fourth and fifth year architectural students and first year graduate students in the fields of urban or regional planning, sociology or anthropology, public administration or law, engineering, or economics. Under the provisions of the grant, recipients will be required to undertake research work in one of the following areas comprising the field of Housing: planning, design and construction, economics and housing finance, or law and administration.

Further information and application blanks may be obtained from the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, Room 450 Main Library. Deadline for fellowship applications is March 31.


At 8:00 p.m. on February 23, in Library 403, Colonel Marco Fern6ndez Baca, of the Corps of Engineers of the Peruvian Army will speak on the role of the Peruvian armed forces in national development.

Colonel Ferndndez has served as Director of Studies at the Escuela Militar of Perd, as Chief of Military Highway Construction, and has attended courses in engineering and Physics in the United States, France, England, Brazil and Argentina. He is presently Chief of the Coordinating Group for National Development of the General Staff of the Peruvian Army. Colonel Fern4ndez has been particularly associated with the construction of roads across the Andes into the upper Amazon Basin. The lecture will be illustrated with colored slides and is being 'sponsored by the Department of Geography and the Center for Latin American Studies'.


Union, University of Florida, in noon, December 4.

The Sixteenth Annual Conference on the Caribbean was held under the sponsorship of the Center for
Latin American Studies in the auditorium, Florida sessions which ran from 9:00 a.m. December 2 to 12:00

The Conference sessions were under the supervision of Dr. A. Curtis Wilgus, Director. Caribbean Conferences were divided into five Round Tables, each dealing with a different aspect of "Current United States Relations with the Caribbean." Speakers from U. S. Government, academic and private offices and institutions addressed the Conference at luncheons, dinners and a breakfast, and participated in the Round Tables.

Specific aspects of United States relations with the Caribbean discussed at Round Tables were: Monetary Relations; Business Relations; Cultural Relations; Trade Relations and Diplomatic Relations.

As with previous Caribbean Conferences, a complete report on the conference, edited by Dr. Wilgus, will be published by the University of Florida Press.


A Program in Tropical Nematology has recently been instituted under the direction of the University of Florida's Center for Tropical Agriculture.

The announced goals of this new program will be: (1) to collect and maintain a systematic collection of plant nematodes that occur in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world, (2) to provide a nematode identification service for scientists concerned with the problems of tropical agriculture, (3) to provide for the training of graduate

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students in nematology, and (4) to serve as an information center in regard to diagnoses of nematode diseases and their control.

Further information may be obtained by writing the Department of Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.

36 STUDENTS OBSERVE Thirty--six students from ten universities and colELECTION PROCEDURES leges returned February 7 from an extended field
trip to Costa Rica where they observed the national elections. The trip was sponsored by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Department of Political Science at the University of Florida.

Dr. Harry Kantor, who originated and planned the trip, said the main objective was to give the students first-hand experience with Costa Rican campaigns and polling methods. An additional benefit for the students, however, was their meetings with several prominent Costa Rican officials as well as other internationally-known figures.

During their week-long stay, students participated in round table question-and-answer sessions with: three leaders of the Unificaci6n Nacional Party; three leaders of the Cuban Revolution (Manolo Ray, Antonio Santiago, and Rogelio W. Cisneros); Don Jose Figueres, ex-president of Costa Rica; Gonzalo Facio, Costa Rican Ambassador to the United States; Victor Reuther, official of the AFL-CIO labor unions; Lufs Alberto Monge, leader of the National Liberation Party; Ambassador Telles, U. S. Ambassador to Costa Rica; a three-man Organization of American States observation team (Professorr 0'1, Goytia and Jimenez); and the Jefe Militar of-the Movimiento Costarricense Libre, Vico Starke. The round tables were conducted in Spnnish, and Francisco de Varona, University of Florida, acted as simultaneous translator for those five students who did not speak the language.

The remainder of the trip, the group sent its time attending political rallies, observing the elections and street demonstrations. They also met with Jos4 Joaquln Trejos Fernandez, President-elect of Costa Rica; Francisco Orlich, President of Costa Rica, and many others for short periods.

Places visited included the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences at Turrialba, the Inter-American Institute of Democratic Education at La Catalina, PuAtarenas, Alajuela and Cartago, the Movimiento Costarricense de Juventudes at Coronado, and the
Country Club at Escayu.

In all, the group was made up of sixteen University of Florida students, as well as students from the University of Miami, University of Puerto Rico, Mount Holyoke College, University of Massachusetts, University of Pennsylvania, University of North Carolina, Coe College, Brown University, Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, and the University of Maryland. No subsidy was given for the trip, and the students involved "scraped up the money because of their interest in Latin America," said Dr. Kantor.

"Al the students agree," Dr. Kantor concluded, "that they have learned a tremendous amount about Costa Rican politics from this trip."


Professor and Mrs. Christian Anglade visited the Center for Latin American Studies during the week of February 14. Professor Anglade is a member of the Political Science Department at the University of Essex, Great Britain, where his specialty is Latin American government. Mrs. Anglade specializes in Brazilian language and literature.

The Anglades are returning to England after an extensive research assignment in Brazil and Spanish America.


Volume II, No. 13, February 18, 1966

Lionel Terrazas Fossati, of Bolivia, and Loreno A. Garcia, of Brazil, were the Latin American participants included in a seven member group of foreign dignitaries who recently attended a program in Fruit and Vegetable Marketing sponsored by the University of Florida. The program was part of a tour conducted by the Agency for International Development (AID) and was organized by Harry Wise of the School of Agriculture.

The members of the tour group met on the University of Florida campus January 3. After a brief orientation meeting, the members were taken by bus from Gainesville, south through the central and eastern portions of the state, then back up the west coast, returning to the campus on January 14. During the trip, they visited farmers' markets, the Citrus Experiment Station, the Fruit and Vegetable Inspection Service Center and several packing houses as well as many primarily agricultural communities in the state.

Dr. Wilson Popenoe, father of Dr. Hugh Popenoe of the University of Florida's Center for Tropical Agriculture, is presently visiting in Gainesville while completing a book. The elder Dr. Popenoe is director emeritus of the Pan American Agricultural School in Honduras.

Representatives of the USDA Foreign Training Division and the Agency for International Development held a joint meeting on the University of Florida campus January 27-28 to discuss the problems encountered by foreign students and visiting foreign scholars.


Dr. Richard R. Renner, Associate Professor in the College of Education, has announced he will hold a Comparative Education Seminar on Principal Issues in Latin American Education (EDF 631). The seminar will be held from 7:00 8:45 p.m. on Tuesday, April 5, in Room 240 of Norman Hall. All interested persons are invited to take part.

Dr. Tony J. Cunha will participate in the National Academy of Science: Latin American Science Board Meeting in Washington, D. C., February 17-18. The objective of this meeting is the preparation of two task forces which will soon visit Brazil and Peru for the purpose of determining what can be done to improve the science programs in the universities and secondary schools, as well as national science programs, in these countries.

International Week at +he University of Florida, February 14-19, included forums, an international talent show, a beauty queen contest, and banquet. Many of the University's 350 Latin American students from Central and South America, Cuba and Mexico, took part in the activities.

Ripley P. Bullen, Curator of the Florida State Museum, has recently accepted the position of contributing editor for archaeology: Caribbean Area Section of the Handbook for Latin American Studies. As contributing editor, it will be his responsibility to gather and compile all materials relating to archaeology published in this area for the 1965-66 period. Anyone having information that might be useful to him should contact Bullen, c/o The Florida State Museum.

A Brazilian graduate student has been named the International Rotary Fellow at the University of Florida for the academic year 1965-66. Dinaldo Dos Santos, a political science major in the College of Arts and Sciences, has since had many offers to speak
at various Rotary Club functions around the State. He has just returned from a group study tour of Costa Rica where, under the supervision of Dr. H. Kantor, he participated in a study of the national elections.

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A study of Uruguay and Paraguay will be the concern of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of SECOLAS (Southeastern Conference on Latin American Studies) when it meets in Miami,
Florida, March 18-19.

Dr. Alfred B. Thomas, Professor of History, University of Alabama, and president-elect for 1966, will serve as program chairman. Host for the conference will be the University of Miami's Center for Advanced International Studies. Dr. Ione S. Wright, editor of the Journal of Inter-American Studies, is in charge of local arrangements.

SCHEDULE OF EVENTS, FEBRUARY 21 MARCH 20 February 22: Spanish Conservative Club Meeting, Florida Union, 7:30 p.m.

23: Colonel Marco Fern6ndez Baca, Peruvian Army, will speak on the role of
the armed forces in national development. Library 403, 8 p.m. March 2: Latin American Colloquium, Florida Union, 8:00-10:00 p.m.

16: Latin American Colloquium, Florida Union, 8:00-10:00 p.m.

18-19: Thirteenth Annual Conference of SECOLAS. Topic of discussion: Uruguay
and Paraguay. Chateau Bleau Inn, Miami, Florida.

. university of florida