i'liH nlH e r'Ciili "t
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA VOLUME 21 NUMBER 1
CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES DECEMBER 1985
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA PAUL MONAGHAN, EDITOR
McCoy Named CLAS Director
Following a national search, Terry L. McCoy was named Director of the Center for Latin American
Studies by University of Florida President Marshall Criser. McCoy succeeds Helen Safa, who is
returning to full-time teaching and research following five years as CLAS Director.
McCoy joined the Center in 1975. A native of Columbus, Ohio, he earned a B.A. (with honors) in
history at De Pauw University, an M.A. in Latin American Studies at Tulane University and a Ph.D.
in political science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. At Wisconsin he was associated with
the Land Tenure Center. He conducted dissertation field research in Chile during 1966-68 on the
politics of agrarian reform. In the fall of 1968 McCoy joined the Department of Political Science at
Ohio State University, where he was also an associate of the Mershon Center and acting director of
the Latin American studies program for eighteen months. While at Ohio State, McCoy developed an
interest in Latin American population issues, and in 1974 his edited volume, The Dynamics of
Population Policy in Latin America was published by Ballinger. He is also co-author of Population in
the Global Arena (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1982).
SAt the University of Florida, he holds adjunct appointments in the departments of political science
Sand sociology, where he teaches courses on Latin American politics and international relations and
population policy, respectively. In recent years his research interests have focused on the Carib-
bean, U.S.-Caribbean relations, Caribbean immigration, and U.S. immigration policy. He and UF
sociologist Charles Wood are completing an NICHD-funded study of Caribbean labor migration and
Their monograph, Bittersweet Harvest: Caribbean Cane Cutters in Florida, is currently under con-
sideration for publication.
Prior to assuming the directorship, McCoy has served as the Center's Assistant, Associate and, most recently, Acting Director. He also
serves as the Center's Graduate Coordinator. As Director, he is committed to maintaining the high quality of the traditional core of UF's Latin
American program and expanding linkages with the University's professional colleges. He will also give high priority to blending the
resources of the Center to meet the special needs of a state with multifaceted ties with Latin America and to developing a diverse and ap-
propriate series of activities to commemorate the up-coming 500th anniversary of European contact with the Americas. In accepting the ap-
pointment, McCoy stated, "It is both an honor and a challenge to be named Director of the Center. In meeting the challenges of the next
several years, I look forward to working with the faculty, administration, staff and students--present, future and past--associated with the
Persian Lime Exports and Traditional Crop Displacement
In Veracruz, Mexico
Graham Webster is a M.A. candidate in Latin American Studies, with a B.A. in Biological Science from Florida International University.
Webster conducted field research during the summers of 1984 and 1985, with support from a Tinker Field Research Grant. This paper is a
summary of his Master's thesis.
The year 1985 has been one of renewed emphasis on world
agriculture. Popular projects like Live-Aid and Farm-Aid have
made the public more aware of the global nature of food produc-
tion and distribution. Less well known is the Mexican food crisis
which persists in the face of rising agro-exports. This crisis is
especially grave in the countryside, where the food is actually
produced. For example, in 1980, 21 million people suffered from
some degree of caloric and protein deficiency. This was about
90% of the rural population. Thirty-three percent of rural Mex- .
icans never eat meat, 32 percent never eat eggs, 37 percent never
eat wheat bread, and 59 percent never taste milk. The daily reality
of most Mexican campesinos is one of hunger (Sanderson for-
This food shortfall exists despite increasing exportation of lux-
ury foodstuffs to developed countries like the United States,
Japan and Germany. However, the links between starving people
and the internationalization of agriculture have been only weakly This woman is grading limes on the assembly line in Martinez de la Torre.
established, even at an academic level (Sanderson forthcoming). Women are a majority of the labor force in the lime packing industry.
This article describes and analyzes one case where export crop-
ping has indeed meant the decrease of land devoted to basic
crops, corn and beans.
This article consists of three major sections. The first presents
two competing analytical frameworks. These are the "cheap
food" and "trade imperative" logics which explain the shift from
basic foods to luxury exportables. The second describes events
and actors associated with the rise of Persian limes and the
decline of basic crops in the Martinez de la Torre region of
Veracruz, Mexico. The final section discusses the applicability of
the two analytical frameworks to the case at hand.
Both the objective need for cheap food in the cities and the
trade imperative caused by the present debt crisis can be traced
historically to populist measures taken to consolidate the Mexican
revolution and the subsequent rise of Import Substitution In-
dustrialization (ISI). The collapse of global commodity markets
during the Great Depression destroyed Third World countries'
ability to purchase manufactures. ISI refers to the policy of
manufacturing those industrial products which had formerly been
imported. Internal and external repercussions of this policy have
led to the cheap food and trade imperative logics, respectively
The infant industries of ISI lacked the structural advantages of
mature industries in developed countries, such as strong internal
demand, economies of scale, and the ability to produce capital
equipment domestically. One structural characteristic of Mexico
that could make ISI work was cheap labor. Part of the political
economy of ISI has been a constant downward pressure on the
wage of the urban worker (Hellman 1983). The easiest way to
reproduce a cheap labor pool is with cheap food. The state,
mediating between the various social groups, (the peasantry,
workers, capitalists, and the rising middle class) found it
necessary to make food cheap. The biggest loser in the political
game has been the peasantry (Warman 1982).
The infant industries of ISI required low-wage workers, and
cheap food made this possible. But these policies have an
adverse effect on rural producers of basic foods. The negative
terms of trade between city and countryside mean rural pro-
ducers cannot accumulate capital, and are being destroyed as a
viable social component. Cheap food policies represent a way to
extract surplus from the campesinos. The surplus is realized by
the middle and upper sectors of Mexican society, along with
transnational firms producing in Mexico. But because of this pro-
cess, the campesinado is continually impoverished, and is, over
the long run, destroyed by being used (de Janvry 1981:158-180).
That is, internal forces favoring the provision of low-cost
foodstuffs to urban workers make corn and bean production un-
profitable for rural producers, and the economic survival of the
peasantry is jeopardized.
The debt crisis too, has its roots in ISI. The recent dramatic rise
of the debt is only the debts' latest manifestation. The capital
equipment required for ISI must be imported, and this requires
large amounts of foreign exchange. Mexican agriculture has long
been considered a good source of this much needed hard curren-
cy. Coffee, sugar, cotton, and other traditional products were ex-
ported to the United States, bringing in dollars. In addition to
supplying cheap food, this is another way in which agriculture
can be considered as an adjunct to industrialization in Mexico
These two logics, cheap food and the trade imperative, have
both been related to Mexican agriculture by other analysts of the
agrarian problem (Sanderson 1985; de Janvry 1981). Discussing
the internal and external forces that have prevented food self-
sufficiency, de Janvry notes, "On the one hand, cheap food
policies tend to induce the diversion of land use away from the
production of wage goods towards that of exportables, industrial
inputs, and luxury foods. On the other hand, the pressure of
meeting the needs of the nation's balance of payments and in
particular, of servicing the foreign debt . .imposes an im-
mediacy on the production of exportables that is far greater than
the provision of cheap food . "(1981:151). Here, although the
role of internal variables is conceded, the stress is on the export
The "new" internationalization of Latin American and par-
ticularly Mexican agriculture has been well documented. Sander-
son, commenting on this process, concurs with.de Janvry,
noting also that "agriculture provided the material wherewithal
for cheap food policies governed by the state and its marketing
boards" (1985:51). He goes on to discuss the "new" agriculture
of the 1960's and 1970's, and claims that" . the cropping pat-
terns of agriculture shifted away from basic foodstuffs to inputs
for agribusiness and new export crops" (1985:51). The new inter-
nationalization reinforces logics (cheap food and the trade im-
perative) long present in Mexican agriculture, dating, in fact, to
the rise of ISI in the 1930's and 1940's.
Two separate processes have occurred simultaneously in the
Mexican countryside. By 1983, the demand for corn so outstrip-
ped domestic production that one-fifth of the corn eaten in Mex-
ico had to be imported from the United States (Cockroft 1983).
Simultaneously, the export of fruits and vegetables had reached
such proportions that, in one pivotal case, United States pro-
ducers of tomatoes fought vigorously for protection from 'unfair'
Mexican competition (Sanderson 1981). The degree to which in-
ternal and external determinants have impinged upon particular
production systems is not well researched. The case of Persian
limes production in Veracruz, Mexico illustrates the local effects
of the interaction of these two dynamics.
PERSIAN LIMES AND THE NEW
INTERNATIONALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE
Persian limes join a growing list of 'new' fruit and vegetable
export crops that appeared in Mexico in the 1970's. According to
Rama, "We can speak of new systems because .. the products
do not appear in agricultural statistics in Mexico before the end of
the 1950's . "(1985:89). Rama relates this process to the Mex-
ican food crisis:
"The crisis of agriculture and livestock in Mexico is great, but it is
not a general crisis. Together with the basic grains sector (rice,
maize, beans, and wheat), which grows at a slower rate than the
population, coexists an unusually dynamic and expansive minori-
ty sector, producing forages, new oilseeds (safflower and soya),
fruits and vegetables, and animal products. One aspect where it
could clearly be confirmed that the internationalization process
contributed to the crisis is in the loss of 1.4 million hectares in
basic foods cultivation that went to sorghum, soya, safflower,
forage crops, fruits, and vegetables in commercial rain-fed
agricultural zones or in ejidos with certain minimal conditions of
capital accumulation and credit and technical support from the
The rise of Persian lime production and the parallel loss (or
transferral to marginal land) of traditional food crops is an exam-
ple of the internationalization process. The Persian lime is dif-
ferent from the lime produced for domestic Mexican consump-
tion. The Persian lime is the dark green type normally en-
countered in U.S. grocery stores. Although Mexico leads the
world in overall lime production, there was almost no Persian lime
production in Mexico prior to 1975. Persian lime production ex-
perienced the fastest rate of expansion of any Mexican citrus crop
during this period, increasing five-fold (USDA 1981). By 1981,
this region accounted for 41% of all limes consumed in the US
(USDA 1982). Mexican growers themselves initiated the rapid ex-
pansion of this crop during the 1975-1982 period. This activity is
concentrated in the Martinez de la Torre region of Veracruz,
which lies on the Gulf coast approximately 500 miles south of
THE INCREASE OF PERSIAN LIME PRODUCTION
By 1982, the land planted in Persian limes in the Martinez de la
Torre area had increased from 205 to 11,242 hectares (see Table
1). As previously noted, it was the Mexicans themselves who
created the Persian lime agro-industry in Martinez de la Torre.
The most influential individual in this process was Pablo Zorrilla,
known in the community as "Don Pablo". The Zorrilla family
traces its lineage back to the original Conquest of Mexico. Don
Pablo's family owned all the land of the Martinez de la Torre area
until the land reform -fomented by Lazaro Cardenas and the
"reformistas" in 1940 broke up the large estate. Although his
resources were reduced, Don Pablo remained a dominant figure
in agriculture in the area, farming first bananas, then sugar cane,
show-quality cattle, and finally, in the 1970's, citrus.
Don Pablo united owners of medium and large farms in the
area and was able to convince the Mexican government to help
set up a cooperative that would process limes. Special credit lines
were made available at the banks, and technical assistance was
provided for the growers. This cooperative, called a Rural
Association in the Collective Interest, or ARIC, now boasts 539
members. The ARIC was formed during the Lopez Portillo years
with the euphoria generated by the oil boom of the late 1970's
and early 1980's. Government money was relatively easy to get
during this time. The result was a bonanza for lime growers. Ex-
panding demand in the United States meant steady or rising
prices for limes during this time. The banks benefited too, as the
go-betweens, the recipients of the dollars paid for the limes in the
United States. The farmers were actually paid in pesos.
The community at large soon found out about the success of
this new venture, and many small farmers, mostly ejidatarios,
began growing limes. The ejido is the institutional foundation for
the distribution of land in Mexico's land reform. Ownership of
property lies in the state, with the farmers retaining usufruct
rights. By 1984, there were a total of 1,208 growers of Persian
limes in the Martinez de la Torre region. Of these, 1,029 were
ejidatarios, with the remaining 179 in the private property
category. The 15 percent of the growers in the private property
sector comprise the largest growers, controlling one third of the
land in limes. The ejidos tend to be very small, with 57 percent
farming two hectares or less. The concentration of land is more
uneven than these official statistics would indicate, however. Ac-
cording to sources in FIDEFRUT, a parastatal lime packer whose
main clientele is the smallest ejidatarios, 40 percent of all ejido
land is rented out. The ejidatarios whose property is rented
become laborers on their own land (FIDEFRUT 1984). This is a
clear violation of the letter and the spirit of Mexico's land reform
law, although no one attempts to hide it.
In sum, the largest growers led the way in lime production, and
many smaller growers followed. The smallest growers form an
adjunct to the large growers, supplying low-cost land and labor,
producing what has been called neolatifundismo.
The institution of renting out ejidos has been called neolatifun-
dismo. It is similar, but not identical to, the latifundismo (large
estates) situation which was destroyed by the Revolution.
Neolatifundismo takes various forms. Sometimes large ejidatarios
rent from smaller ejidatarios, sometimes farmers in the private
property sector rent from small ejidatarios. This creates large
estates from many small ones, and concentrates land (Warman
1982). It also creates a class of semi-subsistence farmers,
because part of the arrangement the small ejidatario makes with
the patron (boss) involves retaining a semi-subsistence plot. This
plot, called a milpa, supplies corn and beans for the ejidatario and
DYNAMICS OF DISPLACEMENT OF
CORN AND BEANS BY LIMES
Before describing the specific details of the changes in produc-
tion patterns in the area, I will give a brief overview of the
geography of Martinez de la Torre. The area consists of two
zones. First, the coastal zone is a narrow stretch of coastal plain
between the mountains and the Gulf of Mexico. This frost free
area is suited to a wide variety of crops, including tropical pro-
ducts. Second, the mountain zone is the area between the
western limits of the coastal zone and the Mesa Central; it is very
steep and because of its cooler climate is not suited for tropical
products. In fact, because of its steepness it is not especially
desirable as agricultural land at all. The environmental conse-
quences of farming the "cloud forest" that covers this moun-
tainous section will be discussed later.
Number of Hectares devoted to Corn, Beans, and Persian limes in the Martinez De La Torre region of Veracruz, Mexico: 1975
SOURCE: Banco Nacional de Mexico, November 1983
LIMES AND THE COASTAL ZONE
While Persian lime production made a dramatic increase during
1975-1982, production of basic foods in the coastal zone fell
sharply. As shown in Table 1, 3,270 fewer hectares of corn were
planted in the fall planting season, along with 1,885 fewer hec-
tares of beans. The losses were greater for the spring planting
season. Corn production decreased 6,309 hectares while beans
decreased by 1,996 hectares. Note that while there were signifi-
cant declines the totals do not reach zero, because of neolatifun-
dismo. Thus, the tendency for basic foods production to decline
in the face of export cropping is mitigated by the nature of the
social contract between the various parties involved in production.
The corn and beans that remain are often grown without thd
benefit of needed inputs, edged out by the demands of export
cropping. For example, during the 1984 winter season little rain
fell. There is a small dam and a system of concrete channels that
irrigate part of the area. During the drought, ejidatarios diverted
the water from this irrigation system to lime production, bypass-
ing the milpas. Farmers showed me several examples of milpas
that had been given up for that season, because the corn crop
had been ruined by the drought.
The displacement of traditional crops demonstrated by these
figures (Table 1) was substantiated by field interviews conducted
in the coastal zone during the summer of 1984. Farmers, bankers,
and extension personnel indicated that limes were being planted
on land that had formerly been used to grow corn and beans. The
bankers were especially helpful in explaining why a farmer would
want to stop growing corn. According to a loan officer for the
National Bank of Mexico (BANAMEX) in San Rafael, located near
Martinez de la Torre, the bank makes precise calculations of
market situations before loaning money to farmers. The bank will
not loan money to farmers to grow corn. In 1984, it cost 65,000
pesos to plant and harvest one hectare of corn. The usual yield in
the area is two metric tons per hectare. At 30,000 pesos per ton,
the money yield of the corn would be only 60,000 pesos. This ex-
planation seems to indicate that it does not pay to grow corn.
Number of Hectares devoted to Corn, Beans, and Persian limes in the Martinez De La Torre region of Veracruz, Mexico: 1975
SOURCE: Banco Nacional de Mexico, November 1983
Despite this, there was an increase of corn planted in the near-
by mountains. Referring to Table 2, corn production nearly
doubled, going from 13,100 to 23,309 hectares. The increase,
10,209 hectares, nearly matched the increase of Persian lime pro-
duction in the coastal zone 25 miles away. How can one account
for this increase? One explanation is that there was a direct rela-
tionship between land lost in the coastal zone and land gained in
the mountains. Secondary sources indicate perhaps not only
crops, but also people were displaced by lime production. The
people may have left their land and moved to the mountains. This
is also supported by an increase of spring bean production, in ap-
proximately the same proportion as the increase of corn produc-
tion. That is, if people did indeed move to the mountains to grow
subsistence crops, they would need beans in proportion to the
amount of corn they grew. Corn and beans consumed together
form the protein base of these peasants, who rarely consume
meat. However, despite the small increase in spring bean plan-
tings, there was still a rather large drop in fall bean production
(6,025 hectares). Therefore, the first explanation falls short, since
if people had moved to the mountains to grow subsistence crops,
they would not neglect bean production. I also find it hard to
believe that people would give up their ejido land in the coastal
area. Another explanation is the Sistema Alimentaria Mexicana,
or Mexican Food System, known as the SAM.
The SAM was a plan to increase the production and availability
of foodstuffs in Mexico. Initiated in 1980 as a response to the
food crisis in Mexico, this program aimed for national self--
sufficiency in corn and beans by 1982. In addition to stimulating
output through credit and technical assistance, the SAM was in-
tended to improve nutrition and income among smallholders
(Street 1983). Government spending for agriculture increased
92.9 percent, from 93.3 billion pesos in 1979 to 234.6 billion pesos
in 1981. A critical assumption of the SAM was that much of the
land in rain-fed areas was underutilized, either abandoned or in-
adequately worked (Bailey and Roberts 1983). The whole region
of Martinez de la Torre would have been a likely target for state
intervention for growing basic crops. This, then seems the most
likely explanation for the rise of corn production in the steep
mountains near Martinez. State intervention in the form of higher
prices, special credit lines, and technical assistance meant that
farmers in the mountains were induced to produce more corn.
For the purposes of this analysis, the SAM can be considered an
attempt to reverse decades of cheap food policies, which had,
over the years, contributed greatly to the poverty of Mexico's
peasants. The case at hand demonstrated the limits of the states'
effectiveness in overcoming the contradictions caused by cheap
It is instructive to note that the increase in basic food produc-
tion occurred in the worst land of the region, land in the moun-
tainous zone. Meanwhile, during a. time when the nation was
committed to a policy of food self-sufficiency, the best land,
located in the coastal region, shifted to a crop destined for con-
sumption in rich and faraway countries.
The relative impact of the "cheap food" and "trade imperative"
logics that explain the displacement of basic crops in Martinez de
la Torre can be understood by examining the contradictory role of
the state. Both the rise of Persian lime production and the
transferral of basic crops to the mountainous areas occurred dur-
ing the time. of the SAM, when the state was highly visible in the
countryside. What must be explained first is the rise of export
cropping during a time when the country had a policy commit-
ment to food self-sufficiency. Second, the increase of basic crop
production in the mountains must be explained. The bridge be-
tween these two outcomes will be the smallholder section in the
coastal zone which continues to grow some basic crops even
though Persian limes have come to predominate. The succeeding
paragraphs outline the relative success the cheap food and trade
imperative logics have in explaining: the rise of Persian lime pro-
duction among large growers, the presence of a smallholder sec-
tor that grows both limes and corn, and, finally, the increase in
corn production in the mountainous zone.
Mexico's response to its food crisis has been programs specifically
targeted to smallholder production of basic foods.
Powerful local interests already active in commercial
agriculture in the coastal zone of the Martinez de la Torre region
organized and thus acquired control of state resources.
Specifically, banks loaned money at preferential rates, and the in-
vestment of private individuals in packing facilities was secured
by the state. Technical assistance was also provided. The banks
were motivated to participate in this arrangement because it
created an opportunity to obtain foreign exchange. Therefore,
the best explanation of the large grower's ability to enter into Per-
sian lime production in the Martinez de la Torre region is the trade
imperative. These large growers had long been involved in pro-
ducing non-basic foods such as bananas, sugar cane, and other
citrus. On the other hand, the cheap food explanation did not ap-
ply to their situation at all.
TRADE IMPERATIVE AND CHEAP FOOD
The transformation of the smallholders, mostly ejidatarios, can
be explained by both frameworks and serves as the bridge bet-
ween the case of the large growers in the coastal zone and the in-
crease of basic food production in the mountains. Furthermore,
the role of the state in this case will be instructive. First, and most
basically, the state provides the very structure of the smallholder
sector's existence- the ejido. Second, as ejidatarios followed the
large growers into the production of Persian limes, the state pro-
vided the packing facilities (FIDEFRUT) that enabled the
smallholders to enter the international market in perishables,
thereby supporting the trade imperative logic. But corn produc-
tion, due to state intervention in pricing, is negatively profitable,
indicating that the cheap food explanation is also operative in the
coastal smallholder sector. Thus, the shift of smallholders from
corn to limes can be explained by both the cheap food and the
trade imperative logics.
CHEAP FOOD AND THE FAILURE OF SAM
The expansion of corn production in the mountains is a clear
example of the contradictions of the cheap food logic. I have
hypothesized that this expansion is the result of the SAM. The
SAM was a set of policy directives that intended to remedy the
food crisis by expanding rain-fed acreage planted in basic crops.
The case at hand illustrates the state's inability to meet this goal.
In spite of the corn production increase in the mountains,
overall production of corn and beans in the Martinez de la Torre
region declined during the SAM era, 1980-1982. While corn pro-
duction remained nearly constant, increasing 630 hectares, bean
production fell 9,040 hectares. These figures were obtained by
i -u .u-
This load of limes is packed and graded specifically for the Japanese
adding both fall and spring plantings. This shows that in spite of
the state's best intentions, the goal of resolving the cheap food
problem may in the end prove to be the most problematic. The
case of Persian lime production is instructive because it details
how resources were allocated in one important region during the
SAM. More importantly, it raises the question of what will hap-
pen to basic crop production in the area now that the SAM is
While the commitment to food self-sufficiency has evaporated,
the food crisis continues. The SAM was dismantled in late 1982,
and Mexican planners now speak of "food sovereignty" which
seems to indicate an acceptance of Mexico's integration into the
international economy. SAM's successor, the National Food Pro-
gram or PRONAL, faces the same problems of entrenched
interests as did the SAM (Sanderson July 1984). In addition,
Mexican austerity programs limit the scope of all state action.
In sum, both the cheap food and the trade imperative logics are
operative in the displacement of basic crops by Persian limes in
Martinez de la Torre. The trade imperative best explains the initial
rise of Persian limes by large growers in the coastal zone. Both
logics seem to fit the smallholder sector that now comprises the
largest group of producers. The attempt by the SAM to mitigate
the cheap food disincentive by promoting basic crops best ex-
plains the expansion of corn in the mountains, in spite of the
failure to increase basic food production throughout the region as
LOCAL EFFECTS OF EXPORT-LED GROWTH
Whether caused by internal or external determinants, the
changes in cropping patterns that have occurred in Martinez de la
Torre are extensive, and not easily reversible. What can now be
said about the local or national effects of export-led growth? Is
the shift from traditional crops to luxury exports good or bad? I
will now examine several aspects of the case at hand that show
its relationship with the debt crisis, gains for laborers, the food
crisis, and environmental degradation.
Debt Crisis-A Solution?
Because structural factors prevent the growers of Persian limes
from receiving fair prices for their produce, the foreign exchange
generated by the sale of these limes is below its potential.
Although Persian limes grown in Mexico wholesale within the
United States at the same price as domestically produced fruit
from Florida, this profit is not necessarily realized by the Mexican
producers or bankers. Instead, it is the border distributor of the
fruit who makes the lion's share of the profits. A comparison of
the price received by growers in Martinez and the wholesale price
paid at the Los Angeles farmer's market indicated that during
1981, the spread was from two to eight times the price paid to
Mexican growers. For example, in April of 1981, FIDEFRUT
received $9.64 for a box of packed and-graded Persian limes. The
L.A. wholesale price was $40.50. The cost of transporting the
fruit from Mexico to California is less than $4 per box. This means
that $26.86 went to the middlemen at the border who simply ar-
ranged the sale, while the direct producer received only a fraction
of his crop's value.
What of the profit that does reach the Mexican producers?
Doesn't this trickle down to the laborers? The answer is, "Not
necessarily". These growers are dependent capitalists who must
keep their wages low in order to remain profitable in the world
market. They are not the progressive national bourgeoisie that
will develop the country and take into account the needs of its
laborers. For these capitalists, the worker is only a cost and
would not ordinarily be a consumer of this luxury product. The
external orientation of these producers means that they will at-
tempt to keep wages as low as possible. For example, the
minimum wage established for Martinez de la Torre in July 1984
was 678 pesos per day. According to an official at Mexico's
Social Security office in Martinez, this is a survival wage. Persian
lime workers, however, uniformly were paid 500 pesos per day,
roughly $2.25 at the July 1984 exchange rate. In rural Mexico, the
minimum wage is the maximum wage, and Persian lime produc-
tion has not changed this.
In the summer of 1985 there was a black bean shortage in the
Martinez de la Torre region. As noted in Table 2, the decrease in
acreage of beans has been high. If both fall and spring losses are
added, the loss of land in beans amounts to 9,042 hectares. Of
this, 3,881 hectares were lost in the coastal zone, while 5,151
were lost in the mountains. This loss of production has surely had
an effect on the region's ability to feed itself. The black bean
shortage shows how the lack of effective planning capacity by
the state has contributed to the misery of the lowest classes. It
also shows how the cheap food disincentive to grow basic crops
can lead to food crisis, despite state attempts to overcome the
dilemma. Perhaps most importantly, the black bean shortage
demonstrates the link between export agriculture and hunger.
Persian lime production displaced thousands of hectares of beans
in the coastal zone.
An additional negative effect of these changes is environmental
degradation. Accelerated erosion caused by agriculture in the
steeplands has caused numerous effects. The Nautla river which
once accommodated large vessels far upstream, now is heavily
silted. Small boats now pole across the mouth of this river. Much
of the region's electricity is generated by a hydoelectric plant on
the Nautla. Degradation of the water supply and siltation could
shorten the life of this facility. In addition, the reduced buffering
capacity of denuded hillsides could have contributed to the
dramatic flooding of the coastal zone in the winter of 1984. Final-
ly, the destruction of the "cloud forest" with its rare and beautiful
habitats is not only an aesthetic and scientific loss, but it puts the
long run economic viability of the region in jeopardy.
Although the steep mountainsides are not suited for agriculture, this
former cloud forest has been cleared for corn production.
Export-led growth then, does not mean that rural dwellers, or
the Mexican society as a whole, will reap large benefits. It will, at
least in this case, lead to further misery, dependence, and en-
The active role of the state in all three of these production sub-
systems points to a potentially useful area for exploration, par-
ticularly in determining the exact nature of the changes that oc-
curred in the mountain zone. The environmental consequences of
farming the "cloud forest" are grave and should be investigated.
The successor to the SAM, the PRONAL, which was previously
mentioned, and the National Program of Integrated Rural
Development are two programs whose progress should be
monitored. The latter, for example, is conceived of as a solution
to Mexico's current crisis. Its goal is to change the peasantry from
a passive object of state planning to an active subject of rural
development (Excelsior, August 6, 1985). This program is truly an
exciting prospect, but the excitement is tempered by the harsh
realities of the class structure in the Mexican countryside. Even if
partially enacted, however, a program like this could lead to
substantial social, political and environmental gains. This is a
topic for future research.
Banco Nacional de Mexico
November 1983 Diagnostico de la Area de Influencia. Agencia: Martinez de la
Torre, Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Bailey, John J. and Roberts, Donna H.
December 1983 Mexican Agricultural Policy. in Current History, 82: 84: 420-424.
Barkin, David and Suarez, Blanca
1982 ElFin dela Autosuficiencia Mexicana. Mexico, D.F: Editorial Nueva Imagen.
Cockroft, James D.
1983 Mexico: Class Formation, Capital Accumulation, and the State. New York:
Monthly Review Press.
de Janvry, Alain
1981 The Agrarian Question and Reformism in Latin America. Baltimore: The
Johns Hopkins University Press.
August 6, 1985 La Crisis, Una Salida: el Desarrollo Rural- Partir de la Base Social
by Raul Olmedo Financial Section, Page 1.
1984 Census of Fruit Producers in the Martinez de la Torre Area. Martinez de la
Torre, Veracruz: Fideicomiso de Fruticola.
Hellman, Judith Adler
1983 Mexico in Crisis. New York: Holmes and Meier.
1985 Some effects of the Internationalization of Agriculture on the Mexican
Agricultural Crisis. in Sanderson, S.E., ed. pp. 69-94. The Americas in the New In-
ternational Division of Labor. New York: Holmes and Meier.
Sanderson, Steven E.
1981 Florida Tomatoes, US-Mexican Relations, and the New International Divi-
sion of Labor. in Inter-American Economic Affairs, 31:3:(Winter): 23-52.
July, 1984 The Politics of Mexican Agricultural Policy. in Consortium on Trade
Research: Debt, Trade, and Payments Issues of Developing Countries and US-
Mexican Economic Interdependencies Edited by Charles E. Hanrahan and Maury
E. Bredahl Washington, DC: International Economics Division, Economic
Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.
1985 The "New" Internationalization of Agriculture in the Americas. in
Sanderson, S.E., ed. pp. 46-68. The Americas in the New International Division of
Labor. New York: Holmes and Meier.
forthcoming The Transformation of Mexican Agriculture: International Dimen-
sions of Rural Change. Princeton Press.
Street, James H.
December 1983 Mexico's Developmeht Dilemma. in Current History
1983 Citrus in Mexico. Foreign Agricultural Service FAS-M-299.
1982 Marketing Florida Tropical Fruits and Vegetables. Summary 1981-82.
Winter Park, Florida: Federal-State Marketing News Service.
1982 Los Campesinos: Hijos Predilectos del Regimen. Mexico, D.F: Editorial
FACULTY MEMBER RETIRES
Andres Suarez, Professor of Latin American Studies (Political
Science and History) is retiring after 25 years of service at the
University of Florida. Suarez graduated from the University of
Havana in 1943 with a Ph.D. in Law and alternated between
private practice and the Cuban Ministry of Education and the
Department of the Treasury from 1943 to 1960. He was an
Associated Researcher at the M.I.T. Center for International
Studies from 1963 until 1965 when he came to the University of
Suarez has taught courses on contemporary Caribbean history,
inter-American relations and the government and politics of Latin
America. Since 1972 he has been a contributing editor of the
Handbook of Latin American Studies, writing the section on
Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. He is also a member
of the Cuban Studies Advisory Board at the University of Pitts-
For the past 25 years, Suarez has written extensively on the
Cuban Revolution and Cuban foreign relations. He has presented
papers at the University of North Carolina, the Inter-American
University of Puerto Rico and the Universidad Autonoma de San-
to Domingo among others. Perhaps his best known work is
Cuba: Castroism and Communism, 1959-1966 which has been
called the best general analysis of the Castro regime after 1959.
Suarez has been working on a new book on Cuba to be entitled
Cuba: From Exceptionalism to Garrison State. A chapter of the
book, "Cuba: Pragmatism and Ideology (1902-1982)" was read at
a seminar last February at the Graduate School of International
Studies at the University of Miami. Two other chapters will ap-
pear in the coming year: "Civil-Military Relations" and "Revolu-
tionary Ideology and Political Domination." Professor Suarez will
continue to teach one semester a year as part of his early retire-
ment and he plans to write and travel as time will allow.
35th ANNUAL CLAS CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT
This year's conference will be an international event on
"Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension" to
be held in Gainesville from February 26-March 1, 1986. It is co-
hosted by the Center for Latin American Studies, the Center for
African Studies and the Center for Tropical Agriculture. The pro-
gram is organized and sponsored by the Women in Agriculture
Program of the University of Florida with financial support from
the Ford Foundation. The primary objective of the conference is
to bring together scholars and practitioners with expertise and in-
terest in Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) to
discuss state-of-the-art issues related to the role of gender and
FSR/E. The conference will include plenary sessions on gender
issues and FSR/E and on gender issues and agricultural policies.
Two keynote speakers will deliver lectures on Latin America and
Africa. There will also be workshops on gender issues and exten-
sion and a training session using farming systems case studies.
Concurrent sessions will include papers on farming systems
reports from the field (Diagnosing the Problem; Gender and
Technology Selection; Analyzing Intra-Household Dynamics;
Monitoring and Impact) and on gender issues in agriculture
(Intra-Household Analysis in Commodity Production; Off-Farm
Labor and Out-Migration; Gender and Agroforestry Systems;
Nutrition; Agricultural Policy; Women's Role in Agriculture). For
information write to Dr. Marianne Schmink, Women in
Agriculture Co-Director, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611. Tel. (904) 392-0375.
AMAZON RESEARCH and TRAINING NEWS
The University of Florida Center for Latin American Studies,
Amazon Research and Training Program and the University of
Florida Libraries have published, in microformat, the Gurupa'
Research Project Field Notes.
In 1948, Dr. Wagley and Eduardo Galvao, accompanied by
their wives, Cecilia Roxo Wagley and Clara Galvao conducted
research in a small Amazonian community called Gurupa~ Two
major works resulted: Amazon Town by Charles Wagley and The
Religion of an Amazon Community by Eduardo Galvao. These
books were published in Portuguese as Uma Comunidade
Amazonica and Santos e Visagens.
This microfilm publication is a copy of all the notes taken by the
four in Gurupa. During the months from June to September, the
team members took extensive notes on all aspects of life in
Gurupa and the collection contains the handwritten field
notebooks. A copy of the collection was donated to the Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi, of which the late Eduardo Galvao was the
director. For information on this or the recently published papers
of Dr. Wagley, please contact the University Archives, University
of Florida Libraries.
Four students completed their graduate work based on
research carried out through the ARTP. Wiltrud Roesch-Metzler
wrote a Master's thesis entitled "Project Ranchao: Semi-Directed
Colonization in the Brazillian Amazon" for a degree in Latin
American Studies. John F. Wilson received a Ph.D. in An-
thropology upon completion of his dissertation on "Ariquemes,
Rondonia:/Class and Settlement in a Brazilian Frontier Town."
John R. Butler also defended his dissertation in Anthropology on
"Land, Gold and Farmers: Agricultural Colonization and Frontier
Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon." Claudette A. Brooks
defended her Master's thesis on "Communication, Migration,
and Development in the Tropics: Diffusion of Cica-8 Rice Seed
and Other Technological Innovations for Farming in the Peruvian
Amazon" in the College of Journalism and Communication.
STUDENT ASSOCIATION FOR
LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES
The students of the CLAS are pleased to announce the
organization of a new student association which brings together
students at the University with an interest in Latin America. Since
the first meeting in October, more than 30 students laid the
groundwork for a permanent organization which will give
students a role in the Center's activities. The specific objectives of
the group are a student publications series, student sponsored
colloquia and community outreach. Already the outreach com-
mittee has conducted programs in two area high-schools and the
social committee organized a fundraising picnic for Colombian
disaster relief which raised over 300 dollars. The colloquium com-
mittee sponsored a Brazil roundtable on Nov. 25 featuring three
students who carried out research in Brazil last summer.
The officers for 1985-86 are Graham Webster, General
Secretary; Elizabeth Revell, Treasurer; and Diana Grayson,
Secretary. Dr. Marianne Schmink is the faculty advisor. SALAS
invites all students and faculty to participate in the activities plan-
ned for 1986; a newsletter and more student roundtable discus-
sions are scheduled. In addition there are several social events
planned to recruit new members and inform students about the
In June, 1985, the Outreach Program conducted the Summer
Institute on African and Latin American Studies. Stressing the
humanities through the themes of realism and fantasy, the pro-
gram was the most successful to date. Twenty participants were
selected from over 40 nation-wide applicants. Participating CLAS
faculty were J. Doyle Casteel (Education), Dale Olsen (Ethno-
musicology), John Scott (Art), Glaucio Soares (Sociology), and
Felicity T. Trueblood (English). Next summer's Institute will be
held from June 16-21, 1986, at the University of Florida. Co-
sponsors are the Center for African Studies and the Department
of Instruction and Curriculum.
The Center is continuing its efforts with Florida universities and
county school systems to integrate Latin American studies into
school curricula and teacher training programs. J. Doyle Casteel
works with William Martin at the University of West Florida, Lynn
Schwab at the University of North Florida and Wentworth Clarke
at the University of Central Florida. Casteel also cooperates with
local school districts. Workshops in Collier, Hillsborough,
Pinellas, Seminole and Volusia counties are projected for the
The Outreach Program has two new graduate assistants this
year. Liliana Campos, the Colloquium assistant, specializes in
Museum Studies/Conservation at CLAS and received her
undergraduate degree in Peru at the Universidad Nacional
Agraria. Joan Flocks, the Film Series assistant, specializes in Mass
Communications at CLAS and received her undergraduate
degree at UF.
The Outreach Program continues lending books, artifacts and
other materials to schools and other institutions through the Len-
ding Library, Traveling Suitcases and a traveling photo exhibit.
Newly available for loan is a video on Central American refugees
in Florida, "Maya in Exile" (VHS, color, 28 minutes, 1985). The
film was co-produced by CLAS faculty member Allan Burns (An-
thropology). For further information on Outreach, contact Dr.
Linda Miller, CLAS, 319 Grinter Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611.
This Fall's Colloquium series featured six films, 18 talks and
two guitar performances. Co-sponsors included the English
Department, Department of Romance Languages, the ARTP, the
JWRU Program Office and the Brazilian Portuguese Club.
Rina *Benmayor (Hunter College CUNY) and Nestor Otero
(Museo del Barrio) "Women in the Garment Industry" (Aug.
Gustavo Antonini (CLAS) and Leonard Zobler (Columbia
Univ.) "Taking the Measure of the Steeplands of Tropical
America for Development" (Sept. 10).
Film: "Los Olvidados" (Sept. 17).
James Malloy (Univ. of Pittsburgh) "The Transition to
Democracy, with Special Reference to Bolivia and Peru"
Cornelia Butler Flora (Univ. of Kansas) "Mass Culture and
Social Change: The Fotonovela in Latin America" (Sept. 26).
Terry McCoy (CLAS) "Latin America, Latin American Studies
and the University of Florida" (Sept. 30).
Film: "The Brazilian Connection" (Oct. 1)
Anthony Anderson (Museu Goeldi, Belem, Brazil) "Management
of Native Palm Forests for Food, Fiber and Fuel in the Eastern
Film: "Plantation Boy" (Oct. 15)
Parry Scott (Federal University of Pernambuco/Georgetown
Univ.) "Migration and Domestic Strategy in Brazil." (Oct. 17).
Helen Safa (CLAS) "The Central American Crisis and Its Impact
on the University." (Oct. 22)
John Scott (Art History) "The Social and Artistic Influences of
the Mexican Printmaker Posada." (Oct. 28)
Gary D. Sharp (Fisheries Science Advisor) "Climate and Fish-
eries: Cause and Effect" (Oct. 29).
Thomas Bruneau (McGill Univ.) "The Political Transition in
Brazil" (Oct. 31).
Gerald Murray (Anthropology) "Institutional and Village Pre-
requisites for a Successful Agroforestry Program, With
Specific Attention to Haiti" (Nov. 5)
Eugenio Gonzalo (University of Madrid) Classical Guitar Concert.
Film: "Lucia" (Nov. 12).
Paule Marshall (author of "Praisesong for the Widow") Talk on
her writing and childhood in a Caribbean immigrant community
Noe Jitrik (Argentine Literary Critic) "Tendencias Actuales de la
Narrativa Latino Americana" (Nov. 18).
Larry K. Laird (CLAS) "A Career in AID." (Nov. 21).
Betinho (Brazilian Guitarist) (Nov. 20).
Film: "Americas in Transition." (Nov. 26).
Carlos M. Vilas (CIDCA, Managua, Nicaragua) "Nicaragua and
the Atlantic Coast Program: Problems and Prospects" (Dec.
Film: "The New Underground Railroad" (Dec. 10).
Norman Lippman (Mayan Society of Saint Louis) "Tropical Rain-
forest Development: Problems and Possible Solutions in
Southern Mexico and Central America" (Dec. 11).
CENTER RECEIVES USDE FUNDING
The Center for Latin American Studies was again designated a
National Resource Center under a US Department of Education
program which provides federal funding to competitively selected
area studies centers throughout the US. CLAS was one of the
original recipients of federal funding and in the most recent com-
petition for the period 1985-1988, it received the second largest
grant awarded to individual Latin American programs.
MELLON CHALLENGE GRANT
The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has awarded the University
of Florida a $250,000 challenge grant for its Latin American
Studies program. UF President Marshall Criser has announced
that the University will respond to the challenge by raising funds
to endow an Eminent Scholar Chair in Latin American
Economics. The distinguished economist to occupy the endowed
chair will hold a joint appointment in the Center for Latin
American Studies and the Department of Economics.
LIBRARY TRAVEL GRANTS
The Center for Latin American Studies will again offer Library
Travel Grants for Summer 1986. Under a grant from the U.S.
Department of Education, four individual awards of up to $500
are made available to faculty members, researchers and advanced
graduate students at U.S. universities to expand access to the ex-
tensive resources of the Latin American Collection of the Univer-
sity of Florida Libraries. A letter of intent, a brief library research
proposal, travel budget and curriculum vitae must be received by
the Center no later than March 15, 1986. Awardees will be ex-
pected to present one informal seminar at the Center during their
residence and to complete their work in the Latin American Col-
lection by August 15, 1986. For more information contact Dr. Lin-
da Miller, CLAS, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.
SUMMER LANGUAGE PROGRAMS
The Center for Latin American Studies and the Office of Inter-
national Studies and Programs offer three summer study abroad
programs: a Spanish program in Bogota, Colombia, a Portuguese
program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and a cultural and language
program in Merida, Mexico. Interested students should contact
Patricia Rambo at the Office for International Studies and Pro-
grams (168 Grinter Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611), for information on costs and travel dates. Deadline for ap-
plications is March 1, 1986.
TINKER FIELD RESEARCH GRANTS
The Center for Latin American Studies applied for a third year
grant with the Tinker Foundation to support University of Florida
graduate student and junior faculty field research in Spanish and
Portuguese Latin America and in Spain and Portugal. Pending
award of the grant, the CLAS will open the competition in
February, 1986, for an end of March deadline. Applications must
include a short research proposal, budget, letter of recommenda-
tion and the completed application form. For information contact
Dr. Linda Miller, CLAS, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.
SUMMER COURSE IN HAITIAN CREOLE
The Center for Latin American Studies and the Department of
Romance Languages and Literatures announce an intensive
course in Haitian Creole will again be offered in Summer 1986.
Contact CLAS for information.
From August 30-September 27, the CLAS sponsored the ex-
hibit "Landscape of Labor and Love: Puerto Rican Women in the
Garment Industry." The exhibit featured an environmental con-
struction evoking the work of Puerto Rican women in the gar-
ment industry in New York and Puerto Rico. The exhibit was
organized by the Center for Puerto Rican Studies, Hunter Col-
lege, the City University of New York. "Posada: Works from the
Taylor Museum" was on display from October 28-November 29.
The exhibit is a collection of prints by the Mexican printmaker
Jose Guadalupe Posada portraying the lives and times of people
in late 19th century' Mexico. The CLAS and the Department of
Architecture sponsored an exhibit entitled "Stephens and Cather-
wood Revisited" from December 4-13. The exhibit combined il-
lustrations done in 1839 and 1840 by John Lloyd Stephens and
Frederick Catherwood of the Yucatan, Mexico with modern
photographs of the same sites by professor Hal Kemp of the
Department of Architecture. From January 10-February 7, the
CLAS will sponsor "Inside El Salvador", an exhibition of black
and white photography by 30 photojournalists on assignment for
Time, Life, Newsweek, The New York Times, Paris-Match and
Beginning with this issue of the Latinamericanist, the Alumni
Corner is expanding in order to focus on the career paths of
CLAS graduates. The Center is presently carrying out a self-study
which includes an assessment of its contribution to the lives and
careers of Center graduates. Special attention will be given to
those graduates from the Masters Program in Latin American
Studies (MALAS). As part of this evaluation, a letter was sent to
all Center graduates. Predictably, we were unable to locate a
large number, but with your help we are finding more and more
of our alumni. You can help by answering the letter and if you
didn't receive one, you can write to Dr. Glaucio Soares, 319
Grinter Hall, University of Florida 32611. You can also help us to
locate our alumni by sending us the last known addresses and
phone numbers that you have of MALAS students and those
who received certificates from the Center.
Here is the news on some of our alumni. If you want to con-
tribute something to forthcoming issues please write to the
Editor, Latinamericanist; 319 Grinter Hall.
James Lynn Buschman, Ph.D. in Education, is now Assistant
Director of Foreign Study at Kalamazoo College in Michigan. He
is also the director of three language houses (Spanish, French,
German) which are off-campus residences where students can
practice language skills through daily living. As a long-time
Brazilianist, he is pushing for a Portuguese house and a foreign
study program in Brazil.
Jane Collins, a MALAS student and a Ph.D. in Anthropology,
is teaching in the Department of Anthropology at the State
University of New York, Binghamton. She is currently working
with peasant coffee production and rural migration in Peru.
David Fleischer, Ph.D. in Political Science, was also a visiting
exchange professor at the CLAS in 1976. In May of this year he
was appointed chairman of the Department of Political Science
and International Relations at the University of Brasilia. He has
been elected to the University Council and was chosen to preside
over the electoral commission which supervised the elections for
Rector and Vice Rector. Fleischer also assumed a position as
political advisor to Senator Eneas Farin (PMDB-Parana), and is
working on the reelection campaign for 1986.
Francisco Perez-Luna, Ph.D. Geography 1984, is now an
economic planner for the US Embassy in the Dominican
Republic. The title of his dissertation was "A Dynamic Planning
Model for Small Farm Development: Some Applications in the
Azua Plain, Dominican Republic."
Gustavo Montanez, Ph.D. in Geography, completed his disser-
tation this year. The title was "Land Use, Soil Erosion and
Farmers Attitudes Toward Conservation: Basis for Land Manage-
ment Policies in the Las Cuevas Watershed, Dominican
Republic." Upon graduation, Montanez began working in Con-
servation and Natural Resource Planning at the Instituto
Geographico Augstin Codazzi in Bogota, Colombia.
NEWS AND NOTES
Carl S. Barfield, Professor of
Entomology/Nematology, acted as Program and
Local Arrangements chairman when the Florida
Entomological Society (FES) held its First Inter-
national Congress of Entomology in Ocho Rios,
Jamaica, Aug. 5-8. The purpose was to
strengthen scientific ties with Caribbean scien-
tists. The FES will continue these international
efforts once every 3-5 years.
Ruth K. Beesch, Assistant Professor of Art,
presented a lecture on the photographic exhibit
"The Andes of Peru" to the 1985 Summer In-
stitute on African and Latin American Studies.
Beesch also presented a lecture, "Art Museums
in the Southeast," to members of the United
States Studies Seminar on the American South:
Old and New, sponsored by the US Information
David Bushnell, Professor of History, attended
and presented a paper at the V Congesso de
Historia de Colombia, in Armenia, July 1985. A
new edition of Bushnell's El Regimen de San-
tander en la Gran Colombia has been published
by El Ancora Editores.
Doyle Casteel, Professor of Education, made a
presentation on "Using Photographs to Teach
History and Social Science: Cross-Cultural Ex-
amples," at the Florida Council for the Social
Studies annual meeting in Tallahassee.
Mary Garcia Castro, Doctoral student in
Sociology, participated in the Forum 85-UN
NGO conference in Nairobi during July. She was
invited'by the World Council of Churches to
coordinate a panel on "Women in Migration:
Organization and Solidarity." Castro was also in-
vited by the UN Fund for Population Activities to
be part of an international team for a needs
assessment study on population in Colombia.
Joseph H. Conrad, Professor and Coordinator
of the Tropical Animal Science Program, was
granted the International Animal Agriculture
Award at the recent meeting of the American
Society of Animal Science. Conrad also par-
ticipated in the preparation of a cattle develop-
ment proposal for the Litoral of Ecuador during
Julia G. Cruz, Assistant Professor of Romance
Languages and Literatures, has just finished a
translation of Rolando Hinojosa's novel, Fair
Gentlemen of Belken. It will be published by Bil-
ingual Review Press in early 1986.
Kathleen Deagan, Florida State Museum,
presented a paper at the 11th International Con-
gress on Archeology in the Caribbean entitled
"The Search for La Navidad in a Contact Period
Arawak Town in Haiti." Deagan also published
"The Archeology of 16th Century St.
Augustine." in the special issue of the Florida
Anthropologist, April, 1985.
E. C. French, North Florida Farming Systems
Research and Extension Project Leader, par-
ticipated in an evaluation of a CATIE/ROCAP
small farming systems project in July and
August. The evaluation team also included
Joseph H. Conrad, Professor of Animal
Science and FRE graduate student David
Zimet. The 5 year CATIE program is in Costa
Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Honduras, El
Salvador and Guatemala.
David Geggus, Associate Professor of History,
has completed his year as a Guggenheim Fellow,
undertaking research in France, Spain and North
America on the Haitian Revolution. Geggus
presented a paper in April to the Association of
Caribbean Historians Conference in Havana en-
titled "Jamaica and the Haitian Revolution."
Kathy Gladden, a graduate student in An-
thropology, received a Tinker grant to do
fieldwork last summer in Medellin, Colombia.
Her research topic is "The Role of the Female
Labor Force in the Industrial Development of the
Michael Wallace Gordon, Professor of Law,
lectured at the Max Plank Institute in Hamburg,
The University of Regensburg and the
Dusseldorf and Frankfurt chambers of com-
merce on investment in the Third World. Gordon
recently published an article in the Inter--
American Law Review entitled "Of Aspirations
and Operations: The Governance of Multina-
tional Enterprises by Third World Nations" and
he has a new book entitled "Comparative Legal
Traditions" published by West.
J. W. Hardy, Curator in Ornithology and
Bioacoustics, has co-authored a 23 page booklet
with accompanying cassette recordings of the
songs and calls of 66 of the 68 species of
thrushes known to breed in the western
hemisphere. A majority of these are native birds
of Latin America from Mexico to Argentina and
the Caribbean. Many species are to be heard for
the first time on this sound recording.
Robert Lawless, Associate Professor of An-
thropology, has a forthcoming article in the
Journal of Ethnic Studies on "Haitian Migrants
and Haitian-Americans: From Invisibility into the
Neill Macaulay, Professor of History, spent the
1985-85 academic year doing research in Lisbon,
Oporto and London on his forthcoming book
Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil
and Portugal, 1798-1834. Duke University Press
also brought out a new edition of Macaulay's
book, The Sandino Affair in September.
Pennie Magee, graduate student in An-
thropology, was in Arembepe, Brazil last sum-
mer. Her research is part of a project looking at
the effects of television in four Brazilian com-
munities. The project is funded by the National
Science Foundation and the National Institute of
Maxine Margolis, Professor of Anthropology,
acted as faculty advisor for the CLAS Summer
Portuguese Program in Rio de Janeiro. Seven-
teen students participated in the program run by
the Instituto Brasil-Estados Unidos.
Linda Miller, CLAS Assistant Director,
presented a paper on "Decentralization and
Bureaucratic Expansion in the Amazon: Women
in the Education Agencies" at the American An-
thropological Association Meetings in
Kerri-Anne Nolan, MALAS, was in Puerto
Cabezas, Nicaragua from May to July. She is
researching the problems of adaptation among
Miskito Indians displaced by the current war.
Anthony Oliver-Smith, Associate Professor of
Anthropology, did field work in Spain last sum-
mer on research entitled "Land and Labor in the
Wine Industry of La Rioja." Oliver-Smith also
presented a paper at the LASA meetings on
"Post-Disaster Change and Development in an
Andean Province of Peru" in the symposium
"Confronting Natural Hazards in Latin America's
Charles Perrone, Assistant Professor of
Romance Languages and Literatures, published
with Enylton de sa Rego, "MPB: Contemporary
Brazilian Popular Music" in the Brazilian Studies'
Curriculum Guide Series of the University of
New Mexico. Perrone also published an article in
the Latin American Music Review entitled "From
Noigandres to 'Milagre da Alegria': The Concrete
Poets and Contemporary Brazilian Popular
Robert N. Pierce, Professor Emeritus, Jour-
nalism, .served as a commentator at the 7th Con-
ference of Mexican and US Historians this
October in Oaxaca, Mexico.
Francis E. Putz, Assistant Professor of Botany,
is currently investigating the natural history of
strangler figs and other hemiepiphytes in
Venezuela. This winter, Putz will coordinate the
Organization for Tropical Studies course in Costa
Helen Safa, Anthropology and Latin American
Studies, attended the UN World Decade for
Women Conference in Nairobi, July 1985 and
the CSUCA tour of Central American Univer-
sities in August. Safa also participated in an
Argentine lecturing tour at various universities
discussing women-and development and she
was a co-organizer of the Wenner-Gren con-
ference on Women's Collective Action in
November. Women and Change in Latin
America, edited by Safa and June Nash, was
published by Bergin and Garvey.
Marianne Schmink, Assistant Professor,
CLAS, attended the International Congress of
Americanists in Bogota last July. She served as a
discussant during a two-day symposium entitled
"Las Politicas de Desarrollo Agrario en America
Latina y su Impacto Sobre la Mujer Rural:
Sintesis de la Decada." Schmink also par-
ticipated in Meetings of the "Working Group on
Amazonia" to plan activities leading to the crea-
tion of a Network of Amazon Research Centers
in Latin America. She has recently published
"Social Change in the Garimpo" in The Frontier
After a Decade of Colonization, John Hemming,
ed. and "The 'Working Group' Approach to
Women and Urban Services" in Ekistics,
Cecil N. Smith, Professor of Food and
Resource Economics, recently returned to
Gainesville after spending 18 months in Asun-
cion, Paraguay as economic advisor to the
Minifundio Project. In cooperation with the
Agency for International Development, the pro-
ject is designed to bring several hundred small
farmers into the commercial economy to pro-
duce and market fresh vegetables.
Nigel Smith, Assbciate Professor of
Geography, has published "Trees and Food for a
Hungry World" in Food Policy 10(1), and "The
Impact of Cultural and Ecological Change on
Amazonian Fisheries" in Biological Conserva-
Glaucio Ary Dillon Soares, Professor of Latin
American Studies and Sociology, chaired the
Special Committee on Politics in Redemocratiz-
ing Societies at the 13th World Congress of the
International Political Science Association in
Paris last July. Soares also presented a paper,
"Economic Development and Democracy in
Latin America: A Specificity Effect." In August
he acted as consultant to the recently created
Centro de Investigations Multidisciplinarias sobre
la Sociedad y la Culture in Cuernavaca, Mexico.
Maurice Williams, Florida State Museum, led
an expedition to Nueva Cadiz, Venezuela for
CEDAM International in October. The expedition
is a preliminary mapping and exploratory mission
at the site of Neuva Cadiz, a Spanish pearl
fishing station between 1502 and 1545. A part of
the site was previously excavated and the collec-
tions are at the Florida State Museum.
Charles A. Woods, Curator of Mammals (FSM)
and Professor of Zoology, announces that the
work on the biological inventory of the National
Parks of Haiti is now almost complete and the
final reports and documents on the management
plan for the parks will be presented in Port-au-
Prince in January, 1986. Another project is
underway in Jamaica in association with the
Hope Zoological Park in Kingston and the Jersey
Wildlife Preservation Trust (England) to rein-
troduce populations of Jamaica's endemic na-
tional mammal, the Indian Coney. Laurie
Wilkins, a graduate student in Latin American
Studies, will coordinate the project for FSM/UF.
The project is supported by Earthwatch.
HISTORICAL ARCHEOLOGY IN HAITI
The Florida State Museum Anthropology Department has just
completed its seventh year of fieldwork in Haiti at two Spanish
colonial sites. The first, Puerto Real, is a Spanish town establish-
ed in 1503 near present day Cap Haitien. The ongoing excavation
of the site is attempting to learn about the initial adaptations of
the Spaniards to Hispaniola, as well as the processes by which a
"Criolo" domestic cultural adaptation developed. This work is
currently being reported in a Ph.D. dissertation by Charles Ewen
(Anthropology, in prep), and in an MA thesis by Greg Smith (An-
Archeologists have also completed their fourth year of work at
the En Bas Saline site in Haiti. They believe that this was the
Arawak town of Guacanacaric, the chief who gave Columbus
refuge after the Santa Maria sank in 1492. Columbus built a small
fort named La Navidad in the town, which was occupied by 39
Spaniards for a year. Currently, the search is for the burned re-
mains of the fort structure, and to learn about the Arawaks of
Haiti both on the eve of their destruction, and in the process of
decline. A monograph by Kathleen Deagan and Maurice Williams
is in preparation.
The Department also completed its 14th field season in St.
Augustine during the Spring semester, through the archeological
field school. The site of one of the very earliest European
establishments in North America was discovered at the Fountain
of Youth Park in St. Augustine, believed to be one of the 1565 or
1566 fort/settlements of Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Work will be
continuing there to chronicle this very early-and first successful-
encounter of Spaniards with the North American continent. The
work will be reported in a MA thesis by Ed Cheney (An-
COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE CARIBBEAN PROJECT
For the fourth consecutive year, the College of Architecture
has conducted the "Preservation Institute: Caribbean" (PI:C)
program. After three years in Puerto Rico, the program was held
this year on the University of Florida campus, from June 17
through August 9, attracting a record attendance of 33 par-
ticipants representing 10 countries of the Circum Caribbean
region. 24 of these students completed PI:C 1, the introductory
course of the Institute, while 9 students completed a more ad-
vanced course, PI:C 2.
The College of Architecture has received a second grant from
the United States Information Agency (USIA) for a University Af-
filiation Program with a Latin American Nation. The first affilia-
tion program, funded by the USIA in 1984, is currently underway
with a Dominican institution, the Universidad Nacional Pedro
Henriquez Urena. The newly funded affiliation program, schedul-
ed to run from January, 1986 through December, 1988, is with
the Universidades Francisco Marroquin and Rafael Landivar, both
located in Guatemala City, Guatemala.
U. S. Postage
Permit No. 94
Latin American Studies
319 Grinter Hall
Address Correction Requested
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611