-Z .4 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA VOLUME 18 NUMBER 3
CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES JUNE 83
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA CHRISTINE HORAK, EDITOR
THE AMERICAS IN THE NEW INTERNATIONAL
DIVISION OF LABOR
April 7-8, 1983
32nd Annual Conference of the
t Center for Latin American Studies
The Americas in the New International Division of Labor was tries in the hemisphere, and the dynamic comparative advantage
the theme of the 32nd annual confrence of the Center for Latin traditionally enjoyed by the United States in consumer manufacAmerican Studies at the University of Florida. Held at the J. Reitz tures are all open to new examination. Likewise, demographic Union on April 7 and 8, 1983, the conference was organized by and sectoral requirements of the economy encourages the use of Steven Sanderson, Associate Professor of Political Science and a different labor force, less organized, more mobile, in many inHelen 1. Safa, Director of the Center for Latin American Studies. stances cheaper, and certainly not "entitled" to participation in Conference participants included leading scholars in the areas of programs under the rubric of social welfare and services. For migration, labor and industry, agriculture and the New these reason and others, the United States economy engages
International Division of Labor. The four panels presented at the Jamaican cane-cutters and Central American vegetable-pickers in X conference dealt with the impact of the growing mutual Florida; undocumented agricultural and service sector workers
economic, and social intergration on the nations in the Americas. from Mexico in the U.S. Southwest and in many metropolitan An edited volume is now in preparation which will bring together centers of the country; and Mexican and Caribbean garment a selection of conference papers. assemblers in the "informal" sweatshops of Los Angeles, San
InrdcoyRemarks Francisco and New York. These reasons also apply, interestingly,
Introdctoryto the employment of Guatemalan migrant labor in coffee plantaIn the current world crisis of political economy, it hardly seems tions in southern Mexico; Colombian migrants in Venezuela; or
debatable that there are fundamental structural changes trans- Haitian cane-cutters in the Dominican Republic.
forming the ways goods are produced, consumed, exchanged, These processes of internationalization, whether in the form of
k and distributed. It has long been recognized that "world markets" direct foreign investment in agribusiness, migrating labor forces,
exist for primary goods, certain kinds of technology, manufac- or export processing in manufactures, create systemic pressures tures, and labor processes. Those world markets are not only on trade policy, investment regulations, immigration policy, and represented by world prices for many goods, but by "worldwide rural development designs. The Mexican food self-sufficiency sourcing" for finished manufactures, "global strategies" of in- plan, the British West Indies contract labor program in the U.S., tegrated international enterprises, and the "internationalization" the Border Industralization Program in the Southwest, and the reof national economics unprecedented in history. cent Reagan administration Caribbean Basin Initiative are only
The Americas represent a living, changing example of the some of the most obvious examples of the many-faceted impact
dynamic by which changing productive relationships mold a new of the new international division of labor and its relation to nainternational division of labor, with social impact extending even tional policy-making throughout the Americas.
beyond the hemisphere. In the Caribbean, "offshore industries" Most analysts agree in general that the new international diviemploy local labor at lower cost than their U.S. and European sion of labor has something to do with the structural transformacounterparts. In Mexico, the border industries or mquiladoras tion of the world economy, which has been recognized since the produce manufactured goods in-bond, using a binational model wave of recessions and crises beginning in the early 1970s. Many of industrial organization which circumvents traditional trade bar- of these interpretations focus on trade, especially on "export platriers. In the Brazilian Amazon, agricultural development and forms," and imply that the international division of labor is new export processing activities repesent the heart of an principally for its reversal of the traditional division of labor in the
internationally-oriented government growth program, in which international system.
the participation of international, state, and local capital coin- Another interpretation of the new international division of labor cides. Within the United States itself, free trade zones have been emphasizes the internationalization of the world economy as a created to facilitate the worldwide sourcing of regionally produc- function of the expansion of capital, and its valorization and ed or consumed goods through commercial port facilities. Other reproduction at a global level. This understanding of the new inregional examples abound. ternational division of labor incorporates much of the logic of the
The impact of the changing strucure of the Americas in the earlier studies of multinational or transnational capital based on
new international division of labor is evident in the current U.S. the gains from and institutional imperatives for expansion, and economy. The character of employment in the industrial similar conventional models explaining the internationalization of
Northeast, the composition of agricultural trade with other coun- the world economy through the expansion of production itself.
This conception further suggests however, that the multinational on particular products as the determinants of the global structure corporation is merely an agent-albeit perhaps the most impor- of production. tant one-of a process of international integration that crosses The descriptive and prescriptive character of the early theories sectors and transcends mere trade relations or the power of a of international trade provided an analytical justification for single firm. preserving the inherited geographic distribution of production.
This is not to say that the internationalization of production The southern part of the planet was condemned, in this arrangeeliminates concepts of nation and national economy, but it does ment, to primary and limited enclave production while the core suggest that a proper research strategy for understanding the countries continued to advance in the development of an incharacter of the new international division of labor involves the dustrial structure. The theory reflected the prevailing distribution discovery of the specific mechanics of national insertion into the of power, justifying the "optimality" of the situation by arguing international economy. Rather than considering domestic that this would lead to lower costs for all participants in a world development policy and disequilibria to be phenomena of a closed system characterized by free trade and mobility of capital. national system, and far from considering such dynamics to be In this setting the primary producers participated in world trade the simple product of traditional models of dependency and im- as dominated partners. In many cases the commodities they experialism, the most sophisticated proponents of the new inter- ported were not produced within capitalist productive relations national division of labor as an explanatory element in the current and their international relations were peripheral to, although exworld political economy argue that both North and South are af- ploitative of, their relatively closed internal structures; some profected in contradictory and complex ways by their mutual and duction and circulation responded to the demands and logic of a lasting integration, capitalist world even though the societies themselves were not
This introduction to the New International Division of Labor capitalist. In fact, the whole structure of international economic was presented by Steven Sanderson, Associate Professor of relations was tangential or even secondary to the internal Political Science and co-organizer of the 32nd annual conference. coherence and dynamics of capitalist accumulation; international trade was, in fact, the exchange of commodities between counConference Proceedings tries who economics were not articulated, where capitalist
THEOETICL OIENTTIOS TOARDdevelopment and cyclical movements in one region did not uniTHEEA ORIENTION S TFLAOWRD quely determine what was happening elsewhere. The early
CHATHE Mra neW DIVISION CnefoF LtnAOricnSuis theories of world trade, then, correctly reflected the disarticulated
CHAI: Mriane Shmik, entr fo Lain merian tudes, nature of international economic relations. These theories conPRIN iPAL it SPEAKEra tinue to be unable to identify or analyze the impact which
PRINIPALSPEAERS:capitalist expansion in the twentieth century was having on the David Barkin, Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Third World, an impact which was to finally force the capitalist
Metropolitana y Centro de Ecodesarrollo, Mexico City. world system which now dominates international economic rela"Global Protelarianization: An Alternative Approach to the tions.
New International Division of Labor." This is the complex situation which has provoked a new field of
Saskia Sassen-Koob, Department of Sociology, Queens study: the new international division of labor. Clearly for those
College and The Graduate School, City University of New who examine international trade and specialization in terms of York. specific commodity flows and their locality, the composition and
"The Internationalization of the Labor Force in the volume of international trade has been dramatically altered. For Americas." others who examine the phenomenon with greater detail the
Steven E. Sanderson, Department of Political Science, changes are more difficult to characterize as a substantial part of Univrsit ofFlorda.the trade in manufactured parts and finished products, which is Universt ofw Floernida iaino giclueih characterized as international simply because it crosses national
"TherNwInentinlzainofArcutr.i"h boundaries, must be reevaluated since it really is only an exchange of products within a single INC. The result is these conCOMMENATOR:siderations is a burgeoning literature and whole new study proRobert H. Girling, Department of Management and grams within international organizations as part of the wideEconomics, California State University, Sonoma. spread efforts to understand the changing nature of North-South
The following is an excerpt from Dr. Barkin's paper
David Barkin Faculdad Autonoma
Metropolitana y Centro
GLOBAL PROLETARIANIZATION: AN ALTERNATIVE*
APPROACH TO THE NEW INTERNATIONAL
DIVISION OF LABOR
Traditionally, the international division of labor has been
described in terms of geographic differences in commodity production. This literature has often been used to justify the preservation of the existing set of productive relations between classes
and nations: some areas were predestined to become advanced
industrialized producers while others were condemned to be
primary producers. With the passing of time and the development of capitalism's productive forces this approach has become
increasingly unacceptable as some countries have successfully
broken the fetters of underdevelopment and virtually all of the
others claim to be trying to do the same. It is now obvious that
capitalism offers promises of great productive potential and the
internationalization of capital has effectively spread the newU social relations of capitalist production to all parts of the world.
With the transformation of the social relations of production, a
new approach to the problem of the international division of labor .Robert M. Bryan, Vice-President for Academic Affairs addresses opening is called for -one that focuses on these new relations rather than session
A new pattern of international trade is emerging accompanied Direct foreign investment can be conceived of as a mediating by numerous problems created by growing protectionism among .strudture, one that operates indirectly and in a highly complex the traditional producers which seriously threatens the viability of manner both ideologically and structurally. The 1,000% direct inthe modernization programs in many Newly Industrialized Coun- crease in foreign investment going to developing countries from tries. The problems arise because the structural characteristics of 1950 to 1980 and mostly concentrated in a few of these, creates the new industrialization programs are quite similar to modern various kinds of linkages with the capital sending country(s). The segments of sectors already firmly entrenched in the advanced high degree of concentration of the employment effects in countries as a result of the process of standardization- manufacturing and in a few mobilization effects has been pardifferentiation discussed above. Industrial redeployment, as it has ticularly strong in those countries where investment has to a large been called, has promoted the establishment of consumer goods extent been export-oriented because of its highly labor-intensive industries in the NICs in place of less efficient productive opera- characteristics and because of its concentration in countries lacktions in their former sites. Furthermore, new consumer products ing a large, complex economy. This "new industrialization" has and markets in the Third World are often simply copies of already generated domestic and international migrations within the established counterparts elsewhere. Thus, Third World develop- regions. Eventually these may overflow into long-distance migrament, as it is currently proceeding, does not offer a new range of tions. Such migrations have been found to contribute to the products in world trade but rather a more complex siting of the disruption of traditional, often unwaged, employment structures. production of existing commodities, with new markets and a This disruption minimizes the possibility of returning if laid off or vastly expanded international proletariat, unsuccessful in the job search. Furthermore, the available
evidence shows a large mobilization of young women into waged
labor, women who under other conditions would not have
The following is an excerpt from Dr. Sassen-Koob's paper entered waged employment. This has an additional distruptive efSaskia Sassen-Koob Queens College, fect on traditional -employment structures, notably household
City University production for internal consumption or local markets. The
of New York mobilization of young women into waged-labor has also been
THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE found to contribute to unemployment and to male emigration.
LABOR FORCE IN THE AMERICAS Finally, the widespread practice of firing these new, mostly
female, workers after a few years also adds to a pool of potential
The expansion of export manufacturing and export agriculture, emigrants. These women, left employed and Westernized may both inseparably related with direct foreign investment from the have few options but emigration. highly industralized countries, has mobilized new segments of the
population into regional and long-distance migrations. One key
process mediating between the introduction of these modern
forms of production and the formation of labor migrations is the The following is an excerpt from Dr. Sanderson's paper disruption of traditional work structures. The mechanisms involv- Steven Sanderson University of Florida
ed are quite different in the case of export manufacturing from THE NEW INTERNATIONALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE those in commercial agriculture. While in the latter there is a IN THE AMERICAS
direct displacement of small farmers who are left without means
of subsistence, in export manufacturing this disruption is When we speak of the agricultural internationalization of the mediated by a massive recruitment of young women into newly Americas, we must specify that not all countries are equally relecreated jobs. This feminization of the new industrial workforce vant, either in a productive or trade dimension. Seven countries promotes emigration among males, both directly and indirectly, in Latin America dominate the production and trade profile of the There is now a female labor supply competing for jobs with men, region; the GDP of Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Venezuela, Coloma supply that did not exist only a few years ago. An indirect bia, Peru and Chile accout for nearly 90 percent of the regional emigration inducement among males results from the disruption total. Likewise, these same countries account for four-fifths of of traditional work structures: with the massive departure of regional exports and 88 percent of gross debt. As we would exyoung women there is a reduction in the possibilities of making a pect from the thesis that the New International Division of Labor living in many of these rural areas. is not simply a function of trade dependence, none of these counThough these developments are not necessarily a function of tries has an extremely high reliance on the external sector of its foreign investment per se, it seems important to emphasize the economy, relative to the rest of the region. Brazil and Mexico presence of such investment. First, because in the absence of show the lowest level of reliance on their external sectors of any such investment the large-scale development of export manufac- economies in Latin America. Among these countries, only turing and export agriculture could not have occurred. Here I Mexico shows great vulnerability to the U.S., due to its extraorwant to repeat again, that foreign investment stands for a variety dinary reliance on bilateral trade as a proportion of its total foreign of arrangements, some involving direct ownership, others con- commerce; the other countries have rather more diversified sisting of subcontracting with domestic producers, and yet markets, less trade reliance on the U.S., and relatively high levels others being simply foreign buying groups. The key is that these of intra-regional trade. developing countries could not have penetrated the export The clear agricultural leaders among the seven nations are market in the absence of these arrangements with foreign. in- Brazil and Mexico, followed by Argentina, Colombia and Peru. vestors with access to those markets. Second, because the Brazil and Mexico are both major producers of coffee, soya and presence of such investment creates cultural-ideological and ob- citrus, as well as hides and leather goods, sugar, and meat. jective links with the countries providing this capital. And these Argentina, of course, is well known as a major world contributor are of course largely the highly industrallized countries which have of wheat and beef, and produces coarse grains, maize, sugar and also been major recipients of immigration from the less developed a growing volume of soybeans for the international market. Colcountries. Besides the long recognized westernization effect of ombia is a growing producer of beef, a major exporter of coffee, large-scale foreign investment in the less developed world, there and has contributed to regional exports of sugar, bananas, and is the more specific impact on workers employed in production cotton as well in recent years. Peru provides a broad range of for export to highly developed countries. These workers can easi- agricultural crops to the international system, as well, though its ly see that they are capable of using their labor power in the pro- prominence as an exporter of a single crop is less. Nevertheless, duction of goods and services demanded by people and firms in Peru has participated significantly in sugar, fishmeal and cotton the U.S. or any other highly developed country. The distance bet- exports, among other crops and primary goods. ween a job in the off-shore plant or office and in the on-shore The political consequences of the industrialization of plant or office is subjectively reduced. Under these conditions -'agriculture in general and the reliance on rural production for emigration may begin to emerge as an option. cheap food include a deepening relationship with the forces
militating toward a greater internationalization of Latin American stitution Industrialization to Neo-Liberal Authoragriculture. In the first place, Latin American economies iR the itarianism."
1970s became greater importers of basic foodstuffs than ever Christopher Scott, Department of Economics, London
before. Mexico, of course, is the classic case, in which one of the School of Economics and Political Science, London, most modern agricultural systems in the Third World increasingly England
finds itself unable to feed its population basic foods. But Brazil, "Transnational Corporations and Asymmetrics in the Venezuela and Colombia also have fallen into import-dependent Latin American Food Supply."
positions for basic foods, at least partly due to the industrial shift COMMENTATOR: in agricultural growth and the inattention of state policy toward
supports for the producer of basic foodstuffs. Such import- Rene Lemarchard, Department of Political Science,
dependence in the basic foods and agroindustrial raw materials Universit of Florida.
areas puts great strain on economies suffering trade and
payments imbalances since 1974.
Second, agroindustries have become increasingly important to
the growth and trade plans of the region's economies. Since the The following is an excerpt from Drs. de Janvry's and Crouch's beginning of import-substitution one of the goals of Latin paper American economic growth plans has been satisfied and infant Alain de Jan vry University of California
industries have matured. "Export substitution" became even Luis Crouch Berkeley
more important in the 1970s, partly because of the "oil shock" of LATIN AMERICAN AGRICULTURE: FROM IMPORT 1973-74, and the efforts of regional economies to diversify ex- "SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIALIZATION
ports in an epoch of wildly fluctuating primary commodity prices. TO NEO-LIBERAL AUTHORITARIANISM And, in the cases of our country examples, as well as in Chile,
Costa Rica, and other nations of Latin America, manufactured In the 1970's a series of bureaucratic-authoritarian (BA) (see exports began to play an increasingly important role in the trade Collier) governments in the Southern Cone of Latin America put bill. While Mexico suffered somewhat from an overvalued ex- an end to the last remnants of the populist-based import substituchange rate, and Brazil wavered after 1974's oil shock crippled tion industrialization (ISI) policies. Whereas all BA governments the growth "miracle," all of the countries considered increased have been noted for an extreme tendency toward lack of civil their total exports of manufactures as a proportion of traded rights and severe state control over the political process, only the goods. Not surprisingly, given the arguments forwarded earlier, government installed by the earlier Brazilian coup (1964) has tendfoodstuff manufactures led the way, pulling the external sectors ed toward interventionism in the economic sphere. In conof Latin America-and their local rural suppliers-deeper into the tradistinction, the BA coups of the 1970's (Chile and Uruguay in internationalization experience. 1973, Argentina in 1976), were characterized by marked attempts
Unsurprisingly, given the mutual nature of the internationaliza- to "free" the economy to the rule of market forces. There have tion of American agriculture, some of these agroindustrial pro- been relatively non-authoritarian attempts to install neo-liberal cesses and agribusiness activities threaten jobs in developed policies, as in Peru recently. Thus, in order to isolate thecases we capitalist countries. To the extent that such threats are politically are interested in from both Brazil and Peru, we will speak of unacceptable to consumer countries, tariff barriers and non-tariff Neoliberal Authoritarianism (NA). restrictions to trade became part of the North-South agenda in These neo-liberal attempts were not altogether new, of course, Latin American foreign relations with the developed capitalist even in the history of these three countries. Indeed, during the ISI countries. While agriculture remains the single area of tariff pro- period, there were intermittent periods when various governtection inviolate before the advances of the GATT, Europe and ments, inspired or coerced by international bodies, attempted to the United States will hardly soften restrictions limiting the exter- free the economies to some extent. These attempts were usually nal vulnerability of Latin American agriculture and related in- not thorough, and in any case were short-lived, usually succumbdustries. Recent evidence of such protectionism has surfaced in ing to popular and interest-group pressures. The economic the case of Mexican tomatoes, and Latin American beef and policies enacted by the NA governments of the 1970's, however,
sugar throughout the region. were so ferociously defended at the political level, that they have
At the heart of these external relationships, however, are more had the depth and duration necessary to take effect. The important domestic development problems for Latin American resulting situation, especially in cases such as Chile, where the states. Thegrowth of the agroindustrial complex has threatened contrast is most marked, provides economists with an almost peasant survival and undercut the production of basic foodstuffs laboratory-iike situation in which to study the effects of liberalizain a rural social setting that is self-sustaining. Imbedded in this tion and free trade regimes on the economies of these countries. growth dynamic is the evaporation of remunerative rural employ- It seems clear today that the agrarianist ideology of the proment, the mass migration of the peasantry to the cities or to the ponents of NA was based on a misunderstanding as to the effects borders, the decline in peasant nutrition (especially among the of ISI on agriculture. It had been thought that ISI policies had elderly and preschool children), regional shortages in the labor been overwhelmingly disfavorable to agriculture in general. But force stimulating migration (from Colombia to Venezuela, from we have shown that the removal of those policies did not have a Haiti to the Dominican Republic, from Oaxaca, Mexico, to the generalized positive impact on agriculture. The logical explanaPacific Northwest or the Imperial Valley of California), and other tion is that ISI policies did not necessarily have only negative permanent destabilizers of rural development, effects on agriculture. Many agricultural sub-sectors were subsidized, or the industries using the agricultural output was subAGRICULTURAL GROWTH, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, sidized. There were government marketing mechanisms that may
AND THE NEW INTERNATIONAL DIVISION OF LABOR have depressed prices-but they also stabilized them. There was
customs disprotection, but there was also highly favorable credit
CHAIR: Carlton Davis, Department of Food and Resource policy. Increasing incomes for the working class created bouyant
Economics, University of Florida markets for the outputs of wage goods producers. This is not to
PRINCIPAL SPEAKERS: say that ISI policies were favorable to agriculture, of course. The
Ruth Rama, Facultad de Economia, Universidad point is that they probably were less unfavorable than the
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. monetarists have argued, and that, in any case, the effects of the
"The Internationalization of Agriculture, Commerce policies were by no means generalizable to the sector as a whole.
and Agrarian Crisis in Mexico." A crop-specific analysis reveals a tendency for ISI to disfavor less,
Louis Crouch, Department of Agricultural and Resource and in some cases actually favor, crops produced by peasant proEconomics, University of California, Berkeley. ducers and in family farms. This in in keeping with what is known
"Latin American Agriculture: From Import' Sub- to be the class basis of ISI.
It also turns out that even the authoritarian political leaders TNCs are beyond the market in the long run, and it may be exhave been unwilling to let the economies sink into depression pected that trends in prices for internal transactions will be deterlong enough for the free market to work its magic. Nor have they mined by relative scarcities. been willing to totally give up control over their economies to the A transactions approach was helpful in clarifying the specificity vagaries of the international marketplace, as would be mandated of production contracting and identifying the circumstances in by a true reading of classical liberalism. Thus, the structural con- which it was likely to occur. Four types of potential static market straints discovered and explained by the ideologues of ISI have asymmetry in the relations between processor and grower were reasserted themselves, and even under NA there is a return to suggested: monopsonistic exploitation, monitoring of production overvaluation, inflationary policies, etc. Structural constraints contracts, incomplete specifications of production contracts, and such as imperfection in capital markets, refusal of cash holders to crop-specific access to credit and agricultural extension. lower their inflationary expectations fast enough, and others, As regards dynamic market asymmetries, no data were were not considered important in the monetarist world. These im- available to test for the presence of ratchet price effects due to perfections in capital markets led to extraordinarily high and oligopoly nor was there any information on the distribution of stable interest rates, in spite of complete openness to inter- gains from technical change in different segments of the food national capital. The monetarist policies ended up discriminating chain. Nevertheless, four other types of potential dynamic market not against the inefficient, but against those with no access to asymmetry were identified: quality control as a market clearing international credit. When the pressure from these and other mechanism, product-specific asset fixity amongst growers, structural constraints made itself felt again, it was in an economic technology transfer versus deskilling, and a secular trend in the environment which had been stripped of the institutions which bargaining power of processor and growers over time. ISI policies had erected as a response to the constraints. Thus, Finally, it should be stressed that neither static nor dynamic there was overvaluation, but without the benefit of compensating market asymmetries between grower and processor require the cheap credit. By the late 1970's the list of agricultural sub-sectors latter to be foreign owned or controlled. Both types of asymmetry benefited by NA had become small indeed. may be present when the processing plant is in the hands of local
In terms of rural welfare NA has been a total failure, which capital could have been expected. What is more surprising is that the
output and accumulation performance has been meager relative LABOR AND INDUSTRY IN THE NEW
to what one could have expected on the basis of the defense of INTERNATIONAL DIVISION OF LABOR
monetarist policy. Above all, the results have been extremely CHAIR: Mark Rosenberg, Latin American and Caribbean Center, uneven across classes and in time, with a clear bias in favor of Florida International University large, well-connected landowners, and having produced a
boomlet in the years immediately after the coups, which in most PRINCIPAL SPEAKERS: crops quickly faded. Maria Patricia Fernandez, Visiting Fellow, Program in
U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California, San
The following is an excerpt from Dr. Scott's paper "Contemporary Production: Seven Features and
Christopher Scott London School of Economics June Nashlepateto.nhoplgTeCt
and Political ScienceJueNsDprmnofAtoolgTeCy
TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND ASYMMETRICS College, City University of New York.
IN THE LATIN AMERICAN FOOD SUPPLY "Segmentation of the Work Process in the International Division of Labor."
This paper which is concerned with the relationship between Louis Goodman, Latin American Program Associate,
transnational corporations (TNCs) and markets in the Latin Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars,
American food system is situated within the institutionalist tradi- The Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. tion of development economics. More specifically, my aims are "Notes on Transnational Corporations as Detertwo-fold. Firstly, a transactional framework is outlined for identi-miatofD anfrLbr.
fying and explaining the presence of asymmetries in national andmiatofD anfrLbr.
international food chains where TNCs may be present. Different COMMENTATOR: types of asymmetry are distinguished in the context of a world Dr. Helen Safa, Center for Latin American Studies
economy increasingly integrated by means of both markets and University of Florida.
hierarchies. Secondly, this general framework is used to analyse a
specific transactional form which appears to be of increasing
importance as a link between TNCs and agricultural producers in The following is an excerpt from Dr. Fernandez's paper the region, namely production contracting. The analysis com-MaiPtrcaFnndzUvesyofClona plements my earlier work on the determinants of foreign invest- Mari ParcaFradzU iestyofClori
ment in the Latin American food industry, and on comparative CONTEMPORARY PRODUCTION: SEVEN
advantage versus food security as agricultural development FEATURES AND ONE PUZZLE
criteria for the region (Scott, 1981, and forthcoming).
This paper has attempted to apply conventional economic During the 1960's a new strategy for the intensification of intheory to the analysis of food chains in Latin America in an at- vestments, the reduction of production costs, and the diversificatempt to achieve a more precise understanding of the extent and tion of political and economic risks was inaugurated. The same nature of any asymmetries which may exist. A transnational events allowed for the emegence of Export Processing Zones framework proved useful for indicating how asymmetric en- (EPZS), World Market Factories and Maquiladoras throughout dowments of information can lead either to market failure (and Asia, parts of Latin America, the Caribbean and, increasingly, thence to direct foreign investment), or to successful market Africa. operation if an appropriate form of contract can be devised by the Now there are almost 200 EPZs operating in Less Developed parties concerned. This framework suggested the distinction be- Countries with a work force which approximates 3,000,000. tween market and hierarchical asymmetries and provided the However, stark figures provide only part of the picture. The rise in basis for identifying different types of market asymmetry. importance of Export Processing Zones is but one of the indicaTransfer pricing in international but intra-firm trade in tions of international economic restructuring. It foreshadows foodstuffs is the most obvious example of hierarchical asym- tendencies that exist both in light and heavy industry. EPZs and metry, but is likely to be of diminishing importance because of na- other similar strategies have offered corporations an untionalisation, joint ventures and State marketing boards in -preceented range of economic and political alternatives. Thanks developing countries. Furthermore, it is by no means clear that to advancement in communications, transportation, technology,
and the rationalization of labor processes, it is now possible for (Gorz 1982). I shall trace the effects of global integration of firms capital to cross borders freely to benefit from holiday programs on the categories of workers differentiated by both achieved designed by host governments to lure foreign investments in ex- (training and education) and ascribed (sex, age, and race) criteria.
port manufacturing. In this paper I shall question the periodization of managerial
The results of offshore production have been felt at both ends strategy and raise questions about work force segmentation that of the geopolitical spectrum. While central economies increasing- focuses only on the workplace. By analyzing the interplay betly become the locus of technological development, financial ween differentiation of status and role defined in the household outflows, specialized services and centralized decisions over and community and the division of labor in the workplay, I hope global production, peripheral and semniperipheral countries to gain a more dynamic sense of the emerging consciousness of become the sources of manufactured goods. In this sense off- workers and the managerial strategies. The current deshore assembly represents both a break with the past and the industralization is destroying the privileged position of the beginning of a new mode of insertion of central and peripheral "primary" workforce at the same time that it is eliminating the countries into the world's productive system. production processes organized by unions. As these formerly
It is one of the central contentions of this essay that this new privileged workers fall into the ranks of the "secondary" articulation of core and periphery cannot be adequately workforce or that of the unemployed, the relationships among
understood without an analysis of the part played by gender in members sharing the same household are changed. the reorganization of the international economy. Thus, toward Recent analyses of the labor process treat the managerial the end of this paper I pause to consider the issue of feminization, strategies of debasement (or homogenization) and segmentation My argument is that this term may be understood in two distinct as successive stages in a historical trajectory. This may be adebut related ways. On the one hand, contemporary production has quate when one focuses only on the advanced sectors of brought about an impressive growth of female employment in monopoly capitalism. But when we include the other sectors of direct manufacturing in Less Developed Countries. Indeed, be- production that coexist in all industralized countries- "core" as tween 85 and 90 per cent of those employed in Export Processing well as "periphery" -we find quite different labor processes in Zones are women, the majority of whom are young and single. competitive capitalist enterprises, in government, and in the At the same time, in advanced industrial countries, a growing domestic or household arena where goods and services are still number of women become part of the new service economy. produced. Patriarchal policies, far from being relegated to
There are invisible but powerful connections between these two marginal enterprises in the contemporary labor market, continue groups. The remarkable array of electronic paraphernalia to define the entry into most production jobs in monopoly assembled by women in Third World Export Processing Zones, capitalist enterprises. These policies are often promoted by trade later on become the tools handled by clerks, word processor unions in the interest of restricting competition to the primary specialists, typists, and secretaries in core nations. The majority workforce (Hartman 1976). Furthermore these same analysts of these are also women. tend to take the spectrum of jobs as a given. But, as we have
But an analysis on feminization must go beyond notice of seen particularly in off-shore operations, the organization of work women's increasing participation in the labor markets of central presupposes differential advantages in the labor market and the and peripheral economies. We must also consider another fact. A job structure is designed to take advantage of these. growing number of jobs in countries like the United States are ac- Segmentation of jobs and of the labor force channeled into quiring characteristics formerly associated with female employ- them is not a new phenomenon. Differentiation between a core ment. More and more workers of both sexes are now holding jobs of preferentially treated workers and a temporary, lower paid which call for minimum levels of skill, provide comparatively low group usually assumed to be less skilled has been characteristic of wages and offer limited possibilities for promotion. These jobs are industrialization since its origin. While in nineteenth century texfrequently temporary, unstable and bereft of the benefits attach- tile and shoe mills segmentation was based on differential skills ed in the recent past to male blue-collar employment, and job seniority in the same firm. Large corporations with multiHowever we define feminization, it is clear that only by gaining ple branches within the nation and overseas attracted a preferred a better understanding of gender will we be able to move beyond workforce with higher wages and benefits won by unionized description and towards a more profound explanation of contem- shops. Competitive firms in industry and services draw upon porary production. Such an objective cannot be fulfilled in these women and ethnically discriminated workers. These sectors are pages. However, the reader is invited to consider gender as a differentially affected by the current depression. consequence and a process, rather than as an attribute of individuals, and to judge the relevance of this exercise for the The following is an excerpt from Dr. Goodman's paper elaboration of a comprehensive analysis of contemporary produc- Louis Goodman Woodrow Wilson
NOTES ON TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS
The following is an excerpt from Dr. Nash's paper AS DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND FOR LABOR
June Nash City University The "transnationality" of many of the world's largest corporaof New York tions has aroused both fears and hopes regarding their impact on
SEGMENTATION OF THE WORK PROCESS IN THE global welfare. The employment effects of transnational corporaINTERNATIONAL DIVISION OF LABOR tions in both industrialized and developing countries has been
With the growing trend toward capital mobility in the inter- widely questioned, but with scant consensus. The extremes of national economy and the concommitant deindustrialization of opinions might be characterized as the "hopefuls" and the "fearold industrial center in the United States, patterns of labor fuls." segmentation are in flux. The control that managers have exercis- The "hopefuls" hypothesize that TNCs are an important source ed throughout the twentieth century in defining the job and of job creation. They tie their argument to the flag of efficiency. determining who will enter it was a corrolary of corporate In the "hopeful" view TNCs combine capital, technology, knowcapitalism, how, material and labor so efficiently that the cost of these comSocial historians and economists have defined three major bined factors of production is far less than the value of the resultransitions: (1) the shift from craft to routinized (jobs that Braver- tant output. The TNC secret according to the "hopefuls" is to man (1974) analyzed in terms of the debasement of labor;) (2) the find ways to utilize relatively more of cheap and abundant factors shift from a "homogenized to segmentedi labor force" (that Gor- of production and relatively less of expensive and scarce ones. don, Reich and Edwards (1972, 1982) have developed from For TNC operations in developing nations, that presumably inpremises of a dual labor market (Doeringer and Piore 1971); and cludes the fuller utilization of a labor force which is substantially
(3) the shift from assembly and even skilled machinist and tool- underemployed/or unemployed. maker trades to automated or computerized work processes A second "hopeful" argument has to do with the efficiency of
the overall organization of TNCs. The TNC network of sourcing, "Regulating the Anarchy of Regional Labor Markets:
production, and sales facilitates access to foreign U.S. Immigration Policies."
markets- especaially those in industralized countries. The result Sherry Grassmuck, Department of Sociology, Temple
is both production and employment at levels exceeding that University.
possible if only the production units home market were served. "The Consequences of Dominican Urban Out-migraThe "fearful," on the other hand, fear that TNCs may find it tion for National Development: The Case of
more costly to adapt themselves to conditions they encounter in Snig.
new markets than to try to shape new markets to their familiar Srant ia. to"eEtdisPerorqens h
ways of doing business (be they product markets or employment Frank Bonivl eto ew Esuosruriqeos h
markets). The result of imposing on developing nations practices CEing niversit of e t Rk. nMgrto.
originating in industralized countries would be the utilization of "vligPten fPet ia irto.
relatively capital-intensive technologies and the displacement of COMMENTATOR: existing labor-intensive production with capital-intensive techni- Barbara Schmitter, Department of Sociology, Cleveland
ques. Although TNCs would undoubtedly create new jobs, the State University.
"fearfuls" fear that they might create fewer than is possible
and/or might destroy more than they create.
The "fearfuls," like the "hopefuls," have a second argument The following is an excerpt from Drs. Wood and McCoy's paper based in their view of the overalls structures of TN Cs. They fear Terry L. McCoy University of
that TNCs may have developed a dangerous discretionary power Charles Wood Florida
for transferring jobs and production among countries. They fear CARIBBEAN CANE CUTTERS IN FLORIDA:
that this power may allow TNCs to act as relatively autonomous IMPLICATIONS FOR THE STUDY
agents in allocating resources and job internationally. OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF LABOR
These fears are voiced, not only by developing country govern-Evryersne14 Caibnwokshve en
ments attempting to regulate TNC investment, but also by Evnsoer yoea Sce1943Faribbeoanvs workers ae bheenff
residents of long-industrialized areas of developed countries who tsorted o theram Staegu fFlrig harl suar 1can etlff fear that long-time employers may become "runaway shops." seplor program beign ding Whorlad We a h scrently.
Attention to TNCs in industrial planning in developing coun- emoyshtbeoweenseighttrandhnine thH2ous omn oftea season.tries has, during the last 20 years resulted in policy ebbs and flows Biruhtio thdaisonlty hroug t H2oisonf the 1952es lemcentering on restricting TNC behavior. In the technology area in morigain ad Natceionalhitd ctts. urrentlytthe lare lega many countries this has meant requiring that TNC productive foreig Flor fogr indute Un itelae An distntiv feature fof processes fulfill specified requirements, among which substantial the lruarvetn ihcndutryp iserits rela on dmanuiall labrforn employment generation is usually prominently featured. This has huaretn cane rop.te Wymhereas al olordmsicall growecna not only fostered job creation, but it has also deepened host sugaranes aested bye maschie mehols ocalpanditechna country fmlaiywtthtehooycocswihaecnrl Florida. Because manual harvesting is more efficient from an
to the industrial planning process. However, as Arthur L. Domike overall production standpoint, the Florida sugar industry conand I have argued elsewhere, it is time for many developing tne orsr osaoa ao rmteCrben
ceioss-ta moe fosn n steintheng teheg pannusiin sero- According to industry representatives the recumbent character
cess-that ~o ofouigo"srnthenpic and prniate setr- of Florida cane makes it difficult to harvest mechanically. Unlike ching,and negotiating capacities oftepbi n rvt etr manual workers, machines are less efficient in separating the
firms which are potential technology recipients. In this way cane stalk from the foliage, a factor that increases production
deveopmnt oalscanbe ursed mre hrogh ativly or- costs when the crop reaches the mill. The use of heavy machinery mulated domestic choices-and less through defensive strategies is also damaging to the soft muck soil (which was previously such as technology screening. By encouraging domestic firms to under water), and destroys a portion of the ratoons that produce make sophisticated technology choices, to have their own the following year's crop.
research and development programs and to aggressively search Prior to 1943, black Americans harvested sugar and other crops
and negotiate for technology access, employment generation can in the state. When this labor force moved north into war-related become a more fullsome and aggressive part of the industrial industries, agricultural producers (primarily citrus and vegetable peapsecuiefcunnmnfcuing process is toooin ontis growers) sought foreign replacements from what was then the
Perhps xclsiv fous n mnufaturng rocsse istoo British West Indies. The offshore labor program first began narrow to make such a policy effective -especially since "office recruiting workers from the Bahamas. Later, cane cutters were clerk" has replaced "factory worker" as the largest occupational cotaedfmJmiaBtshHnus(ow elz)
category in industrialized nations. The micro-processor-induced cotaedfmJmiaBtshHnus(ow eiz)
officee revolution" indicates that both productivity and employ- Antigua, St. Kitts, Monserrat and British Guiana (now Guyana). ment generation must not only be carefully weighed in manufac- At present the program in limited to five Commonwealth Caribturnginusrisbut also the service sector and in farming and bean islands: Jamaica (which provides around 80 percent of the turing.idstis labor force). Barbados (the second largest supplier), St. Lucia,
mining.St. Vincent and Dominica.
Under current immigration law, employers can recruit temMIGRATION AND THE NEW INTERNATIONAL porary foreign workers only after the Department of Labor cerDIVISION OF LABOR tifies that there is an insufficient supply of domestic workers.
CHAIR: Gerardo Navas Davila, Graduate School of Planning, Once this condition is documented, the DOL advises the ImUniversity of Puerto Rico, Visiting Scholar, Center for migration and Naturalization Service (INS) of a labor shortage.
Lati Amricn Stdie, Uivesityof lorda.The INS then grants approval for the importation of foreign Lati Amricn Stdie, Uivesityof lorda.workers for pre-specified tasks and for a period of one year or less PRINCIPAL SPEAKERS: (eight months in the case of sugar).
Charles Wood, Department of Sociology, University of The recruitment of offshore labor is based on an annual conFlorida. tract between representatives of the sugar industry and those of
Terry L. McCoy, Center for Latin American Studies, the West Indian government and workers. For the industry the University of Florida. program is managed by the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Associa"Caribbean Cane Cutters in Florida: Implications for tion (FFVA) and the U.S. Sugar Corporation, with the FFVA the Study of the Internationalization of Labor." representing most employers. Representation of West Indian inRobert Bach, Department of Sociology, State University terests is more complicated. The principal organization is the
of New York, Binghampton. British West Indian Center Labour Organization (BWICLO). Its
governing council, the Regional Labour Board, is composed of discussions of the causes of out-migration from these areas, the the following: the Permanent Jamaican Secretary for the Ministry excess labor force is treated implicitly or explicitly as the most imof Labour, who serves as chairman; two other Jamaican govern- mediate stimulant. Relatively few studies exist which attempt an ment officials; the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Labour assessment of the impact of third world emigration on the senfrom Barbados; the Labour Commissioner of St. Lucia, represen- ding communities themselves. Most of the evidence we have on ting the three remaining small islands; and a representative from this question comes from studies which have focused on outone of the two Jamaican labor unions (depending on which party migration from rural sending communities in societies like is in power). The BWICLO, with a permanent office in Yugoslavia, Greece, Portugal, Mexico, and the Dominican
Washington, D.C., maintains 11 liaison officers in the sugar area. Republic (Baucic, 1972; Dinerman, 1977; Cornelius, 1978; Pesser, Although the Regional Labour Board and industry represen- 1982; Grasmuck, 1982). My purpose in this paper is to assess the tatives meet annually to re-negotiate the contract, it remains impact of urban labor exports on one sending country. The point essentially the same from year to year. is not to address the determinants of out-migration associated in
From the standpoint of the industry, the important point is that much of the literature on this question with the pattern of depenthese small farmers in the Caribbean form a reservoir of workers dent development but, rather, to examine the likely reciprocal efawaiting the chance to work in Florida. A labor force with similar fects of prolonged outmigration on the very conditions which characteristics does not exist in the United States. There are, of stimulated migration in the first place. course, small farmers, sharecroppers and day laborers in the The phenomenon of out-migration from the largest urban zone in agricultural sector of the state of Florida. Many wage workers are the northern region of the Dominican Republic draws migrants, both legal and illegal. However, it would logistically be predominately upon a labor force of long-time dwellers, if not difficult to recruit as many as 8 or 9 thousand domestic cane cut- native inhabitants of that city. These are not, therefore, displaced ters who must report to work within a period of a few weeks. rural laborers who have come to the city for a brief period prior to Equally problematic is the need to count on the availability of a international departure. similar number the following year. The social and economic con- The number of outside migrants at the time of the survey conditions that prevail in the advanced industrial center do not stituted approximately 11 % of the active labor force of Santiago generate a labor pool of this type. not even including those cases where families left without leaving
With the exception of Barbados, the labor force is drawn household members behind. Santiago is also an important resetprimarily from rural areas of the Caribbean. Results of a survey tlement zone for return migrants who is 1980 constituted roughly carried out in 1981 (McCoy and Wood, 1982) indicate that the 7% of the economically active of Santiago. workers are primarily small farmers, recruited from a relative The typical Dominican migrant is a relatively young male who stable population that is characterized by low rates of intra and has in many cases departed from the household of his parents. inter island migration. The principal reasons that motivate in- The migrant does have a somewhat greater chance of being dividuals to seek stateside jobs as cane cutters is that the wages unemployed than does the population as a whole. One can not earned in Florida exceed that which can be earned in the Carib- conclude, however, that outmigration represents principally a bean. A second reason is to purchase items that are either reduction in the size of a hard-core, unskilled, unemployed unavailable on the islands, or which are more expensive there. population. Rather these migrants represented an "apparent
Remittances to the place of origin are made in several ways. surplus" in the sense that they constitute the type of "human The contract agreement stipulates that 23 percent of the worker's capital" necessary to any meaningful type of expanded inpay be transferred to a non-interest bearing bank account on the dustrialization; they are relatively well-educated, from relatively worker's home island, where all or some (depending on the skilled occupation, especially at the lower levels of the profesisland) can be later retrieved in local currency. Workers on their sional ranks. Moreover, their last jobs were typically in industrial own initiative mail substantial amounts of money to family sections of the economy noted for lower than average levels of members and friends (about $4.8 million). They also purchase unemployment. They therefore represent a rather inelastic supply clothes and other items (valued at $4.6 million). Finally, at the end of labor. of the season, each individual returns with a certain amount of In addition to sending remittances, the migrants have played an cash in hand ($1.9 million). Extrapolating from the sample to the important role in stimulating the construction of moderate intotal population of workers in 1980-81, the work force remitted come housing. The adjustment problems migrants face upon nearly $19 million (including the U.S. value of good purchased) to returning, especially the tendency either not to find desirable the sending islands. Analyses of spending patterns, together with employment or to start small businesses which fail, have meant information on the destination and purpose of mailed remit- that in many cases they return once more to the U.S. to become tances, indicate that the wages earned in the United States are absentee landlords for homes they had originally built for used primarily for the maintenance and reproduction of the themselves. worker and his household. Although a small percentage of the In rural communities it was found that the impact of outmigrawork force does invest in capital goods, the majority of the pur- tion on the community varied according to the infrastructural chases and remittances are for consumption purposes. conditions of the area. In the context of low returns to farming investments, poor soil and high population growth, migration had
The following is an excerpt from Dr. Grassmuck's paper contributed to the unproductive use of land because migrant
Sheri Gassmck empe Unverityhouseholds tended to reduce farming activities. Migrants came
HE GraSEUENCE Tepl DOIIA RA UeTy from families of median to large-size land holding who in becomTHEGCNSEQUN O F DATONICA URBAOPMNOT- ing dependent on remittances had thereby undermined the
MIR TN FORE NTOSNAGEEOPET productive base of the community and exacerbated income inTHE CSE O SANIAGOequality (Pessar, 1982). Alternatively, in a more soil rich comThe recent wave of research on the topic of international labor munity with better road transportation and marketing facilities, migration has linked the origins of outmigration from the develop- production had not been hurt by remittance income. ing to the developed world to the nature of dependency and un- These findings underscore the extent to which out-migration equal exchange between these societies. In particular, conditions expresses not the lack of development but rather the paradoxes of relative labor surplus in underdeveloped nations have been of uneven development. Dominican labor exports fall somewhere associated with the failures of the import-substitution model of in between the categories of unskilled labor and professional development and newer strategies of export reconversion follow- workers. The Dominican Republic is one of the most developed ed by many developing societies to generate adequate employ- of the Caribbean nations. Yet, in the 1972-76 period it accounted ment (Portes, 1978; Alba, 1978; Sassen-Koob, 1978; Vuskovic, for 7.9% of all America's migrants to the United States (Kritz, 1982). 1981:215). This outmigration occurred on the heels of tremenGiven the critical problem of underemployment and unemploy- dous economic growth, the expansion of higher education, and ment in the developing world, it is not surprising that in most significant growth in technological infrastruture. Not only has this
kind of development not been able to absorb the unskilled, ponents. The potential for a political expression of that unity is tomanual work force, but a growing percentage of the relatively day. more apparent than ever despite the multi-ethnic-national educated, lower level professional workers have been unable to fragmentaion of the working class observable the world over. In find employment, the U.S. setting, growing contingents of workers from Spanishspeaking countries are coming into close relation with similarly
The following is an excerpt from Dr. Bonilla's paper situated groups while maintaining their ties with the working
Fran Boill Cit Unverity classes in their countries of origin as well as with more advanof New York tageously place strate of workers in the metropolis. The coming
EVOLVING PATTERNS OF PUERTO RICAN MIGRATION struggle for the creation of jobs to fill the looming void of prolonged joblessness may serve as a unifying force for all workers as
For about ninety seconds in Ana Maria Garcia's moving new it exposes the permanent contradiction of capitalism and its infilm on the sterilization of Puerto Rican women (La Operacion), ability to recover impetus or survive except at increasing costs in the mayor of a small island town, Barceloneta, proudly takes real income to workers everywhere. stock of his role in bringing Puerto Rico's population into line with
the needs of the new industrial order. After more than twenty
years of emigration and persistent promotion of sterilization, he FELLOWSHIPS AWARDED
says, the municipality finally registered a decline in population in Five University of Florida Doctoral Candidates affiliated with the 1970 census. Several primary schools have been closed since the Center for Latin American Studies have been awarded fundthere are now so few children. Women, no longer burdened with ing to do field work in Latin American and the Caribbean. They child-rearing, are busy at work in local factories, whose owners, include: John Butler, Anthropology (USDE Fulbright, Brazilian with enlightened self-interest allow them to receive birth control Amazonia); John Wilson, Anthropology (National Science Founcounseling on factory time. At the camera follows the mayor on dation and ARTP, Brazilian Amazonia); Jean Gearing, his self-congratulatory stroll through the town's streets, he is Anthropology (ITE Fulbright, St. Vincent); Joe Scarpaci, finally constrained to comment on the dozens of male idlers Geography (ITE Fulbright, Chile) and David Sowell, History observing his passage. The men, he says, have already com- (Doherty Foundation, Colombia). pleted their daily duties elsewhere and are partaking of the The Amazon Research and Training Program awarded seed pleasures of small town sidewalk conviviality. In a flash the reality grants for field research to three University of Florida Students. of how a population may even in a relatively short run be molded They are: Richard Pace, Anthropology; Claudia Tavera, Florida to the passing convenience of a particular form of capital is un- State Museum; and Sandra Witt,, Anthropology. Allyn Stearman equivocally brought home. (Anthropology, Central Florida University) has also received parThe transnational movement of workers is a constitutive tial funding from the ARTP to support her research in Bolivia. feature of capitalist relations and their expansion. Puerto Rico, Other fellowship receipients affiliated with the Center for Latin has passed in about a hundred years and under the aegis of two American Studies include: Christine Horak, MALAS (Intermetropolitan powers from the beginnings of agrarian capitalism American Foundation and ARTP, Brazilian Amazonia) and Roberthrough its consolidation and decline, through forced draft exter- ta Goldman, Anthropology (Inter-American Foundation, Peru). nally financed industrialization, and on to become a high MALAS Candidates in the Conservation Program receiving fundtechnology, service and finance oriented "post-industrial" ing from the World Wildlife Fund were: Mariella Leo (Peru); dependency of the United States. (History Task Force 1979). On Gustavo Fonseca (Brazil); and Jody Stallings (Paraguay). These a world scale this process occupied two to three centuries and, of students will carry out research on primate conservation this course, uprooted and totally reshuffled hundreds of the world's summer. population. It should come as no surprise that in this short span
Puerto Ricans have experienced in especially intense and visible LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES ASSOCIATION ways all the forms of population change and displacement Dr. Helen 1. Safa, Director of the Center for Latin American
associated with the course of capitalism to the present day (Krip- Studies at the University of Florida, will assume the Presidency of pendorff, 1976). the Latin American Studies Association in July. In September,
A reversal in the proportions in productive as against un- Dr. Safa will be presiding over the first LASA Congress to be held productive labor is a key indicator of how far Puerto Rico has outside of the continental United States. The Congress, which gone in assuming the social configuration of the most advanced will be held in Mexico City from September 29 through October 1, capitalism formations. The reduction of agricultural production in features approximately 250 sessions with over 1400 participants. inconsequential proportions, technological change and the It is anticipated that this will be the largest meeting in the export of manufacturing jobs area are all elements in the ebbing organization's history. The conference will also be noteworthy in of productive work. Fewer and fewer workers are engaged in the that an attempt will be made to conduct the majority of the panels
prodctin o comodiieswhie moe ad mre ae i deand in Spanish and Portuguese. A Latin American film festival will in finance, transport, distribution, merchandising and security, also be featured with a total of 18 hours of festival films. The social repercussions of these changes are far reaching. It not Numerous faculty members from the University of Florida will only generates major social and ideological divisions within the attend the conference. working class but enlarges so-called middle sectors and alters expectations of future development as more and more productive CARIBBEAN MIGRATION PROGRAM NOTES tasks are exported. Illusions of mounting flourishing transnational
service platforms, centers of technology and culture, much in the Dr. Raul Moncarz has accepted an invitation to be Visiting style of a Venetian princely commercial state, are as infectious in Scholar in the Caribbean Migration Program for the Fall the Caribbean as in lower Manhattan. Much harder to face is the Semester, 1983-1984. Dr. Moncarz is Professor of Economics at reality of having to extract even larger quanta of surplus value Florida International University and has published numerous from fewer and fewer productive workers to maintain an expan- articles on Caribbean migration and the integration of Hispanic ding unproductive class and provide minimal subsistence to a professionals into the U.S. labor market. This fall he will be bloated reserve of unused labor. The present situation of Puerto leading a seminar on "The Economics of Caribbean Migration". Rico may be taken as paradigmatic of the contradictions arising in The Caribbean Migration Program Committee recently met and the transition to a service based economy. selected 5 candidates to receive Tinker Foundation fellowships
Among the more significant outcomes of our continuing con- for the Hispanic Caribbean and two candidates to receive Ford cern with this participal case and its ramifications in the U.S. and Foundation fellowships for the English/ French/ Dutch speaking elsewhere has been the persistent reconfirmation of the underly- Caribbean. The candidates nominated come from the Dominican ing structural unity of the social inequality borne by working Republic, Colombia, Barbados, Jamaica, Guyana, and the United classes and their national, ethnic and sexually defined com- States.
Helen Safa, Director of CLAS and David Bray, Visiting Assis- Colombia, lectured on the movie "La Ultima Ruta de Bolivar" on tant in the Caribbean Migration Program, attended a seminar on February 16. On February 17, the Brazilian movie "Antonio das Dominican migration to the United States sponsored by the Mortes" was sponsored by the Amazon Research and Training Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, New York Program. Jose de Souza Martins, Professor of Sociology, University and the Museo del Hombre Dominicano. The seminar Universidade de Sao Paulo and Visiting Professor with the was held in Santo Domingo April 27-29. Safa presented a paper Amazon Research and Training Program, spoke on Participant entitled "La Migracion Caribena a los Estados Unidos: Identidad Research/Resherche-Action/Investigacion-Accion: Common Cultural el Processo de Asimilacion" and Bray presented People as Sociologists of Themselves," on February 23. On
"Agricultura de Exportacion, Formacion de Clases y Mano de February 24, Terry McCoy, Andres Suarez and Ceasar Caviedes Obra Excedente: El Caso de la Fuerza Laboral en La Republica participated in the forum entitled "Internamerican Security: Dominicana". The seminar brought together Dominican and U.S. Lessons from the South Atlantic". scholars who have been working on problems associated with A lecture entitled "Yuqui Indians of Eastern Bolivia: Learning migration and development in the Dominican Republic to be Peasants" was presented by Allyn Stearman, from Central
Florida University on February 28. Albert Mangones, Director of
ISPAN, Haiti, spoke on "Conservation of Cultural Patrimony and
WILGUS FELLOWSHIP INITIATED the Heritage of Henri Christophe" on March 1st. On March 3rd
The A. Curtis Wilgus fellowship for 1983-1984 has been award- the Brazilian film "How Tasty was my Little Frenchman" was ed to James Roberson, an M.A. candidate in the Department of shown. Anibal Quijano, Professor of History, University of San
ed t Jaes Rberonan MA. anddatein he eparmen ofMarcos, Lima, and Edward Larocque Tinker Visiting Professor, Anthropology at the University of Florida. The Wilgus Fellowship coLma nstitter La TinAerin anoferian is offered in honor of the late founding director of the School of Colombia University, Institute of Latin American and Iberian Inter-American Studies at UF, the predecessor to the CLAS. The Studies spoke on "Campesinado y Movimientos Campesinos en fellowship, which was initiated this year, will be offered annually America Latina" on March 9. On March 12 the Grupo Amayra to graduate students affiliated with CLAS and provides funding performed Aymaran music and dance. Louis Perez, Historian, for initial field work. Roberson plans to use the fellowship to University of South Florida, lectured on "The Enterprise of study the impact of unemployment on bauxite workers in History in Socialist Cuba" on March 23.
Jamaica. Mrs. Curtis Wilgus visited the University of Florida in On April 4, Raymond Crist, Professor Emeritus of Geography, early April to help launch the program. University of Florida, presented a lecture entitled "A Half Century
of Development along the Llanos-Andes Border in Venezuela".
Lidia Falcon, a Spanish feminist lawyer and writer lectured on
OUTREACH ACTIVITIES April 12. Her lecture "Writers and the Women's movement in
Spain" was sponsored by CLAS and the Department of Romance
The major summer outreach program will be the Summer Languages. On April 13, Paulo de Tarso Alvim, TechnicalInstitute for teachers (June 12-June 17). The Institute is spon- Scientific Director of the Cacao Development Program in Brazil, sored by the Center for African Studies, the Center for Latin spoke on the "Challenge of Agricultural Development in the American Studies, and the Department of Subject Specialization Amazon Region." Alvim is a visitor at UF through the Amazon (College of Education). Twenty participants from Alabama, Research and Training Program and IFAS. Georgia, North Carolina, and Florida will attend. Presentations Gustavos Wis More, Architect and Visiting Fulbright Scholar will be made by the following members of CLAS: Cesar Caviedes from UNPHU, Dominican Republic, presented a slide lecture on (Geography), Terry McCoy (Political Science), Helen Safa (An- "La Identidad Nacional en la Arquitenture de la Era de Trujillo" on thropology), Charles Wagley (Anthropology), and Doyle Casteel April 20. (Education).
Terry Trimble, social studies supervisor of Collier County, and a
staff of teachers are designing a new course in world studies. VIVIAN NOLAN RETIRES
Beginning in August the CLAS will assist in its implementation.
Clinton Rouse, social studies supervisor of Volusia County, and Mrs. Vivian Nolan, who has been a member of the staff of the a staff of teachers are developing a guide for teachers of the Center for Latin American Studies for twenty-two years, will world culture course they offer. During June and July, the CLAS retire as administrative assistant in May 1983. Throughout the will provide technical assistance. years the faculty and students at the Center for Latin American
The Florida legislature is in the process of increasing re- Studies have carried out research, traveled and resolved financial quirements for high school graduation. As currently written in the matters thanks to Vivian Nolan's excellent administrative skills Senate, two years of foreign language and three years of social and caring personal attention. The faculty, staff and students, science, which will include world history and comparative both past and present, are indebted to Mrs. Nolan for her economic and political systems, are to be required. The Outreach patience, perserverence and for assisting them in everything from Coordinator, Doyle Casteel, is consulting with Randy Felton, securing major research grants to finding housing in Gainesville. state social studies supervisor, concerning the service implica- They demonstrated this appreciation at a surprise picnic at the tions of this legislation. home of Felicity Trueblood where they presented her with a
check for over 1,200 dollars and urged her to use it towards a trip
COLLOQUIM ACTIVITIES through Latin America. In Mrs. Nolan's own words, "I'm no
expert on Latin America after all of this time, but it is much more
From February through April, 1983 the colloquim series of the than a drawing on a map now, for I've met and loved so many Center for Latin American Studies presented various speakers warm and beautiful people from there and others whose interests and activities. Sidney Mintz, Professor of Anthropology Johns lie in so many parts of it." Hopkins University, gave a talk entitled "The Pause that
Refreshes" on February 1st. Sponsored by the Department of
Anthropology and CLAS, Frank Cancian on February 7 spoke on
"Changing Patterns of Stratification in Zinacantan." Dr. Cancian
is a Professor of Anthropology at the University of California,
Irvine. On February 14 Randal Johnson, Assistant Professor of
Portuguese at Rutgers University lectured on "Political Aspects
of the Brazilian Cinema." That evening, Paul Doughty, UF Professor of Anthropology, presented the Grinter Gallery Exhibition
"Living through Tragedy: The Callejon de Huaylas, Peru."
General Valencia, Director of History, Universidad El Rogario,
Dr. Carter receives President's Medallion.
Dr. William Carter, Director of the Center of Latin American Studies from 1968 to 1977, was recently awarded the University of Florida President's Medallion by President Robert Marston for his outstanding contribution and service to the Center for Latin American Studies. Dr. Carter, a faculty member at the University of Florida for 17 years, was instrumental in establishing ties with many Latin American Institutions, increasing the holdings of Latin American Collection in the University of Florida Library and securing federal funding for the CLAS. Currently, Dr. Carter is Chief of the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress.
NEWS AND NOTES
Andres Avalianeda, Associate Professor of LAILA/ALILA first annual meeting at the University of to a Farming Systems Program" in Human Organization
Romance Languages and Literature recently published a Pittsburg, April 22-23, 1983. 42(2).
book entitled El habla de sla ideologia. Historic V M. W. Gordon, Professor of Law and Latin
literature en la obra de Borges, Bioy Casares, Martinez Richard R. Renner, Foundations of Education, will American Studies, lectured on multinational corporaEstrada, Cortazar y Anderson Imbert (Buenos Aires: be in Latin America for several weeks in May giving talks tions in the third world at the annual meeting of the Sudamericana, 1983), and three articles: "Decir, Des- on various educational topics. Lectures are scheduled in Wisconsin Bar Association in Milwaukee in April. decir," Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, IX, 1 (1983); Nassau, Quito, Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero and Gordon was also appointed Consulting Editor for the "Best-seller y codigo represivo en la narrative argentina San Juan (Costa Rica). He is sponsored by the Inter- Commercial, Business & Trade Laws series for Oceana contemporanes, "Revista Iberoamericana, XLIX, 123 national Communications Agency. Publications, New York and to the Advisory Board of
(1983); and "Borges-Boy: modelo pars descifrar," in the Professional Seminar Consultants, Inc., New York.
Homenaie a Ana Maria Barrenechea (Madrid: Castalia, He received a Fulbght appointment to teach at the
1983). Professor Avellaneda also attended a meeting Adolfo Prieto, Graduate Research Professor of ive aFr appointment to teach at the
sponsored by the American Jewish Committee and Pre- Romance Languages and Literature, recently traveled to University of Frankfort in Germany from April to July sent Tense Review on the topic of Jewish Identity in the Staatsbibliotek, West Berlin, West Germany. His 1984, and will be a Visiting Professor at the Law School Argentine Literature, held in NYC on March 17. He also trip was sponsored by the Department of Romance of Duke University in the winter term, teaching Interread a paper in the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Con- Languages, CLAS, The Graduate School and the Col- national Business and Comparative Law. ference on Latin American Literature organized by the lege of Liberal Arts and Sciences. During his trip, Prieto Maxine Margolis, Associate Professor of Department of Spanish and Italian, the School of presented the following lectures: "El Fondo Anthropology, is Director of this year's summer PorHumanities and the Social Sciences Department of bibliografico Lehmann-Nitsche" (Freie Universitat tuguese Language Program. She will accompany the Montclair State College (New Jersey, March 18-19, Berlin); "El primer Modernismo" (Universite de students on the University of Florida Program to Rio de 1983). The title of his paper was "Current Situation of Rennes); "De la biblioteca total a la biblioteca de Babel" Janeiro in June and will be consulting with Brazilian Argentine Exile Literature." (Universite de Caen); "Cinco lectures de El Sur" scholars regarding future research activities.
(Universitfde Paris III, Sorbonne Nouvelle); "Borges, El
David Niddrie, Professor of Geography contributed pasaje del ensayo a la ficcon" (Universite de Paris X Emilio Bejel, Associate Professor of Romance a chapter to the revised edition of H. Blakemore and C. Nanterre) and "Argentina, Mapa de lecture: 1880-1910" Languages and Literature recently attended a number of Smith (ds) Latin America: A geographical perspective (Centre D Etudes des Litteratures et des Civilisations du conferences where he presented the following papers:
19. The chapter is entitled "The Caribben." Rio de Ia Plata, Paris). "Imagen y posibilidad en Lezama Lima", Symposium on
Marianne Schmink, Executive Director of the Associate Professor of Art, John F. Scott, was Jose Lzama Lima, Universite de Poitiers, France;
Amazon Research and Training Program, published elected Vice-President for Pre-Colombian Art at the an- "Historia y Ficcifon de Amrica Latina en Lezama Lima," "Households Headed by Women and Urban Poverty in nual meeting of the Association for Latin American Art Symposium in honor of Augusto Roa Bastos, University Brazil" (with Tom Merrick) in Vomen and Poverty in the held in Philadelphia this past February. The Association of Maryland; "El neobarroco y la imagen de Third World, Mayra Buvinic, Margaret Lycette and coordinates research efforts in the art history of the pre- Latinoamerica n Lezama Lime." Symposium on the William McGreebey (eds.). Baltimore and London: sent Latin American republics. Scott was also named Baroque and the Neo-beroque, Yale University; "Teori Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. Schmink also the President of the newly established Gainesville del arte y critics literaria n Ia Revolucion Cubana," presented a paper entitled "Household Economic chapter of the Archaeological Institute of America, Symposium on Literary Criticism, University of MinStrategies: A Review and Agenda for Research" at the which will have its first meeting this fall. nesota; and "La novel testimonial cubna," Caribbean conference on Women and Men in Contemporary Pro- Student Association, Santo Domingo. Bejel recently
duction: Capital Mobility and Labor Migration, Center Charles Burke, Associate Professor of Broadcasting published two books entitled HuellaslFootprints for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California, San of the College of Journalism and Communications par- (Poetry) University Pary: Hisparnmerica, 1982 and Diego, March 16, 1983. She also traveled to Jamaica, ticipated in the "Joumrnalits' and Editors' Workshop on Literature de Nuestra America (essays) Xalapa, Mexico: Mexico and Peru in conjunction with the Population the Caribbean" held in Miami. Burke also submitted a Centro de Investigaciones Uingiusticas-Literarias, 1983. Councial/AID Project on Women, Low Income paper on "Idealogical bias in Nicaraguan newspapers" Bejel's most recent articles include: "L'histoire at l'imHouseholds and Urban Services in Latin America and to Gazette. It is under consideration, as is a modified age de I'Amerique latine salon Lezama Lima" ORACL the Caribbean, for which she is currently overseeing version of the same topic submitted to the Association Poiters, France, 1983; "La transferencia dialetica en El nine research-action projects, for Education in Journalism convention. robo del cochino de Estorico," Inti, no.2, 1982, and
Christina H. Gladwin, Assistant Professor of Food "Culture, hisoria y escritura n Lezama iUme, "SymYolando Lopez, Aymara Instructor, recently and Resource Economics recently published an article posium: Literature in translation: The Many Voices of
presented a paper entitled "Aymara Riddles" at the entitled "Contributions of Ddtision Tree.,Methodology the Caribbean Area, University Park: Hispamerica, 1982.
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