Citation
Latinamericanist

Material Information

Title:
Latinamericanist
Alternate Title:
University of Florida latinamericanist
Portion of title:
Latin americanist
Abbreviated Title:
Latinamericanist
Creator:
University of Florida -- Center for Latin American Studies
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Center for Latin American Studies
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Semiannual[<1992->]
3 no. a year[ FORMER ]
Biweekly[ FORMER <, Sept. 28, 1964->]
semiannual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28-36 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Periodicals -- Latin America ( lcsh )
Study and teaching (Higher) -- Periodicals -- Latin America -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 3, 1964)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Suspended between v. 35, no. 1 (fall 1999) and v. 36, no. 1 (spring 2005).
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 36, no. 2 (fall 2005).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Latin American Collections
Rights Management:
Copyright, Patricia Alba at Center for Latin American Studies. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
05269284 ( OCLC )
sc 84001784 ( LCCN )
0502-6660 ( ISSN )
22346166 ( Aleph )

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-LATINAMERICANIST

University of Florida Center for Latin American Studies I Volume 39, Number 1 I Spr/Sum 2008




Dr. Claudio Padua


Distinguished Alumnus Award 2008


T he University of
Florida recognized
Dr. Claudio Padua
(MALAS 1987, PhD Wildlife
Ecology and Conservation
1993) with a Distinguished
Alumnus Award for 2008.
Claudio -one of Brazil's
foremost scientists -is
recognized internationally
for his local, national, and
international efforts in the
field of biodiversity
conservation. In 2002, he
was selected by Time
Magazine, together with his
wife Dr. Suzana Padua A Claudio Padua speaks at the Keene
(MALAS 1991), as one of Faculty Center.
the planet's "Conservation
Heroes." The Distinguished Alumnus award was presented to Padua at
the 2008 Spring College of Agricultural and Life Sciences'
Undergraduate Commencement Ceremony on May 2, 2008.
Claudio received a degree in Business Administration in 1974 from
the University of Economy and Finances of Rio de Janeiro and worked
in this field until 1980. Unhappy with the loss of biodiversity in Brazil,
Claudio abandoned the business world and decided to study biology
and work for the conservation of Brazil's endangered primates. He
graduated from the University Gama Filho (Rio de Janeiro) in 1982
and in 1984 began his graduate studies at the University of Florida.
Claudio's graduate research focused on the Black Lion Tamarin, a
species of primate long thought to be extinct. His analysis of
population viability was the foundation for establishing protected
areas for this charismatic species, as well as bringing the issue of
biodiversity conservation to the attention of the Brazilian public.
After completing their graduate degrees and returning to Brazil,
Claudio and Suzana co-founded the Institute for Ecological Research


p4 Visions of
p Bahia, Brazil


(Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, IPE), which integrates research on
threatened species, environmental education, habitat restoration,
community involvement, and corporate partnerships to promote
sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Since its
inception, IPE (http://www.ipe.org.br) has become one of the largest
and most respected NGOs in Brazil. IPE's conservation programs in
the highly-threatened Atlantic and Amazonian rain forests, coupled
with its active program of corporate partnership, have made it a
reference point for conservation organizations in Brazil. Its
accomplishments include the conservation and management of more
than 1 million hectares, the creation of conservation programs that
helped to increase the income of more than 1000 people in rural
Brazil, and the planting of over three million trees.
Claudio has received many important national and international
awards in recognition of his conservation and education efforts. These
awards include the Henry Ford Award for Conservation, the Whitley
Continuation Award from the Royal Geographic Society, the
Conservation Award from the American Association of Primatology,
and the Achievement Award from the Society for Conservation
Biology. He is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Brasilia,
Vice-President of the Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity (FUNBIO), an
Associate Researcher at Columbia University (New York), and a
coordinator of the Wildlife Trust Alliance. He has edited two books
and published more than 40 scientific articles and book chapters.
While on campus for commencement, Suzana and Claudio both
delivered public lectures on their experiences working in biodiversity
conservation in Brazil. Suzana, an environmental educator with a PhD
from the University of Brasilia who is the President of IPE, spoke at
Tropilunch, the weekly lecture series coordinated by the graduate
students of the Tropical Conservation and Development Program. She
discussed how IPE's environmental education efforts have evolved in
the past two decades to better integrate social and environmental
needs of communities.
Claudio's lecture at the Keene Faculty Center focused on the
development of IPE as an organization and detailed their innovative
programs for conservation and sustainable development in Brazil's
continued on page 11


inside: p2 Directr'


p 8 tton Solis
p 8 Interview


p2 1 Alumni News









*IrectorssCornej


The Center had an excellent spring semester in terms of securing new
external grant funding. Marianne Schmink, Director of the Tropical Conservation
and Development program (TCD), in collaboration with Daniel Zarin (SFRC)
received a $2.1 million three-year award from The Gordon and Betty Moore
Foundation for the continuation of the UF Amazon Conservation Leadership
Initiative. This project supports applied research and capacity building in the
Andes-Amazon region and will provide graduate fellowships and scholarships
for conservation practitioners and leaders to study at UF. It will also fund faculty
Dr. Carmen Diana Deere exchanges with universities in Brazil and Peru.
Elizabeth Lowe (LAS) and M.J. Hardman (Linguistics) received a $156,992
three-year grant from NSF's Documenting Endangered Language program to preserve the Jaqaru and
Kawki languages of Peru. The World Bank has funded my own $50,000 project on improving data
collection on gender and assets in Latin American household surveys.
Mary Risner (LAS) received a USDE Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Award for $66,574, for a project with
Florida K-12 teachers. Ten teachers will travel to Ecuador and Peru in July for the purpose of curriculum
development. Mary Risner also received a $12,460 award from the Florida Humanities Council to hold a
film and lecture series next fall on Caribbean migration to Florida. Elizabeth Lowe collaborated in securing
these two grants.
Through our various graduate student competitions, the Center awarded a total of $503,465 this spring
in research grants and fellowships for summer 2008 and AY 2008-09. With funding from the Tinker
Foundation (matched by the Vice President for Research) and income from the TCD Ford/State and other
endowments, 35 awards were made for Summer Graduate Student Field Research Grants. Thanks to our
Department of Education Title VI grant, we awarded eight Foreign Language and Area Study (FLAS)
summer fellowships for the study of Portuguese, Quechua and Kich'e Maya. Seven graduate students
were awarded academic year FLAS fellowships for the study of Portuguese and Haitian Creole. The TCD
program awarded 13 AY fellowships and assistantships from its Ford/State endowment and its grant from
the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Twenty-nine percent of the total funding was awarded to
students in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 27 percent to students in IFAS, with the remainder
going to MALAS students and a student in the College of Design, Construction and Planning.
We are very proud of these accomplishments. They are the bright spot in what is otherwise a dismal
fiscal situation for the University and the Center. Due to the downturn in Florida's economy, the University
suffered a $22 million cut in general state funding in October 2007 and faces a $47 million cut come July 1.
As a result, all campus units suffered a 4% budget cut this academic year and will face a 6% cut next
year. The Center has been spared having to lay-off staff or faculty, primarily due to attrition among our
Center-based faculty. Elizabeth Lowe has resigned to accept the directorship of a new Translation Studies
Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. She will be greatly missed. Terry McCoy retired
this year, but continues to direct the Latin American Business Environment Program on a part-time basis.
We hope that you can join us for Dr. McCoy's Retirement Celebration on November 8, 2008, which will
be held in conjunction with the Latin American Business Symposium and Career Workshop. The workshop
marks the 10th anniversary of the LABE Program with the theme, "Business in Latin America: The Past 10
Years, the Next 10 Years." It is open to students, faculty, alumni, members of the business community, and
interested public.


1 Claudio Padua Distinguished Alumnus
3 Bacardi Eminent Scholar Lecture
4 Visions of Bahia, Brazil
6 57th Annual Conference Keynote Address
7 Upcoming Events
8 Ott6n Solis Interview
9 Faculty News and Publications
12 Latinamericanist Retiring Faculty
13 Recent Faculty Books


gLATINAMERICANIST

Volume 39, Number 1
Spring/Summer 2008

Editor: Hannah Covert

Center for Latin American Studies
319 Grinter Hall
PO Box 115530
Gainesville, FL 32611-5530
352-392-0375
www.latam.ufl.edu


Center-Based Faculty and
Professional Staff
Carmen Diana Deere Director
Hannah Covert Executive Director


Efrain Barradas (LAS/RLL)
Richmond Brown Associate Director,
Academic Programs
Emilio M. Bruna (LAS/WEC)
Jonathan Dain (LAS/SNRE)
Karen Kainer (LAS/SFRC)
Elizabeth Lowe Associate Director,
Program Development
Ana Margheritis (LAS/Political Science)
Terry McCoy (LAS/Political Science)
Mary Risner Associate Director, Outreach
and LA Business Environment
Janet Bente Romero Associate Director of
Development, UFF
Patricia Delam6nica Sampaio Program
Coordinator
Marianne Schmink (LAS/Anthropology)
J. Richard Stepp (LAS/Anthropology)
Welson Tremura (LAS/Music)
Pliar Useche (LAS/FRE)
Charles Wood (LAS/Sociology)


14 Aymara on the Internet Program
15 Outreach News
16 Caribbean Film & Speaker Series
17 UF Study Abroad Nicaragua
18 Student Graduates


19 Grant Recipients
21 Alumni News & Notes
23 Giving to the Center


UNIVERSITY of
UF IFLORIDA






I EVENTS I


Winners and Losers in Free Trade Agreements


The View from the South


Bacardi Family Eminent Scholar Lecture by Ott6n Solis


Ott6n Solis, Costa Rican economist and former Minister of
Planning and Economic Policy, was the Center for Latin
American Studies' Bacardi Family Eminent Scholar in Spring
2008. Founding president of the Citizens Action Party, currently the
second major party in Costa Rica, Solis has twice been a presidential
candidate, losing the 2006 elections by approximately one percent of the
vote. Solis delivered his Bacardi Lecture, entitled "Winners and Losers in
Free Trade Agreements: The View from the South', to a large turnout at
Emerson Alumni Hall in late February. Focusing on the region's
experiences and outcomes under several free trade agreements (FTAs),
Solis highlighted four main points of contention in Latin America: that
the negotiation process is very undemocratic; that FTAs are more than
just about trade; once signed, they are more difficult to amend than
national constitutions; and that the agreements are asymmetrical.
Il 1..I,. ,li he called for the emergence of a more pragmatic approach to
trade agreements, rooted in particular contexts, rather than Latin
American countries blindly accepting a one-size-fits-all model designed
in Washington, D.C.
Among the asymmetries of the FTAs, is that Latin American countries
must open their agricultural and industrial sectors completely, while the
US is allowed to keep its agricultural subsidies and continue to protect
its sugar, textile and steel industries. Another is that the agreements tend
to reduce competition by enhancing intellectual property rights, while
promoting competition in state service industries. These provisions go
way beyond those required by the World Trade Organization and should
not even be part of a FTA. He considered the "negative list on services"
to be particularly damaging to Latin American countries since it requires
liberalization of everything not mentioned in the agreements. The
ultimate asymmetry is that the agreements promote the free mobility of
capital through extraordinary protections to foreign investment while
remaining silent with respect to labor mobility. Solis also considers the
environmental and labor standards in these agreements to be without
teeth.
According to Solis, the current FTA model undermines state
sovereignty as well as democratic ideals by protecting investors' interests
above the well being of citizens. He noted that NAFTA had failed to
deliver the miraculous growth and progress promised by its promoters.
Mexico's average GDP growth (3.1%) after 13 years of NAFTA has been
no better than that of Latin American countries without FTAs. In fact,
ten out of 18 Latin American countries have out-performed Mexico
during this period. Moreover, in Mexico there have been detrimental
social consequences to NAFTA, particularly in rural areas, with millions
of people continuing to migrate to the U.S. every year, fueling tension


between the two countries.
The main winners from
NAFTA, he said, have been
Latin American and U.S.
multinational investors.
Solis emphasized that he is
not opposed to free trade,
which has the potential to
enhance the development of
certain sectors of the
economy. The problem is that
the U.S. seeks to impose the
same FTA on all less
developed countries, whether
Costa Rica or Morocco,
irrespective of the local
context or stage of A Ott6n Solis.
development. What he cannot
accept is the proposition that
pure free trade is in the interest of all less developed countries, and that
the onesize-fits all model is the best for everyone. He noted that the
outcomes of the FTAs need to be carefully analyzed, and that these
agreements would need to be revised so that they were mutually
beneficial pacts, where not just a few benefit. Otherwise, the negative
outcomes of NAFTA will be replicated throughout the entire continent,
exasperating many of the problems these agreements were supposed to
alleviate in the first place.
Commentary on Solis' lecture was provided by Dr. Mark Rosenberg,
Chancellor of the State University System of Florida and an expert on
Central America. He noted that the Central American Free Trade
Agreement (CAFTA) was probably a bad deal for Central American
countries, but perhaps it was the best deal that could be struck under the
circumstances. Small countries have relatively few options, nonetheless,
he considered the asymmetry in the free trade agreements highlighted by
Solis to be unacceptable. Rosenberg stressed how the future of Central
America lay in investing in education. Only by educating its citizenry
would these countries be able to compete in the world economy on a
basis other than cheap labor.

An audio transcript of Solis' talk is available at:
http ://www.latam.ufl.edu/People/bacardi.stm.

-Contributed by Alexandra Anda, MALAS student


SPRING/UMMER 008






EVENTSI


Visions of Bahia, Brazil


from the Collection of Frances F. Switt



In conjunction with the opening of the exhibition "Visions of Bahia, Brazil from the Collection of Frances F. Switt" in Grinter Gallery, the Center
for Latin American Studies in collaboration with George A. Smathers Libraries hosted a very special program of recognition and remembrance in
honor of Frances Switt and Ambassador Clarence Boonstra on March 20, 2008.
Frances F. Switt was a career foreign service officer who served with the U.S. Information Agency in Brazil, France, Haiti and Argentina. Her first
love was always Brazil, and she was decorated by the Brazilian government for her cultural contributions to Brazil. She had a home in Salvador,
Bahia, a city that adopted her as an honorary citizen and where she was an active participant in the cultural scene. Her collection of Brazilian art and
literature reflects her many friendships with Brazilian artists from the 1960s on. Her brother Joe and sister-in-law Cristine Switt, residents of Ocala,
FL, donated a selection of her art and literature collection to the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art and the George A. Smathers Libraries (see
accompanying article on the donation).
Clarence Boonstra was a career foreign service officer who served in Peru, Argentina, Mexico, the Canal Zone, and was Consul General in Rio de
Janeiro and Ambassador to Costa Rica. After retirement he and his wife Margaret Boonstra, who had
also been a foreign service officer and Peace Corps administrator in Latin America, moved to
Gainesville in 1974. Two of their daughters and two granddaughters are UF alumnae. At the March
20th event, Margaret Boonstra announced the creation of the Boonstra Family Research Fellowship at
the Center for Latin American Studies in recognition of the family's long-standing interest and
involvement in Latin America (see accompanying article).
While Frances Switt and Clarence Boonstra never met, their lives intersected through the many
friendships they formed in the foreign service, and particularly, in Brazil. Joining us at the event to
remember them were former Ambassadors Diego Asencio and Alexander F. Watson.
Diego Asencio served as US Ambassador to Colombia and to Brazil as well as Assistant Secretary of
State for Consular Affairs, among other postings. While Ambassador to Brazil he worked closely with
SFrances Switt and also worked with Margaret Boonstra in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.
Ambassador Clarence Boonstra was one of his role models.
Alexander Watson served as Ambasssador to Peru and Deputy Chief of Mission in Brasilia, Bogoti
and La Paz, and as Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations. In his last assignment,
from 1993-96, he was Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs. He served with
Frances Switt in Bahia, Brasilia and New York, and considers Clarence Boonstra to have been his
A Portrait of Frances Switt by Edmard, circa mentor in the Foreign Service.
1966. Other speakers at the event
included Paul Losch (Latin
American Library Collection), Kerry Oliver Smith (Harn), Charles A. Perrone
(RLL) and Elizabeth Lowe (LAS). Center Director Carmen Diana Deere served as a
mistress of ceremonies and Dean Judith C. Russell (Libraries) gave a welcome. pP
The program was followed by a reception in Grinter Gallery, where those
gathered viewed the exhibition and enjoyed the music of UF's Jacare Brazil Guitar
Ensemble. We are grateful to Shi Chen, Grinter Curator, Amy Dickinson, Director
of University Galleries, College of Fine Arts, and Paul Losch for making this fine
exhibition and special event possible.


A The Jacare Brazil Guitar Ensemble performs atthe reception in
Grinter Gallery.


4 THE LATINAMERICANIST






IEVENTSI


Special Class and Guest Lecture on Jorge Amado


In conjunction with the Grinter Gallery art exhibit "Visions of Bahia, Brazil from the Collection of Frances F. Switt," Charles Perrone
(RLL) created, with the support of a curriculum grant from the Center, a new upper-division class entitled, "Jorge Amado and the Bahian
Imaginaries." The course addressed customs and expressive cultures of the city of Salvador and of the state of Bahia, Brazil through the
fiction of the world-renowned author Jorge Amado (1912-2001) as well as through the contributions of artists with whom he
collaborated over the decades, such as graphic artist Carybe and singer-songwriter Dorival Caymmi. Like the art on display, the course
material was multi-disciplinary, encompassing cultural geography, cuisine, architecture, religion (candomble, folk Catholicism), dance
(capoeira, samba), and folk/popular music. Beginning with nationalist and regionalist modernism of the 1930s, the class followed the
development of Amado's fictional universe, and of Bahian identities, through localism, (quasi) socialist realism, populism, and the dramas
of modernization and diversification. Amado's fiction and its manifestations in popular culture, film, television, song- have provoked
ample debate concerning representation of subalterns, gender roles, exoticism, and image-marketing. Guest lecturers included Bryan
McCann (Georgetown University), Elizabeth Lowe (LAS), and Elizabeth Ginway (RLL).
The featured invited speaker was Piers Armstrong (California State University Los Angeles) who spoke to a full house in the Ruth
McQuown Room on February 22 on "The Social Contract Question: Afro-centrism, Exoticism and Authenticity in Jorge Amado's
Carnivalia." The talk addressed the tension between high and popular culture which is a key feature of twentieth-century history. Over
several decades in the mid-twentieth-century, Amado faced resistance from the critical establishment in Brazil because of his embrace of
popular culture and his remarkable popularity in a country where readership is limited. Early in his career some called Amado a poor
stylist, and when Brazil was under military dictatorship (1964-1985), others said he was opportunist, a purveyor of exotic sensuality. Yet
Amado was a communist militant for 30 years, and during this time both a congressman and a political exile. As for artistic merit, he was
admired by Camus and Sartre and was a good friend of Picasso and Neruda. Armstrong's talk provided an overview of Amado's career
with a view to such issues and stimulated lively discussion. Probing the writer and his work, Armstrong considered "popular" phenomena
in general and made comparisons between Brazil and the U.S.
-Contributed by Charles Perrone, RLL



Switt Donation to UF Libraries


The UF Latin American Collection was fortunate to receive a donation of over 500 books from the personal library of Frances F Switt.
Many of these items were presentation copies from the authors to Ms. Switt, who had met many of the leading writers and artists of Latin
America during her 30 years in the United States Information Agency. Of special interest are the many signed works by the novelist Jorge
Amado, the artist Carybe and other notable intellectuals of Bahia, Brazil. Special items, such as these, will be housed in the Rare Books
Collection, but most of the gift is going into the circulating collection, which actively supports the research, teaching and outreach work of
the UF Center for Latin American Studies.
-Contributed by Paul Losch, Latin American Collection



The Boonstra Family Research Fund

The Boonstra Family Research Fund was created by Margaret Boonstra and her children to honor the
memory of Clare Boonstra and in recognition of their family's dedication to hemispheric
understanding and cooperation. -
Income from the endowment will support research grants to outstanding graduate students in Latin
American Studies to pursue thesis or pre-dissertation research in Latin America or the Spanish-
speaking Caribbean. The research grants will be awarded through the Centers' Graduate Student
Summer Field Research competition. Students in any UF department will be eligible, with priority given
to those pursuing a MALAS degree or a Graduate Certificate in Latin American Studies. Consideration
shall be given, but not limited, to students in the fields of agriculture, food and resource economics,
forestry, natural resource management, environmental engineering, law, political science, and
contemporary music and art. A Margaret Boonstra.


SPRING/UMMER 008






IEVENTSI


Center's 57th Annual Conference Keynote Address

Social Partnering in Latin America


R oberto GutiDrrez Poveda, Associate Professor at the Universidad de los
Andes in Bogoti, Colombia delivered the opening keynote address at the
Center's 57th Annual Conference on Multi-Sector Partnerships and
Strategic Communications in the Americas in early February. Gutierrez co
coordinates the Social Enterprise Knowledge Network (1,. pi. ,, .. ... a
group of ten universities in Latin America, the U.S., and Spain, that seeks to
advance knowledge and practice in social enterprise. Gutierrez has published
articles related to alliances, social enterprises, and education and development in
popular media and academic journals. He co edited a book entitled 1ni. ,
Management in Social Enterprise: Lessons from Business and Civil Society. He
received his PhD in Sociology from Johns Hopkins University. A Terry McCoy (LAS), center, talks with conference
Gutierrez's keynote address, entitled "Social Partnering in Latin America: speakers Tim Scerba, left, and Raul Romero.
Lessons Drawn from Collaborations of Businesses and Civic Society
Organizations," focused on research related to partnerships between non profit organizations and corporations. He outlined three types of alliances,
or relationships, between corporations and non-profit organizations. A philanthropic alliance is characterized by a donor benefactor relationship
and has a low level of engagement between the two organizations. A transactional relationship involves the exchange of items other than money, such
as core competencies and logistical infrastructure. Integrative alliances, which have the highest level of engagement, feature collaborations that create
new joint competencies and have a broad scope to their joint activities.
Gutierrez discussed how such alliances can create value through alignment and leveraging of resources. Alignment refers to how compatible the
organizations are with one another, which can be complicated by different values and goals. Leveraging resources creates synergy and a collective
competitive edge. Finally, he discussed the advantages that businesses receive from non-profit organizations and vice versa. Businesses gain
emotional satisfactions, good will, and connections to stakeholders, while non-profits gain access to cash, capacity building and credibility. He
suggested that to maintain value in these partnerships, there must be balance in value exchange and consistent relationship renewal.
In his concluding remarks, Gutierrez addressed issues related to managing social partnerships. He stressed the importance of value creation, or the
formation of a "win win" situation for both partners. Most importantly, he emphasized the necessity of managing the relationship through dear
delineation of responsibility for organizational tasks, effective communication, accountability, and the building of trust.


Affiliate Faculty Industrial & Systems Zoology Renata Peixoto (Brazil)
Agronomy Engineering Karen Bjorndal Visiting Scholar, Federal
Lynn Sollenberger Cristian Cardenas-Lailhacar (Caribbean) University of Minas Gerais
(Jamaica, Mexico) (Chile)
Staff Ott6n Solis (Costa Rica)
Chemistry Law Justin Laufer Bacardi Family Eminent Scholar
Valeria Kleiman (Argentina) Winston Nagan IT Specialist
Gustavo Moriena (Argentina) (Ecuador) Sondra Wentzel (Germany)
Horticultural Sciences FRC Visitors Visiting Scholar, GTZ
Jonathan Crane SFRC Doriam Borges (Brazil)
Jonathan Crane Michael Bannister Visiting Scholar,
(Caribbean, Mexico, (Caribbean, Central America) vesiti Re h Stitue f
Costa Rica) University Research Institute of
Rio de Janeiro (IUPERJ)


6 THE LATINAMERICANIST





EVENTS|

Upcoming Events

58th Annual Conference

January 29-30, 2009
The Urban Divide in Latin America: Challenges and Strategies for Social Inclusion
Latin America has the largest percentage of urban population of any world region in addition to the most unequal distribution of income. This
inequality is most apparent in cities, where the richest and the poorest live in close proximity, and social inequality becomes tangible and flagrantly
evident in spatial terms. How can urbanists affect policies that foster social inclusion?
This multidisciplinary conference aims to gather scholars and professionals dedicated to improving the quality of life in urban Latin America. This
forum will provide participants an opportunity to share their research and experiences, and to engage in dialogue to generate ideas and identify
solutions to advance social inclusion in Latin American cities. The conference is co-hosted by the UF Center for Latin American Studies and the UF
College of Design, Construction and Planning. Joseli Macedo, UF Assistant Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, and Martha Kohen, UF
Professor of Architecture, will co-chair the conference.
We seek contributions on a wide range of urban research reflecting the rich variety of work undertaken in the field. Topics include, but are not
limited to:
social and spatial equity in historical perspective emergency management and disaster planning
informal economies supportive urban systems (infrastructure, transportation)
access to employment and services political representation and community activism
strategies for equitable growth environmental quality and conservation in urban areas
human capital investment and capacity building urban greening
crime and violence sustainable development practices
epidemics and the health system professional practice

The conference will include keynote plenary sessions and paper presentations organized in panels. Invited keynote presenters include: Alan Gilbert,
University College London, Department of Geography and Jaime Lerner, former Mayor of Curitiba, Brazil.
Abstracts are welcome from researchers at any stage of their careers, as well as planning practitioners and others dedicated to studying Latin
American cities. The submission deadline for abstracts is September 1, 2008. More information on the conference can be found at:
http://conferences.dce.ufl.edu/las/.




Retirement Celebration for Terry McCoy

7 pm, Saturday, November 8, 2008
Hilton University of Florida Conference Center
Gainesville, Florida

Held in conjunction with the Latin American Business Symposium and Career Workshop
"Business in Latin America: The Last Ten Years... The Next Ten Years"
November 7 & 8, 2008

For more information on these events, go to: www.latam.ufl.edu/Alumni/mccoy.stm

In honor of his work, alumni and colleagues have established the McCoy Scholarship Fund.
Please consider making a gift to support it. For more information contact: Janet Bente Romero
(352) 392-9418 or jromero@uffufl.edu


SPRING/UMMER 008





FACULTY I

Interview with 2008 Bacardi Family Eminent Scholar

J ftte (6 a R (o |i Otton Solis, Costa Rican economist and former Minister of Planning and Economic Policy, held the Center
for Latin American Studies' Bacardi Family Eminent Scholar Chair during the spring 2008 semester. As the
Bacardi Scholar, Solis taught a graduate seminar on Free Trade Agreements in the Americas and lectured
both on campus and in Gainesville. The Latin Americanist interviewed Solis about his experience at the
Center and his views on free trade agreements.
















































-Contributed by Alexandra Anda, MALAS student
ara.FnlyIhv aenavnaeoftefrtcls utrl n oenen rcrmnt h eaiv itapoah epn






IFACULTYI


Faculty News and Publications


SFlorence Babb (Women's Studies & Gender
Research) co-organized a session on "Eyes on
Cuba" (with R. Behar) and presented the paper
"Yearning for Cuba: Tourism and Ambivalent
Desires in a Time of Globalization" at the Cuba
2008: Counterpoints in Continuity and Change
Conference of the Cuban Research Institute at
Florida International University in Miami in
February. She gave the keynote lecture "Sex,
Sentiment, and Tourism in Contemporary
Cuba" and was the plenary speaker and
discussant at the Persistent Divides:
Marginalization and Exclusion in Latin
America and the Caribbean Symposium at
Grand Valley State University in Michigan in
March. She gave a paper at the Conference on
Cuba at UC Irvine on "Sex and Sentiment in
Cuban Tourism" in May.

MAllan Burns ( 1.....l.. .1._- ) has been
elected President of the Society for Applied
,.ll i,..!...1.._- He will serve for one year as
president-elect, followed by two years as
president.

SNick Comerford (Soil & Water Science) was
named a UF Research Foundation Professor
for 2008-2011. The recognition goes to faculty
members who have a distinguished current
record of research and a strong research agenda
likely to lead to continuing distinction in their
fields.

*Kathleen Deagan (FLMNH) The
Archaeology of Colonial Encounters:
Comparative Perspectives (Book Review) by G.
Stein. Journal of Field Archaeology, 31(3) 2006:
333-334; Eliciting Contraband through
Archaeology: Illicit Trade in Eighteenth
Century St. Augustine. Historical Archaeology,
40(3) 2007; The Strange Case of the Earliest
Silver Extraction by European Colonists in the
New World (with A. Thibideau, D. Killick, and
W. Lyman). Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences, 104 2007: 3663-3666.

ECarmen Diana Deere (LAS/FRE) received a
grant from the World Bank to carry out a
study on improving data collection on gender
and assets in Latin America and to develop a
training module for capacity building among
the Latin American statistical offices. She
presented an invited paper in May, "The Rise


and Impact of National and Transnational
Rural Social Movements in Latin America,"
(co-authored with Fred Royce [Agricultural &
Biological Engineering]) at the Conference on
Agrarian Questions: Lineages and Prospects
organized by the Journal of Agrarian C'ii. .
the University of London. She also co
organized and chaired a panel on Property
Rights, Land Tenure and Reform and Rural
Violence at the Annual Conference on Legal
and Policy Issues in the Americas of the UF
Law and Policy Program (CGR/Levin College
of Law) in May at the Catholic University of
Rio de Janeiro.

EDavid Dilcher (FLMNH) New Gymnosperm
Related with Gnetales from the Crato
Paleo Flora (Lower Cretaceous, Santana
Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern
Brazil): Preliminary Study (with J.C.M. Fanton,
F Ricardi-Branco, and M. Bernardes-de
Oliveira). Geociencias, 25(2) 2006: 205-210;
lara Iguassu, A New Taxon of Aquatic
Angiosperm from the Crato Paleoflora (Lower
Cretaceous, Santana Formation, Araripe Basin,
Northeastern Brazil) (with J.C.M. Fanton, F
Ricardi-Branco, and M. Bernardes-de
Oliveira). Geociencias, 25(2) 2006: 211-216.

*Francisco Escobedo (SFRC) Estimaci6n
Preliminar de la Descontaminaci6n
Atmosf6rica por parte del Arbolado Urbano de
la Ciudad de Mexico (with A. Chacalo Hilu).
Interciencia, 33 2008: 29-33.

EClyde Fraisse (Agricultural & Biological
Engineering) received a grant from the
Inter-American Institute for Global Change
Research to study the impact of climate
variability on crop production in Paraguay and
Brazil (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul).

EDavid Geggus (History) gave an invited
presentation at Tel Aviv University in
December 2007 on the ending of slavery and
the slave trade, and he spoke at the American
Historical Association conference in January in
Washington, DC on a presidential panel enti-
tled "Where is the Haitian Revolution?" He also
gave a video-taped interview for a federal
government project concerning Haiti.

* Susan Gillespie ( ,.il ,i..i...1.._- ) presented a
Distinguished Lecture on "El Modelo de la


'Sociedad de Casas' en la Arqueologia de la
Vida Cotidiana" at the Coloquio Pedro Bosch
Gimpera Arqueologia de la Vida Cotidiana:
Espacios Domesticos y Areas de Actividad en el
Mexico Antiguo y Otras Zonas Culturales at
the Institute de Investigaciones Antropol6gicas
of the Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de
Mexico in March 2008. Publications: When is a
House? In R. Beck, ed., The Durable House:
Architecture, Ancestors, and Origins.
Carbondale, IL: Center for Archaeological
Investigations, Southern Illinois University,
2007; Blaming Moteuczoma: Anthropo
morphizing the Aztec Conquest. In R. P.
Brienen and M. A. Jackson, eds., Invasion and
Transformation: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on
the Conquest of Mexico. Niwot: University Press
of Colorado, 2008.

*Maria Christina Gurucharri (Landscape
Architecture) was recognized as Teacher of the
Year by the College of Design, Construction
and Planning.

*Benjamin Hebblethwaite (RLL) presented
"Lingiostic Neo-Colonialism: Education,
Canon and Curriculum in Haitian Creole
Post-Colonialism" at the British
Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies
Conference at Georgia Southern University in
February. In March, he introduced his
adaptation of Haitian Creole Scrabble to 20
primary and 20 secondary students in Belle
Riviere, Haiti. I i 11. he received an
Internationalizing the Curriculum Award from
the UF International Center to develop a new
Introduction to Haitian Creole Linguistics
course.

EKaren Kainer (LAS/SFRC) Sustainable Forest
Use in Brazilian Extractive Reserves: Natural
Regeneration of Brazil Nut in Exploited
Populations (with L.H.O. Wadt, C.L.
Staudhammer, and R.O.P. Serrano). Biological
Conservation, 141 2008: 332-346.

EWilliam Keegan (FLMNH) was nominated
as the 2007 UF International Educator of the
Year by the FLMNH. Publication: Human
Impacts and Adaptation in the Caribbean
Islands: An Historical Ecology Approach (with
S.M. Fitzpatrick). Earth and Environmental
Science Transactions of the Royal Society of
Edinburgh, 98 2007: 1-17.
Faculty News and Publications continued on page 10


SPRING/UMMER 008






FACULTY I
Faculty News and Publications continued from page 9


SMichael Leslie (Telecommunication)
received a U.S. State Department Speaker
Award to participate in a video conference on
"Race and Politics in the United States and
Cuba" with selected Afro-Cuban dissidents,
hosted by the U.S. Interests Section in Havana,
Cuba in February and March. He also delivered
an invited paper on "Intercultural
Communication for Journalists" at the 1st
Inaugural Meeting of the Association of
Afro-Colombian Journalists in Cali, Colombia,
sponsored by USAID and the International
Organization for Migration, in October 2007.
He received a grant from the UF Office of
Faculty Development to develop a Faculty
Learning Community for "Campus-Wide
Intercultural Communication Education and
Training Needs Assessment."

SElizabeth Lowe (LAS) will be leaving UF in
August 2008 to begin her duties as the first
Director of the Center for Translation Studies
at the University of Illinois, Urbana
Champaign. Lowe will hold appointments in
Comparative Literature and Spanish, Italian
and Portuguese in the School of Literatures,
Cultures and Linguistics at UIUC.

* Maxine Margolis ( ,.,1l.,.i...1..l_- ) was an
invited commentator on the video My
Grandma Has a Video Camera at the CineBrasil
Festival at Brown University in March. In April,
she presented an invited paper entitled
"September 11th and Transnationalism: The
Case of Brazilian Immigrants in the United
States" at the Brazilian-Americans in Georgia
and Beyond: A Multi-Disciplinary Symposium
at the University of Georgia and Georgia State
University. Publications: Race in Brazil. In J.
Moore, ed., Encyclopedia of Race and Racism.
Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008;
September 11 & Transnationalism: The Case of
Brazilian Immigrants in the United States.
Human Organization, 67(1) 2008: 1-11.

EJoceli Macedo (Urban & Regional
Pl .i. i,;,. ', was nominated as a 2007 UF
International Educator of the Year by the
College of Design, Construction and Planning.

EJerald Milanich (FLMNH) Foreword. In W.
F. Keegan, ed., Taino Indian Myth and Practice:
The Arrival of the '. w ..'. King. Gainesville,
FL: University Press of Florida, 2007


EGerald Murray ( .i.l.i .....,.1.._ received an
Internationalizing the Curriculum Award from
the UF International Center to develop a new
course on the.,.,,li..l.1.._- of Religious
Violence.

EWinston Nagan (Law) has been re-appointed
as Abogado Defensor by the Federaci6n
Interprovincial de Centros Shuar in Ecuador.

MAugusto Oyuela-Caycedo ( .-. l.i. ..-.1..- )
delivered an invited lecture on "Cambios
Ambientales y Culturales en el Alto Amazonas:
Una Perspectiva de Ecologia Hist6rica" at the
Ibero-amerikanisches Institut Preussischer
Kulturbesitz in Berlin in February. He also gave
an invited paper on "Looking at the Forest as a
Fragmented Archaeological Artifact: Toward
the Archaeology of Anthropogenic Tropical
forests" at the Archaeology of Anthropogenic
Environments Visiting Scholar Conference at
Southern Illinois University in May 2007.
Publications: Ritual Paraphernalia and the
Foundation of Religious Temples: 4. The Case
of the Tairona-Kigaba/Kogi, Sierra Nevada de
Santa Marta, Colombia (with M. Fischer).
Baessler Archiv, 54 2007: 145-162; Early
Prehistoric Sedentism and Seasonal Animal
Exploitation in the Caribbean Lowlands of
Colombia (with P. Stahl). Journal of
Anthropological Archaeology, 26(3) 2007:
329-349; Late Prehispanic Chiefdoms of
Northern Colombia and the Formation of
Anthropic Landscapes. In H. Silverman and B.
Isbell, eds., iH... 1i.....t of South American
Archaeology. New York, NY: Springer, 2008.

EAlfonso Perez-M6ndez (Architecture) was
nominated as a 2007 UF International
Educator of the Year by the College of Design,
Construction and Planning.

*Charles Perrone (RLL) presented the paper
"Tres Seculos, Tr&s Americas: Irmandades
Epicas e Imperativos Hemisf6ricos" at the
seminar entitled "Em Mar Aberto -Poesias em
Portugues e nas Linguas da Espanha: Um
Diilogo Hist6rico, Uma Futura Alianca?" in
Sao Paulo, Brazil at the Casa das Rosas
Institute Cervantes in November 2007. He was
an invited discussant for the "O Som do
Poema: Da Oralizacao a Musica" at Projeto
Verbivocovisual at the Instituto Tomie Ohtake
in Sao Paulo in September 2007 and was the


invited moderator for the Brazilian poetry
panel at the Miami Book Fair International in
November 2007. He presented "Further to 'A
Linguagem do Iauaret&' and Transcendence" at
the Modern Language Association in
December 2007 in Chicago and "Counting
Anthropophagic Scripts: Textual Navigations
and Oswaldian Prescience" at the Brazilian
Studies Association International Congress at
Tulane University in March. Publications: De
Noigandres & Navilouca a Coyote & Oroboro:
Las Revistas Brasilenas de Invenci6n y las
Antologias Antinormativas. Nerter, 10 2007:
77-81; Topos and Topicalities: The Tropes of
Tropicilia and Tropicalismo, published online
at Tropicilia.com.br; translations of poems by
Haroldo de Campos in A.S. Bessa and O.
Cisneros, eds., Novas: Selected Writings of
Haroldo de Campos. Evanston, IL:
Northwestern University Press, 2007; Famished
for Form: Haroldo de Campos and the
Foundations of Concrete Poetry. In B.
McGuirk and E. R.P. Vieira, eds., Haroldo de
Campos In Conversation: In Memoriam
1929-2003. London: Zoilus Press, 2007; Do
Bebop e o Kaos ao Chaos e o Triphop: Dois
Fios Ecumbnicos no Escopo Semimilenar do
Tropicalismo. In N. Barros da Costa ed., O
Charme dessa Nafao: Discurso, Cotidiano e
Prdticas Culturais da Musica Popular Brasileira.
Fortaleza: UFEC-SECULT, 2007; Tigertail: A
South Florida Poetry Annual -Brazil Issue
(edited with H. Costa). Vol 6, 2008.

SHugh Popenoe (Soil & Water Science) has
announced that he and his family have
donated their colonial house in Antigua,
Guatemala to the Francisco Marroquin
University of Guatemala. The donation of the
home, constructed in 1634, includes its
collection of colonial household furnishings
and artwork. Antigua was the capital of
Mesoamerica (from Chiapas to Panama) until
1775 when it was destroyed by an earthquake.
Marroquin University plans to continue its
present use as the Popenoe Museum. The
university runs two other museums, Ixchel
(Mayan crafts) and Popul Vu (Mayan
archeology), in Guatemala City. The Popenoe
Museum will also serve as a base for visiting
scholars in all disciplines and for training
programs. Marroquin University is inviting
other universities to collaborate in these
activities.
Faculty News and Publications continued on page 11


S0TELTNMRCNS






IFACULTYI


Faculty News and Publications continued from page 10


EStephen Powell (Law) Should or Must?
Nature of the Obligation of States to Use Trade
Instruments for the Advancement of
Environmental, Labor, and other Human
Rights. All,'-rrt Law Review, 45(2) 2007;
Toward a Vibrant Peruvian Middle Class:
Effects of the Peru-United States Free Trade
Agreement on Labor Rights (with P. Chavarro).
Florida Journal of International Law, 20(1)
2008; Peru-U.S. Trade Promotion Agreement:
The New Economic Model for Civil Society. In
Acuerdo de Promoci6n Commercial
Peru-Estados Unidos. Lima, Peru: Universidad
Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, 2007; Sumall
Steps: Ending Trade's Splendid Isolation from
Human Rights. Rio de Janeiro: PUC-Rio
Nucleo de Direitos Humanos, 2008.

SMark Thurner (History) received an
Internationalizing the Curriculum Award from
the UF International Center to develop a new
course on Latin American History and Culture
for a study abroad program in Costa Rica.

SEdil Torres Rivera (Counselor Education)
presented a paper on "Language Implications
for Counselors in International Settings" at the
International Counseling Conference in
Shanghai, China in December 2007. He
delivered two invited papers in April on
"Herencia Taina: Identidad Liquidad" at the
University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras and


"Re-examining Pic6's'El dia menos pensado':
An Overview of Puerto Rican Prison
Population Mental Health Issues" at the
InterAmerican Conference of Counseling in
Managua, Nicaragua. He received a grant from
the UF Office of Faculty Development to
develop a Faculty Learning Community for
"Contesting Racism in the Academy."
Publication: Using Psychoeducational Groups
with Latino (a) High School Students (with L.
Phan). In D. Viers, ed., The Group Therapist's
Notebook: Homework, Handouts, and Activities
for Use in Psychotherapy. Binghamton, NY: The
Haworth Press, Inc., 2007.

SPilar Useche (LAS/FRE) received the Henry
C. Taylor Best Doctoral Dissertation Award for
2006-07 from the Department of Agricultural
and Applied Economics at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison. Her dissertation was also
nominated for the Best Dissertation Award
competition of the American Agricultural
Economics Association. She presented a paper
on l I .... ...- Adoption in Poorly Specified
Environments" at the American Agricultural
Economics Association Meetings in July 2007.
In October 2007, she presented "A Mixed
Multinomial Model .I I 1 I....-. ._ Adoption"
at the Latin American Econometrics
Association Meeting. Lastly, she received a
USDA grant in collaboration with the
UF-ESPOL team for a project to improve the


welfare of small-scale rice farmers in Ecuador
through new technology transfer and
microcredit.

SManuel Vasquez (Religion) appeared on the
Bill Moyers Journal on the PBS television
network in November 2007. He discussed his
collaborative research with Philip Williams
(Political Science) on Latino immigration,
religion, and inter-ethnic relations in the New
South. Publication: A Igreja E Como a Casa da
Minha Mae: Religiao e Espaco Vivido entire
Brasileiros no Condado de Broward (with L.
Ribeiro). Ciencias Sociais e Religiao, 9(9) 2007:
13-29

SJorge Villegas was recognized as Teacher of
the Year for the College of Journalism and
Communications.

EJeff Wade (Law) delivered a paper on
"Social and Environmental Challenges of
Wetland Protection" at the Congresso
International de Direito Agroambiental at the
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso in
Cuiabi, Brazil in September 2007.

*Daniel Zarin (SFRC) Beyond Reaping the
First Harvest: Management Objectives for
Timber Production in the Brazilian Amazon
(with M. Schulze, E. Vidal, and M. Lentini).
Conservation 5r'..... i, 21: 916-925.


UFAc gon mn


Florida Museum of Natural History
Food and Resource Economics
Latin American Business Environment Program
Latin American Studies
MA in Latin American Studies
Partnership in Global Learning
Romance Languages and Literatures
School of Forest Resources & Conservation
School of Natural Resources & Environment
Wildlife Ecology & Conservation


Dr. Claudio Padua... continued from front cover

Atlantic and Amazonian forests. These innovations include offering
academic short courses, managing public and private protected
areas, and starting a for-profit company working in carbon
sequestration. IPE has partnerships with two prominent Brazilian
corporations, Natura and Havaianas. They collaborated with
Natura, a cosmetics and toiletries company, to build a graduate
school offering a professional master's program in conservation and
sustainability. They partnered with Havaianas, the sandal
manufacturer, to create a line of flip-flops featuring Brazilian
wildlife. Seven percent of the income from the sale of the flip-flops
goes to IPE.
The Center for Latin American Studies and the Department of
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation are proud to have Claudio and
Suzana as alumni and are honored to have nominated Claudio for
the Distinguished Alumnus Award.


SPRIG/SUMER 008






IFACULTYI


Recent Latinamericanist Faculty Retirements

Ten Latinamericanist faculty have retired from UF in the past year. We are thankful for their dedication to Latin American Studies and we wish
them the best in their retirement.


Andres Avellaneda (RLL-Spanish) specializes in Spanish American
literature and literary theory. He received an Undergraduate
Teaching Award and chaired the 2004 Bryce Wood Best Book Award
Selection Committee for the Latin American Studies Association.



H. Russell Bernard ( ,..1 ..i l..1.._- ) is an
expert in anthropological research methods.
He is the author or editor of over 15 books
and numerous articles. His books include J .
Research Methods in J .'!".l. I Qualitative
and Quantitative Approaches (2006, fourth edi-
tion) and Social Research Methods (2000).
Bernard received a UF Doctoral Mentoring
Award in 2004 and the Franz Boas Award for
Exemplary Service to,.,,l,.!...i1.. _- from the American
Anthropological Association in 2003.



Carlton Davis (FRE) came to UF in 1970 and
was named a Distinguished Professor in 1990.
His research interests cover topics in I
international trade and development,
Caribbean agro-economic issues, and food and
agricultural policy. He co-edited Facilitating r
Safer U.S.-Caribbean Trade: Invasive Species
Issues (2005) and has
published widely, particularly on the
English-speaking Caribbean. Davis received the George Washington
Carver Public Service Hall of Fame Award from Tuskegee University,
a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Southern Agricultural
Economics Association, and the Distinguished Professional
Contribution Award from the Caribbean Agro-Economic Society.
Davis continues to work part-time in FRE on a number of Caribbean
Basin initiatives.


Clyde Kiker (FRE) specializes in natural
resource and ecological economics, with
emphasis on public goods from ecological
resources. His field experience has been in the
Caribbean and southern Africa.


Maxine Margolis ( ..,l..i ..1.._- ) is an expert
in Brazilian culture and society, transnational
migration, and gender roles in the U.S. and
cross-culturally. Her most recent research has
dealt with Brazilian immigration to the United
States. Margolis is the author of An Invisible
Minority: Brazilians in New York City (1998)
and Little Brazil: An Ethnography of Brazilian
Immigrants in New York City (1994). Since
retiring from UF, she has continued her research, writing and
lecturing on Brazilian immigration in the U.S. She is currently
working on a book on the Brazilian diaspora worldwide. Margolis has
been named Adjunct Senior Research Scholar at the School of
International and Public Affairs and the Institute for Latin American
Studies at Columbia University.



Terry McCoy (LAS/Political Science) is a
specialist on the political economy of Latin
America. His current research focuses on the
Latin American business environment and
regional integration. He publishes the annual
Latin American Business Environment Report
and contributes to newspaper commentary on
Latin American events. From 1985-1996,
McCoy served as Director of the Center for
Latin American Studies. In retirement he continues to direct the
Latin American Business Environment Program at the Center and
serve as Associate Director of CIBER. He was the 2006 UF
International Educator of the Year.



Jerald Milanich (FLMNH-Archeology) is an
expert in pre Columbian southeastern U.S.
native peoples and colonial period native
American-European/Anglo relations in the
Americas. He authored Laboring in the Fields of
the Lord: Spanish Missions and Southeastern
Indians (2006), Florida's Lost Tribes: i '... '
the Eyes of an Artist (2004), Florida's Indians
from Ancient Times to the Present (1998), as
well as other books and articles. Milanich has been the principal
investigator of over 70 grants and contracts and has served on more
than 125 graduate committees. In retirement, he
continues to serve as an Academic Trustee for the Archeological
Institute of America and as a Contributing Editor for Archeology
magazine. He also is working on several book projects.


Faculty Retirements continued on nextpage


12 THE LATINAMERICANIST






I FACULTY I


Faculty Retirements continued from page 12

Tony Oliver-Smith ( -.,11,.,!g.,1._- ) is a b
specialist in displaced peoples and disasters,
including post-disaster social organization and
class, race, 11, ;.;-. and gender based
patterns of differential aid
distribution, with particular emphasis on the
Andean region. He has authored and co-edited
6 books on disasters and displacement, the
most recent being Catastrophe and Culture:
S,.i 1, .. I .. -.-.... of Disaster (2002), as well as many articles.
Oliver-Smith received three Undergraduate Teaching Awards, a
dissertation mentoring award and has served on the executive boards
of the National Association of Practicing Anthropologists and the
Society for Applied.,, ..il ....1.._ He is currently spending a
semester as Greenleaf Chair of Latin American Studies at Tulane
University and holds the Munich Re Foundation Chair of Social
Vulnerability at the United Nations University Institute for
Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany.


John Scott (Art History) has expertise in
pre-Columbian and Latin American art. His
books include Latin American Art: Ancient to





Museum of Art at Cornell University has just







Hernan Vera (Sociology) specializes in race relations, sociology of
knowledge, and sociological theory. He has co-edited several volumes
including liI,, .....t of the Sociology of Racial and Ethnic Relations
(2007), Liberation Sociology (2001) and White Racism (2000). Vera
was a Fulbright Scholar in Chile in 1997.







ss &


Recent Faculty Books


A Faye Harrison University of Illinois Press, 2008
Outsider Within: Reworking Anthropology
in the Global Age
This book presents an approach to critically
reconstructing the anthropology discipline to better
encompass issues of gender and race. Drawing upon
materials from Caribbean and African American
studies, Harrison analyzes anthropology's limits and
possibilities from an African American woman's
perspective, while also challenging anthropologists to
work together to transcend stark gender, racial and
national hierarchies.


A William Keegan


University Press of Florida, 2007


Taino Indian Myth and Practice: The
Arrival of Stranger King
Applying the legend of the "stranger king" to
Caonab6, the mythologized Taino chief of the
Hispaniola settlement Columbus invaded in 1492,
Keegan examines how myths come to resonate as
history. In this story, Caonab6, the most important
Taino chief at the time of European conquest, claimed
to be imbued with Taino divinity, while Columbus,
determined to establish a settlement called La
Navidad, described himself as the "Christbearer."


A Anna Peterson and Manuel Vasquez New York University Press, 2008


Latin American Religions: Histories and
Documents in Context
This book provides an introduction through
documents to the historical development and
contemporary expressions of religious life in South
and Central America, Mexico, and the Spanish
speaking Caribbean. A central feature of this text is its
inclusion of both primary and secondary
materials, including letters, sermons, journal entries,
ritual manuals, and ancient sacred texts.


Latin
Amerkan
Religions


flakAi


A Herndn Vera


Springer, 2007


Handbook of the Sociology of
Racial and Ethnic Relations
This volume, co-edited with Joe Feagin, looks at
contemporary racial and ethnic relations, one of the
most studied aspects in sociology and sociological
research. In both North America and Europe, many
traditional cultures feel threatened by immigrants
from Latin America, Africa and Asia.


SPRING/UMMER 0081


10UNG
INDIAN
M7TN
AND
PRACTICE






IFACULTYI

NSF Grant Awarded for

Preserving Endangered Jaqi

Languages

The National Science Foundation recently awarded a
three-year grant of approximately $155,000 to M.J.
Hardman (Linguistics) and Elizabeth Lowe (LAS) to create a
linguistic research database in the endangered Jaqi languages.
This project, entitled "An Accessible Linguistic Research
Database of the Endangered Jaqaru and Kawki Language," will
be under the direction of M J. Hardman, Howard Beck and Sue
Legg. The award begins in July 2008. The team will transform a
corpus consisting of 50 field notebooks of texts, corresponding
audiotapes, 450 photographs and related linguistic data into an
accessible, archived linguistic research database. A dictionary of
the languages will also be created and entered into the database.
The linguistic database will build on existing computational
and linguistic work and will conform to the appropriate
recommendations and standards. The materials will be archived
and linked through two digital archives, the Archive of the
Indigenous Languages of Latin America at the University of
Texas, Austin (AILLA) and the UF Libraries Digital Collections.
This project will make the field notes collected by Hardman
over 50 years of linguistic field research in Peru available to the
linguistic community. It also builds on the work of the "Aymara
on the Internet" program funded by the U.S. Department of
Education from 2004-07. The broader impact of the project
will be to preserve and make available the texts, dictionary and
grammar of two highly endangered Andean languages for
linguistic research and for the use and future collaboration of
heritage speakers. The linguistic material will be translated
from Jaqaru and Kawki into Spanish and English. It is
anticipated that the government of Peru will want to utilize this
project for broader dissemination for bilingual education and
language preservation purposes. The intellectual merit of the
project lies in the rarity and scope of the linguistic material and
the fact that it will reside in a multifunctional, widely accessible
and web-based database. The coordinated archiving plan
developed with AILLA and UF Digital Collections ensures that
the materials will be accessible to diverse interdisciplinary and
international user groups.


SECOLAS 2008 Annual Meeting

The Southeastern Council of the Latin American Studies'
(SECOLAS) Annual Meeting was held in Tampa, April 17-19,
2008. UF had a large delegation at the meeting. Twelve graduate
students, 10 faculty, 2 visiting scholars, and 5 alumni presented
papers, organized panels, and served as discussants. Richmond
Brown (LAS) was a member of the local arrangements
committee. Congratulations to Rachel Hallum (Sociology) for
receiving Honorable Mention in the Edward Moseley Graduate
Student Paper Award Competition!


Aymara on the Internet Program

Introduced to Bolivian Ministry

of Education and Culture

lizabeth Lowe (LAS) and Howard Beck (Agricultural &
Biological Engineering) traveled to La Paz, Bolivia at the
invitation of the Ministry of Education and Culture in April. The
purpose of the trip was to introduce the Aymara on the Internet
program to Ministry officials and to discuss possible
implementation plans for using the Aymara program in multiple
settings in Bolivia. The new Bolivian constitution mandates
bilingual education (Aymara-Spanish) for government workers,
school teachers, K-12 education and other users. Prior to the trip,
the technical teams at UF and at the Ministry were able to
successfully install the program on the government server. It now
resides on the Ministry education portal (Educabolivia), which in
turn links to a larger Latin American education portal (Relpe).
The program can be accessed at
http://aymara.educabolivia.bo/Aymara.
During the four-day visit, Lowe and Beck had meetings with
the Ministry and gave two half-day presentations on the Aymara
project in public settings in La Paz and Cochabamba. Denise
Arnold and Juan de Dios Yapita (Instituto de Lengua y Cultura
Aymara-ILCA, a Bolivian NGO) participated in the Ministry
meetings and in the presentation in La Paz. Attendees included
representatives of universities, public and private institutions,
government agencies and labor unions. The presentations
covered the history of the project, an introduction to the student
interface, pedagogical considerations, evaluation of the program
and the structure and function of the database powering the
interface. There was a high level of interest among the audience.
Some can use the program immediately, while others are
interested in modifying the program to meet the needs of local
audiences and in adding other local languages, such as Quechua.
The Ministry would like to add an assessment component to be
able to award certification to users of the program. There is also
an interest on the part of the Ministry in training for school
teachers in the use of technology for language education,
development of online materials and for training in database
development for IT students in local universities.
The Aymara on the Internet program (M.J. Hardman, P.I. and
Elizabeth Lowe, Co-P.I.) was funded by a grant from the U.S.
Department of Education Title VI International Research and
Studies Program from 2004-07 and is the compilation of 50
years of research on the Aymara language by M.J. Hardman
(Linguistics). The multidisciplinary project team included
Howard Beck, Justino Llanque-Chana (Latin American
Collection), Gillian Lord (RLL), and Sue Legg (LAS). It is a freely
accessible online program offering twelve units of Aymara
grammar, equivalent to two semesters of university-level
instruction. The program contains exercises, cultural notes, a
dictionary, a resource section, recorded dialogues and images.


14 THE LATINAMERICANIST









































Outreach Lending Library

Featured Items

Since the debut of cinematography in Buenos Aires in
1896, Argentine cinematographers have created more than
2,500 films. In recent years, film production in Argentina has
greatly increased from 63 films in 2005 to more than 200 in
2007.
This semester, the Center's Outreach Lending Library
added ten new Argentine films to its collection. They are 100
Veces no debo, Bialet Mass&, Cachimba, Cara de queso, El buen
destino, La demolici6n, La hija del cannibal, La parte del leon,
Teatro por la identidad, and Salvador Allende. Ten Argentine
films were purchased last year, so we now have 20 new films.
Most of the films are being used in film and literature
classes created by Martin Sorbille (RLL). Course topics
include Argentina's military dictatorship, Latin American


military dictatorships, internationalization of labor conflicts
and class struggles, psychoanalytical theory, and Latin
American film theory. "Thanks to these films, students are
able to vividly apprehend critical problems of Latin
American reality," said Sorbille. "The students' evaluations
highlight precisely this point. Their response has been very
positive."
All of the films have been added to the Outreach
Program's online database. A search of the database will
provide information on the length, subtitles, and plot of the
movies. The database can be accessed through
http://www.latam.ufl.edu/outreach/catalog/catalog.asp. All
Outreach materials are available for free checkout and can be
used in any educational endeavor. For more information,
visit the Outreach Lending Library online at
http://www.latam.ufl.edu/outreach/library.stm or contact
Mary Risner at mrisner@latam.ufl.edu.


SPRING/UMMER 0081


ACHI





I OUTREACH I
























Outra, New coAB
















Upcoming Caribbean Film and Speaker Series

The Center was recently awarded a grant from the Florida Humanities Council to sponsor a film and speaker series called "Through
the Camera's Eye: Caribbean Migration to Florida" during the 2008 09 academic year. The series will consist of six films each pre-
sented by a scholar. The events, which will be free and open to the public, will take place from September 2008 through March 2009
at the Hippodrome State Theater in downtown Gainesville. The schedule is as follows:
Date Film Country Scholar Institution
9/8/08 The Price of Sugar Haiti/Dominican Republic Karen Richman University of Notre Dame

S10/13/08 MyAmerican Girls Dominican Republic Frank Moya Pons Independent scholar

11/10/08 Hasta Siempre Cuba Pedro Prez-Sarduy Independent scholar
S1/12/09 90 Miles Cuba Lisandro PTrez FL Intl. University

2/9/09 H-2 Worker Jamaica David Griffith East Carolina University
S3/2/09 Nuyorican Dream Puerto Rico Jorge Duany University of Puerto Rico
Sevelo*****SetI** n 600 finalO 66600,666ticip wiu0 tr66 ns00see..... Mse visit sto..






ISTUDENTSl


UF Summer Study Abroad



Nicaragua



summer study abroad
program, first offered ",-
in 2007, was established to I"- .T.
provide students with an -. -
opportunity to study the -
dynamics of non-.
government development..
efforts in socio-economically -i I
marginalized communities,, -..
and Nicaraguan history and -,-
culture. The experience-
includes exposure to three
non-governmental organizations' (NGOs) practices of grassroots
development in communities in the western region of the country.
Nicaraguan students also participate in the program, providing a more
complete immersion and exchange experience. The program appeals to
undergraduate students of ,1 l1..1 ...1.._-. sociology, geography, political
science, history, non-profit management, and social entrepreneurship.
The founder and director of UF in Nicaragua is Tim Fogarty (PhD
.,.,ll,..!...1.._- 2005), an adjunct lecturer in the Honors Program and the
Center for Women's Studies and Gender Research.
Students on the six week program earn six credit hours, three credits
for NGOs, Social Movements, and Grassroots Development, and three
credits for Culture .I Ni. ,, -i Courses are taught by UF faculty,
though daily presentations are given by Nicaraguan community leaders,
leaders of NGOs and popular social movements and Nicaraguan
academics. English translation of presentations is available.
The NGOs, Social Movements, and Grassroots Development course
requires students to carry out participant observation of community
activities to provide empirical data for an anaylsis of how NGOs operate
in transnational grassroots development. During a two-week stay at each
organization, students attempt to ascertain the organization's operative
model of development, particularly in the dimensions of popular
participation, long-term sustainability, and personal and social
empowerment. The Culture .I Ni,. ,, -ii course provides an
opportunity to reflect on the students' experience of cross-cultural
communication. In addition to homestays, students are in contact with
Nicaraguans of various ethnicities, genders, and socio-economic
backgrounds through work and study opportunities.
Weekends are devoted to recreational activities such as visits to the
Pacific coast, an organic coffee farm, a volcanic cloud forest, and a
mountain eco-lodge. Such destinations enable students to interact with
middle-class Nicaraguans whose lifestyle more closely approximates that
of the students themselves and contrasts starkly with that i N. n 11 ....
of the popular classes with whom they work during the week.
-Contributed by Brie Bailey, MALAS student


Student Testimonial

The UF in Nicaragua trip was such a

wonderful experience. Not only did I learn

about NGOs and how they interact with the

culture, but we were able to be immersed in

the Nicaraguan culture. The loving open arms

of the Nica people is moving. I remember after

hiking quite a long way through the

mountains, we finally arrived at the small

house of a 70 year-old man who had sculpted

an entire mountain with a machete. All of us

were very tired. He lived a very simple life with

his sister and brother, no running water and

very secluded. But as soon as we arrived, his

sister opened her small home to us, feeding us

bananas and mangoes and whatever else she

had. Her love and kindness for us strangers

was so overwhelming that many of us hugged

her and cried together. This is just one

example of the wonderful kindness many

people show others in Nicaragua. You

definitely leave there with a little of this

Nica spirit.


SPRING/UMMER 0081





ISTUDENTSl


May 2008 G R A D U A T E S


Undergraduate LAS Minors
& Certificates


Johann Arias, Economics
Billy Bender, Political Science
Berenice Benjamin, Psychology
Jennifer Bohning, Economics
Josie Bolahos, Psychology
Yolanda Brooks, Spanish
Sarah Michelle Caba, Spanish
Christine Calixto, Biology
Luis Casas, Political Science/History
Juan Pablo Castro, Political Science/Economics
Stephanie David, Family, Youth and Community Sciences
Christina Dunne, Spanish/Telecommunication
Suzana Fiat, Marketing
Emily Finamore, English
William Graves, Business
Monica Harvin, History
Michelle Keba, Anthropology
Nicole Kendra Levine, Food and Resource Economics
Sarah Martin, Economics/English
Omar Martinez, Political Science/Sociology
Jon McCahill, Political Science/Spanish
Rachel Parra, Anthropology
Naya Pessoa, Political Science/Spanish
Yesenia Rey, Criminology
Patricia Rosales, Advertising
Bradley Ruben, Spanish
Carolina Saavedra, Political Science
Benjamin Saver, Anthropology/Religion
Charline Simon, Psychology
Lance Williams, Spanish


Graduate Certificates
Katherine Fowler, Fine Arts
Kevin Fox, International Business




MALAS Degrees

Mayra Aviles
Advisor: Carmen Diana Deere (LAS/FRE)
Thesis: "Narratives of Resistance: An
Ethnographic View of the Emergence of the
Huaorani Women's Association in the
Ecuadorian Amazon"

Molly Dondero
Advisor: Charles Wood (LAS/Sociology)
Thesis: "Language and Earnings of Latinos in
Florida: The Effect of Language Enclaves"

Paula Hamsho-Diaz
Advisor: Allan Burns (Anthropology)
Thesis: "Stigma and Tuberculosis Contact
Investigation: A Perspective on a Mexican
Community in Central Florida"


18 THE LATINAMERICANIST





|STUDENTS|

Student Funding

2008 Summer Research Grant Recipients
The following UF students were awarded funding from the Center for Latin American Studies and the Tropical Conservation and Development
Program (TCD) to conduct field research in summer 2008. Funding of these awards was made possible by the TCD Ford Foundation/State
endowment and grants from the Tinker Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The country where the student is conducting
research follows the reference to their degree program.


Laurel Abreu (PhD RLL) Puerto Rico
Abib Araujo (PhD SNRE) Brazil
Jennifer Arnold (PhD SNRE) Mexico
Laura Avila (PhD SNRE) Costa Rica
Jenny Basantes (MS SNRE) Ecuador
Alison Boelter (MALAS) Mexico
Anna Brodrecht (PhD Anthropology) Peru
Carlos Canas (PhD Geography) Peru
Jennifer Cannon (MA Urban and Regional Planning) Brazil
Randy Crones (MA/PhD Anthropology) Brazil
Willandia Didier (MS SNRE) Brazil
Devin Dotson (MALAS) Chile
Laura Fonseca (MALAS) Brazil
Keli Garcia (MALAS) Venezuela
Kate Goltermann (MA Anthropology) Brazil
Aimee Green (MALAS) Brazil
Raissa Guerra (PhD SNRE) Brazil
Tatiana Gumucio (MA Anthropology) Bolivia
Eric Knightly (PhD Anthropology) Bolivia
Laura Kowler (MS SNRE) Peru
Marina Londres (MS SFRC) Brazil
Kari MacLauchlin (PhD SNRE) Barbados
Ricardo Mello (MALAS) Brazil
Noelle Nuebler (MALAS) Brazil
Iran Rodrigues (PhD Political Science) Brazil
Griselda Rodriguez (MALAS) Costa Rica


Mariano Roglich (MS SNRE) Argentina
Samuel Schramski (MS Geography) Mexico
Laura Schreeg (PhD SNRE) Panama
Claudia Segovia-Salcedo (PhD Botany) Ecuador
Eduardo Silva (PhD SNRE) Chile
Alfonso Sintjago (MALAS) Venezuela


2008 Foreign Language and
Area Studies Fellowship
Recipients
The following UF students received U.S. Department of
Education Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS)
Fellowships from the Center for Latin American Studies.

Summer 2008
Brie Bailey (MALAS), Kich'e Maya
Kiristen Bright (Anthropology), Portuguese
Randy Crones (MALAS), Portuguese
William Fischer (History), Quechua
Kate Goltermann (Anthropology), Portuguese
Cecelia Larsen (MALAS), Portuguese
Noelle Nuebler (MALAS), Portuguese
Arika Virapongse (SNRE), Portuguese

Academic Year 2008-09
Luis Caraballo (MALAS), Haitian Creole
Randy Crones (Anthropology), Portuguese
Laura Fonseca (MALAS), Portuguese
Hector Galvez (MALAS), Portuguese
Steve Minegar (MALAS), Portuguese
Noelle Nuebler (MALAS), Portuguese
Andrew Tarter (Anthropology), Haitian Creole


SPRING/UMMER 0081






|STUDENTS|

Grant Recipients
Congratulations to the following LAS and TCD students who recently received financial support from other UF departments and from
outside funding agencies.


Diana Alvira (SNRE) was a finalist in the Madelyn Lockhart
Dissertation Fellowship competition sponsored by UF's
Association for Academic Women.

Sarah Martin (BA Economics & English 2008) received a
Fulbright grant for her proposal entitled, "Microfinance and
Poverty Alleviation in Guatemala."

Rafael Rojas (SNRE) received a Compton Fellowship in
Environment and Sustainable Development for his research
proposal entitled, "Agricultural Expansion and Sustainable
Land Use Options in the Southern Peruvian Amazon."


Galo Zapata-Rios (WEC) received a Compton Fellowship in
Environment and Sustainable Development for his research
proposal entitled, "Changing Landscapes of the Andes:
Ecological Consequences and Conservation Implications
for the Mammalian Carnivores of the Ecuadorian Andes."

Vivian Zeidemann (SNRE) received a Compton Fellowship in
Environment and Sustainable Development for her
research proposal entitled, "Fostering Sustainable
Forest-Based Livelihoods: The Case of Brazil Nut
Management in Riozinho do Anfrisio Extractive Reserve,
Amazon, Brazil."


Latin American Studies Field Research Clinic

and Poster Competition


Forty graduate students received
field research grants in 2007
from the Center for Latin American
Studies to carry fieldwork in Latin
America and the Caribbean. The
grants sponsored research in 18
countries by students from 14
different UFdepartments. In an i
effort to disseminate the results of
such a broad and rich group of
studies, the Center convened the
annual Field Research Clinic (FRC) A MALI
in February 2008. This year's event poster.
attracted more than 120 faculty and
students from a broad variety of
units across campus.
The FRC is designed to bring public focus to
UF graduate student research in Latin America.
At the two-part clinic, veteran graduate students
run workshops on the field research experience
for first-year students and subsequently
participate in a research poster session open to
the public.
The grand prize for best research poster was
awarded to Masters student Karen Pereira
S.,ll,.. !...1.._ ) for her poster, "Plain But Not
Simple: The Stone Monuments of Naranjo,
Guatemala City." Karen's advisor is Susan


-- -- --






&S student Molly Dondero stands with her prize-winning


Gillespie ( ,,iil..!...1... ). Posters were evaluated
by Efrain Barradas (LAS/RLL), Claudia Romero
(Botany), and Paul Monaghan (Florida
Prevention Research Center, USF).
The FRC is one of several graduate student
support activities sponsored the Center over the
course of the academic year. These events serve
to enhance the learning and professional
preparation of LAS students.
-Contributed by Jon Dain, LAS/SNRE


Poster Competition

S08WINNERS
Grand Prize
' 1 4 11i l N .,I i ,,i h I [it N .....
M.!., um it ,I ...I N ,, ,,,.. -1il i 1] i l d
Karen Pereira, A.nthropolog
Masters Level First Prize
1 1i i.i 1m :J .... i i l],,,,,I ,
Moll) Dondero, MNALAS
Masters Second First Prize

', l [l h .,I. ., 11 1 1 .1 ,, i ,"1 .... I h. .
' -,,,h i. ,,,l, I nIn I [, i nl 1i'I''I, I
joanna Reilll -Bror n, .nthropologi
Masters Level Honorable Mention
l, % .,,, ,, ... 1 1 1 r : I ... ... .... .. ,,,
[ N i Nt IN I. ,,, -i ,r 1 -., It
Luciniar Souza. MAL. LS
PhD Level First Prize

,,I I I.I... I ..I 1111111_..

( hristopher Ballengee, Music

PhD Level Second Prize
S.e..tI .-,. Hoe e ntIhropolos i.. .
It.' I H 1. \ rp. I hg
Jeftrei Hoelle. Xinthropologs


20TESTNMRCNS


I~i~g~j~Y






IALUMNII


NEWS


NOTES


Natalie Arsenault (MALAS 2002) is Outreach
Director at the Teresa Lozano Long Institute of
Latin American Studies at the University of
Texas at Austin. She also serves as Outreach
Chair for the Consortium of Latin American
Studies Programs (CLASP).

Seth Bassoff (BA History & LAS Minor/
Certificate 1997) works for Morgan Stanley in
Aventura, Florida.

Christopher Canaday (MALAS, 1991) lives in
Puyo, Ecuador where he manages the Omaere
Ethnobotanical Park. He also teaches at the
Universidad Estatal Amazonica and is involved
in ecological sanitation initiatives. He is
married and has a son.

Charles Daniel (BS Forestry & LAS Certificate
1975) is President of RMK Timberland Group,
a Regions Morgan Keegan Company with
investments in Latin America.

Christine (Archer) Engels (MALAS 2002) has
worked as an evaluation/outreach specialist at the
Center of Biodiversity and Conservation at the
American Museum of Natural History (NY) since
receiving her MALAS degree. For the past 2 1/2
years, she has telecommuted from Gainesville,
where she lives with her husband and daughter.

Hayley Froysland (MALAS, 1993) received her
PhD in history at the University of Virginia.
She is Assistant Professor of History at Indiana
University, South Bend where she specializes in
Latin American history.

Katie Pearl Halloran (BA Political Science &
LAS Certificate 1999) works as a neighborhood
planner for the city of Austin, TX. She plans to
return to South Florida at the end of this year.

Michelle Gacio Harrolle (PhD Sports
Management & LAS Certificate 2007) is
Assistant Professor of Parks, Recreation and
Tourism Management at North Carolina State
University in Raleigh, NC.

Eugenio Hernandez (BA Spanish & LAS
Certificate 1978) obtained an MA in Latin
American Studies from Georgetown University
and then returned to UF for his JD degree. He


is a founding member of Avila Rodriguez
Hernandez Mena & Ferri in Miami where he
practices immigration law.

Levy Parajon (BS Finance 2000, MS Finance
2004, MALAS 2006) is a Senior Analyst for the
Latin American mergers and acquisitions
market at the Amerivest Group Capital
Markets Team in Boca Raton, FL.

Steven Keats (BA Interdisciplinary Studies,
LAS 1977) has had a 30-year career in the
shipping and logistics industry. He is a partner
in Kestrel Liner Agencies, which serves as a
global logistics agent for Tropical Shipping and
provides freight forwarding services from over
100 ports around the world to 45 destinations
in the Caribbean and Latin America. In 2007,
he and his partners formed Alpha Shipping
Agencies, the east coast agent for Maruba
Lines, an Argentine company.

Gary Nevins (BA Political Science & LAS
Certificate 1973) is President and CEO of
Plantation Publishing Company in Albany, GA.

Derek Lewis (MALAS, 2007) works in business
development at Blackstone Management in
Baton Rouge, LA.

Ann Laffey (i. ,I,.......,1._- &LAS Minor
2007) manages the Organic Geochemistry Lab
in the UF Department of Geological Sciences.
She will start an MS in Interdisciplinary
Ecology at UF in August 2008.

Raul Morin (BA Spanish & LAS Certificate
2003) is a partner at Starbucks Coffee
Company in Miami.

Richard Ogburn (MALAS 1971) is Assistant to
the Executive Director at the South Florida
Regional Planning Council, a planning and
public policy agency for the urbanized, but
environmentally sensitive region of Broward,
Miami-Dade and Monroe counties. He
performs demographic and economic analysis
of the region to support the Strategic Regional
Policy Plan for South Florida, which guides
implementation of Florida's growth
management legislation in the region. Prior to
joining the Regional Planning Council in 1989,
he spent 15 years working for public planning
agencies in Bahia, Brazil, where he served as a
Peace Corps Volunteer. He has a Masters
degree in Economics from the University of
California, Berkeley.


Jamie Parra, Jr. (BA Marketing & LAS
Certificate 1980) is Director of Retail Services
for Latin America for the Neilson Company in
south Florida.

Patricia Piedrahita Baldwin (BA Politcal
Science & LAS Certificate 1982) graduated
from Stetson College of Law and served as a
prosecutor in the 18th Judicial Circuit of
Florida for 20 years until her retirement in
April 1007. She is married with one child.

Ernesto Raez-Luna (MALAS 1993) received a
2008 Whitley Award, one of the world's top
prizes for grassroots nature conservation, from
the Whitley Fund for Nature, a UK-based
charity. He was recognized for his work in the
Tambopata river basin of Peru where he
coordinates a working group of 50
stakeholders dealing with potential threats to
the environment from gold-mining, oil
extraction, and construction of the new
Peru-Brazil Highway. Carlos Peres (MS SFRC
1986) also received a 2008 Whitley Award for
his work in taking economic drivers into
account for land management plans for the
'Arc of Deforestation, near Alta Floresta in
Mato Grosso, Brazil. Four other UF alumni
have previously received Whitley Awards: Laury
Cullen (MALAS 1997), Gustavo Kattan (PhD
Zoology 1993), Rodrigo Medellin (PhD WEC
1992), and Claudio Padua (MALAS 1987 &
PhD WEC 1993).

Valentin Saportas (BS Economics & LAS
Minor/Certificate 2004) will attend
Northwestern Law School in Chicago in
September 2008.

Jose Sariego (BA Journalism & LAS
Certificate 1977) is Senior Vice-President for
Business and Lee ,I .1i11, with HBO Latin
America Group in Miami. He is also Secretary
to the Board of Directors, comprised of
representatives from Time Warner, Walt Disney
and Sony Corporation. He received his JD
degree from the University .'I 11. I ,I,

Sally Schmidt (Mallalieu) (BA Romance
Languages & LAS Certificate 1975) is a second
grade teacher for the Hillsborough County
School District in Plant City, FL.

Richard Taylor (BA History & LAS Certificate
1972) works for the Journey Into Hope
Foundation in the Dominican Republic. He
has also worked in Venezuela, Ecuador, and
Colombia.
Alumni News & Notes continued on page 22


SPRING/UMMER 0082





IALUMNII


- NEWS

NOTES


Michele (Eck) Thomson (MALAS 1996) is a
Special Agent with the Office of the Inspector
General, Social Security Administration in
Chicago.
Robert Turkovic (PhD History & LAS
Certificate 1981) is a consultant in the area of
communications/public relations for
companies doing business in Latin America.
He also teaches history and Spanish at several
universities in South Florida.
Mary (Mitchell) Waters (MALAS 2007) has
started a new job as Associate International
Trade Specialist with the Georgia Department
of Economic Development in Atlanta.
Stephanie Weinstein (MALAS 2000) is a
full-time mom and lives in Victoria, British
Columbia, Canada.
Sondra Wentzel (PhD. ..l.. ..i..1_- 1989)
works for GTZ as an Advisor for Indigenous
Peoples and Territories in Brazil. She is
currently on sabbatical at UF.
Amy Woodell (BA Management & LAS Minor
1997) is a Program Manager for Faculty-Led
Abroad Programs at International Studies
Abroad in Austin, TX.


Calling all Ph.D. Alumni
The UF Libraries seek permission from
the authors of UF dissertations to put
their work online in digital format. Please
go to the following website, and complete
the form that allows the Libraries to make
your research freely available on the
Internet: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/
procedures/copyright/retro diss scan/DD
DCA.htm. Please note that master's theses
are not part of the retrospective
digitization project at this time.


J6se Gonzalez (BA Political Science & LAS Minor 2000; MA
Political Science 2003) is Vice President of Governmental Affairs
at Associated Industries of Florida in Tallahassee where he is
responsible for coordinating AIF's 20-member lobbying team and
all research and advocacy efforts for the association. Prior to
joining AIF, he was a legislative intern with the Office of Program
Policy Analysis and Government Accountability. He is on the
Board of Directors of College Leadership Florida and is a board
member of the Florida Chapter of Hispanic Young Professionals
and Entrepreneurs. Jos6 received an Outstanding Young Alumni
Award from the UF Alumni Association in spring 2008. This
award recognizes alumni who are 35 years of age or younger and
have distinguished themselves in their profession and community.
The Center was pleased to nominate Jos6 for this distinction.


A (from left to right) Janet Romero (UFF), Carmen
Diana Deere (LAS), Jose Gonzalez and his wife,
Angela.


The Center for
Latin American Studies

would love to hear from its

ALUMNI

If you have not already done so, please complete our
electronic Alumni Update Form online at:

http://www.latam.ufl.edu/
Alumni/update.stm


22 THE LATINAMERICANIST









I h kTOII u Dono


The Center for Latin American Studies would like to express its gratitude for the generosity of those who have responded to our
mailings and the University of Florida Foundation's annual appeal. The donations go towards the Latin American Studies Fund
and/or the Latin American Studies Graduate Student Travel Fund.


Gracias to the following people:

Natalie Arsenault
Dr. Chris Baker
Lygia Sharkin Bellis
Charlie Daniel
Steven Keats
Kathyrn B. Maguire
Richard &Wanda Oberdorfer
Jaime Parra
Alex & Lucia Vergara
Amy Woodell


We are also grateful to the following for their
support of the Center's 57th Annual Conference:

Corporate and Institutional Sponsors
Bounty Fresh
HBO Latin America Group
Miami-Dade County
USDE Title VI Program

Corporate and Institutional Co-Sponsors
Burson-Marsteller
Edelman
International Advertising Association
United Nations Office for Partnerships

UF Sponsors
Center for International Business Education
and Research (CIBER)
International Center
Research and Graduate Programs


We rely on contributions from our friends and alumni to support certain special activities such as student travel to conferences
and seed support for larger fund-raising efforts.

If you would like to make a donation to the Center, please fill out the form below.


My gift is to benefit:
O The Latin American Studies Fund (011147)
O LAS Alumni Graduate Student Travel Fund (012521)

Name
Address
City/State/Zip

Gift Amount:
O$500 0$250 0$100 0$50 0$
Remember to enclose your company's MATCHING GIFT
FORM! It can double or triple your gift!


Please return to:
University of Florida Foundation, Inc.
P.O. Box 14425, Gainesville, FL 32604-2425


Method of payment:


ABZF


O Check Enclosed (Make check payable to: UF Foundation, Inc.)
Credit Card O Discover O VISA O Master O American Express
Card Card Number:
Expiration Date (MM/YY):
Name as it appears on the card:
Signature:
Home Phone:
E-mail address:
Credit Card billing address (if different from one at left):


City/State/Zip:


N


SPRING/UMMER 0082










UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA
Center for Latin American Studies
319 Grinter Hall
P.O. Box 115530
Gainesville, FL 32611-5530


Non-Profit Org.
U.S.POSTAGE
PAID
Permit No. 94
Gainesville FL




Zackary T. Smallwood (1847-1919), buried in the Wekiva Springs Cemetery, Gulf Hammock. Four graves are left, all the other have been destroyed.
16




depot was on the right, and after crossing a 600 feet there was a 6 foot layer of coal penetrated.
roadway, Prevatt's store was on the right. A log was kept of the well which finally reached
Continuing on this street there were several 978 feet. I remember Alex Speer, president of
buildings. Dave Graham was on the left with a Florida Power Corp., stopped by frequently and
watch repair and jewelry store. And for a time, Mr. was quite interested. Also, Mr. Lummus of Miami, Merchant operated a store also on the left. A Dry who was living at the Hardee Hotel thought we Cleaning Plant was on this street in 1924. Other might strike oil. He encouraged drilling after buildings were sort of abandoned. sufficient water was obtained and I believe he
We spent a lot of time in or near the drug store. voluntarily contributed to the cost. He was Most drinks were a nickel, but sometimes Jess obtaining oil leases and people were excited.
would shave the ice and add pineapple for a nice About that time gasoline showed up in the
ten cent treat. Right out front we played marbles a pitcher pump by Dixon's store. I remember you lot. I think Max Wellman was the best shot as his could pump water for a time and then the gasoline thumb was powerful and shaped right. Jess got a showed up. Someone always threw a match on it to
chunk of ice from Jacksonville two or three times emphasize the oil. Some gagster thought up this a week which was shipped in croker sacks and prank.
packed with sawdust. This was opened in front of L. W. Drummond owned a turpentine still in the
the store, but near the tracks in the same place early 20's which was southwest of the depot and many times. The sawdust accumulated and made a n ear the mill and ice plant. Later Mr. Owens was in
good place to play. There was a period when the same business. Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Owens
Horace Smith and another boy, whose last name moved to Bronson from Yulee, Fla. Their children,
was Spillane, took over the sawdust pile at mail Cecil and Margaret were quite young at the time. time with a wrestling match. They "rassled" so It is a coincidence that Yulee and Levy County are
much that little attention was paid them, but they named for the same man. grunted and laughed and hollered so much that it At the time of national elections the town would
came to be part of the evening. After the mail come alive. This was preceded by political rallies
" 6run" the crowd dwindled and the "rassling" with speeches and usually a wash pot of chicken
ended. pileau. Finally, on election night everybody
My father, J. P. Kimble, and his brother-in-law, congregated downtown and centered around B. B. Stokes, started the Bronson Manufacturing the barber shop, drug store and post office. The
Company. They were joined in this enterprise by news came over the depot telegraph and there was
John R. Willis, Attorney, W. J. Epperson, Land a constant coming and going of messengers. Judge
Owner, C. A. Lindsey, Coca Cola Bottler, and Joe C. Sale had once been a telegraph operator so
Roman Sanchez, Farmer. on election night he assisted the agent in writing
The building to house the machinery was the returns. The news was hotfooted to the waiting
obtained from the now inactive Otter Creek groups whose blood pressure rose and fell with
Lumber Company. Two boilers and smokestacks each message. I am sure there were some bets and
also came from Otter Creek. The building was a lot of exciting conversation. Over night a
primarily of heavy 12" x 12" timbers fitted and graveyard would appear near the depot and the
secured by long iron rod bolts. This sturdiness was graves would have a marker of those supporting required to support the shafts and pulleys for the losing candidates. Some people were having a lot lathes, saws, planers, and stapling machines used of fun and others consoled themselves with to make bean and lettuce hampers. prospect of next election.
After a few successful years in making hampers After being out of school a year and a half, I
it was decided to build an ice plant and cold entered the fifth grade in Bronson in January,
storage. Also, a steam powered electric generator 1920. My teacher, Mrs. Waring, was the principal was included to provide power for the town. and a good teacher, which pleasantly surprised me
Times were booming and business was good. as I first heard of her as "Old Lady Waring". The
The 15 ton ice plant was over worked and still did other teacher, Miss Barnhard, was young and not fill demand. About 1926 or 1927 the electric pretty but did not teach the fifth grade. I franchise was sold to Florida Power Corporation. remember being taught by A. P. Hardee, Newell Forty tons was added, to the capacity of the ice Priest, Austin Baird, Professor Newsome, Mrs. plant and more cold storage was built. Two 3000 Kelly, Professor Corr and his daughter, Alice Corr,
horsepower electric motors powered the new and D. E. Williams. Mr. Williams later became
compressors. The Florida boom was in full swing. I State Superintendent for Negro Education. remember working overtime till 10 p.m. in the I remember many students from my Bronson
crate mill on several occasions. school days. Some have been mentioned. Others
More water was needed for the cooling towers of were: J. B., Wilbur and Livingston Anderson; the ice plant so a new well was drilled. Down about Frances, Martha and Russell Whidden; Haskell
3




.... .. ...
WIN Orange Street in Mont Brook, about 1900, looking west.




challenged, baseball catcher and through his brothers'
Bronson also had a good black team. One influence got into auto financing and selling and
Saturday they had a game going with a visiting renting cars. He talked me into the business with
team when a controversial ruling was made. I don't Olin's of Miami which brought me to Orlando in know what it was about but both teams and a 1946. I had left Bronson when Preacher Rowell had
sizeable number of spectators gathered around the a heart attack in the church. I understand he was pitcher's box. This hassle lasted quite a while and carried to the Boyd hotel where he died the same apparently there was to be no satisfactory solution. night. In March 1974, Stacy died of a heart attack There was one black woman still seated on the in Wauchula, where he was a Ford dealer. I
ground and left all alone by the peacemakers in believe he and his father are buried in Branford, midfield. With the commotion still going strong Fla. this lonely woman got up and slowly sauntered to Money had to be raised for different reasons
home plate. She attracted attention of the umpire's from time to time. Occasionally a box supper was assistants and in a high shrill voice cried, "I would promoted. The girls and ladies prepared chicken holler but the town's too small, but I will say and other delicacies and decorated the boxes with He-e-e-y HEY! With that she walked back to her fancy paper and ribbon. The boxes were auctioned spot and the problem was settled. to the highest bidder who then shared with those
There were two sections of town where most of who prepared them. The auctioneer was generally the blacks in Bronson lived. One was near the crate Joe Sale. Someway the boys found out which box mill in relatively low ground. This was Sugar was prepared by their girl and the auctioneer
Bottom. The other was north of the school and seemed to know when the price was right. A dollar
courthouse on higher ground. This was Pepper or maybe a dollar and a half was about all my
Hill. group could bid. The husbands were always
Pennsylvania Avenue started at the railroad successful in bidding on boxes prepared by their
near the Bean residence. It proceeded southeast wives. The price would reach two dollars but rarely passing the homes of Dixons, Andersons, Stokes, two-fifty. It was exciting and got everybody down Grahams, Rivers, Eppersons, Marshburns, town for the evening.
Walkers, Owens, Hardees, Fenders, Osteens, Sometime in the 20's radio reached Bronson but
Fugates, Gilberts, Wellmans, Merchants, Johns, it did not seem successful to us at first. Mack
Coarseys, Jones and others. Mrs. Coarsey lived in Humes probably got the first set. Anyway, by all the only house of its kind in Bronson. It was not reports, he met with more success in tuning in very wide and had three stories. She wvas originally whatever the signals were conveying. Anything from Pennsylvania. One afternoon whe was heard distinctly was considered a prize. About the
reniniscing in Jess Dixon's Drug Store. I same time Mr. Humes was reporting on his
remember her saying that everyone on her street successes and failures with his radio another set before the Big Freeze had come from was purchased by the Masonic Lodge. It was a
Pennsylvania. After the freeze many of the citrus large set reportedly costing over $500.00 Some of growers left Bronson for South Florida. The old the cost was for two of the tallest cypress poles to Coarsey house is still standing. That Big Freeze be found and the wire antennae stretched about a was in 1896. hundred feet across the top. I believe Frank
I attended Sunday school and services in the Whidden was the principal backer of this project.
Bronson Methodist Church located just north of Anyway, the set was large and was setup in the
the high school. Brother Paul Fletcher was the northeast corner of the hall. A lot of young folks
minister. About a year after we moved to Bronson showed up after supper to listen. Ed Dixon took the church was moved next to the parsonage in its charge of turning the knobs trying to tune in a present location. My daily school routine at lunch station and eliminate the static. I was there many time was to run home, vault the picket fence, eat times and besides the squawks I remember one fast and get back for an inning or two of baseball message only, "This is KDKA, Pittsburgh, PA." before the bell ended the hour lunch period. I was Traveling shows made one night stands in slowed down by the fascination of Pat Taylor, of Bronson. There were Wild West, Animal, and Cedar Key, slowly but surely rolling the church to minstrel shows from time to time. The acrobats, its new home. wire walkers, and jugglers were good
Sometime later, Preacher and Mrs. Rowell entertainment, especially for the kids.
moved to Bronson. He was a Methodist minister The first Levy County Fair I remember was set
for several years and some of his children attended up behind the Courthouse. I think some of the school in Bronson. I think Jack and Cecil worked exhibits were actually in the courthouse. The for Ford Agency in Trenton. I was six years older shows and concessions were activated in late than Stacy and as children do, we played in afternoon and in the evening. I think I lost about
different groups. He later developed into a good half of the $50.00 saved in Gunntown before I
8




we had to round the cattle up and crowd them grew in prominence as the years passed. In 1905
across the river. After we crossed, the cattle were he represented his district in the Senate of Florida. scattered everywhere but we would usually find He was a member of the Grand Lodge of Florida
them here and there in small bunches. There were for 52 years. At one time he was the Grand Master long flat ponds through which we drove the cattle, of the State of Florida. His youngest son Laram the water being belly deep to horses and cattle. We Gordon Carter also attained this office in 1929. My delivered the steers ten miles this side of Tampa, father died at Levyville, Dec. 1, 1906. It is about having lost only two or three that had just fifty to fifty-six years since I moved from old
wandered away. Levyville. Everything has grown up in big trees
My father (N. R. Carter) was a veteran of the since then. The only way I can tell where my house
Civil War, a 1 st Lt. in Co. C of the 2nd Mississippi used to stand is from where the mill caved in *and Volunteers in Gen. N. B. Forest's Division. He was left a small hollow place lower than the rest of the paroled in Gainesville, Ala., May 25, 1865. He earth.
JUDSON, FLORIDA
By W. P. Carter (1862-1944)
About 1881 or 1882 my Uncle Ira J. Carter sold he gave the village the same "Judson," which was his interest in the Carter & Carter store in his own middle name.
Levyville to my father, N. R. Carter. Uncle Ira was In 1889 Uncle Ira and Aunt Lou lost their older then about forty years of age. He bought out Bill son, Charley. Uncle Ira began to spend a lot of time Epperson at Bronson and ran a big store in the old thinking about his troubles. Charlie was a very Bill Jones store building. Uncle Sid Carter, another bright and promising young man. At one time he brother who had come to Florida a little later with drove the mail from Levyville to Trenton, but now their mother who had now passed away at his hopes were gone with Charlie.
Levyville, moved to Bronson, too. He and Uncle Ira About this time, Dr. Clyatt built an office near opened the law office of Carter and Carter. Aunt where Roland's Store was. He boarded with Aunt Lou (Mrs. Ira J.) ran a hotel in the upstairs of the Lou. Dr. Clyatt rode horseback and owned a bay store. The hotel was known as the Carter House. mare named Isa, after Miss Isa Turner, niece of J.
Then all of a sudden Uncle Ira sold the store S. Turner. Dr. Clyatt had not finished medical
back to Bill Epperson and moved back to Levyville. school, so Uncle Ira let him have $150 to finish the My wife Kate and I were just married. We had last term. Dr. Clyatt left the mare as security. I was
bought Uncle Sid's house as he no longer had need there when he returned to Judson, but this time he of it after Grandma Carter-Barber died. Uncle Ira rode a big black horse named Dexter. He and Aunt Lou moved into the house with us for a sometimes drove Dexter to a two-wheeled sulky
while. like they use with these fast trotters.
Then Uncle Ira took a fancy to build a sawmill, a Old Man Buidelman who once lived at Levyville store, and a gin at the Levy and Alachua County now sold his forty acre farm to Uncle Ira and
line (later to become the Gilchrist line.) He built a moved to Jacksonville. The north part of the farm big log store and my brother Clarke worked with was a "new-ground" and planted in peas. Uncle
him for three or four years. Clarke became sick Ira had one Elias Griffin running the farm and
with TB and Uncle John McGrew's mother's Griffin proved to be a lot of trouble to Uncle Ira.
brother helped Uncle Ira until he could get the One Julia Owen, widow, owned a fine farm near
sawmills and gins working. He built a good Trenton with two acres in a peach orchard.
four-room house with oak blocks for supports Peaches in this new country grew almost as big as
which his family used. He also built a two-story a large coffee cup. People came there from miles house. The second story was to be used for a lodge around to get peaches. This Mrs. Owen was a room. great friend of Aunt Lou, as Mr. Wes Owen had
People already lived in and around the section been a big Mason and good friend to Uncle Ira. where Uncle Ira located his businesses and as After Mr. Owen's death, Mrs. Owen married one
some semblance of a community began to appear, Andrew J. Weeks, father of Wallace, Dote, Alice,
23




A History of
2Levy County, Florida
Chapter Ten
October 1980
Published By The
Levrchunives Committee
nty Board of Commissioners Broson Florida
i Publication
m...




wised up to the fact that no money could be made The checks totalled more than $40,000.00. Oddly pitching at milk bottles. It was a good lesson. enough, most of the checks should have been paid
Through arrangements with Mr. Coulter, a as the writers has sufficient money in their
fairground was set up on the north side of town. accounts. It was the bankers who were guilty. One permanent exhibit building was constructed. I Some of the checks had been purposely held more went with Leeander Osteen and Henry Smith to than three weeks without being honored. The
put up a temporary electric line, which was banks foresaw their closing and unfairly retained
fastened to insulators on pine trees. During the fair any cash they could get their hands on. we had our pictures made, watched the balloon get The bank failures and the loss of the railroad
filled with hot air before the ascension and ate from Archer to Cedar Key about that time stopped cotton candy. There were nice exhibits of farm the manufacture of crates. In 1929 after two years
products and home canning but the concessions at the University, my father asked me to drop out
and Merry-Go-Round attracted more attention. To of school for a year to assist in operating the Ice
this day I remember both tunes played on the and Cold Storage Plants. That depression was
Merry-Go-Round. They were "Ukulele Lady" and much bigger than one year, however, and I did not
"Let Me Call You Sweetheart. They played return to school.
alternately for three days and nights. When the There was a good deal of hardship for all and
fair was over the same crew took down the electric some suffered more than others. Money was line. Henry asked Leeander to let him climb the scarce. I remember peddling ice around town and
pine tree with the climbing spurs as he had never the difficulty people had in paying for it. Many had that experience. Well, Henry got up the tree owed for the ice but would pay a dollar when they O.K. and fastened his belt around the tree, but he could. Mr. Young, the Bank Liquidator was a good straightened up in his spurs causing him to lose his customer but also had money problems. footing. He was held to the tree by the belt in One act of my father's I will never forget. We
sliding down and the gum that oozed out from the had assumed a mortgage of $40,000.00 on the Ice first climb slowed him down some. He was unhurt and Cold Storage Plant. Each month we paid
but the front of his overalls were a mess with the $200.00 interest without fail. Also, our power bill gum and pinebark. Leeander said he was the best ran as high as $1000.00 each month. Sometimes we
exhibit at the fair. drew a little money, sometimes we did not. The
In the early 20's Dr. and Mrs. J. W. Turner Florida Power Corp., held $22,000.00 of the
lived in a home, now occupied by Mrs. Sale, but mortgage and $18,000.00 was held by four local
soon moved to Cedar Key. Dr. Twiggs practiced in men. Alex Speer called frequently at the office and Bronson for a year or two. Bronson was without a suggested one day that Florida Power foreclose doctor much of the time. Dr. Smith Turner of and sell us the property back for $22,000.00. This
Williston was called on frequently and many struck me as a measure that would greatly relieve
people went to Gainesville for medical and dental the strain we were under. However, my father services. The most tragic medical case I recall was would have no part of it as he felt obligated to all Mrs. G. A. Boyd who was severely burned early who had invested with him. We tried to tough it
one morning in the boarding house kitchen. It out and over the years I have been proud of his
seems the gallon can ususally containing kerosene decision. had gasoline instead. Her habit was to use Each morning I would see the Blacks from
kerosene in starting a fire in the wood stove. The "Sugar Bottom" pass the plant. They would have can must have exploded as she was fatally injured, a lunch pail, a shovel, and a burlap croker sack. She was taken to the hospital in Gainesville but the They went to the woods and filled the sack with burns were too severe to be successfully treated. moss for drying and ultimate sale. The shovel was
Bronson High School was not accredited in 1927 for digging gophers which they ate. After eating but Alice Corr and D. E. Williams arranged for their lunch the pail was filled with berries. That's
Bascom Hardee and me to enter the University of the way it was.
Florida on a probationary basis. While we were About this time a Suwannee Store was opened
there the Bank of Levy County closed as did a lot of and operated by Charlie and Pearl Andrews. Chain banks all over Florida and the nation. stores did sell some items cheaper and the
The procedure at the crate mill was to competition was a threat to the independents.
manufacture and store crates all year till time for There was some feeling about this but the bean and lettuce harvests in South Florida. Car opposition was mostly talk. The popularity of the
loads of crates were consigned to dealers who Andrews was a big asset for the Suwannee Store.
consigned them to farmers who paid for the crates I must mention John Peck who was a popular
when the produce was shipped. Well, one day station agent before the railroad was abandoned.
Uncle Ben (Stokes) who kept the books for the He was definitely a character although a man of
business showed me a neat pile of returned checks considerable intelligence and ability. He could which represented a year's work at the crate mill. send or receive a telegram and write a bill of sale
10







Blanche, Orbie, Code, Maude and Les Weeks. away from Levyville trying to settle up Uncle Ira's
This couple soon found that they had made a affairs. A few years before his death he had built
mistake and separated. So Mrs. Owen, as she was a warehouse, almost half an acre in size, with big still called, spent a lot of her time in Judson having platform scales to weigh wagon loads of cotton. He Uncle Ira fix her property so Mr. Weeks couldn't had an office in the southeast corner and had Old get any of it. Man Lightsey to build a limerock chimney of sawed
Along about this time, one Mr. Meredith came lime blocks. These blocks were sawed from solid
into the Trenton area and his wife happened to be limerock out at Wolf Sink near where Norvel Will Richardson's mother. Brother Meredith and Hagan lives. Aunt Lou let Henry Tucker and Crawf
Sister Meredith were great Baptist and would Kidd have the mill and gins, one pair of mules and
attend church at Pine Grove. They never failed to wagon and her to feed the mules for six months, all stop at Aunt Lou's to enjoy her fried chicken or for the sum of $100. chicken pie. I never saw anyone who could equal Sometime in the year 1894, Cousin Mollie came
Aunt Lou making chicken pie, the crust was so with her husband from Mississippi. Cousin
crisp and brown and well-seasoned. She was a Mollie's father was James P. Carter, a brother to
smart lady. Many times she would be up in the my father and Uncle Ira. They came early in the
morning and have a chicken dressed and fried spring. I remember the corn was up to a good
before the other family members finished getting stand and needed its first plowing. They lived in a themselves dressed. house about 100 yards north of my house. We were
One day, Bro. Sim Sheffield was there for dinner then living in a small house near Aunt Lou but a and while he was all bowed down saying Grace, little northeast. I had bought the house and five
Uncle Ira cut his eye out toward the lot and saw acres of land that Molly and Tom lived in from Mr. that hay barn was in full blaze. That broke up the Herndon and he had bought it from Frank Swilley Grace as well as the dinner. whose land runs down to Judson on the north. I
engaged Tom Martin to help make a crop for Aunt
Then a family named Owens settled on forty Lou at $16.50 a month and he find or feed himself.
acres north of Judson. They built a big two-story I recollect the first day he came to work. We house, put up a sawmill and planer mill. This was hitched up Poly, a small yellow mule that Uncle Ira afterwards owned by D. T.. Trammel. This same had bought from up at Trenton of a man named
Trammel finished out Uncle Ira's square topped Poly Riley.
house in Judson. Trammel was a master carpenter When I came to Judson to live, Uncle Ira had a
and plane setter. He laid the wooden sills for the sugar mill, furnace and boiler for making syrup. engine to rest on. He had a set of augers five or six There was a long cypress trough and a cloth cover feet long to make holes through the heavy timbers fastened to two stakes that were longer than the and so to fasten them together with long iron rods trough. At night they kept the cover on to keep out with heads on the underside and taps to fasten trash and insects. Early one morning they took up
them on top. The Owens had built a schoolhouse a boiler of syrup, eight or ten gallons, and poured
here and it was always known as the Bartram it into the trough, but in the dark, they forgot to
School. Soon after this there came the Holmes take the cover off and the syrup was running
family from Georgia to live in the Owens' house. around in puddles all over the ground. Another They brought one Dan George to Florida and Dan morning, before daylight and very cold, the young
wrote a very beautiful Spencerian hand. One of the man feeding the mill said that the mill was broken, Holmes' girls later married Ira. J. Carter II. Her it wouldn't work. Someone went to his rescue and name was Pearl. found that the stalks of cane were frozen, solid.
In February of 1891, the worst thing that ever Luther Yancey had married Ola Doak and lived
happened to the family occurred. Uncle Ira had in a new house about 250 yards southwest of R. S.
just returned from a trip to Savannah. Aunt Lou Tucker's store. Yancey was the fireman at the
and Annie were in Gainesville awaiting his return. Carter mill boilers and a year or so later, drowned When they got home, all of them came down with during a fishing trip on the Suwannee River This
the flu. Old Dr. Claywell was the only doctor Yancey made a crop with me one year and he got
available and before anyone realized he was so tired before the crop was gathered and so sold out
sick, Uncle Ira died right off. All the folks came up to me. I paid him partly in hogs. In those days I from Levyville to be with Aunt Lou and then we butchered 20 to 30 hogs a year. George Schofield
took his body back to Levyville for burial. put up a store at the edge of the water hole on the
So Aunt Lou wanted Kate and me to come and north side. He was the father of Relia who married
live with her. We had only Louise then, as the little Dote Weeks. We liked to have had some trouble boys had died sometime ago. No one knew with him because Tom Martin said he bet Scofield
anything about his business affairs. My father was put sand in his sugar. appointed administrator and he spent a lot of time Some two years before Uncle Ira died, there
25




Football was practically unknown to us when I Milton Clapp, Luther Drummond, Wilbur Bean,
entered school in Bronson. There was never a team George and Ed Dorsett; Newell Priest and while I was there. I suspect there was a time in the sometimes Sid Dixon would play. His performance twenties when there was not a football in Bronson was excellent as he played with his right arm only. and possibly Levy County. About 1925 there was a I understand his left arm was lost in a hunting basket ball court set up between the school and accident. Try catching a ball with the right hand, courthouse. shake off the glove and throw a runner out at first.
But the big deal was baseball. We played at He did and he could bat with one hand very well.
recess, lunch time and after school. We played for I remember one year that Bronson's town team sure in the summer and around the school some in toured south Florida. The tour was quite the winter months. There were ball diamonds at successful. Among others, my father and L. W.
various times all over town. In front of the school Drummond drove their cars to transport the building and in the back. For various reasons we players. George Dorsett drove his old Ford and had to find new places for diamonds several times became famous for his quick tire changes. I really There was a diamond to the left of what is now missed that trip.
Highway 27 and several hundred yards to the rear If I tried to list all of my memories of ball games
of the present Baptist Church. A good one was to in Bronson I am sure it would become boring, but the right of 27 and to the left of Pennsylvania Ave., let me mention a few that stand out: about 1000 feet back of Mrs. Coarsely's home. Newell Priest was my seventh grade teacher. He
Also, we played for a time on Mr. Coulter's was to play on the Bronson team against Williston
property known as the fairgrounds. And for a year in the afternoon. Before starting class that or two we played at long pond near the home of morning he said, "I want to tell you I dreamed
Carroll Gilbert. Some afternoon games were in last night that I will knock a homerum in to-day's
front of Darden's home, back of the present post game". We rode to the game with him in his office. And a very popular afternoon spot was cut-down pickup truck. I saw him knock the home
between the Stokes home and Masonic Lodge. run he had dreamed about.
During summer doldrums we would ride the We had a game going in front of the school
freight train to Archer for ball games unannounced during morning recess when the Sale's home was and ride the passenger train (with the mail) back. I discovered on fire. We all raced to the scene. I think the fare was 35 cents. Archer would show up think Jim Turner got there first but his closer in Bronson and courtesy demanded that we round position in the outfield game him some advantage.
up a team. Once or twice we had to play with seven Some furniture and valuables were being removed, players. We often had poor equipment. One or two but rescue efforts were soon stopped and we saw players had uniforms. Sometimes we were held up the home destroyed. as the player with the bat, ball or catcher's mitt Now all the Dixons were good ball players. didn't show up. However, the biggest without question was Joe.
I think there were eleven boys in high school. All He was tall and he was big. In fact, his size and were not baseball "nuts" so it was hard to field weight of about 300 pounds sometimes hampered nine players. I was surprised in the classroom one his efforts. The ball, thrown in normal strike zone, afternoon when Russell Whidden and my teacher, often was difficult for him to hit. I was watching a
Newell Priest called me to the door. They wanted game back of Mrs. Coarsely's when Joe came to to know if I could go with the high school team to bat. He stood six feet or better and was a right play Newberry. I was in the 7th grade. I did get on hand hitter. Joe's reach overhead was another foot base, made a run, and caught a long fly in center or so, and when you added the length of the bat field, hit by Tom Rowland, later the banker in you were really getting off the ground. As
Newberry. After that, I became addicted to sometimes happens, the pitcher threw a wild one.
baseball. That ball must have been nine feet high but it was
I didn't play with town teams at that time but made to order for Joe Dixon. He swung upward watched all the games I could. Nick West, from and hit that ball solid. I can still see that ball going
Otter Creek, frequently played with Bronson. He up to this day. Joe didn't get on base very often
had played professional baseball and was really and hesitated till the crowd yelled, "Run Joe I He
'good. He coached a bit, sometimes pitched, but wasn't a sprinter and was winded by the time he
mostly played first base. He gave the team reached second. It was his intention to stop there,
confidence and could talk up a rally. I think he was but as the ball was just coming down in some trees about 40 years old, but a good athlete, and was the beyond left field he was persuaded to puff on over epitome of baseball in his professional uniform. to 3rd base where he definitely decided to go no
The other players were good, too. They won a lot farther. Now you can't measure how high a ball is of games. Players I remember were: Joe and Ed knocked but I am convinced Joe Dixon set the
Dixon; Herman and Carl Wellman; Edgar Pinner, world record that day. I never expect it to be
6




!l!
Lucius Parks Smaliwood (1884-1907), son of Zackary Taylor Smaliwood, Gulf Hammock. The artificial leg he wore was a popular type in his day. The vehicle was probably a 1934 Chevrolet. The hole at the bottom of the radiator grille was for inserting a hand crank in case the
battery failed.
18




Hardee, Carl and Otto Wellman; C. B. Prevatt, In the early 20's the boys wore short pants till
Britt Lewis, Harold Walker, Natalie Merchant; they were out of high school. I think it was 1923
Gertrude, Ralph, Hugh and George Darden; when boys of all ages started wearing long pants. I
Thelma and Charlie McCoy; Henry Coulter; went with my father to Palatka when he was
Wilbur, Eleanor and Dorothy Bean; Thelma Willis, arranging with Barnett Refrigeration Co., to build Irene Humes, Roly Winningham, Lessie Faircloth, the ice plant and cold storage in Bronson. While in John Dean, Roberta and Candy Laney; Mertie and Palaka he bought my first and only pair of green
Pete Jones; Frank and Lint Moring; Grace, Ruby long pants. I had to alternate wearing long and
and Perry Fugate; Ella May; Myrtle, Evans, short pants for a time.
Milton and Carroll Gilbert; Nadine, Mary Frances, Kids love to get in the water and occasionally we Grace, B. G., Charles and Wilson Lastinger; Nellie managed to get to Blue Springs. Rides were not Faircloth; Ralph and Louise Rivers; Gordon easy to come by and we walked the three miles
Drummonds, Mark Hopkins, John Kelly, Lamar sometimes. It was easier to jump in the pond
Hilton; Frank, Fred, and Reba Fender; Henry and known as Cow Ford back of the Wellman home.
R. L. Smith; P. K., Stacy and Grace Rowell; Vassie We were admonished about this without much and Ernest Pinson; Willie and C. J. Spencer; Leon, success. Someway I managed to get malaria with Emma, Jeannette, Woodrow and Bernice its intermittent fever. I took quinine and a lot of
Edwards; My cousins: Mary, Ruth, Lillian, Bailey Atabrine which would help but never seem to and Bill Stokes; In my graduating class there was completely cure. The atabrine made your skin turn Eva Gilbert, Earl Walker, Frankie Coulter, Zack yellow a bit. The road to Chiefland used to leave
Lewis, Max Wellman and Bascom Hardee, who Bronson by way of Oak Street and made a left turn
was valedictorian. Some names escape me which I just beyond the Bottling works. Right around that will recall later and regret omitting, turn on the right side was a deep clay pit left when
We had some nicknames, too. Some of them the road was built. We swam in that as long as we
were Speck, Fudge, Skunk, Possum, Goose, could get away with it. Our parents were opposed
Wamnpus, Zorro, Pete, Sweetback, Hatch, Toad, and finally Mr. Coulter had it filled with dirt.
Newt, Old Sop, and others. Those who remember Watermelon pond was a good place to swim but
will have little difficulty in sorting them out. hard for us to reach. We walked about eight miles
Our school was a two story yellow brick building to it once or twice. I remember once when we had a with four classrooms downstairs. Two classrooms boy scout troop that we walked out there and
and the auditorium were upstairs. There was camped overnight. Col. Win. E. Rivers was always
convocation each morning in the auditorium. Also, friendly and helpful to the young folks and we the school put on plays occasionally and the P. T. A. could generally count on him for assistance. He and other meetings were held at the school. was our scout master and camped with us on this
Several years the business men subscribed to occasion. We had supplies which included enough
enough tickets to bring Chautauqua to the school for supper and breakfast, with coffee, sugar and for three days of afternoon and evening one can of condensed milk. We had our swim, built
performances. There were magigians, singers, a fire and boiled some coffee. We looked
dancers, yoderlers, comedians, bell ringers, and everywhere for the condensed milk but finally a lecturer. It was a real treat at the time although I found that Col. Rivers had opened it and drank the only remember one lecturer. He was William whole can. We didn't hold it against him but the
Jennings Bryan and he remained seated while milk would have improved the "barefoot" coffee.
speaking. In the summer I worked at the crate mill. In fact,
One morning after Halloween the stage curtains I was water-boy at $1.00 per day when the mill was was raised and there was a large outhouse on built. Mr. Drummond had his turpentine quarters
stage. The curtain was immediately lowered. To nearby and water was obtained for the quarters at
this day I have wondered who put it there and how the edge of a pond from a barrel buried almost it was brought up the stairs. completely. The bottom was out the the barrel and
Judge John R. Willis was public spirited and to some extent the water was filtered. The
prominent in local and state politics. He generally distance from the new mill to the water source was spoke to us when school opened and admonished just a little more than a bucket of water. After each
us to apply ourselves well that we might "fill the trip I was greeted with: "Water Jack, should be shoes" of our elders in later life. It happened that here, and halfway back." Bascom 0. Hardee, a classmate, opposed Judge After school I could pick up a little money
Willis for 1935 House of Representatives. He hauling wood. We had a wagon and a horse named
reminded the Judge of his former speeches by Billy. The machine that cut the round bottoms for
saying he was ready to "fill those shoes". He was the crates always left some half-moon waste wood. elected. I got 50 cents for each load delivered in town.
5




Willie and Carrie Johnson lived between Bronson and Judson in 1885. The child in front is Hartwell. Back row, Addie, Junious, and Annie. Addie was the grandmother of Linden Lindsey, Levy County Archives member.
24




time Buidelman saw him, he shouted, "That recall Jim Brock, Jerry Goldwire, Samp Bath, E.
damned old man was my guard in Andersonville M. Tedder, Mrs. Barrow, Walter Howard, Steve
Prison!" Hagan, Dr. French, John Overstreet, Mose Asbell,
After Carter and Carter built the new store, they Reve Crumpton, C. C. Doak, Ferdinand Sanchez, put up a building with big platform scales to weigh Mack Love, Mrs. Claywell, the Butler family, wagons and cotton before unloading, then after David Cannon and Betsy Cannon. Some Negro
unloading, reweigh the wagon. I was old enough to people who were good friends of our family were drive a mule team to Bronson everyday with a load Pompey, Dan Strong, Jim Hall, Balam Bradley, each way, cotton bales to the railroad and Stepney Bradley, and Jim Bradley.
merchandise back to the store.
For years before we came to Florida, J. S. Sporting activities were very meagre in these
Turner had handled his goods by ox teams from years 1870-77. At Christmas time, besides fire
Palatka, that town being the nearest delivery point crackers, Roman candles and pin wheels, we would to Levy County. Of course this was before the bore a hole in a tree or large stump, pack the hole
railroad was turned to go through Bronson to with several inches of gun powder, then seal the
Cedar Key. At that early date, Savannah was the hole with damp clay, inserting a small twig to form nearest market. Jacksonville was only a cowford, a small access to the powder. We primed it, started Fernandina and Palatka were way ahead in size a fire with dry straw, then took off to await the
and business. At the time we moved to Levyville explosion. about 1870, the railroad had reached Cedar Key, In those days the community would have basket
and Bronson and Otter Creek had become stations picnics. Some of the ladies would sell ice cream to and shipping points. For years afterwards, Mr. raise church funds. We got our ice by ordering a
Turner kept on driving his cattle to Live Oak and 100 lb. block from Fernandina. The blocks of ice shipping from there by train to Savannah. At these were shipped in sacks with sawdust all around early dates, Cedar Key had steamers coming in them to prevent melting. To preserve what we
from New Orleans and Galveston. Levy County didn't use, we would bury it to save it as long as
received a lot of goods by these routes. possible.
As late as 1890, John C. McGrew got his Nearly everyone in those days grew peaches and
merchandise at Ft. Fannin by steamer via Cedar very fine ones too. One day Suggs Mooney
Key and up the Suwannee River. I well recollect borrowed a yoke of oxen from his neighbor. He the name of one or two, the Caddo Belle, the loaded the wagon with loose peaches and didn't
Blanche, the Crescent City. They ran up as far as know much about driving oxen. So when he got too Branford and probably Live Oak. The Caddo lies on close to a sink filled with water, in went the oxen the bottom of the river near Old Town. and stopped to stand in the water. The wagon
In the spring of 1867 when my family arrived at floated and the peaches floated all over the place. I the Old Town area, the families of the Finlaysons, used to grow some very fine watermelons at Cotrells, McCartys, Chairs, Parkers and many Levyville. They were colored like the old
others were living there. rattlesnake variety. They were very large melons
Some people who lived in and around the and grew standing up on one end. They were so
Levyville area from 1870-1890 as I recollect them large that they looked like small tubs sitting were: Dr. Hall who stayed at Mrs. Quincey's. She around in the patch. We had several hives of bees was a sister of Samuel Quincey, a Levy County in the yard under a fine peach tree of the
Commissioner. Many members of the Clyatt family clingstone variety. One year we gathered two lived there. Jim Penner was the fireman at the gin bushels of peaches from this tree alone. and John Sash was the foreman. George Leitner Beecher, a dark gray horse, turned out to be the
came to preach once a month from Providence best cow pony I ever had. He would drive cattle
after a church was built near the old mill on the like a trained dog. If a cow turned back he would north side. Other people were Suggs Mooney, a wheel, head her off, and drive her back to the
Mrs. Stephens who later married Eli Bennefield. bunch without being told to do so. Later, I rode Jesse Everette and Jordan Saunders made crops Snap all the way to Tampa. He was a sorrel I
for my father. Hiram Carver was a gentleman from bought from John Gore who lived in the Blackneck Kentucky who taught school in the old courthouse. neighborhood on the old Cedar Key road. My Still other names that I recollect are Horatio brother Clarke and I were driving 500 head of
Spence, Dan Hagan, Cynthia Hagan, Wash Deas, steers through the Brooksville area when one night
Jesse White, Bud Cason, Doc. Young, Willis after we were all bedded down for the night, the
Fletcher, Joe Gunn, Wash Phelps, C. Studstill, cattle stampeded and I heard the pounding and
and Dave Hires who married Rachel Studstill. One roar coming my way. I climbed a pine tree and the of their children was Mannie Studstill who was cattle passed under me. Two days before this, we
named for his grandfather, Emanuel Studstill. I had to ford the Withlacoochee, and time after time,
22




xJ
"A/
Lessie Britt McKoy of Meredith, Florida at the ruins of a sawmill on Atsena Otie Island. In 1858, the mill was owned by her distant kinsman, Zephemiah Britt, of North Carolina. The entire island has reverted to jungle growth.
29




Copyright 1980
Levy County Archives Committee




THE PIONEER CARTERS
By William Patrick Carter (1862-1944)
William P. Carter, Baptist minister, moved from broken hip. I think we left from my grandmother's South Carolina to Mississippi about 1810. He home in Lauderdale Springs, Miss., in Feb. 1867.
married Mary Hill Robertson, daughter of the Rev. I was just five years old so I don't remember that
Norvell Robertson (his autobiography is in the hustle and bustle of getting off. The first thing that
Mississippi College Library at Clinton). William P. I can recall was when we reached the Tombigbee had a brother, Pinckney, sisters Mary (married River and had to be ferried across on flat boats
Richard McClemore) and Katie (married a Griffin). pulled by hand cable. They unhooked all the mules William P. Was a state senator in Mississippi from the wagons for safety and one mule did fall
sometime before 1850. Norvell Robertson was one overboard. Johnny was about two and just learning
of the organizers of the Mississippi State Baptist to talk, and he called the river the "big awty". The Convention and the first pastor of the First Baptist next thing I recollect was arriving at Tallahassee Church of Meridan, Mississippi. and going into the old Capitol. The first floor was
Norvell Robertson Carter (1833-1906), son of an open space with the floor littered with old guns,
William P., married Isobelle Abney McGrew in military belts and saddles.
Meridan in October, 1857. This is the couple that Expecting to take a steamboat to Tampa from St.
migrated to Levy County, Florida. Their children Marks, we went there the next day. To our great born in Mississippi were Clarke M., William P., disappointment the steamer had left St. Marks just
and John L. Those born in Levyville were Sallie two days before and would not make a return trip
Isabelle, N. R. Jr., Graham and Lamar G. for two weeks. We decided then to go on to Tampa
W. P. Carter was born in 1862 in Mississippi and by Wagon.
died in about 1945 in Florida. He wrote his In our move from Mississippi to Florida we
memoirs in 1941, at the request of his brought along several Indian ponies, one mare
grandchildren, William T. 'and Betty Lou Weeks. named Joe and another mare named Mary. Old
W. P.'s grandmother's husband had died of Joe's colt was a stallion named Cochoma, a pacer.
tuberculosis back in Mississippi. She must have Old Mary's colt was Fannie. These horses had
taken a last look at his grave, knowing full well that been crossed with good thoroughbreds. Before we she would never see that grave again, and then she reached the Suwannee River one day, my brother rode five hundred miles in a wagon along the Clarke, who was just old enough to ride, was on
frontier trail roads to Levy County, and her hip was Mary. He fell off and got one foot caught in a broken. stirrup. Mary walked up to one of the wagons and
stopped and one of the drivers, a Mr. Proctor,
We are indebted to a gracious lady for her help released him, unhurt.
and kindness, Mrs. Betty Mattair of Newberry. We crossed the Suwannee River at Ft. Fannin
She made the writing of the late W. P. Carter and camped near the Fannin Springs. A man came
available for this series. He was her grandfather. to our camp that night by the name of Jim Burnett. The lineage goes like this: 1. Senator William P. I saw him off and on after that night for the next Carter, South Carolina to Mississippi, 2. His son, forty years. The next night we camped at a small N. R. Carter, Mississippi to Florida, 3. His son hammock, about three miles from Bronson on the William P. Carter, the W. P. who wrote the Levyville Road. I have seen that old pine stump
history, 4. His daughter and 5. Her daughter, Mrs. many times since, where we had our campfire that Betty Mattair. N. R. Carter had a son, also named night. N. R., and a brother, Ira J. Carter. The elder N. R. The next day we drove into Bronson. There we also served as a state senator, from Levy County. were persuaded to settle on the old Finlayson Norma Richards Hutson plantation, a place that had been worked by a slave
owner before the Civil War. The land was good.
After the Civil War my parents decided to move The house was eight feet above the ground, room by wagon train to Florida with Tampa as their enough to store wagons under the house. We had
destination. So my parents and my grandmother no screens on the windows or doors. The only
McGrew together with my mother's younger protection from mosquitoes was bars and they
brothers sold or gave away their possessions and didn't do much good. We had to build smoke fires packed two or three wagon loads of bedding, in pans for relief from the mosquitoes. The
chairs, and other necessities. A light spring wagon hammock was full of bears, deer, wild cats, coons. was prepared for my grandmother as she had a opposums, squirrels, etc.
19




V 6~
At a political rally in Bronson about 50 years ago. The man seated was Tax Collector Malcom Graham. In the front row, second from left, was Congressman Lex Green, father of Circuit Court Judge Buzzy Green; fifth was Sheriff L. L. Johns, seventh was Luther W. Drummond, grandfather of Levy County State Bank President Luther Drummond.




simultaneously. For a time he and his wife lived Bank of Levy County where Frank Osteen, cashier, upstairs at our house. He carried hair clippers in would count it for deposit. his pocket and on a summer evening he would sit In small towns, unusual arrangements occur.
on the porch clipping his hair and would shear one Like when Aunt Maud Stokes and Mrs. Rivers of his several cats at the same time. On hot days came down to the Ice Plant and said they wanted to Mr. Peck left the depot and used a water hose at to be Santa Claus at the school Christmas party. I Boyd's Garage to fill his brogans. This was done weighed about 135 pounds and was not the type. several times a day. He walked around in unlaced Judge Sale was the type and they were counting on and wet shoes. Appearances did not bother him. him till he had business out of town. I did not want
His head was clipped and bald on top. Sometimes to do it, but womenfolk can be mighty persuasive. flies around the depot proved irritating by landing It was December but the weather was warm. Well, on his head. The solution was to dab shaving they tied pillows and padding on me till the Santa
cream on a telegram blank and pop it on the bald suit fit. I Ho-Hoed around the tree promising spot. I recal one day meeting him about where the anything those little wide-eyed children wanted. It Methodist Church is today. He was walking to the was hot and the whiskers got in my mouth, but I courthouse to deliver a telegram. However, he was did enjoy the experience. lathered up and shaving along the way. He was a, R. B. Childs edited the Levy County Journal. In
most interesting man. one issue in 1931 he ran an article about Earl W.
Another street scene I saw several times was Brown, of Deland. Mr. Brown was preparing the
Uncle Alfred with his water bucket of money. He Florida Exhibit for the coming Century of Progress and Aunt Mandy sold pecans, syrup, turnips and to be held in Chicago in 1933. 1 responded to the
other vegetables mostly to Blacks who had a path article by writing for a job which I did get a year or from Sugar Bottom back of the pond to their place. so later. It has been my pleasure to return to After enough nickles, dimes and quarters Bronson hundreds of times over the years. I look
accumulated Uncle Alfred took the bucket to the forward to many more visits.




HISTORY OF
THE WILLISTON AIRPORT
By Ray Stoel
On the east side of Levy County approximately it was used extensively by squadrons before they two (2) miles west of Marion County lies the sleepy went overseas. For this reason the airport was kept little farming community of Williston, Florida. The fairly wooded with access to the runways from the population is estimated at approximately 2,100, air being kept to a minimum. While construction
however, 35 to 40 years ago Williston was quite a was underway on the main and secondary different place. runways, portable steel runways were used. These
In the spring of 1942 the United States runways were also used to simulate the emergency
Government came into Levy County in the area of runways used by the allies in Europe. The only Williston, Fla., and advised the local farmers they area that was cleared other than the main and were going to buy up their farmland to use for secondary runway areas was the area where the
military purposes during the war. The land temporary runways were used. The government
selected by the government was mostly farmland was short on equipment at that time and they
owned by families such as the Robinsons, Fugates, would lease tractors and other equipment from the Clarks, Hoods, and other families who had spent local farmers. Local civilians were employed to most of their life developing and working the land build the hospital, barracks, and other structures for farming. Two of the oldest and largest land on the airbase. Most of the work on the airbase was
owners were R. S. Robinson and I. T. Fugate. contracted out by the government. Day laborers
The government advised R. S. Robinson, who were paid .75 to $1.25 per hour with the truck
owned and operated a large dairy farm southwest drivers and dragline operators being paid
of Williston, that he would have to move and anywhere from $1.25 to $1.75 per hour. The truck
relocate somewhere else. He was advised that he drivers and dragline operators were also paid time
would be paid $25.00 per acre with this price and a half and double time. This was good money
including all the buildings and fences on the for the local citizens who were suffering through
property. I. T. Fugate was advised of the same some rather hard times.
thing which angered the farmers as most of them The two main runways were initially packed with
were already poor and to have to take the 12 inches of limerock obtained from the local
government in Federal Court in Gainesville, Fla., limerock mines. Tractors were rented from the wanting more money for their land. The Federal local farmers and used to pack the limerock down.
Court ruled in favor of Robinson and Fugate and Two tractors were rented from Henry Wilson granted them $27.00 per acre of land. The extra (farmer at the time but now with the Florida money that they were granted ended up being just Marine Patrol) of Williston, Hla., as he had enough to pay the legal fees they had encountered recently purchased them and they had a top speed during the court battle. Feeling angry and of 12 to 15 miles per hour which was needed to
disappointed with the government, Robinson speed up construction. After the limerock was
moved his dairy farm about two miles away from packed it was covered with asphalt. The main
its original location where; the cheapest he could runway was 7,000 feet in length by 150 feet in buy the land was for $60.00 per acre. It is unknown width with the secondary runway being 3,000 feet to this writer what happened to the rest of the in length by 150 feet wide. Both runways had farmers as far as where they moved to or what access roads that had parking areas for the
became of them. The original deal was that after bombers placed sporadically along them. The the Air Force finished using the Airbase, the aircraft was kept parked out in the open in these
original property owners were to be allowed to buy parking areas, however,' they were partially the property back for the same price that it had covered by the overgrowth of the trees. The been purchased from them. runways were built for the primary usage of
After the farmers moved construction began on B-25's, B-24's, and B-17's. A touch and go airstrip
the airport. The airport was to be designed to for training purposes was also constructed in a
handle the big twin-engine bombers and was -to wooded area about six miles west of the airbase.
have one of the largest runways in the Construction on the airport was modified
southeastern United States. The purpose of the continually by the Air Force throughout 1943 and
airport was to simulate the war zone in Europe and 1944.
12




In 1943 the Air Force began moving aircraft, allowed to have cars. The walk was anywhere from
troops, and equipment onto the airbase. 2 to 4 miles.
Squadrons of B-17's and B-25's were flown in to Amunition dumps were also built on the base
begin training exercises. The airbase was to be with most of them being built underground. The
used as a training base for squadrons going civilian fire department would have to stand by
overseas. It fast became known as the "Jumping every morning at 0600 A.M. while they loaded the
Off Place." The aircraft would leave at 0600 A.M. aircraft with the bombs. There were approximately and return after dark on the same day. Small 5,000 personnel on the base during its operation.
aircraft were not allowed on the airbase except The soldiers and other service personnel were
when government or Air Force officials flew in. given the open door treatment by the citizens of
Reconnaissance flights were flown over the Gulf of Williston and Levy County. On Sundays, numerous Mexico to Brownsville, Texas from the airbase 3 to times they were invited in to dinner and 4 times a week. The mission of the flights was to fellowship. When they would come into Williston destroy enemy submarines that might be in the for a little "Saturday Night Fun" little trouble was
Gulf of Mexico. Some submarines were spotted as expected or found. If trouble did break out at a
close as two miles from land on Florida's west local bar, it became off limits to them. The City of
coast. After the squadrons received their training Williston was patrolled by its one-man police force they proceeded overseas to the War Zone. Before (Perry Wiggins) and also by the military police.
leaving the airbase the big bombers were equipped After the war was over a few of the Military
with stingers (guns) in the tall section. Also being personnel stayed on the base for a short period of leaving the airbase the aircraft were taken out to time, however, when they left, the property was the target range to be zeroed in. The target range turned over to the City of Williston instead of being was located on the spot where the Robinson Dairy offered for resale to the original landowners. had been located. The target itself was The airport is still owned by the City of Williston
approximately 30 feet in height and approximately and at the present time is being used only by small 30 feet deep. The target was constructed of heavy aircraft for flight training purposes. Some of the poles and boards with the interior being filled with old barracks and buildings are still standing. The dirt. The target still stands on the airport property target area is now being used as a place for hay to this day. The aircraft were taxied to within a storage. A lot of the land has been cleared and has quarter mile of the target, secured to the ground at been leased by local farmers to use for the growing which point their guns were test fired numerous of their crops. The City of Williston is presently
times. After the target range was used for attempting to sell or lease part of the property in
approximately six months it was condemned due order to have an Industrial Park set up.
to the fact that it ran parallel to and was too close to In the 70's a DC-3 was confiscated by the Levy S.R. 41. County Sheriff's Department at the airport for
While the airbase was in operation it was a smuggling marijuana into the country. A Corvette
highly restricted area. Only high ranking officials Club out of Gainesville use to rent the runways for or Air Force personnel were allowed on the base the weekend and race their cars. The runways are
except for a few civilians that had prior approval. It still in fairly good shape and are still some of the is the understanding of this writer that one of the largest in the area. The airport used to be a squadrons that trained on the base was the one popular place for the local youngsters to go out and
headed up by James Doolittle which could be one race their vehicles, however, it is now posted and
of the reasons for the high security placed on the only people having airplanes on the premises or base. Pictures were not allowed to be taken off the people taking flight lessons are allowed on the base while it was in operation. The airbase had its property. own fire department which was operated by If you drive south out of Williston on S.R. 41,
civilians. Guard Posts were set up at every travel approximately two miles and look to your
entrance, manned 24 hours a day, and were also right. On the other side of the woods and the
worked by civilians. The airbase had its own cleared farmland lies an airport that not only
hospital which eventually was moved into Williston played a part of the history of Florida but also and used as a medical center and then a private played a vital part in the history of the United State
school. Barracks were also available for all of America.
unmarried service personnel while the married The writer acknowledges with appreciation, the
personnel were allowed to live in Williston or off assistance of Mr. Henry Wilson, Mr. J. W. Smith, base. The soldiers and ground crews who lived in Mr. F. W. Priest, and Mr. Raymond Robinson, all town were required to walk to the airbase, due to of Williston, in the research for this account. the gas shortage. Only commissioned officers were
13




............ii~iiiiii ii i~ iii iii iii!! !
Ruby Faircloth McKoy (1910-1974) holding her neice, Vivian Smith Sims, 1926, at the old Hafele place along the south shore of Chunky Pond.
7




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GULF HAMMOCK, THE TOWN
By Carol Swaggerty Snider
Gulf Hammock in 1926 was a thriving city with There were groups of workers who lived near the
industry, medical complexes, and shopping work sites in the logging woods. Rail reached out
facilities. Today it is a small community with a post to these sites where they lived in small houses so office and a Shop 'N Go. But we are proud of our that steam cranes could lift the houses into past and the ways in which it shaped Levy flatbeds and move them by rail to new sites to
County's growth. In many memories Gulf follow the uncut timber. The Commissary had a
Hammock is still a boom town. Famous people small branch that was in a railroad car located at
stayed in our hotels, noted doctors healed the sick, the logging site. Mr. Frank Bullock managed the well known clergy presided over the church here. woods commissary for many years. Mr. Irving By 1846 Gulf Hammock was established with from Otter Creek sold a box car of ice in block form
population and a sugar plantation while some to the company to be used at the wood site each
communities were still in birth pains, week.
The dates this history deals with are 1913 Employees or residents could rent company
through the 1960's. So many events take place, houses for $2.00 per room. If for instance it was a 2
there is so much everyday life that is interesting room house the rent was $4.00 per month. There that it would take up fifty pages. The following is a were several boarding houses or choice of hotels. condensed account of the everyday life of Gulf The Orange Blossom Inn had room and board for
Hammock. the cost of $32.00 per month in 1929. By 1934 it had
Gulf Hammock was originally a settlement risen to $39.99 per month.
consisting of store and post office, a small general Gulf Hammock had many quarters where the store owned by Mr. Cassidy, and Gulf Hammock black population lived in company houses. They
School. This settlement was located in the area of had their own schools and churches. The blacks the present John Yearty residence. In 1913, the pledged 10 cents per week to the Benevolent Atlantic Coast Line Railroad was built and wishing Society which was a program instigated by the to be near the line the town moved sites. In 1916, company to have funds to pay funeral expenses for the name was changed to GunnTown to blacks. A coffin would cost $15.00 at Commissary
commendate a citizen, Mr. Gunn, who started the and the family would lay the deceased out for crate factory, the central industry. In 1926, the burial. name was changed back to the original Gulf There were no white cemeteries in Gulf
Hammock. Hammock, most white people were shipped by
In 1926, Dr. E. W. Grove, famed for his chill train to Bronson-to be buried in the cemetery there tonic, teamed with the Dowling Brothers, Will and or the deceased was sent to relatives elsewhere. James, to buy Gulf Hammock from Mr. Gunn and The schools were located in the church buildings
various other small land owners. The holdings and supported 125 children (white) from grades
were 132,000 acres of timber whose boundaries 1-8. High School children Went to Bronson on
were the trestle in Cedar Key, up Suwannee River private contracted "buses" usually trucks with near Chiefiand, then south through Otter Creek to wooden benches built in the back. There were 5 the Withlacoochee River. The entire west coast of teachers in the white school and 2 teachers in the Levy County from Cedar Key to Hodges Island in black schools. If Levy County was short on funds to
Yankeetown was within the boundaries. pay teacher salaries the company subsidized 2
In 1929 after the death of the famous Dr. Grove, teachers' salaries for the white school. Following is Grove-Dowling went bankrupt and in 1930 the a partial list of teachers who taught at the Gulf
holdings were bought by Paterson-McInnis. They Hammock School: Esther Howard, Inez Hardee
bought the original acreage, crate mill (started by (Kulp), Herman Smith, Alice Sistrunk Cobb, Gunn), a saw mill and planing mill (among the Cherry Meeks Turner, Joyce Meeks Bullock,
largest in the south at that time) which Eleanor Beans Robins, L. H. Howell, Opal Bevell
Grove-Dowling built, many company built homes, (music), Elizabeth Braggs, Marie Shelly, Margaret
church buildings, hotels, hospital, schools, Barnett, Gladys Russell.
commissary, equipment including railroads and its Gulf Hammock had a complete medical locomotive and cars. The company owned program. The hospital was segregated with five
everything and employed approximately 750 private rooms and wards for whites, two private
people out of a population of 1,500 in Gulf rooms and a ward for the blacks. The hospital and
Hammock in the year 1929. doctor took care of everyday accidents from mill
i5




arose a great religious controversy and excitement gusty that Mr. Williams who drove my team of between the Camelites and other denominations, mules delayed hitching up the team. By 6:30 the
particularly the Baptists. And so a religious debate storm was on us. We stood on the front porch and was planned. N. A. Bailey represented the saw the wind blowing the cotton out of the gin
Baptists and J. H. Harding represented the house into the tops of the pine trees. The pine trees
opposition. They met in the great warehouse and along the road west of Rufus Tucker's store were argued all day for a whole week. failing like ten pins, but the wind roared so loud we
I took charge of the gins and the grist mill after I couldn't even hear the trees hit the ground. The was sick so long. Aunt Lou had Mr. Todd, a good wind was so strong now that we had to go inside Yankee carpenter, to build some shelves in the and watch from the windows. We saw the old store
new store under the Lodge room which was above. go down and its roof and timbers went rolling off After I put a stock of merchandise in the store, D. like cartwheels. About this time, part of the roof of G. Roland put up a store on the edge of the water our own house went, and we all ran for the crib, hole just east of R. S. Tucker's store. Mr. Roland hoping to be safe there. built a house just west of J. C. Kidd's. We got in the crib and Tom Martin tried to hold
One night there was a big Masonic meeting at the door shut. Finally, by eleven o'clock, the storm the Judson Lodge. Robert McClellan, Marcus had abated. We walked out to find the mill was
Endel, Sid Carter of Gainesville and many others partly blown away, the two-story store and Lodge were there. After the meeting, many of them went building was piled in a tangled heap. Aunt Lou's into the Roland store to smoke and drink. Uncle Sid house still stood and all the barns. The next day, came over to our house to spend the night and my brothers, Johnny and Graham and a colored
about 3:00 A.M. the cry of fire was heard. The man named Stepney rode in from Levyville. They
Roland store was burning and it looked like my had ridden through open fields when they could as
store would catch fire any minute. We got men up all fences were flat, but in the woods they had to on the Lodge roof to throw buckets of water on the cut their way through with axes. They then started end nearest Roland's store, and my store was not to round up the scattered merchandise from the damaged as to the building. But much of the store. The top floor of the store was patched up and
merchandise was taken out and thrown around, lined with canvas. I had no place to put what was
and the contents of the safe, being unguarded in worth saving so Rufus Tucker let me use a small all the excitement, were short something over storage house attached to his store. I built another
$100. store and remained in business until 1902, when
The morning of the storm, my wife had everyone we sold the goods to C. D. May in Newberry and up early as she usually did to get the teams on the then moved ourselves and possessions to road by sunrise. The rain and the wind was so Gainesville.




MORE SLOWPOKE
By S. E. Gunnell
The really old maps are notoriously unreliable Quithlacouche River but has Cedar Keys at the sources for historical research. Physical outlines mouth of the Homosasey River. Bradford's 1842 were guessed at in many instances and when one map still has Cedar Keys at the mouth of the
mapmaker misplaced a river, the next mapmaker Withlacoochee. The towns or settlements of Cedar
would copy the first so that the same error would Key, Levyville, and Bronson are, known to have be perpetuated over a long period of time. The been in existence at that time but this mapmaker in
Spanish intruders gave their own names to the Boston had no way of knowing that. He does show
landmarks while the Anglo intruders tended to Fort Fanning and Blodgett's Ferry across the
adopt the names already used by the native Withlacoochee.
Indians. Bruff's 1846 map shows the western terminus of
There is a 1755 map of the Levy County area the proposed railroad as being at Cedar Keys. He
entitled Country of the Apalachees and Timooquas also shows Fort Fanning, Fort Wakasassa, Fort which contains the statement that the "Timooquas Jennings, and a mysterious "Blockhouse" which were destroyed by the Carrolinians in 1706". seems to have been near Levyville. Bruff has at
Anclote Key is shown and north of its location are least moved Cedar Keys out of the mouth of the two rivers named St. Martins and St. Pedro, both Suwannee River. He admitted that Levy County running into the Bay of Apalachee. The most likely existed but neglected to show the county seat, conclusion is that this mapmaker had only the Levyville. In fact, the only settlement he placed in
foggiest idea of Florida's west coast topography. A the whole county was Clay Landing. The U.S. large river is shown going down the center of the Coast Survey map of 1851 has the accuracy of a peninsula accompanied by the explanation that modern chart. Way Key, Atsena Otie, and North
"this river is unknown to geographers and is said Key are all in place. The statement is made that by the Carrolinians to have several mouths on both Seahorse Key is the proposed site for a lighthouse. sides of the Cape." The area around "St. Morse's map of 1856 has Cedar Keys back at the
Augustine" is arranged more accurately. The St. Suwannee's mouth and Atsena Otie further up the
Johns River is the "St. Mattbeo or St. Juan". coast from there. All he had to do was look at the
Mentelle's 1798 map seems to call the Suwannee earlier U.S. Coast Survey map and he could have "the River St. Pedro". Either the Wacassasa or gotten his own map right.
the Withlacoochee is shown as the Maran River. The U. S. Land Office map of 1883 finally has the
Vignole's 1823 map shows the Arredonda Grant, lay of the land correctly depicted. Levy County
Manatee Springs, the Suwannee, Old Town. towns shown are Cedar Keys, Rosewood, Otter
Tanner's 1823 has the Suwannee River and the Creek, Bronson, Levyville, Clay Landing, and Ft.
Vacasausa River; however, he placed a nonexistent Fanning. There were more towns and settlements river between the two and has the Suwannee in the county than that. Williston, for one.
coming down from Alabama. In 1827 the American Incidentally, Newnansville (the extinct Alachua
Atlas shows the Cedar Keys but has those islands County seat) was also spelled Newmansville on the in the mouth of the Suwannee River. Swift's 1829 old maps; that could have been the original map correctly locates the big island between the spelling. East Pass and West Pass but has the river flowing The Rand McNally map of 1906 shows Sumner, into the "Vacassah Bay". He used the modern Ellzey, Lennon, Otter Creek, Merediths, Albion,
spelling of Suwannee. Swift gives a choice of three Eve, Lebannon (not the same place as Labannon names for the Withlacoochee: the Amirna, the Station), Rocky, Janney, Newtown, Double Sink,
Aminura, and the Withlocooch. Also in 1829, Chiefland, Judson, Raleigh, Williston, Montbrook,
another map has the Suwannee flowing into the Morriston, Gulf Hammock, Inglis, Levyville,
"Vacassa Bay". Bronson, and Cedar Key. There were a few more,
The John Lee Williams map of 1837 shows an not shown.
extensive canebrake across the river from Manatee That was the picture of Levy County before the Springs. About fifty years before that, William automobile age began, with little centers of Bartram described this great canebreak but placed population, trade, and commerce all over the it several miles downstream from opposite county. Not much travel was required, not many
Manatee Springs. Williams shows "an old Indian wheels rolled, and each little settlement had its
Village" at the mouth of the "Wakasassee River" own school. A trend back to that may be in the on the north side. He does show the future.
28




We had a wood rack outside the chimney on ground by our front gate watching what was going
which the chickens would roost at night, but the on. Mother would not let us get any nearer. I wild cats caught them anyway. Everyone in the remember Fronnie Butler was there with us, and
family had the fever, the ague, and chills. We she said, "I'm not afraid, my papa can whip any
stood it one year and then moved into the man up there. The next day we boys were
flatwoods. scouting around to see what we could find and we
found a long pistol, about sixteen inches long, and
We had tried to make a crop of corn but because the upper plate of a set of false teeth, both of the bears and deer destroying what we planted, belonging to Garret Hudson. we moved to a place three miles from Otter Creek A few years later, about 1874, my father owned a
in, a southwest direction and bought a large half interest in the store and the business was
bungalow shaped house with a porch running all doing good, so they set out to build a larger store.
the way around. This place belonged to William This one was about 36 by 80 feet, built in a box
Meeks. The house was built of cypress board, split style. The weather boarding, running up and down or rived from five-foot blocks of wood, then worked and nearly all the framing was of hewn timbers. smooth with a drawing knife, as you do shingles The sills were hauled to the site by log carts, then
when you shave one end thin so the next row of with chop axes and board axes they were hewn into
shingles will fit smoothly. shape about 10 x 12 inches. I recollect Old Man
A crop was started and there were hogs in the Hudson with freckled skin and sandy-red hair was
woods. They came with the place. My mother had hewing on the sills right out in the open sun. He
no help at all and no neighbors. A few families would take a cup of water and pour it over the
were in Otter Creek. One store was run by S. D. wrists to "cool his blood".
Eason. A small warehouse and a one-story hotel When the new store was finished, Uncle John
was run by a fat man named Mason. This hotel was McGrew was taken in as a third partner. Then later bought out by Dan Strong, a Negro, who also about 1876, along came my Uncle Ira Judson bought the Meeks' place from my father when we Carter, my father's brother from Mississippi. He
moved to Levyville. This Dan Strong was widely bought out John McGrew's interest and then sent
known for his honesty and he was a faithful friend to Mississippi for his family. John McGrew moved to our family as long as he lived. He would come to to Bronson and was elected tax collector for Levy see me after I moved to Gainesville and bring me County. He later moved to Ft. Fannin and put up fresh killed turkey or a mess of fish. a store on the river bank a few feet above the new
After ne year at the Meeks' place, my father, steel bridge. John McGrew was married to havig ~een in the mercantile business in Antionette Parker. The McGrews were originally
Mississippi, accepted a clerkship with ofte James from Alabama. S. Turner of Levyville. All of us moved up there Well, the store ran along smoothly for several
into the one room house with a fireplace in the east years. Quite a lot of cotton was raised in this end. I don't remember whether my grandmother section then. I know that the Company had 300
lived in her covered wagon or not, but rather think bales of long cotton on hand at one time. It was now that she did, as I don't remember seeing her piled out on the north end of the store. Big shelters in this one-room house. As soon as possible, my made out of rough lumber covered it. These bales
father built a two-room addition on the west end. of cotton were long bales with ears at each corner My grandmother was then moved into the largest to help in the handling. Those were the first days
room which had a stick and clay chimney at the when I helped feed the gins. I earned my first
west end. This house had been built by Pomp money there and exchanged it for a twenty dollar
Norris, a Negro, and for several years after that he gold piece, which remains with me to this day. did farm work for my father. He plowed an ox and
had a two-wheeled cart that he came and went in. Well, things took a turn and the three partners,
At the time, he lived near where Chiefland now Turner, N. R. and Ira J. divided up the stock of
stands. goods and account. My father and Uncle Ira put a
About 1872-74, there was only the one store in partition in the old courthouse and moved their Levyville. It was a general store, handling dry part of the goods there until they could build a new
goods, hardware, groceries, salt, whiskey, and the two-story store. Old Mr. Buidelman was doing the post office. I have helped there on many Fridays, carpenter work and had a Negro employee, Ed putting up bottles of whiskey in a fifty cent size and Norris. Old Buidelman would cuss Ed everyday. the one dollar a quart size. These were made ready One day Ed objected to this. Old Buidelman for Saturday, as all the country folks came* to town replied, "You got a mouth, ain't you?" From then to bring their corn to the gristmill. On Saturday, on, Ed mixed it. Buidelman was a Yankee. At this the whole town was full of loud talking and time there lived on the Tomlinson place a
half-drunk men. We children would sit on the rawboned old man named Hutchinson. The first
21




LIFE IN BRONSON
1920 TO EARLY TH IRTI ES
By Charles F. Kimble
My mother and father moved to Bronson the Uncle Alfred Wilkerson. To our left about a
latter part of 1919. Shortly afterward my sister, hundred yards was the home of Aunt Zude and Lillie Maud, older brother, Malcolm, and I joined Uncle Tom Wilkerson. Ike Faircloth and his family them after a train trip from Georgia where we had lived near Tom Wilkerson. The Faircloth and been in safekeeping with grandparents and other Alfred Wilkerson homes were near what is now the kin. Jack, the youngest, was already in Bronson. intersection of Highway 27 and the road to Cedar
In January, 1920 we were getting acquainted Key.
and settling down in our new home known as the The Seaboard Railway was very much alive
Fisher house. It was large enough with three when we moved to Bronson. There were passenger
bedrooms upstairs and two downstairs. There was and freight trains. The passenger train brought the
also a parlor, bath, dining room and kitchen. The mail and generally arrived just before or right after Fisher house faced east, built high off the ground, dark. There was always a crowd milling about with upstairs and downstairs front porches waiting for the mail. Most of the evening activity
decorated with the modest amount of gingerbread. was on the south side of the railroad tracks. The The property contained 15 acres and included a depot was on that side also. Near the depot and
field, garden, and front yard with a picket fence. A parellel to the tracks was M. D. Dixon's General large water tank and plumbing were added Store, then Darden's Store. Next was Jess Dixon's
sometime after 1900. The concrete well and Drug Store. Then there was a building once
outhouse were no longer in use. Other buildings operated as a store by Herman Wellman and then
included a barn with stalls and a shed. More recent as a restaurant by Mr. Moring. Next came the Post buildings were a garage and one containing an Office. Norma Wellman was the postmistress and
electric generator with double row of storage Frank Marshburn became Postmaster later.
batteries. Beyond the Post Office there was once Stroud's
The age of the house was uncertain. It was Garage, but later Hatcher's Store was in about the
generally agreed it was at least fifty years old. My same place. Skipping a little space there was a parents purchased the property from Abbie 1. and building once occupied by Dr. Twiggs and also John S. Fisher. Records indicate these 15 acres Carl Wellman's Barber Shop. To the rear of this
were sold Oct. 30, 1873 by Mariah E. and John F. building was the Masonic Lodge. Somewhat to the Jackson to Laura Buford, wife of Win. Buford. I rear of the drug store was a general store owned by
don't know whether the Fisher house existed at the Salem Bean. Mr. Prevatt operated a store and time of this sale. It seems possible Laura Buford meat market back of the depot. was a widow maybe buying a home. In this case it Across from the depot on the north side of the
would seem the house existed in 1873 and could tracks was a two story brick store operated by B. 0.
have been built by the Jacksons. In any event, Smith. He had groceries, dry goods, and hardware
Laura Buford, widow, conveyed the property to her and kept funeral caskets upstairs. There was a son, Thomas, on Dec. 8th, 1881. On May 3, 1906, street between Smith's store and the Bank of Levy
Thomas Buford, living in Alachua County, County. Next to the bank was the Ford Agency
borrowed $1000.00 on said 15 acres from R. D. owned by G. A. Boyd. Close by was the two story
Proctor. My belief is that the Fishers obtained the Boyd Hotel and Boarding House, over which Mrs. property from the Proctors. Boyd presided. The Boyd's three children, Turner,
Close neighbors included Mr. and Mrs. Miles D. Louise, and Edith Margaret, were at home and Dixon. Their home was a hundred yards or so in attending school.
front and to the right of our home. I believe Jess There was a road that crossed the tracks at a Dixon and his wife, Emma (Jones) were running a right angle to the depot. Going north it passed
drug store, but there was Joe, Sid, Ed, and M.D. between the bank and Smith's store and by the Jr. at home. Smith home back of the store. A short distance
Mr. and Mrs. B. 0. Smith lived some distance in farther on the right side lived Blanch and Clarence front of our house in a yellow brick home. There Lindsey. Next to their home Mr. Lindsey operated was Beulah Mae, Horace and Lester also in the the Coca Cola Bottling Works. At a later date he
Smith home. About the same distance to the rear moved the plant into the defunct bank building.
of our property was the home of Aunt Mandy and Going back across the tracks on this road the




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and wood work and appendectomies, tonsillecto- vault.
mies, gall stone operations, and maternity. The Within the town limits of Gulf Hammock and
doctor was employed by the company, but was surrounding it were many private landowners and
allowed to practice medicine to people other than farmers; among this group were the Watkins, employees and charge fees. The company paid him Smallwoods, Boyds, and Baldrees. But everyone's
to take care of patients employed in its work. The life was directly or indirectly dependent on the doctor's practice was widespread including company. If you didn't work or pay the rent you
Chiefiand and Trenton areas. Maternity fees didn't stay in their houses. If you needed an
totaled $35.00. The doctors made house calls for advance on your salary you were paid in babbit, a
$4.00 a visit. The first public health clinic in Levy nickname taken from the babbit-aluminum from County was in Gulf Hammock at this time under which the coins were made. You got your advance
the head of Dr. K. R. -Cammack, a surgeon. Gulf in babbit coins from the cashier in the Commissary
Hammock's first doctor was Dr. Gavin who and could spend it anywhere in the county except
established a park between the hospital and the the post office or the Tax Collector's office. The
Commissary. Dr. L. S. Lafitte followed him and town's electricity was supplied by the company
was famous nationwide for his patent of "Red which had hugh boilers using wood to make steam
Wonder" for treatment of malaria. Malaria was to generate the electricity. If the fuel was low at
one of the chief reasons for sickness in the 11:00 p.m. the lights would dim three times and
company's employees at this time, keeping as you had one half hour to prepare for no lights until
many as half the labor force ill. There were trains 4:00 a.m. The residents employed by the company or company cars that would bring injured and sick did not pay for electricity. If you were dating your in to the hospital from the various camps in the sweetheart you went to the Commissary for a soda
logging woods. The doctors hired registered or walked around the loop on first street. On
nurses that came from out of state to work with Sundays after church you played baseball on the
them in the Gulf Hammock. A few of them were: town diamond or relaxed with friends on the porch
Edna Earl Richardson (Bordeaux), Blanche of the Orange Blossom Inn in the swing.
Buckelew, Jo Lottie Kitrell, Estelle Thomas, Many people in Levy County came to Gulf
and Tommy Jones. Hammock to purchase their cars. The Ford
The white church was non- denominational. The Dealership was owned by Grove-Dowling and went
company paid the preacher; the tithe was taken out of business at the same time. The dealership
from the laborers wages each week from the was attached to the garage where cars were
amount they pledged. The company also serviced and gas sold. The garage was managed by
designated certain jobs for the preacher among Tommy Loftin at the time of the Ford Dealership.
which were refereeing ball games, scout master, Mr. J. T.. (Hoot) Hutson bought a Ford from the
and chaperoning dances for young people. In 1929, dealership in Gulf Hammock at this time. Reverend Beaty was pastor followed by Edgar The barber shop was located on a board road
Pendergrass (now a Methodist Bishop), and Gene which lead to the sawmill. The shop was a
Zimmerman (Methodist official), and Reverend two-chair, two-barber shop. Some of the barbers
Martin, a Baptist. were S. G. Green, E. A. Aycock, and Warren May.
The Commissary was a 150 foot by 300 foot In approximately 1926 Grove-Dowling built the
building in the heart of town that stocked any depot for the Atlantic Coastline Railroad. For years
article needed. People from Chiefland, Bronson, it had only been a platform. The railroad allowed
Otter Creek, and Morriston areas shopped here. the Company to build the depot according to their
You could buy medicines, clothes, food items, own plans, then the Company painted the depot
hardware, plows, even a coffin. You could get paid yellow trimmed in white which were their colors. for the week's work, mail a letter, buy a banana The Western Union was located in the depot and a
split, and try on the latest styles of clothing all in Railroad agent ran the office. There were only two the same building. In the drugs section was a phones in Gulf Hammock, one in the depot and the
pharmacist, among who were Dr. J. D. Franklin, other in the sales office of the Company.
Doc. Youngblood, and Doc. Black. The company The writer acknowledges with appreciation, the
bookkeepers, pay master, and officials were collaboration of Mr. John Yearty of Gulf Hammock
located in offices in this building as well as the in the writing of this account.
17




Lukens appears on the U.S. General Land Office small amount of research would uncover numerous map in 1911. The 1914 atlas by the Florida Growers real life counterparts. shows Wylly, Dutton's Spur, Vista, Lebannon If that is the cycle's downswing phase, there is
Station, Gunnals (corruption of Dr. G. M. also the upswing. In 1870, there were some all-out
Gunnell's name), and Camp Spur, which was on peasants in Levy County, illiterate, rough,
the railroad northeast of Albion at the Alachua ignorant (but not stupid, there is a difference), and
line, their horizon seemed to extend no further than the
As was stated before, old maps are not reliable, edges of the holes they dug in the earth. In a word, Mapmakers got their data secondhand from such their prospects appeared to be the epitome to
sources as crude sketches by explorers, also from hopelessness. Over the years their descendants some tellers of tall tales. A town could appear, have clawed and fought their way up out of those flourish awhile, then vanish, and finally appear on holes to become some of today's best lawyers, the maps long after it had ceased to exist. teachers, ministers, doctors, business people,
farmers, and government officials.
The linear generations of families seem to move There seems to be little or no correlation
in cycles instead of maintaining the economic and between wealth and social status on the one hand social stability that one might expect. Consider the and intelligence and strength of character on the case of one prominent (and hypothetical) citizen other. Maybe affluence does breed degeneracy who was in his prime about a hundred years ago; while the pressure of adversity has the opposite
he built up a thriving retail business, accumulated effect. If a Levy County sandspur tries to grow in considerable wealth, and was widely known as an dry barren sand, the little plant will sacrifice the
honest, compassionate, cultured gentleman who last vestige of its substance and literally kill itself
was respected and loved by everyone who knew to produce just one mature seed burr in the hope
him. Today, his descendants are crude, grubby that the one burr will be transported to more fertile
crooks scrounging around for every potential ground for survival in the future. I do not know
dollar, the more dishonest the dollar the more why the cycle occurs, I just look at the people and
self-satisfaction its acquisition gives them. the sandspurs, and wonder.
Although this reference is to a hypothetical case, a
30




UMVERSOY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09770 9942




'Ap,
7A~l~ '
.7 "'1
The opening of the new school in Williston with the whole building draped in bunting, apparently following a parade. The date is unknown but the cars suggest 1920, give or take a couple of years.




I l
The Long Pond School, torn down in 1968. It was built in the Beck Settlement then moved to this location south of Long Pond about 1915. During its last years it was used as a residence. Flossie Ward Worthington started to school here in 1919 at the age of 6.




mown
Mr. J. P. Kimble (1877-1957) whose son, Charles, wrote part of Chapter 10. His grandmother was Betsy Fannin Kimble, granddaughter of James Fannin. The name was Fanning until the Revolutionary War. James' brother Edmund remained loyal to England and James expressed his displeasure by changing his name from Fanning to Fannin. This family is probably of the same lineage as the early pioneer Fannins of frontier Texas. The old Fisher
house is in the background.
2







Full Text

PAGE 1

A History of Levy County, Florida & & & Chapter Ten & & & October -1980 Published By The Levy County Archives Committee Sponsored by the Levy County Board of Commissioners Bronson, Florida A Bicentennial Publication

PAGE 2

Copyright 1980 Levy County Archives Committee

PAGE 3

LIFE IN BRONSON 1920 TO EARLY THIRTIES By Charles F. Kimble My mother and father moved to Bronson the latter part of 1919. Shortly afterward my sister, Lillie Maud, older brother, Malcolm, and I joined them after a train trip from Georgia where we had been in safekeeping with grandparents and other kin. Jack, the youngest, was already in Bronson. In January, 1920 we were getting acquainted and settling down in our new home known as the Fisher house. It was large enough with three bedrooms upstairs and two downstairs. There was also a parlor, bath, dining room and kitchen. The Fisher house faced east, built high off the ground, with upstairs and downstairs front porches decorated with the modest amount of gingerbread. The property contained 15 acres and included a field, garden, and front yard with a picket fence. A large water tank and plumbing were added sometime after 1900. The concrete well and outhouse were no longer in use. Other buildings included a barn with stalls and a shed. More recent buildings were a garage and one containing an electric generator with double row of storage batteries. The age of the house was uncertain. It was generally agreed it was at least fifty years old. My parents purchased the property from Abbie I. and John S. Fisher. Records indicate these 15 acres were sold Oct. 30, 1873 by Mariah E. and John F. Jackson to Laura Buford, wife of Wm. Buford. I donÂ’t know whether the Fisher house existed at the time of this sale. It seems possible Laura Buford was a widow maybe buying a home. In this case it would seem the house existed in 1873 and could have been built by the Jacksons. In any event, Laura Buford, widow, conveyed the property to her son, Thomas, on Dec. 8th, 1881. On May 3, 1906, Thomas Buford, living in Alachua County, borrowed $1000.00 on said 15 acres from R. D. Proctor. My belief is that the Fishers obtained the property from the Proctors. Close neighbors included Mr. and Mrs. Miles D. Dixon. Their home was a hundred yards or so in front and to the right of our home. I believe Jess Dixon and his wife, Emma (Jones) were running a drug store, but there was Joe, Sid, Ed, and M.D. Jr. at home. Mr. and Mrs. B. O. Smith lived some distance in front of our house in a yellow brick home. There was Beulah Mae, Horace and Lester also in the Smith home. About the same distance to the rear of our property was the home of Aunt Mandy and Uncle Alfred Wilkerson. To our left about a hundred yards was the home of Aunt Zude and Uncle Tom Wilkerson. Ike Faircloth and his family lived near Tom Wilkerson. The Faircloth and Alfred Wilkerson homes were near what is now the intersection of Highway 27 and the road to Cedar Key. The Seaboard Railway was very much alive when we moved to Bronson. There were passenger and freight trains. The passenger train brought the mail and generally arrived just before or right after dark. There was always a crowd milling about waiting for the mail. Most of the evening activity was on the south side of the railroad tracks. The depot was on that side also. Near the depot and parellel to the tracks was M. D. DixonÂ’s General Store, then DardenÂ’s Store. Next was Jess DixonÂ’s Drug Store. Then there was a building once operated as a store by Herman Wellman and then as a restaurant by Mr. Moring. Next came the Post Office. Norma Wellman was the postmistress and Frank Marshbum became Postmaster later. Beyond the Post Office there was once StroudÂ’s Garage, but later HatcherÂ’s Store was in about the same place. Skipping a little space there was a building once occupied by Dr. Twiggs and also Carl WellmanÂ’s Barber Shop. To the rear of this building was the Masonic Lodge. Somewhat to the rear of the drug store was a general store owned by Salem Bean. Mr. Prevatt operated a store and meat market back of the depot. Across from the depot on the north side of the tracks was a two story brick store operated by B. O. Smith. He had groceries, dry goods, and hardware and kept funeral caskets upstairs. There was a street between SmithÂ’s store and the Bank of Levy County. Next to the bank was the Ford Agency owned by G. A. Boyd. Close by was the two story Boyd Hotel and Boarding House, over which Mrs. Boyd presided. The BoydÂ’s three children, Turner, Louise, and Edith Margaret, were at home and attending school. There was a road that crossed the tracks at a right angle to the depot. Going north it passed between the bank and SmithÂ’s store and by the Smith home back of the store. A short distance farther on the right side lived Blanch and Clarence Lindsey. Next to their home Mr. Lindsey operated the Coca Cola Bottling Works. At a later date he moved the plant into the defunct bank building. Going back across the tracks on this road the 1

PAGE 4

Mr. J. P. Kimble (1877-1957) whose son, Charles, wrote part of Chapter 10. His grandmother was Betsy Fannin Kimble, granddaughter of James Fannin. The name was Fanning until the Revolutionary War. JamesÂ’ brother Edmund remained loyal to England and James expressed his displeasure by changing his name from Fanning to Fannin. This family is probably of the same lineage as the early pioneer Fannins of frontier Texas. The old Fisher house is in the background. 2

PAGE 5

depot was on the right, and after crossing a roadway, Prevatt’s store was on the right. Continuing on this street there were several buildings. Dave Graham was on the left with a watch repair and jewelry store. And for a time, Mr. Merchant operated a store also on the left. A Dry Cleaning Plant was on this street in 1924. Other buildings were sort of abandoned. We spent a lot of time in or near the drug store. Most drinks were a nickel, but sometimes Jess would shave the ice and add pineapple for a nice ten cent treat. Right out front we played marbles a lot. I think Max Wellman was the best shot as his thumb was powerful and shaped right. Jess got a chunk of ice from Jacksonville two or three times a week which was shipped in croker sacks and packed with sawdust. This was opened in front of the store, but near the tracks in the same place many times. The sawdust accumulated and made a good place to play. There was a period when Horace Smith and another boy, whose last name was Spillane, took over the sawdust pile at mail time with a wrestling match. They “rassled” so much that little attention was paid them, but they grunted and laughed and hollered so much that it came to be part of the evening. After the mail “run” the crowd dwindled and the “rassling” ended. My father, J. P. Kimble, and his brother-in-law, B. B. Stokes, started the Bronson Manufacturing Company. They were joined in this enterprise by John R. Willis, Attorney, W. J. Epperson, Land Owner, C. A. Lindsey, Coca Cola Bottler, and Roman Sanchez, Farmer. The building to house the machinery was obtained from the now inactive Otter Creek Lumber Company. Two boilers and smokestacks also came from Otter Creek. The building was primarily of heavy 12” x 12” timbers fitted and secured by long iron rod bolts. This sturdiness was required to support the shafts and pulleys for the lathes, saws, planers, and stapling machines used to make bean and lettuce hampers. After a few successful years in making hampers it was decided to build an ice plant and cold storage. Also, a steam powered electric generator was included to provide power for the town. Times were booming and business was good. The 15 ton ice plant was over worked and still did not fill demand. About 1926 or 1927 the electric franchise was sold to Florida Power Corporation. Forty tons was added to the capacity of the ice plant and more cold storage was built. Two 3000 horsepower electric motors powered the new compressors. The Florida boom was in full swing. I remember working overtime till 10 p.m. in the crate mill on several occasions. More water was needed for the cooling towers of the ice plant so a new well was drilled. Down about 600 feet there was a 6 foot layer of coal penetrated. A log was kept of the well which finally reached 978 feet. I remember Alex Speer, president of Florida Power Corp., stopped by frequently and was quite interested. Also, Mr. Lummus of Miami, who was living at the Hardee Hotel thought we might strike oil. He encouraged drilling after sufficient water was obtained and I believe he voluntarily contributed to the cost. He was obtaining oil leases and people were excited. About that time gasoline showed up in the pitcher pump by Dixon’s store. I remember you could pump water for a time and then the gasoline showed up. Someone always threw a match on it to emphasize the oil. Some gagster thought up this prank. L. W. Drummond owned a turpentine still in the early 20’s which was southwest of the depot and near the mill and ice plant. Later Mr. Owens was in the same business. Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Owens moved to Bronson from Yulee, Fla. Their children, Cecil and Margaret were quite young at the time. It is a coincidence that Yulee and Levy County are named for the same man. At the time of national elections the town would come alive. This was preceded by political rallies with speeches and usually a wash pot of chicken pileau. Finally, on election night everybody congregated downtown and centered around the barber shop, drug store and post office. The news came over the depot telegraph and there was a constant coming and going of messengers. Judge Joe C. Sale had once been a telegraph operator so on election night he assisted the agent in writing the returns. The news was hotfooted to the waiting groups whose blood pressure rose and fell with each message. I am sure there were some bets and a lot of exciting conversation. Over night a graveyard would appear near the depot and the graves would have a marker of those supporting losing candidates. Some people were having a lot of fun and others consoled themselves with prospect of next election. After being out of school a year and a half, I entered the fifth grade in Bronson in January, 1920. My teacher, Mrs. Waring, was the principal and a good teacher, which pleasantly surprised me as I first heard of her as “Old Lady Waring”. The other teacher, Miss Bamhard, was young and pretty but did not teach the fifth grade. I remember being taught by A. P. Hardee, Newell Priest, Austin Baird, Professor Newsome, Mrs. Kelly, Professor Corr and his daughter, Alice Corr, and D. E. Williams. Mr. Williams later became State Superintendent for Negro Education. I remember many students from my Bronson school days. Some have been mentioned. Others were: J. B., Wilbur and Livingston Anderson; Frances, Martha and Russell Whidden; Haskell 3

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4 At a political rally in Bronson about 50 years ago. The man seated was Tax Collector Malcom Graham. In the front row, second from left, was Congressman Lex Green, father of Circuit Court Judge Buzzy Green; fifth was Sheriff L. L. Johns, seventh was Luther W. Drummond, grandfather of Levy County State Bank President Luther Drummond.

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Hardee, Carl and Otto Wellman; C. B. Prevatt, Britt Lewis, Harold Walker, Natalie Merchant; Gertrude, Ralph, Hugh and George Darden; Thelma and Charlie McCoy; Henry Coulter; Wilbur, Eleanor and Dorothy Bean; Thelma Willis, Irene Humes, Roly Winningham, Lessie Faircloth, John Dean, Roberta and Candy Laney; Mertie and Pete Jones; Frank and Lint Moring; Grace, Ruby and Perry Fugate; Ella May; Myrtle, Evans, Milton and Carroll Gilbert; Nadine, Mary Frances, Grace, B. G., Charles and Wilson Lastinger; Nellie Faircloth; Ralph and Louise Rivers; Gordon Drummonds, Mark Hopkins, John Kelly, Lamar Hilton; Frank, Fred, and Reba Fender; Henry and R. L. Smith; P. K., Stacy and Grace Rowell; Vassie and Ernest Pinson; Willie and C. J. Spencer; Leon, Emma, Jeannette, Woodrow and Bernice Edwards; My cousins: Mary, Ruth, Lillian, Bailey and Bill Stokes; In my graduating class there was Eva Gilbert, Earl Walker, Frankie Coulter, Zack Lewis, Max Wellman and Bascom Hardee, who was valedictorian. Some names escape me which I will recall later and regret omitting. We had some nicknames, too. Some of them were Speck, Fudge, Skunk, Possum, Goose, Wampus, Zorro, Pete, Sweetback, Hatch, Toad, Newt, Old Sop, and others. Those who remember will have little difficulty in sorting them out. Our school was a two story yellow brick building with four classrooms downstairs. Two classrooms and the auditorium were upstairs. There was convocation each morning in the auditorium. Also, the school put on plays occasionally and the P.T.A. and other meetings were held at the school. Several years the business men subscribed to enough tickets to bring Chautauqua to the school for three days of afternoon and evening performances. There were magigians, singers, dancers, yoderlers, comedians, bell ringers, and a lecturer. It was a real treat at the time although I only remember one lecturer. He was William Jennings Bryan and he remained seated while speaking. One morning after Halloween the stage curtains was raised and there was a large outhouse on stage. The curtain was immediately lowered. To this day I have wondered who put it there and how it was brought up the stairs. Judge John R. Willis was public spirited and prominent in local and state politics. He generally spoke to us when school opened and admonished us to apply ourselves well that we might “fill the shoes” of our elders in later life. It happened that Bascom O. Hardee, a classmate, opposed Judge Willis for 1935 House of Representatives. He reminded the Judge of his former speeches by saying he was ready to “fill those shoes”. He was elected. In the early 20’s the boys wore short pants till they were out of high school. I think it was 1923 when boys of all ages started wearing long pants. I went with my father to Palatka when he was arranging with Barnett Refrigeration Co., to build the ice plant and cold storage in Bronson. While in Palaka he bought my first and only pair of green long pants. I had to alternate wearing long and short pants for a time. Kids love to get in the water and occasionally we managed to get to Blue Springs. Rides were not easy to come by and we walked the three miles sometimes. It was easier to jump in the pond known as Cow Ford back of the Wellman home. We were admonished about this without much success. Someway I managed to get malaria with its intermittent fever. I took quinine and a lot of Atabrine which would help but never seem to completely cure. The atabrine made your skin turn yellow a bit. The road to Chiefland used to leave Bronson by way of Oak Street and made a left turn just beyond the Bottling works. Right around that turn on the right side was a deep clay pit left when the road was built. We swam in that as long as we could get away with it. Our parents were opposed and finally Mr. Coulter had it filled with dirt. Watermelon pond was a good place to swim but hard for us to reach. We walked about eight miles to it once or twice. I remember once when we had a boy scout troop that we walked out there and camped overnight. Col. Wm. E. Rivers was always friendly and helpful to the young folks and we could generally count on him for assistance. He was our scout master and camped with us on this occasion. We had supplies which included enough for supper and breakfast, with coffee, sugar and one can of condensed milk. We had our swim, built a fire and boiled some coffee. We looked everywhere for the condensed milk but finally found that Col. Rivers had opened it and drank the whole can. We didn’t hold it against him but the milk would have improved the “barefoot” coffee. In the summer I worked at the crate mill. In fact, I was water-boy at $1.00 per day when the mill was built. Mr. Drummond had his turpentine quarters nearby and water was obtained for the quarters at the edge of a pond from a barrel buried almost completely. The bottom was out the the barrel and to some extent the water was filtered. The distance from the new mill to the water source was just a little more than a bucket of water. After each trip I was greeted with: “Water Jack, should be here, and halfway back.” After school I could pick up a little money hauling wood. We had a wagon and a horse named Billy. The machine that cut the round bottoms for the crates always left some half-moon waste wood. I got 50 cents for each load delivered in town. 5

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Football was practically unknown to us when I entered school in Bronson. There was never a team while I was there. I suspect there was a time in the twenties when there was not a football in Bronson and possibly Levy County. About 1925 there was a basket ball court set up between the school and courthouse. But the big deal was baseball. We played at recess, lunch time and after school. We played for sure in the summer and around the school some in the winter months. There were ball diamonds at various times all over town. In front of the school building and in the back. For various reasons we had to find new places for diamonds several times. There was a diamond to the left of what is now Highway 27 and several hundred yards to the rear of the present Baptist Church. A good one was to the right of 27 and to the left of Pennsylvania Ave., about 1000 feet back of Mrs. Coarsey’s home. Also, we played for a time on Mr. Coulter’s property known as the fairgrounds. And for a year or two we played at long pond near the home of Carroll Gilbert. Some afternoon games were in front of Darden’s home, back of the present post office. And a very popular afternoon spot was between the Stokes home and Masonic Lodge. During summer doldrums we would ride the freight train to Archer for ball games unannounced and ride the passenger train (with the mail) back. I think the fare was 35 cents. Archer would show up in Bronson and courtesy demanded that we round up a team. Once or twice we had to play with seven players. We often had poor equipment. One or two players had uniforms. Sometimes we were held up as the player with the bat, ball or catcher’s mitt didn’t show up. I think there were eleven boys in high school. All were not baseball “nuts” so it was hard to field nine players. I was surprised in the classroom one afternoon when Russell Whidden and my teacher, Newell Priest called me to the door. They wanted to know if I could go with the high school team to play Newberry. I was in the 7th grade. I did get on base, made a run, and caught a long fly in center field, hit by Tom Rowland, later the banker in Newberry. After that, I became addicted to baseball. I didn’t play with town teams at that time but watched all the games I could. Nick West, from Otter Creek, frequently played with Bronson. He had played professional baseball and was really good. He coached a bit, sometimes pitched, but mostly played first base. He gave the team confidence and could talk up a rally. I think he was about 40 years old, but a good athlete, and was the epitome of baseball in his professional uniform. The other players were good, too. They won a lot of games. Players I remember were: Joe and Ed Dixon; Herman and Carl Wellman; Edgar Pinner, Milton Clapp, Luther Drummond, Wilbur Bean, George and Ed Dorsett; Newell Priest and sometimes Sid Dixon would play. His performance was excellent as he played with his right arm only. I understand his left arm was lost in a hunting accident. Try catching a ball with the right hand, shake off the glove and throw a runner out at first. He did and he could bat with one hand very well. I remember one year that Bronson’s town team toured south Florida. The tour was quite successful. Among others, my father and L. W. Drummond drove their cars to transport the players. George Dorsett drove his old Ford and became famous for his quick tire changes. I really missed that trip. If I tried to list all of my memories of ball games in Bronson I am sure it would become boring, but let me mention a few that stand out: Newell Priest was my seventh grade teacher. He was to play on the Bronson team against Williston in the afternoon. Before starting class that morning he said, “I want to tell you I dreamed last night that I will knock a homerum in to-day’s game”. We rode to the game with him in his cut-down pickup truck. I saw him knock the home run he had dreamed about. We had a game going in front of the school during morning recess when the Sale’s home was discovered on fire. We all raced to the scene. I think Jim Turner got there first but his closer position in the outfield game him some advantage. Some furniture and valuables were being removed, but rescue efforts were soon stopped and we saw the home destroyed. Now all the Dixons were good ball players. However, the biggest without question was Joe. He was tall and he was big. In fact, his size and weight of about 300 pounds sometimes hampered his efforts. The ball, thrown in normal strike zone, often was difficult for him to hit. I was watching a game back of Mrs. Coarsey’s when Joe came to bat. He stood six feet or better and was a right hand hitter. Joe’s reach overhead was another foot or so, and when you added the length of the bat you were really getting off the ground. As sometimes happens, the pitcher threw a wild one. That ball must have been nine feet high but it was made to order for Joe Dixon. He swung upward and hit that ball solid. I can still see that ball going up to this day. Joe didn’t get on base very often and hesitated till the crowd yelled, “Run Joe!” He wasn’t a sprinter and was winded by the time he reached second. It was his intention to stop there, but as the ball was just coming down in some trees beyond left field he was persuaded to puff on over to 3rd base where he definitely decided to go no farther. Now you can’t measure how high a ball is knocked but I am convinced Joe Dixon set the world record that day. I never expect it to be 6

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Ruby Faircloth McKoy (1910-1974) holding her neice, Vivian Smith Sims, 1926, at the old Hafele place along the south shore of Chunky Pond. 7

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challenged. Bronson also had a good black team. One Saturday they had a game going with a visiting team when a controversial ruling was made. I don’t know what it was about but both teams and a sizeable number of spectators gathered around the pitcher’s box. This hassle lasted quite a while and apparently there was to be no satisfactory solution. There was one black woman still seated on the ground and left all alone by the peacemakers in midfield. With the commotion still going strong this lonely woman got up and slowly sauntered to home plate. She attracted attention of the umpire’s assistants and in a high shrill voice cried, “I would holler but the town’s too small, but I will say He-e-e-y HEY!” With that she walked back to her spot and the problem was settled. There were two sections of town where most of the blacks in Bronson lived. One was near the crate mill in relatively low ground. This was Sugar Bottom. The other was north of the school and courthouse on higher ground. This was Pepper Hill. Pennsylvania Avenue started at the railroad near the Bean residence. It proceeded southeast passing the homes of Dixons, Andersons, Stokes, Grahams, Rivers, Eppersons, Marshburns, Walkers, Owens, Hardees, Fenders, Osteens, Fugates, Gilberts, Wellmans, Merchants, Johns, Coarseys, Jones and others. Mrs. Coarsey lived in the only house of its kind in Bronson. It was not very wide and had three stories. She was originally from Pennsylvania. One afternoon whe was reniniscing in Jess Dixon’s Drug Store. I remember her saying that everyone on her street before the Big Freeze had come from Pennsylvania. After the freeze many of the citrus growers left Bronson for South Florida. The old Coarsey house is still standing. That Big Freeze was in 1896. I attended Sunday school and services in the Bronson Methodist Church located just north of the high school. Brother Paul Fletcher was the minister. About a year after we moved to Bronson the church was moved next to the parsonage in its present location. My daily school routine at lunch time was to run home, vault the picket fence, eat fast and get back for an inning or two of baseball before the bell ended the hour lunch period. I was slowed down by the fascination of Pat Taylor, of Cedar Key, slowly but surely rolling the church to its new home. Sometime later, Preacher and Mrs. Rowell moved to Bronson. He was a Methodist minister for several years and some of his children attended school in Bronson. I think Jack and Cecil worked for Ford Agency in Trenton. I was six years older than Stacy and as children do, we played in different groups. He later developed into a good baseball catcher and through his brothers’ influence got into auto financing and selling and renting cars. He talked me into the business with Olin’s of Miami which brought me to Orlando in 1946.1 had left Bronson when Preacher Rowell had a heart attack in the church. I understand he was carried to the Boyd hotel where he died the same night. In March 1974, Stacy died of a heart attack in Wauchula, where he was a Ford dealer. I believe he and his father are buried in Branford, Fla. Money had to be raised for different reasons from time to time. Occasionally a box supper was promoted. The girls and ladies prepared chicken and other delicacies and decorated the boxes with fancy paper and ribbon. The boxes were auctioned to the highest bidder who then shared with those who prepared them. The auctioneer was generally Joe Sale. Someway the boys found out which box was prepared by their girl and the auctioneer seemed to know when the price was right. A dollar or maybe a dollar and a half was about all my group could bid. The husbands were always successful in bidding on boxes prepared by their wives. The price would reach two dollars but rarely two-fifty. It was exciting and got everybody down town for the evening. Sometime in the 20’s radio reached Bronson but it did not seem successful to us at first. Mack Humes probably got the first set. Anyway, by all reports, he met with more success in tuning in whatever the signals were conveying. Anything heard distinctly was considered a prize. About the same time Mr. Humes was reporting on his successes and failures with his radio another set was purchased by the Masonic Lodge. It was a large set reportedly costing over $500.00 Some of the cost was for two of the tallest cypress poles to be found and the wire antennae stretched about a hundred feet across the top. I believe Frank Whidden was the principal backer of this project. Anyway, the set was large and was setup in the northeast corner of the hall. A lot of young folks showed up after supper to listen. Ed Dixon took charge of turning the knobs trying to tune in a station and eliminate the static. I was there many times and besides the squawks I remember one message only, ‘‘This is KDKA, Pittsburgh, PA.” Traveling shows made one night stands in Bronson. There were Wild West, Animal, and minstrel shows from time to time. The acrobats, wire walkers, and jugglers were good entertainment, especially for the kids. The first Levy County Fair I remember was set up behind the Courthouse. I think some of the exhibits were actually in the courthouse. The shows and concessions were activated in late afternoon and in the evening. I think I lost about half of the $50.00 saved in Gunntown before I 8

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9 The Long Pond School, tom down in 1968. It was built in the Beck Settlement then moved to this location south of Long Pond about 1915. During its last years it was used as a residence. Flossie Ward Worthington started to school here in 1919 at the age of 6.

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wised up to the fact that no money could be made pitching at milk bottles. It was a good lesson. Through arrangements with Mr. Coulter, a fairground was set up on the north side of town. One permanent exhibit building was constructed. I went with Leeander Osteen and Henry Smith to put up a temporary electric line, which was fastened to insulators on pine trees. During the fair we had our pictures made, watched the balloon get filled with hot air before the ascension and ate cotton candy. There were nice exhibits of farm products and home canning but the concessions and Merry-Go-Round attracted more attention. To this day I remember both tunes played on the Merry-Go-Round. They were “Ukulele Lady” and “Let Me Call You Sweetheart.” They played alternately for three days and nights. When the fair was over the same crew took down the electric line. Henry asked Leeander to let him climb the pine tree with the climbing spurs as he had never had that experience. Well, Henry got up the tree O.K. and fastened his belt around the tree, but he straightened up in his spurs causing him to lose his footing. He was held to the tree by the belt in sliding down and the gum that oozed out from the first climb slowed him down some. He was unhurt but the front of his overalls were a mess with the gum and pinebark. Leeander said he was the best exhibit at the fair. In the early 20’s Dr. and Mrs. J. W. Turner lived in a home, now occupied by Mrs. Sale, but soon moved to Cedar Key. Dr. Twiggs practiced in Bronson for a year or two. Bronson was without a doctor much of the time. Dr. Smith Turner of Williston was called on frequently and many people went to Gainesville for medical and dental services. The most tragic medical case I recall was Mrs. G. A. Boyd who was severely burned early one morning in the boarding house kitchen. It seems the gallon can ususally containing kerosene had gasoline instead. Her habit was to use kerosene in starting a fire in the wood stove. The can must have exploded as she was fatally injured. She was taken to the hospital in Gainesville but the bums were too severe to be successfully treated. Bronson High School was not accredited in 1927 but Alice Corr and D. E. Williams arranged for Bascom Hardee and me to enter the University of Florida on a probationary basis. While we were there the Bank of Levy County closed as did a lot of banks all over Florida and the nation. The procedure at the crate mill was to manufacture and store crates all year till time for bean and lettuce harvests in South Florida. Car loads of crates were consigned to dealers who consigned them to farmers who paid for the crates when the produce was shipped. Well, one day Uncle Ben (Stokes) who kept the books for the business showed me a neat pile of returned checks which represented a year’s work at the crate mill. The checks totalled more than $40,000.00. Oddly enough, most of the checks should have been paid as the writers has sufficient money in their accounts. It was the bankers who were guilty. Some of the checks had been purposely held more than three weeks without being honored. The banks foresaw their closing and unfairly retained any cash they could get their hands on. The bank failures and the loss of the railroad from Archer to Cedar Key about that time stopped the manufacture of crates. In 1929 after two years at the University, my father asked me to drop out of school for a year to assist in operating the Ice and Cold Storage Plants. That depression was much bigger than one year, however, and I did not return to school. There was a good deal of hardship for all and some suffered more than others. Money was scarce. I remember peddling ice around town and the difficulty people had in paying for it. Many owed for the ice but would pay a dollar when they could. Mr. Young, the Bank Liquidator was a good customer but also had money problems. One act of my father’s I will never forget. We had assumed a mortgage of $40,000.00 on the Ice and Cold Storage Plant. Each month we paid $200.00 interest without fail. Also, our power bill ran as high as $1000.00 each month. Sometimes we drew a little money, sometimes we did not. The Florida Power Corp., held $22,000.00 of the mortgage and $18,000.00 was held by four local men. Alex Speer called frequently at the office and suggested one day that Florida Power foreclose and sell us the property back for $22,000.00. This struck me as a measure that would greatly relieve the strain we were under. However, my father would have no part of it as he felt obligated to all who had invested with him. We tried to tough it out and over the years I have been proud of his decision. Each morning I would see the Blacks from “Sugar Bottom” pass the plant. They would have a lunch pail, a shovel, and a burlap croker sack. They went to the woods and filled the sack with moss for drying and ultimate sale. The shovel was for digging gophers which they ate. After eating their lunch the pail was filled with berries. That’s the way it was. About this time a Suwannee Store was opened and operated by Charlie and Pearl Andrews. Chain stores did sell some items cheaper and the competition was a threat to the independents. There was some feeling about this but the opposition was mostly talk. The popularity of the Andrews was a big asset for the Suwannee Store. I must mention John Peck who was a popular station agent before the railroad was abandoned. He was definitely a character although a man of considerable intelligence and ability. He could send or receive a telegram and write a bill of sale 10

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simultaneously. For a time he and his wife lived upstairs at our house. He carried hair clippers in his pocket and on a summer evening he would sit on the porch clipping his hair and would shear one of his several cats at the same time. On hot days Mr. Peck left the depot and used a water hose at BoydÂ’s Garage to fill his brogans. This was done several times a day. He walked around in unlaced and wet shoes. Appearances did not bother him. His head was clipped and bald on top. Sometimes flies around the depot proved irritating by landing on his head. The solution was to dab shaving cream on a telegram blank and pop it on the bald spot. I recal one day meeting him about where the Methodist Church is today. He was walking to the courthouse to deliver a telegram. However, he was lathered up and shaving along the way. He was a most interesting man. Another street scene I saw several times was Uncle Alfred with his water bucket of money. He and Aunt Mandy sold pecans, syrup, turnips and other vegetables mostly to Blacks who had a path from Sugar Bottom back of the pond to their place. After enough nickles, dimes and quarters accumulated Uncle Alfred took the bucket to the Bank of Levy County where Frank Osteen, cashier, would count it for deposit. In small towns, unusual arrangements occur. Like when Aunt Maud Stokes and Mrs. Rivers came down to the Ice Plant and said they wanted to to be Santa Claus at the school Christmas party. I weighed about 135 pounds and was not the type. Judge Sale was the type and they were counting on him till he had business out of town. I did not want to do it, but womenfolk can be mighty persuasive. It was December but the weather was warm. Well, they tied pillows and padding on me till the Santa suit fit. I Ho-Hoed around the tree promising anything those little wide-eyed children wanted. It was hot and the whiskers got in my mouth, but I did enjoy the experience. R. B. Childs edited the Levy County Journal. In one issue in 1931 he ran an article about Earl W. Brown, of Deland. Mr. Brown was preparing the Florida Exhibit for the coming Century of Progress to be held in Chicago in 1933. I responded to the article by writing for a job which I did get a year or so later. It has been my pleasure to return to Bronson hundreds of times over the years. I look forward to many more visits. 11

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HISTORY OF THE WILLISTON AIRPORT By Ray Stoel On the east side of Levy County approximately two (2) miles west of Marion County lies the sleepy little farming community of Williston, Florida. The population is estimated at approximately 2,100, however, 35 to 40 years ago Williston was quite a different place. In the spring of 1942 the United States Government came into Levy County in the area of Williston, Fla., and advised the local farmers they were going to buy up their farmland to use for military purposes during the war. The land selected by the government was mostly farmland owned by families such as the Robinsons, Fugates, Clarks, Hoods, and other families who had spent most of their life developing and working the land for farming. Two of the oldest and largest land owners were R. S. Robinson and I. T. Fugate. The government advised R. S. Robinson, who owned and operated a large dairy farm southwest of Williston, that he would have to move and relocate somewhere else. He was advised that he would be paid $25.00 per acre with this price including all the buildings and fences on the property. I. T. Fugate was advised of the same thing which angered the farmers as most of them were already poor and to have to take the government in Federal Court in Gainesville, Fla., wanting more money for their land. The Federal Court ruled in favor of Robinson and Fugate and granted them $27.00 per acre of land. The extra money that they were granted ended up being just enough to pay the legal fees they had encountered during the court battle. Feeling angry and disappointed with the government, Robinson moved his dairy farm about two miles away from its original location where the cheapest he could buy the land was for $60.00 per acre. It is unknown to this writer what happened to the rest of the farmers as far as where they moved to or what became of them. The original deal was that after the Air Force finished using the Airbase, the original property owners were to be allowed to buy the property back for the same price that it had been purchased from them. After the farmers moved construction began on the airport. The airport was to be designed to handle the big twin-engine bombers and was to have one of the largest runways in the southeastern United States. The purpose of the airport was to simulate the war zone in Europe and it was used extensively by squadrons before they went overseas. For this reason the airport was kept fairly wooded with access to the runways from the air being kept to a minimum. While construction was underway on the main and secondary runways, portable steel runways were used. These runways were also used to simulate the emergency runways used by the allies in Europe. The only area that was cleared other than the main and secondary runway areas was the area where the temporary runways were used. The government was short on equipment at that time and they would lease tractors and other equipment from the local farmers. Local civilians were employed to build the hospital, barracks, and other structures on the airbase. Most of the work on the airbase was contracted out by the government. Day laborers were paid .75 to $1.25 per hour with the truck drivers and dragline operators being paid anywhere from $1.25 to $1.75 per hour. The truck drivers and dragline operators were also paid time and a half and double time. This was good money for the local citizens who were suffering through some rather hard times. The two main runways were initially packed with 12 inches of limerock obtained from the local limerock mines. Tractors were rented from the local farmers and used to pack the limerock down. Two tractors were rented from Henry Wilson (farmer at the time but now with the Florida Marine Patrol) of Williston, Fla., as he had recently purchased them and they had a top speed of 12 to 15 miles per hour which was needed to speed up construction. After the limerock was packed it was covered with asphalt. The main runway was 7,000 feet in length by 150 feet in width with the secondary runway being 3,000 feet in length by 150 feet wide. Both runways had access roads that had parking areas for the bombers placed sporadically along them. The aircraft was kept parked out in the open in these parking areas, however, they were partially covered by the overgrowth of the trees. The runways were built for the primary usage of B-25Â’s, B-24Â’s, and B-17Â’s. A touch and go airstrip for training purposes was also constructed in a wooded area about six miles west of the airbase. Construction on the airport was modified continually by the Air Force throughout 1943 and 1944. 12

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In 1943 the Air Force began moving aircraft, troops, and equipment onto the airbase. Squadrons of B-17’s and B-25’s were flown in to begin training exercises. The airbase was to be used as a training base for squadrons going overseas. It fast became known as the “Jumping Off Place.” The aircraft would leave at 0600 A.M. and return after dark on the same day. Small aircraft were not allowed on the airbase except when government or Air Force officials flew in. Reconnaissance flights were flown over the Gulf of Mexico to Brownsville, Texas from the airbase 3 to 4 times a week. The mission of the flights was to destroy enemy submarines that might be in the Gulf of Mexico. Some submarines were spotted as close as two miles from land on Florida’s west coast. After the squadrons received their training they proceeded overseas to the War Zone. Before leaving the airbase the big bombers were equipped with stingers (guns) in the tail section. Also being leaving the airbase the aircraft were taken out to the target range to be zeroed in. The target range was located on the spot where the Robinson Dairy had been located. The target itself was approximately 30 feet in height and approximately 30 feet deep. The target was constructed of heavy poles and boards with the interior being filled with dirt. The target still stands on the airport property to this day. The aircraft were taxied to within a quarter mUe of the target, secured to the ground at which point their guns were test fired numerous times. After the target range was used for approximately six months it was condemned due to the fact that it ran parallel to and was too close to S.R. 41. While the airbase was in operation it was a highly restricted area. Only high ranking officials or Air Force personnel were allowed on the base except for a few civilians that had prior approval. It is the understanding of this writer that one of the squadrons that trained on the base was the one headed up by James Doolittle which could be one of the reasons for the high security placed on the base. Pictures were not allowed to be taken off the base while it was in operation. The airbase had its own fire department which was operated by civilians. Guard Posts were set up at every entrance, manned 24 hours a day, and were also worked by civilians. The airbase had its own hospital which eventually was moved into Williston and used as a medical center and then a private school. Barracks were also available for all unmarried service personnel while the married personnel were allowed to live in Williston or off base. The soldiers and ground crews who lived in town were required to walk to the airbase, due to the gas shortage. Only commissioned officers were allowed to have cars. The walk was anywhere from 2 to 4 miles. Amunition dumps were also built on the base with most of them being built underground. The civilian fire department would have to stand by every morning at 0600 A.M. while they loaded the aircraft with the bombs. There were approximately 5,000 personnel on the base during its operation. The soldiers and other service personnel were given the open door treatment by the citizens of Williston and Levy County. On Sundays, numerous times they were invited in to dinner and fellowship. When they would come into Williston for a little “Saturday Night Fun” little trouble was expected or found. If trouble did break out at a local bar, it became off limits to them. The City of Williston was patrolled by its one-man police force (Perry Wiggins) and also by the military police. After the war was over a few of the Military personnel stayed on the base for a short period of time, however, when they left, the property was turned over to the City of Williston instead of being offered for resale to the original landowners. The airport is still owned by the City of Williston and at the present time is being used only by small aircraft for flight training purposes. Some of the old barracks and buildings are still standing. The target area is now being used as a place for hay storage. A lot of the land has been cleared and has been leased by local farmers to use for the growing of their crops. The City of Williston is presently attempting to sell or lease part of the property in order to have an Industrial Park set up. In the 70’s a DC-3 was confiscated by the Levy County Sheriffs Department at the airport for smuggling marijuana into the country. A Corvette Club out of Gainesville use to rent the runways for the weekend and race their cars. The runways are still in fairly good shape and are still some of the largest in the area. The airport used to be a popular place for the local youngsters to go out and race their vehicles, however, it is now posted and only people having airplanes on the premises or people taking flight lessons are allowed on the property. If you drive south out of Williston on S.R. 41, travel approximately two miles and look to your right. On the other side of the woods and the cleared farmland lies an airport that not only played a part of the history of Florida but also played a vital part in the history of the United State of America. The writer acknowledges with appreciation, the assistance of Mr. Henry Wilson, Mr. J. W. Smith, Mr. F. W. Priest, and Mr. Raymond Robinson, all of Williston, in the research for this account. 13

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14 The opening of the new school in Williston with the whole building draped in bunting, apparently following a parade. The date is unknown but the cars suggest 1920, give or take a couple of years.

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GULF HAMMOCK, THE TOWN By Carol Swaggerty Snider Gulf Hammock in 1926 was a thriving city with industry, medical complexes, and shopping facilities. Today it is a small community with a post office and a Shop ‘N Go. But we are proud of our past and the ways in which it shaped Levy County’s growth. In many memories Gulf Hammock is still a boom town. Famous people stayed in our hotels, noted doctors healed the sick, well known clergy presided over the church here. By 1846 Gulf Hammock was established with population and a sugar plantation while some communities were still in birth pains. The dates this history deals with are 1913 through the 1960’s. So many events take place, there is so much everyday life that is interesting that it would take up fifty pages. The following is a condensed account of the everyday life of Gulf Hammock. Gulf Hammock was originally a settlement consisting of store and post office, a small general store owned by Mr. Cassidy, and Gulf Hammock School. This settlement was located in the area of the present John Yearty residence. In 1913, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad was built and wishing to be near the line the town moved sites. In 1916, the name was changed to GunnTown to commendate a citizen, Mr. Gunn, who started the crate factory, the central industry. In 1926, the name was changed back to the original Gulf Hammock. In 1926, Dr. E. W. Grove, famed for his chill tonic, teamed with the Dowling Brothers, Will and James, to buy Gulf Hammock from Mr. Gunn and various other small land owners. The holdings were 132,000 acres of timber whose boundaries were the trestle in Cedar Key, up Suwannee River near Chiefland, then south through Otter Creek to the Withlacoochee River. The entire west coast of Levy County from Cedar Key to Hodges Island in Yankeetown was within the boundaries. In 1929 after the death of the famous Dr. Grove, Grove-Dowling went bankrupt and in 1930 the holdings were bought by Paterson-Mclnnis. They bought the original acreage, crate mill (started by Gunn), a saw mill and planing mill (among the largest in the south at that time) which Grove-Dowling built, many company built homes, church buildings, hotels, hospital, schools, commissary, equipment including railroads and its locomotive and cars. The company owned everything and employed approximately 750 people out of a population of 1,500 in Gulf Hammock in the year 1929. There were groups of workers who lived near the work sites in the logging woods. Rail reached out to these sites where they lived in small houses so that steam cranes could lift the houses into flatbeds and move them by rail to new sites to follow the uncut timber. The Commissary had a small branch that was in a railroad car located at the logging site. Mr. Frank Bullock managed the woods commissary for many years. Mr. Irving from Otter Creek sold a box car of ice in block form to the company to be used at the wood site each week. Employees or residents could rent company houses for $2.00 per room. If for instance it was a 2 room house the rent was $4.00 per month. There were several boarding houses or choice of hotels. The Orange Blossom Inn had room and board for the cost of $32.00 per month in 1929. By 1934 it had risen to $39.99 per month. Gulf Hammock had many quarters where the black population lived in company houses. They had their own schools and churches. The blacks pledged 10 cents per week to the Benevolent Society which was a program instigated by the company to have funds to pay funeral expenses for blacks. A coffin would cost $15.00 at Commissary and the family would lay the deceased out for burial. There were no white cemeteries in Gulf Hammock, most white people were shipped by train to Bronson to be buried in the cemetery there or the deceased was sent to relatives elsewhere. The schools were located in the church buildings and supported 125 children (white) from grades 1-8. High School children jvent to Bronson on private contracted “buses” usually trucks with wooden benches built in the back. There were 5 teachers in the white school and 2 teachers in the black schools. If Levy County was short on funds to pay teacher salaries the company subsidized 2 teachers’ salaries for the white school. Following is a partial list of teachers who taught at the Gulf Hammock School: Esther Howard, Inez Hardee (Kulp), Herman Smith, Alice Sistrunk Cobb, Cherry Meeks Turner, Joyce Meeks Bullock, Eleanor Beans Robins, L. H. Howell, Opal Bevell (music), Elizabeth Braggs, Marie Shelly, Margaret Barnett, Gladys Russell. Gulf Hammock had a complete medical program. The hospital was segregated with five private rooms and wards for whites, two private rooms and a ward for the blacks. The hospital and doctor took care of everyday accidents from mill 15

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Zackary T. Smallwood (1847-1919), buried in the Wekiva Springs Cemetery, Gulf Hammock. Four graves are left, all the other have been destroyed. 16

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and wood work and appendectomies, tonsillecto mies, gall stone operations, and maternity. The doctor was employed by the company, but was allowed to practice medicine to people other than employees and charge fees. The company paid him to take care of patients employed in its work. The doctor’s practice was widespread including Chiefland and Trenton areas. Maternity fees totaled $35.00. The doctors made house calls for $4.00 a visit. The first public health clinic in Levy County was in Gulf Hammock at this time under the head of Dr. K. R. Cammack, a surgeon. Gulf Hammock’s first doctor was Dr. Gavin who established a park between the hospital and the Commissary. Dr. L. S. Lafitte followed him and was famous nationwide for his patent of “Red Wonder’’ for treatment of malaria. Malaria was one of the chief reasons for sickness in the company’s employees at this time, keeping as many as half the labor force ill. There were trains or company cars that would bring injured and sick in to the hospital from the various camps in the logging woods. The doctors hired registered nurses that came from out of state to work with them in the Gulf Hammock. A few of them were: Edna Earl Richardson (Bordeaux), Blanche Buckelew, Jo Lottie Kitrell, Estelle Thomas, and Tommy Jones. The white church was non-denominational. The company paid the preacher; the tithe was taken from the laborers wages each week from the amount they pledged. The company also designated certain jobs for the preacher among which were refereeing ball games, scout master, and chaperoning dances for young people. In 1929, Reverend Beaty was pastor followed by Edgar Pendergrass (now a Methodist Bishop), and Gene Zimmerman (Methodist official), and Reverend Martin, a Baptist. The Commissary was a 150 foot by 300 foot building in the heart of town that stocked any article needed. People from Chiefland, Bronson, Otter Creek, and Morriston areas shopped here. You could buy medicines, clothes, food items, hardware, plows, even a coffin. You could get paid for the week’s work, mail a letter, buy a banana split, and try on the latest styles of clothing all in the same building. In the drugs section was a pharmacist, among who were Dr. J. D. Franklin, Doc. Youngblood, and Doc. Black. The company bookkeepers, pay master, and officials were located in offices in this building as well as the vault. Within the town limits of Gulf Hammock and surrounding it were many private landowners and farmers; among this group were the Watkins, Smallwoods, Boyds, and Baldrees. But everyone’s life was directly or indirectly dependent on the company. If you didn’t work or pay the rent you didn’t stay in their houses. If you needed an advance on your salary you were paid in babbit, a nickname taken from the babbit-aluminum from which the coins were made. You got your advance in babbit coins from the cashier in the Commissary and could spend it anywhere in the county except the post office or the Tax Collector’s office. The town’s electricity was supplied by the company which had hugh boilers using wood to make steam to generate the electricity. If the fuel was low at 11:00 p.m. the lights would dim three times and you had one half hour to prepare for no lights until 4:00 a.m. The residents employed by the company did not pay for electricity. If you were dating your sweetheart you went to the Commissary for a soda or walked around the loop on first street. On Sundays after church you played baseball on the town diamond or relaxed with friends on the porch of the Orange Blossom Inn in the swing. Many people in Levy County came to Gulf Hammock to purchase their cars. The Ford Dealership was owned by Grove-Dowling and went out of business at the same time. The dealership was attached to the garage where cars were serviced and gas sold. The garage was managed by Tommy Loftin at the time of the Ford Dealership. Mr. J. T. (Hoot) Hutson bought a Ford from the dealership in Gulf Hammock at this time. The barber shop was located on a board road which lead to the sawmill. The shop was a two-chair, two-barber shop. Some of the barbers were S. G. Green, E. A. Aycock, and Warren May. In approximately 1926 Grove-Dowling built the depot for the Atlantic Coastline Railroad. For years it had only been a platform. The railroad allowed the Company to build the depot according to their own plans, then the Company painted the depot yellow trimmed in white which were their colors. The Western Union was located in the depot and a Railroad agent ran the office. There were only two phones in Gulf Hammock, one in the depot and the other in the sales office of the Company. The writer acknowledges with appreciation, the collaboration of Mr. John Yearty of Gulf Hammock in the writing of this account. 17

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Lucius Parks Smallwood (1884-1907), son of Zackary Taylor Smallwood, Gulf Hammock. The artificial leg he wore was a popular type in his day. The vehicle was probably a 1934 Chevrolet. The hole at the bottom of the radiator grille was for inserting a hand crank in case the battery failed. 18

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THE PIONEER CARTERS By William Patrick Carter (1862-1944) William P. Carter, Baptist minister, moved from South Carolina to Mississippi about 1810. He married Mary Hill Robertson, daughter of the Rev. Norvell Robertson (his autobiography is in the Mississippi College Library at Clinton). William P. had a brother, Pinckney, sisters Mary (married Richard McClemore) and Katie (married a Griffin). William P. Was a state senator in Mississippi sometime before 1850. Norvell Robertson was one of the organizers of the Mississippi State Baptist Convention and the first pastor of the First Baptist Church of Meridan, Mississippi. Norvell Robertson Carter (1833-1906), son of William P., married Isobelle Abney McGrew in Meridan in October, 1857. This is the couple that migrated to Levy County, Florida. Their children bom in Mississippi were Clarke M., William P., and John L. Those born in Levyville were Sallie Isabelle, N. R. Jr., Graham and Lamar G. W. P. Carter was bom in 1862 in Mississippi and died in about 1945 in Florida. He wrote his memoirs in 1941, at the request of his grandchildren, William T. and Betty Lou Weeks. W. P.’s grandmother’s husband had died of tuberculosis back in Mississippi. She must have taken a last look at his grave, knowing full well that she would never see that grave again, and then she rode five hundred miles in a wagon along the frontier trail roads to Levy County, and her hip was broken. * * We are indebted to a gracious lady for her help and kindness, Mrs. Betty Mattair of Newberry. She made the writing of the late W. P. Carter available for this series. He was her grandfather. The lineage goes like this: 1. Senator William P. Carter, South Carolina to Mississippi, 2. His son, N. R. Carter, Mississippi to Florida, 3. His son William P. Carter, the W. P. who wrote the history, 4. His daughter and 5. Her daughter, Mrs. Betty Mattair. N. R. Carter had a son, also named N. R., and a brother, fra J. Carter. The elder N. R. also served as a state senator, from Levy County. Norma Richards Hutson ***** After the Civil War my parents decided to move by wagon train to Florida with Tampa as their destination. So my parents and my grandmother McGrew together with my mother’s younger brothers sold or gave away their possessions and packed two or three wagon loads of bedding, chairs, and other necessities. A light spring wagon was prepared for my grandmother as she had a broken hip. I think we left from my grandmother’s home in Lauderdale Springs, Miss., in Feb. 1867. I was just five years old so I don’t remember that hustle and bustle of getting off. The first thing that I can recall was when we reached the Tombigbee River and had to be ferried across on flat boats pulled by hand cable. They unhooked all the mules from the wagons for safety and one mule did fall overboard. Johnny was about two and just learning to talk, and he called the river the “big awty’’. The next thing I recollect was arriving at Tallahassee and going into the old Capitol. The first floor was an open space with the floor littered with old guns, military belts and saddles. Expecting to take a steamboat to Tampa from St. Marks, we went there the next day. To our great disappointment the steamer had left St. Marks just two days before and would not make a return trip for two weeks. We decided then to go on to Tampa by Wagon. In our move from Mississippi to Florida we brought along several Indian ponies, one mare named Joe and another mare named Mary. Old Joe’s colt was a stallion named Cochoma, a pacer. Old Mary’s colt was Fannie. These horses had been crossed with good thoroughbreds. Before we reached the Suwannee River one day, my brother Garke, who was just old enough to ride, was on Mary. He fell off and got one foot caught in a stirrup. Mary walked up to one of the wagons and stopped and one of the drivers, a Mr. Proctor, released him, unhurt. We crossed the Suwannee River at Ft. Fannin and camped near the Fannin Springs. A man came to our camp that night by the name of Jim Burnett. I saw him off and on after that night for the next forty years. The next night we camped at a small hammock, about three miles from Bronson on the Levyville Road. I have seen that old pine stump many times since, where we had our campfire that night. The next day we drove into Bronson. There we were persuaded to settle on the old Finlayson plantation, a place that had been worked by a slave owner before the Civil War. The land was good. The house was eight feet above the ground, room enough to store wagons under the house. We had no screens on the windows or doors. The only protection from mosquitoes was bars and they didn’t do much good. We had to build smoke fires in pans for relief from the mosquitoes. The hammock was full of bears, deer, wild cats, coons, opposums, squirrels, etc. 19

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20 Orange Street in Mont Brook, about 1900, looking west.

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We had a wood rack outside the chimney on which the chickens would roost at night, but the wild cats caught them anyway. Everyone in the family had the fever, the ague, and chills. We stood it one year and then moved into the flatwoods. ***** We had tried to make a crop of corn but because of the bears and deer destroying what we planted, we moved to a place three miles from Otter Creek in a southwest direction and bought a large bungalow shaped house with a porch running all the way around. This place belonged to William Meeks. The house was built of cypress board, split or rived from five-foot blocks of wood, then worked smooth with a drawing knife, as you do shingles when you shave one end thin so the next row of shingles will fit smoothly. A crop was started and there were hogs in the woods. They came with the place. My mother had no help at all and no neighbors. A few families were in Otter Creek. One store was run by S. D. Eason. A small warehouse and a one-story hotel was run by a fat man named Mason. This hotel was later bought out by Dan Strong, a Negro, who also bought the Meeks’ place from my father when we moved to Levyville. This Dan Strong was widely known for his honesty and he was a faithful friend to our family as long as he lived. He would come to see me after I moved to Gainesville and bring me fresh killed turkey or a mess of fish. After one year at the Meeks’ place, my father, having been in the mercantile business in Mississippi, accepted a clerkship with one James S. Turner of Levyville. All of us moved up there into the one room house with a fireplace in the east end. I don’t remember whether my grandmother lived in her covered wagon or not, but rather think now that she did, as I don’t remember seeing her in this one-room house. As soon as possible, my father built a two-room addition on the west end. My grandmother was then moved into the largest room which had a stick and clay chimney at the west end. This house had been built by Pomp Norris, a Negro, and for several years after that he did farm work for my father. He plowed an ox and had a two-wheeled cart that he came and went in. At the time, he lived near where Chiefland now stands. About 1872-74, there was only the one store in Levyville. It was a general store, handling dry goods, hardware, groceries, salt, whiskey, and the post office. I have helped there on many Fridays, putting up bottles of whiskey in a fifty cent size and the one dollar a quart size. These were made ready for Saturday, as all the country folks came to town to bring their corn to the gristmill. On Saturday, the whole town was full of loud talking and half-drunk men. We children would sit on the ground by our front gate watching what was going on. Mother would not let us get any nearer. 1 remember Fronnie Butler was there with us, and she said, “I’m not afraid, my papa can whip any man up there.” The next day we boys were scouting around to see what we could find and we found a long pistol, about sixteen inches long, and the upper plate of a set of false teeth, both belonging to Garret Hudson. A few years later, about 1874, my father owned a half interest in the store and the business was doing good, so they set out to build a larger store. This one was about 36 by 80 feet, built in a box style. The weather boarding, running up and down and nearly all the framing was of hewn timbers. The sills were hauled to the site by log carts, then with chop axes and board axes they were hewn into shape about 10 x 12 inches. I recollect Old Man Hudson with freckled skin and sandy-red hair was hewing on the sills right out in the open sun. He would take a cup of water and pour it over the wrists to “cool his blood”. When the new store was finished, Uncle John McGrew was taken in as a third partner. Then about 1876, along came my Uncle Ira Judson Carter, my father’s brother from Mississippi. He bought out John McGrew’s interest and then sent to Mississippi for his family. John McGrew moved to Bronson and was elected tax collector for Levy County. He later moved to Ft. Fannin and put up a store on the river bank a few feet above the new steel bridge. John McGrew was married to Antionette Parker. The McGrews were originally from Alabama. Well, the store ran along smoothly for several years. Quite a lot of cotton was raised in this section then. I know that the Company had 300 bales of long cotton on hand at one time. It was piled out on the north end of the store. Big shelters made out of rough lumber covered it. These bales of cotton were long bales with ears at each comer to help in the handling. Those were the first days when I helped feed the gins. I earned my first money there and exchanged it for a twenty dollar gold piece, which remains with me to this day. ***** Well, things took a turn and the three partners, Turner, N. R. and Ira J. divided up the stock of goods and account. My father and Uncle Ira put a partition in the old courthouse and moved their part of the goods there until they could build a new two-story store. Old Mr. Buidelman was doing the carpenter work and had a Negro employee, Ed Norris. Old Buidelman would cuss Ed everyday. One day Ed objected to this. Old Buidelman replied, “You got a mouth, ain’t you?” From then on, Ed mixed it. Buidelman was a Yankee. At this time there lived on the Tomlinson place a rawboned old man named Hutchinson. The first 21

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time Buidelman saw him, he shouted, “That damned old man was my guard in Andersonville Prison!” After Carter and Carter built the new store, they put up a building with big platform scales to weigh wagons and cotton before unloading, then after unloading, reweigh the wagon. I was old enough to drive a mule team to Bronson everyday with a load each way, cotton bales to the railroad and merchandise back to the store. For years before we came to Florida, J. S. Turner had handled his goods by ox teams from Palatka, that town being the nearest delivery point to Levy County. Of course this was before the railroad was turned to go through Bronson to Cedar Key. At that early date, Savannah was the nearest market. Jacksonville was only a cowford, Fernandina and Palatka were way ahead in size and business. At the time we moved to Levyville about 1870, the railroad had reached Cedar Key, and Bronson and Otter Creek had become stations and shipping points. For years afterwards, Mr. Turner kept on driving his cattle to Live Oak and shipping from there by train to Savannah. At these early dates, Cedar Key had steamers coming in from New Orleans and Galveston. Levy County received a lot of goods by these routes. As late as 1890, John C. McGrew got his merchandise at Ft. Fannin by steamer via Cedar Key and up the Suwannee River. I well recollect the name of one or two, the Caddo Belle, the Blanche, the Crescent City. They ran up as far as Branford and probably Live Oak. The Caddo lies on the bottom of the river near Old Town. In the spring of 1867 when my family arrived at the Old Town area, the families of the Finlaysons, Cotrells, McCartys, Chairs, Parkers and many others were living there. Some people who lived in and around the Levyville area from 1870-1890 as I recollect them were: Dr. Hall who stayed at Mrs. Quincey’s. She was a sister of Samuel Quincey, a Levy County Commissioner. Many members of the Clyatt family lived there. Jim Penner was the fireman at the gin and John Sash was the foreman. George Leitner came to preach once a month from Providence after a church was built near the old mill on the north side. Other people were Suggs Mooney, a Mrs. Stephens who later married Eli Bennefield. Jesse Everette and Jordan Saunders made crops for my father. Hiram Carver was a gentleman from Kentucky who taught school in the old courthouse. Still other names that I recollect are Horatio Spence, Dan Hagan, Cynthia Hagan, Wash Deas, Jesse White, Bud Cason, Doc. Young, Willis Fletcher, Joe Gunn, Wash Phelps, C. Studstill, and Dave Hires who married Rachel Studstill. One of their children was Mannie Studstill who was named for his grandfather, Emanuel Studstill. I recall Jim Brock, Jerry Goldwire, Samp Bath, E. M. Tedder, Mrs. Barrow, Walter Howard, Steve Hagan, Dr. French, John Overstreet, Mose Asbell, Reve Crumpton, C. C. Doak, Ferdinand Sanchez, Mack Love, Mrs. Claywell, the Butler family, David Cannon and Betsy Cannon. Some Negro people who were good friends of our family were Pompey, Dan Strong, Jim Hall, Balam Bradley, Stepney Bradley, and Jim Bradley. ***** Sporting activities were very meagre in these years 1870-77. At Christmas time, besides fire crackers, Roman candles and pin wheels, we would bore a hole in a tree or large stump, pack the hole with several inches of gun powder, then seal the hole with damp clay, inserting a small twig to form a small access to the powder. We primed it, started a fire with dry straw, then took off to await the explosion. In those days the community would have basket picnics. Some of the ladies would sell ice cream to raise church funds. We got our ice by ordering a 100 lb. block from Fernandina. The blocks of ice were shipped in sacks with sawdust all around them to prevent melting. To preserve what we didn’t use, we would bury it to save it as long as possible. Nearly everyone in those days grew peaches and very fine ones too. One day Suggs Mooney borrowed a yoke of oxen from his neighbor. He loaded the wagon with loose peaches and didn’t know much about driving oxen. So when he got too close to a sink filled with water, in went the oxen and stopped to stand in the water. The wagon floated and the peaches floated all over the place. I used to grow some very fine watermelons at Levyville. They were colored like the old rattlesnake variety. They were very large melons and grew standing up on one end. They were so large that they looked like small tubs sitting around in the patch. We had several hives of bees in the yard under a fine peach tree of the clingstone variety. One year we gathered two bushels of peaches from this tree alone. Beecher, a dark gray horse, turned out to be the best cow pony I ever had. He would drive cattle like a trained dog. If a cow turned back he would wheel, head her off, and drive her back to the bunch without being told to do so. Later, I rode Snap all the way to Tampa. He was a sorrel I bought from John Gore who lived in the Blackneck neighborhood on the old Cedar Key road. My brother Clarke and I were driving 500 head of steers through the Brooksville area when one night after we were all bedded down for the night, the cattle stampeded and I heard the pounding and roar coming my way. I climbed a pine tree and the cattle passed under me. Two days before this, we had to ford the Withlacoochee, and time after time, 22

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we had to round the cattle up and crowd them across the river. After we crossed, the cattle were scattered everywhere but we would usually find them here and there in small bunches. There were long flat ponds through which we drove the cattle, the water being belly deep to horses and cattle. We delivered the steers ten miles this side of Tampa, having lost only two or three that had just wandered away. My father (N. R. Carter) was a veteran of the Civil War, a 1st Lt. in Co. C of the 2nd Mississippi Volunteers in Gen. N. B. Forest’s Division. He was paroled in Gainesville, Ala., May 25, 1865. He grew in prominence as the years passed. In 1905 he represented his district in the Senate of Florida. He was a member of the Grand Lodge of Florida for 52 years. At one time he was the Grand Master of the State of Florida. His youngest son Laram Gordon Carter also attained this office in 1929. My father died at Levyville, Dec. 1, 1906. It is about fifty to fifty-six years since I moved from old Levyville. Everything has grown up in big trees since then. The only way I can tell where my house used to stand is from where the mill caved in and left a small hollow place lower than the rest of the earth. * * JUDSON, FLORIDA By W. P. Carter (1862-1944) About 1881 or 1882 my Uncle Ira J. Carter sold his interest in the Carter & Carter store in Levyville to my father, N. R. Carter. Uncle Ira was then about forty years of age. He bought out Bill Epperson at Bronson and ran a big store in the old Bill Jones store building. Uncle Sid Carter, another brother who had come to Florida a little later with their mother who had now passed away at Levyville, moved to Bronson, too. He and Uncle Ira opened the law office of Carter and Carter. Aunt Lou (Mrs. Ira J.) ran a hotel in the upstairs of the store. The hotel was known as the Carter House. Then all of a sudden Uncle Ira sold the store back to Bill Epperson and moved back to Levyville. My wife Kate and I were just married. We had bought Uncle Sid’s house as he no longer had need of it after Grandma Carter-Barber died. Uncle Ira and Aunt Lou moved into the house with us for a while. Then Uncle Ira took a fancy to build a sawmill, a store, and a gin at the Levy and Alachua County line (later to become the Gilchrist line.) He built a big log store and my brother Clarke worked with him for three or four years. Clarke became sick with TB and Uncle John McGrew’s mother’s brother helped Uncle Ira until he could get the sawmills and gins working. He built a good four-room house with oak blocks for supports which his family used. He also built a two-story house. The second story was to be used for a lodge room. People already lived in and around the section where Uncle Ira located his businesses and as some semblance of a community began to appear, he gave the village the same “Judson,” which was his own middle name. In 1889 Uncle Ira and Aunt Lou lost their older son, Charley. Uncle Ira began to spend a lot of time thinking about his troubles. Charlie was a very bright and promising young man. At one time he drove the mail from Levyville to Trenton, but now his hopes were gone with Charlie. About this time, Dr. Clyatt built an office near where Roland’s Store was. He boarded with Aunt Lou. Dr. Clyatt rode horseback and owned a bay mare named Isa, after Miss Isa Turner, niece of J. S. Turner. Dr. Clyatt had not finished medical school, so Uncle Ira let him have $150 to finish the last term. Dr. Clyatt left the mare as security. I was there when he returned to Judson, but this time he rode a big black horse named Dexter. He sometimes drove Dexter to a two-wheeled sulky like they use with these fast trotters. Old Man Buidelman who once lived at Levyville now sold his forty acre farm to Uncle Ira and moved to Jacksonville. The north part of the farm was a “new-ground” and planted in peas. Uncle Ira had one Elias Griffin running the farm and Griffin proved to be a lot of trouble to Uncle Ira. One Julia Owen, widow, owned a fine farm near Trenton with two acres in a peach orchard. Peaches in this new country grew almost as big as a large coffee cup. People came there from miles around to get peaches. This Mrs. Owen was a great friend of Aunt Lou, as Mr. Wes Owen had been a big Mason and good friend to Uncle Ira. After Mr. Owen’s death, Mrs. Owen married one Andrew J. Weeks, father of Wallace, Dote, Alice, 23

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Willie and Carrie Johnson lived between Bronson and Judson in 1885. The child in front is Hartwell. Back row, Addie, Junious, and Annie. Addie was the grandmother of Linden Lindsey, Levy County Archives member. 24

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Blanche, Orbie, Code, Maude and Les Weeks. This couple soon found that they had made a mistake and separated. So Mrs. Owen, as she was still called, spent a lot of her time in Judson having Uncle Ira fix her property so Mr. Weeks couldnÂ’t get any of it. Along about this time, one Mr. Meredith came into the Trenton area and his wife happened to be Will RichardsonÂ’s mother. Brother Meredith and Sister Meredith were great Baptist and would attend church at Pine Grove. They never failed to stop at Aunt LouÂ’s to enjoy her fried chicken or chicken pie. I never saw anyone who could equal Aunt Lou making chicken pie, the crust was so crisp and brown and well-seasoned. She was a smart lady. Many times she would be up in the morning and have a chicken dressed and fried before the other family members finished getting themselves dressed. One day, Bro. Sim Sheffield was there for dinner and while he was all bowed down saying Grace, Uncle Ira cut his eye out toward the lot and saw that hay barn was in full blaze. That broke up the Grace as well as the dinner. ***** Then a family named Owens settled on forty acres north of Judson. They built a big two-story house, put up a sawmill and planer mill. This was afterwards owned by D. T. Trammel. This same Trammel finished out Uncle IraÂ’s square topped house in Judson. Trammel was a master carpenter and plane setter. He laid the wooden sills for the engine to rest on. He had a set of augers five or six feet long to make holes through the heavy timbers and so to fasten them together with long iron rods with heads on the underside and taps to fasten them on top. The Owens had built a schoolhouse here and it was always known as the Bartram School. Soon after this there came the Holmes family from Georgia to live in the OwensÂ’ house. They brought one Dan George to Florida and Dan wrote a very beautiful Spencerian hand. One of the HolmesÂ’ girls later married Ira. J. Carter II. Her name was Pearl. In February of 1891, the worst thing that ever happened to the family occurred. Uncle Ira had just returned from a trip to Savannah. Aunt Lou and Annie were in Gainesville awaiting his return. When they got home, all of them came down with the flu. Old Dr. Claywell was the only doctor available and before anyone realized he was so sick. Uncle Ira died right off. All the folks came up from Levyville to be with Aunt Lou and then we took his body back to Levyville for burial. So Aunt Lou wanted Kate and me to come and live with her. We had only Louise then, as the little boys had died sometime ago. No one knew anything about his business affairs. My father was appointed administrator and he spent a lot of time away from Levyville trying to settle up Uncle IraÂ’s affairs. A few years before his death he had built a warehouse, almost half an acre in size, with big platform scales to weigh wagon loads of cotton. He had an office in the southeast comer and had Old Man Lightsey to build a limerock chimney of sawed lime blocks. These blocks were sawed from solid limerock out at Wolf Sink near where Norvel Hagan lives. Aunt Lou let Henry Tucker and Crawf Kidd have the mill and gins, one pair of mules and wagon and her to feed the mules for six months, all for the sum of $100. Sometime in the year 1894, Cousin Mollie came with her husband from Mississippi. Cousin MollieÂ’s father was James P. Carter, a brother to my father and Uncle Ira. They came early in the spring. I remember the com was up to a good stand and needed its first plowing. They lived in a house about 100 yards north of my house. We were then living in a small house near Aunt Lou but a little northeast. I had bought the house and five acres of land that Molly and Tom lived in from Mr. Herndon and he had bought it from Frank Swilley whose land runs down to Judson on the north. I engaged Tom Martin to help make a crop for Aunt Lou at $16.50 a month and he find or feed himself. I recollect the first day he came to work. We hitched up Poly, a small yellow mule that Uncle Ira had bought from up at Trenton of a man named Poly Riley. When I came to Judson to live, Uncle Ira had a sugar mill, furnace and boiler for making syrup. There was a long cypress trough and a cloth cover fastened to two stakes that were longer than the trough. At night they kept the cover on to keep out trash and insects. Early one morning they took up a boiler of syrup, eight or ten gallons, and poured it into the trough, but in the dark, they forgot to take the cover off and the syrup was running around in puddles all over the ground. Another morning, before daylight and very cold, the young man feeding the mill said that the mill was broken, it wouldnÂ’t work. Someone went to his rescue and found that the stalks of cane were frozen solid. Luther Yancey had married Ola Doak and lived in a new house about 250 yards southwest of R. S. TuckerÂ’s store. Yancey was the fireman at the Carter mill boilers and a year or so later, drowned during a fishing trip on the Suwannee River This Yancey made a crop with me one year and he got tired before the crop was gathered and so sold out to me. I paid him partly in hogs. In those days I butchered 20 to 30 hogs a year. George Schofield put up a store at the edge of the water hole on the north side. He was the father of Relia who married Dote Weeks. We liked to have had some trouble with him because Tom Martin said he bet Scofield put sand in his sugar. Some two years before Uncle Ira died, there 25

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arose a great religious controversy and excitement between the Camelites and other denominations, particularly the Baptists. And so a religious debate was planned. N. A. Bailey represented the Baptists and J. H. Harding represented the opposition. They met in the great warehouse and argued all day for a whole week. I took charge of the gins and the grist mill after I was sick so long. Aunt Lou had Mr. Todd, a good Yankee carpenter, to build some shelves in the new store under the Lodge room which was above. After I put a stock of merchandise in the store, D. G. Roland put up a store on the edge of the water hole just east of R. S. Tucker’s store. Mr. Roland built a house just west of J. C. Kidd’s. One night there was a big Masonic meeting at the Judson Lodge. Robert McClellan, Marcus Endel, Sid Carter of Gainesville and many others were there. After the meeting, many of them went into the Roland store to smoke and drink. Uncle Sid came over to our house to spend the night and about 3:00 A.M. the cry of fire was heard. The Roland store was burning and it looked like my store would catch fire any minute. We got men up on the Lodge roof to throw buckets of water on the end nearest Roland’s store, and my store was not damaged as to the building. But much of the merchandise was taken out and thrown around, and the contents of the safe, being unguarded in all the excitement, were short something over $ 1 0 0 The morning of the storm, my wife had everyone up early as she usually did to get the teams on the road by sunrise. The rain and the wind was so gusty that Mr. Williams who drove my team of mules delayed hitching up the team. By 6:30 the storm was on us. We stood on the front porch and saw the wind blowing the cotton out of the gin house into the tops of the pine trees. The pine trees along the road west of Rufus Tucker’s store were falling like ten pins, but the wind roared so loud we couldn’t even hear the trees hit the ground. The wind was so strong now that we had to go inside and watch from the windows. We saw the old store go down and its roof and timbers went rolling off like cartwheels. About this time, part of the roof of our own house went, and we all ran for the crib, hoping to be safe there. We got in the crib and Tom Martin tried to hold the door shut. Finally, by eleven o’clock, the storm had abated. We walked out to find the mill was partly blown away, the two-story store and Lodge building was piled in a tangled heap. Aunt Lou’s house still stood and all the barns. The next day, my brothers, Johnny and Graham and a colored man named Stepney rode in from Levyville. They had ridden through open fields when they could as all fences were flat, but in the woods they had to cut their way through with axes. They then started to round up the scattered merchandise from the store. The top floor of the store was patched up and lined with canvas. I had no place to put what was worth saving so Rufus Tucker let me use a small storage house attached to his store. I built another store and remained in business until 1902, when we sold the goods to C. D. May in Newberry and the” moved ourselves and possessions to Gainesville.

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27 Wreck of a dredge barge at the upstream end of Turkey Island in the Suwannee River. The dredge was used at Fowlers Bluff in treasure hunting. It broke loose during a storm (about 1929) and ran aground here. The machinery was removed and the hull left. This picture was made about 20 years ago, but when the river is extremely low you can still see one edge of the deck sticking out.

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MORE SLOWPOKE By S. E. Gunnell The really old maps are notoriously unreliable sources for historical research. Physical outlines were guessed at in many instances and when one mapmaker misplaced a river, the next mapmaker would copy the first so that the same error would be perpetuated over a long period of time. The Spanish intruders gave their own names to the landmarks while the Anglo intruders tended to adopt the names already used by the native Indians. There is a 1755 map of the Levy County area entitled Country of the Apalachees and Timooquas which contains the statement that the “Timooquas were destroyed by the Carrolinians in 1706”. Anclote Key is shown and north of its location are two rivers named St. Martins and St. Pedro, both running into the Bay of Apalachee. The most likely conclusion is that this mapmaker had only the foggiest idea of Florida’s west coast topography. A large river is shown going down the center of the peninsula accompanied by the explanation that “this river is unknown to geographers and is said by the Carrolinians to have several mouths on both sides of the Cape.” The area around “St. Augustine” is arranged more accurately. The St. Johns River is the “St. Mattbeo or St. Juan”. Mentelle’s 1798 map seems to call the Suwannee “the River St. Pedro”. Either the Wacassasa or the Withlacoochee is shown as the Maran River. Vignole’s 1823 map shows the Arredonda Grant, Manatee Springs, the Suwannee, Old Town. Tanner’s 1823 has the Suwannee River and the Vacasausa River; however, he placed a nonexistent river between the two and has the Suwannee coming down from Alabama. In 1827 the American Atlas shows the Cedar Keys but has those islands in the mouth of the Suwannee River. Swift’s 1829 map correctly locates the big island between the East Pass and West Pass but has the river flowing into the “Vacassah Bay”. He used the modern spelling of Suwannee. Swift gives a choice of three names for the Withlacoochee: the Amima, the Aminura, and the Withlocooch. Also in 1829, another map has the Suwannee flowing into the “Vacassa Bay”. The John Lee Williams map of 1837 shows an extensive canebrake across the river from Manatee Springs. About fifty years before that, William Bartram described this great canebreak but placed it several miles downstream from opposite Manatee Springs. Williams shows “an old Indian Village” at the mouth of the “Wakasassee River” on the north side. He does show the Quithlacouche River but has Cedar Keys at the mouth of the Homosasey River. Bradford’s 1842 map still has Cedar Keys at the mouth of the Withlacoochee. The towns or settlements of Cedar Key, Levyville, and Bronson are known to have been in existence at that time but this mapmaker in Boston had no way of knowing that. He does show Fort Fanning and Blodgett’s Ferry across the Withlacoochee. Bruffs 1846 map shows the western terminus of the proposed railroad as being at Cedar Keys. He also shows Fort Fanning, Fort Wakasassa, Fort Jennings, and a mysterious “Blockhouse” which seems to have been near Levyville. Bruff has at least moved Cedar Keys out of the mouth of the Suwannee River. He admitted that Levy County existed but neglected to show the county seat, Levyville. In fact, the only settlement he placed in the whole county was Clay Landing. The U.S. Coast Survey map of 1851 has the accuracy of a modern chart. Way Key, Atsena Otie, and North Key are all in place. The statement is made that Seahorse Key is the proposed site for a lighthouse. Morse’s map of 1856 has Cedar Keys back at the Suwannee’s mouth and Atsena Otie further up the coast from there. All he had to do was look at the earlier U.S. Coast Survey map and he could have gotten his own map right. The U. S. Land Office map of 1883 finally has the lay of the land correctly depicted. Levy County towns shown are Cedar Keys, Rosewood, Otter Creek, Bronson, Levyville, Clay Landing, and Ft. Fanning. There were more towns and settlements in the county than that. Williston, for one. Incidentally, Newnansville (the extinct Alachua County seat) was also spelled Newmansville on the old maps; that could have been the original spelling. The Rand McNally map of 1906 shows Sumner, Ellzey, Lennon, Otter Creek, Merediths, Albion, Eve, Lebannon (not the same place as Labannon Station), Rocky, Janney, Newtown, Double Sink, Chiefland, Judson, Raleigh, Williston, Montbrook, Morriston, Gulf Hammock, Inglis, Levyville, Bronson, and Cedar Key. There were a few more, not shown. That was the picture of Levy County before the automobile age began, with little centers of population, trade, and commerce all over the county. Not much travel was required, not many wheels rolled, and each little settlement had its own school. A trend back to that may be in the future. 28

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Lessie Britt McKoy of Meredith, Florida at the ruins of a sawmill on Atsena Otie Island. In 1858, the mill was owned by her distant kinsman, Zephemiah Britt, of North Carolina. The entire island has reverted to jungle growth. 29

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Lukens appears on the U.S. General Land Office map in 1911. The 1914 atlas by the Florida Growers shows Wylly, DuttonÂ’s Spur, Vista, Lebannon Station, Gunnals (corruption of Dr. G. M. GunnellÂ’s name), and Camp Spur, which was on the railroad northeast of Albion at the Alachua line. As was stated before, old maps are not reliable. Mapmakers got their data secondhand from such sources as crude sketches by explorers, also from some tellers of tall tales. A town could appear, flourish awhile, then vanish, and finally appear on the maps long after it had ceased to exist. ***** The linear generations of families seem to move in cycles instead of maintaining the economic and social stability that one might expect. Consider the case of one prominent (and hypothetical) citizen who was in his prime about a hundred years ago; he built up a thriving retail business, accumulated considerable wealth, and was widely known as an honest, compassionate, cultured gentleman who was respected and loved by everyone who knew him. Today, his descendants are crude, grubby crooks scrounging around for every potential dollar, the more dishonest the dollar the more self-satisfaction its acquisition gives them. Although this reference is to a hypothetical case, a small amount of research would uncover numerous real life counterparts. If that is the cycleÂ’s downswing phase, there is also the upswing. In 1870, there were some all-out peasants in Levy County, illiterate, rough, ignorant (but not stupid, there is a difference), and their horizon seemed to extend no further than the edges of the holes they dug in the earth. In a word, their prospects appeared to be the epitome to hopelessness. Over the years their descendants have clawed and fought their way up out of those holes to become some of todayÂ’s best lawyers, teachers, ministers, doctors, business people, farmers, and government officials. There seems to be little or no correlation between wealth and social status on the one hand and intelligence and strength of character on the other. Maybe affluence does breed degeneracy while the pressure of adversity has the opposite effect. If a Levy County sandspur tries to grow in dry barren sand, the little plant will sacrifice the last vestige of its substance and literally kill itself to produce just one mature seed burr in the hope that the one burr will be transported to more fertile ground for survival in the future. I do not know why the cycle occurs, I just look at the people and the sandspurs, and wonder. 30

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This dead tree stood alone on the left of SR 24 going into Cedar Key in the 1950Â’s. It was painted by artists, photographed, and the thing was a symbol to the people passing by. Some saw the gnarled and grotesque limbs as a last defiant stand of old age against the sky, the wind, and the sea. Others admired it as a natural masterpiece of sculpture; they saw the random pattern, the tree whispered that true beauty is ageless and timeless, that the ultimate reality is so elusive as to be almost surrealistic. You must listen with your soul. Of course, some poor, dull clods saw only a dead tree, but they never really see anything. The tree is still there (1980) but it is now obscured by vegetation growing up around it. 31

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