Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
Volume 29 Number 2
latinamericanist Vlm29be2May 1994
David M. Baer, Editor
Life after the Rainforest:
Resource Use in an Area of Secondary Growth
by John Moon
Reports from Amazonia are generally discouraging tales of The Importance of the Bragantina Region
colonization attempts leading to deforestation, depletion of natural Although the exact dimensions of the deforested area remain in resources, and violent struggles for land. The traditional inhabitants, dispute, a large expanse of Amazon rainforest has been removed over Amazonian Indians and small landholders, inexorably lose ground to the last twenty-five years. Rainforest has often been replaced by ranchers, loggers, and other development interests. This article various stages of secondary growth collectively known as capoeira examines a less gloomy side of Amazonia, the overlooked Bragantina (Moreira, 1992). One strategy for relieving pressure on remaining region in the coastal area of Pari state. This long-inhabited region has areas of rainforest is to implement intensified and multipurpose land escaped many of the tragic consequences of the rush to development use practices in these areas of secondary growth. in recent years, although it too has suffered from the removal of the Secondary growth forests hold enormous potential. Worldwide, original forest cover and its secondary forests in the
repercussions. tropics cover nine million
In the Bragantina re- square kilometers, almost
gion, farmers in the commu- double the size of the Amanity of Santa Maria de zon Basin, and their area is
Ubintuba have demonstrated growing (Wadsworth,
a history of initiative and 1984). They are actively
cooperation. This has en- exploited by rural peoples
abled them to achieve an in the tropics for home and
unusual degree of stability market uses (Altieri, 1983).
by Amazonian standards, One of the largest aralthough some of their ac- eas in Brazilian Amazonia
tivities seem to be depleting where secondary growth
the community's resource predominates is the Atlanbase. tic coastal region of Pari
Already familiar with state, usually known as the
the community from a visit Bragantina region. The
as a teenager years ago, I Bragantina has been colomade frequent visits from nized and settled for over a
1988 to 1992. Based prima- century, and has lost more
rily on long conversations Vegetable gardner watering by hand in Ubintuba (Photo by John Moon). than 90% of its original forwith residents, I have pre- est cover (IDESP, 1992).
pared a history of the changes in this community, and the responses Rainforest has given way to a mosaic of various stages of capoeira of its fanning families. Their story, and that of the neglected and a wide variety of agricultural activities. Bragantina region, may offer some useful strategies for land use in The Bragantina was the site of the first systematic effort to newer pioneer regions of Amazonia. deforesta region in Brazilian Amazonia for the practice of permanent
John Moon is Consultant for Brazil Projects at the Center for Governmental Responsibility, University of Florida. Born and raised in the Brazilian Amazon region, Moon received his M.A. in Latin American Studies from the University ofFloridain the Spring of 1994.
agriculture. This occurred from about 1880 to 1920, as colonists owners to the detriment of small farmers. As a result, pioneer areas sought to utilize the generally unpopulated coastal region, where the in Amazonia share the highest indices of land inequality in Brazil original Indian population had been almost completely extirpated by with the impoverished Northeast. However, land use in the Bragantina 1620 (Gomes, 1988). The goal was to produce food for Beldm during has, from the first efforts in the 1880s, been mostly dominated by the Rubber Boom, a time when regional leaders believed that agri- settlers on relatively small properties, although there have also been culture would be abandoned and ParA would become entirely de- numerous efforts at establishing larger scale plantations. As a result, pendent upon imported food (Anderson, 1976). the Bragantina is an exception to the growing concentration of land
A railroad was built linking Bel6m to Braganga to provide in the hands of agribusiness in Amazonia in areas such as southern transportation for colonists and their agricultural products. Settlers Pardi and the Tocantins valley (Fearnside, 1985). were lured from Spain, Italy, Portugal, the Azores, and even China Despite problems of low soil fertility and erosion, the Bragantina (Loureiro, 1992), although most of the colonists who actually re- continues to fulfill its intended role as a major source of food and mailed in the region were from the nearby drought-stricken North- other agricultural products for Pardi state. With only 3% of the state's east of Brazil. The project enjoyed an early success in food produc- land surface, the Bragantina accounts for 23.9% of its manioc and tion, fulfilling provincial leaders' goals of making the Bragantina the 24.2% of its bean production (IDESP, 1990). The Bragantina is also "Pantry of Belfm" (Weinstein, 1983). the site of several promising attempts to produce tropical tree crops
The future was to prove less bright. Railroad maintenance and (Smith, 1992).
support for colonization suffered under successive state governments Furthermore, some municipalities in this region have been able in ParA. Crop yields from the Bragantina's tropical soils declined to achieve and sustain high outputs of vegetables and fruits for the 1.5 after the first few years, and the region began suffering serious million residents of Bel6m. In two of them, Santa Isabel and Santo problems of erosion (Penteado, 1967). Since 1920, researchers have Ant6nio do Taud, farmers have been particularly successful. When documented continuing problems related to deforestation, soil fertil- Santa Isabel became a major producer of chickens and eggs for ity, and low productivity (Camargo, 1948; Egler, 1961). An addi- Beldm, a byproduct, chicken manure, became a valuable fertilizer. tional problem for the region's coastal communities is overfishing by Farmers in these municipalities purchase manure in bulk, mix it with the better equipped commercial fleets operating out of Bel6m wood shavings from local sawmills, and apply the mixture to raised (Loureiro, 1985) which threatens not only the major cash income vegetable beds, a method they probably observed used by Japanese source for Bragantina fishing communities, but their principal source immigrants. This mixture is also applied to fruit trees. As a result, of protein. in 1988 they produced 26% of the melons, 59% of the cucumbers,
Current research and media attention in Amazonia have by- 64% of the tangerines, and 82% of the lettuce sold in the Bel6m passed the region (Hebbete, 1992) and focused on the more spectacu- farmers' market (IDESP, 1990). Considerable initiative and flexibillar deforestation and land struggles on new Amazonian frontiers. At ity in perceiving marketing opportunities and reacting to them have most, the Bragantina is a minor footnote, an early example of the allowed these farmers to prosper in the midst of the often discouragfailure of colonization attempts Amazonia which resulted in a "deso- ing circumstances surrounding Amazonian agriculture. late scrubland" (Caplan, 1990).
Despite this general neglect by researchers, and a predominantly Ubintuba, a resourceful Bragantina community
negative evaluation, the Bragantina offers rich opportunities for Activities in the community of Santa Maria de Ubintuba in the studying the long-term effects of settlement in Amazonia. Its history municipality of Santo Ant6nio do Taudi illustrate this agricultural contrasts sharply with the patterns of land occupation in more recent initiative. Perhaps more importantly, the history of this community Amazonian colonization attempts, including those in adjacent areas reveals the stability and permanence of its families, which has given of southern Pard and northern Maranhao. Colonization and develop- them the security to invest in longterm productive activities. ment projects for these areas have been manipulatedby large property The community of Ubintuba is made up of two villages, Santa Maria and Esthncia, and is located some 40 kilometers northeast of
Bel6m. Each village has about fifty houses, and approximately 800
inhabitants farm the surrounding countryside. Since the mid-1970s,
the community has been connected to Santo Ant6nio do TauA by a dirt
F road, which has become the most important means of transportation.
Before that, the nearby Bituba river provided early colonists with
access and transportation for their products.
Settlement activities by Europeans in this area considerably
predate the construction of the Beldm-Bragan a railroad. In fact, the
Bituba river was the site of what has historically been considered the
first coffee plantation in Brazil (Wrigley, 1988). The Luso-Brazilian
adventurer and army officer Fransisco Palheta obtained a land grant
on the banks of the Bituba in 1709. In 1727, using seeds smuggled
out of French Guiana, he established a coffee plantation, and by 1733,
he had planted 3000 cacao trees (Magalhlies, 1980). I have been
unable to establish how long Palheta's plantation survived. Its
location is also in doubt, but since the Bituba river is only some 4-5
kilometers long, whatever ruins may exist in the secondary forest and
Charcoal production at swidden agriculture site, with wood mangroves along the Bituba are located very near Ubintuba. Oral derived from the site (photo by John Moon). accounts by residents do not mention Palheta, but do indicate that
2 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
there was settlement in the area at the time of the Cabanagem, a nativist
revolt of the 1830s against the still dominant Portuguese merchant
class in Pard, a decade after Brazil's declaration of independence (Di
The "modem" history of Ubintuba can be dated from the turn of
the century, when activities intensified. The impetus came not from
rubber or agriculture, but from a sawmill established on the banks of
the Bituba in 1907 by a Portuguese businessman. He established
some new families at this site and hired local labor, but discouraged
colonization by farming families. The mill worked with valuable
tropical hardwoods, and by 1935, when the Archbishop of Beldm,
Dom Ant6nio Lustosa visited the sawmill, he complained that loggers had already stripped the area along the river of its most valuable
trees (Lustosa, 1973).
In 1942, according to the oldest Ubintuba residents, the sawmill
owner began opening logging trails deep into the forest. Rates of
extraction again outpaced forest regrowth, and in 1958 the sawmill Ubintuba and the Coast of Parh (Source: Moon, John. Searching closed down. By this time the inhabitants of the villages of Santa for Sustainability: Community Organization and Resource Maria de Ubintuba and neighboring Estfncia had diversified their Use in Ubin tuba. Brazilian Amazon. Slide Curriculum Unit No. activities. They used swidden agriculture to produce manioc and corn 1, Spring, 1993. Outreach Program, CLAS, UF). for sale in nearby river towns and sometimes Beldm. By tradition, the
family that cleared an area of land for manioc also had rights to wood century, or workers brought in in the early days of the sawmill. obtained from the site, which was usually made into charcoal for use Kinship ties early on led to cooperative work arrangements, joint and sale. ventures in farming and marketing activities, and projects such as
Although the sawmill operations had depleted or removed the brick kilns. An additional impetus to organization in Ubintuba has original forest cover, families still made extensive use of minor forest been the Baptist Church. Established in the mid 1960s, this church products from areas of taller secondary growth called capoeir6es. One has been lay-led from the beginning. Church members learned record example was the aromatic resin from the large jutai tree (Hymenea keeping and financial and leadership skills which served them well courbario. Called jutaicica, the hard, amber-colored resin accu- later. When residents, with help from EMATER and the rural mulates in large chunks on tree trunks and under the trees, as a result worker's union organized the Residents' Association of Santa Maria of the action of certain insects. Jutaicica has various medicinal de Ubintuba in 1987, the founding president and most of the officers properties but was then mostly used to fireproof ceramic cooking were also leaders of the local Baptist Church (which has never had ware. Itcommandeda high price among potters in nearby towns. The more than 10% of the community's population as members). Church secondary and remaining primary forests yielded many other prod- members continue to fill key roles and provide expertise in adminisucts used for medicinal, cosmetic and industrial purposes. Fishing tration. provided most animal protein, and was mostly for local subsistence. The Resident's Association has empowered the community in
In the mid- 1970s the state government completed the dirt road various ways. It was able to negotiate loans from the Bank of Brazil linking Ubintuba to Santo Ant6nio do TauA. This opened up a new for the purchase of a truck in 1990, which enables farmers to market area of capoeirdo for settlement, and led to another wave of defor- their products directly in Beldm without depending on middlemen. estation. The new road provided a means of marketing products Through its lobbying efforts, residents obtained electricity in 1991. directly and quickly to Bel6m, and of receiving a greater volume of The Association also provided a united resistance in the successful manufactured goods. This tended to diminish the local use of forest repulse of an attempt by a neighboring rancher to take over lands products as, for example, herbal medicines were replaced by phar- claimed by the Association. maceutical products. Forest products also lost value in regional The Association has also helped guarantee land stability in the markets. Thus as aluminum and steel cooking ware replaced ceramics, region by maintaining the traditional practices of land use and the demand for jutaicica resin for glazing also diminished, ownership in the area for traditional residents. It did this by essenOn the other hand, proximity to a growing urban center brought tially making residence within its limits hereditary after 1987. That new opportunities. Bel6m demanded a greater variety and volume of is, persons born in and near the allied villages of Santa Maria and agricultural products. Ubintuba's expanding network of roads made Est,.ncia, or resident inside the area when the Association was formed marketing of fresh produce viable. And its farmers were prepared; (whether members or not), are entitled to live in Ubintuba and use its many had worked on farms belonging to Japanese immigrants and land. Persons wishing to enter the area must be voted in during a observed their techniques for producing vegetable crops. They also special assembly, an action that is rarely taken. benefitted from visits by agricultural agents of EMATER, the federal Most land in the Association area is held in common and used government agricultural extension agency. When large quantities of periodically for swidden agriculture by individual families. Families chicken manure for fertilizer became available in neighboring Santa lay claim to a plot of fallow capoeira for one growing season by Isabel, Ubintuba farmers were among the first in their municipality opening a trail to it and burning off the vegetation. They make to begin intensive vegetable gardening for the Beldm market. charcoal for use and sale and produce manioc, and sometimes corn,
A major element in the success of this community has been a high pumpkins, and sesame. Families can lay claim to an area of up to four degree of cooperation and organization among its members. Most are contiguous tarefas (a total of about 120 X 120 meters) by introducing related, descendants of inhabitants along the Bituba at the turn of the benfeitorias or improvements, such as buildings, vegetable gardens,
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 3
and increasingly, groves of trees. These limits on size of claimed near springs and creeks, although the practice continues. Fishing plots have eliminated ranching from Association territory, families accused of overfishing incur a degree of community disapSwidden agriculture provides subsistenceand some cash income proval. Besides arguing for the preservation of valuable trees in the for families. The bulk of cash income for most families comes from forest, many families are intensifying planting of multiple purpose vegetable gardening. Almost all families also plant a grove of trees trees on their properties (one example is the jutai tree, which besides around the residence. Surveys of these revealed a diversity of from the resin, again popular as a medicine, produces an edible fruit and 12 to 49 species of trees, with an average of 25-35. Fruits and high quality timber). However, many families continue practices medicines from these house groves are consumed, traded and sold. In which community consensus deems harmful. A resident encountering their groves and in forests, residents cultivate or tend more than 85 a stand of valuable young trees in the forest, or chancing upon a large species of trees. school of immature fish, may move quickly to harvest them all,
Brick-making is another source of income for many families, arguing that"If I don't, someone else will." And there is a widespread Using wood from swidden agriculture sites or secondary growth, fatalistic acceptance of environmental degradation as an unpleasant, three brick kilns operate in the area, the largest owned by the but unavoidable, price of progress. Association. Fishing continues to be important, but few families fish Despite the perceived increase in rivalry within the community every day, since most live away from the Bituba river and have no and disputes over forms of land and resource use, residents of canoes. Fish are sold house to house by part-time fishers or bartered Ubintuba see themselves as fortunate. "With all our problems, our for other products. Residents' Association is still the only serious one in this region,"
many believe. And when they compare their system of land use and
Sustainability in the Ubintuba community secure tenure with the turmoil and violence of the newer frontiers on
Their community is well known in the surrounding countryside southern ParA, few if any wish to leave. for its high degree of organization and successful endeavors, for
which the ubintubenses are justly proud. However, in 1992 1 found Conclusion them expressing doubts about the future. These stemmed from a National and international media attention will probably continue perception of growing disunity within the community. Ancient to focus on the newer frontiers in Amazonia, but the Bragantina and divisions, apparently based on longstanding disagreements among its communities deserve more attention from researchers. Like it or groups of families and rivalry between Santa Maria and Esthncia not, increasing areas of the Brazilian Amazon will resemble this were hindering the effectiveness of the Association. Budget cutbacks region, with networks of roads and settlements, and a continuing loss had diminished EMATER's presence. The Association truck contin- of original forest cover replaced by expanding areas of secondary ued to be a valuable and productive asset, but the brick kiln, hindered growth. by internal rivalry, was producing far below expectations. For programs designed to recover degraded tropical lands and to
Many residents also voiced concern about the future of land use intensify tree planting, communities like Ubintuba can provide activities. So many communities in Santa Isabel and Santo Ant6nio valuable information about selection and management of multipurhad rushed into vegetable production that there was a glut in the pose species. Research is also needed on the environmental effects Bel6m market, and a resulting drop in prices. Meanwhile, chicken of traditional activities which have increased because of population producers had seen such a rise in demand for chicken manure that this expansion and greater links with urban markets. Brick-making is a byproduct had become profitable and more expensive. Farmers were case in point. Although some municipalities in Pard have large planting increasing numbersof fruittrees, but moving warily soas not numbers of brick kilns (more than 500 in Abaetetuba municipality, to become overly dependent on one tree species. There were also according to officials at the State Secretariat for Industry and Comsigns that the three brick kilns, two of them profitable and expanding merce in Beldm), very little is being done to study the effects on local production, were leading to excessive cutting of trees on communal forests of wood cutting to supply the kilns (H. Pollak, personal land and along creeksides. Population growth was contributing to communication, November, 1993). shorter fallow cycles on communal capoeira lands. Finally, though capoeira is often an unpleasantly thorny research
Ubintuba families are aware of environmental issues through environment, more information is needed on the various stages of their tradition of tree lore and management, and from exposure to the Amazonian secondary growth. For not only are such landscapes the news media. There is a generalized nostalgia for the older days, when inevitable future for much of Amazonia, but their adequate use may the forest was nearer and the capoeira composed of taller trees. "Life help save remaining forests. Ironically, many of the Amazonian was happier when we had more birds making a fuss in the trees early tropical forest products now being sold in world markets to promote in the morning" they say, "and when there were more wild animals. rainforest preservation are, in fact, from secondary growth. The We even had howler monkeys up until a few years ago." They also cashew nuts in "Rainforest Crunch" come from degraded lands, and complain that the loss of trees "makes the land hotter," and make a a new Amazonian fruit on the world scene, cupua~u (Theobroma connection between reduction of tree densities along creekbanks and grandiflorum), comes from an understory tree commonly grown in or theloweringofwaterlevelsinthecreeks. Alarmed by the loss of agai near house groves (Calzavara, 1984). A recent effort to supply palms to palm heart cutters from outside, they have taken some cupuaqu pulp to the United States relied not on fruits collected in concrete steps, such as setting up an area of 200 hectares of lowland ancient forests, but on a farmer's cooperative in Tomd-Aqu, Pard vdrzea land as a reserve, where agaipalms may be used only for fruit (Clay, 1992), an area of Japanese colonization near the Bragantina. production. Residents watch the frequent television programs on Regions such as the Bragantina and their mosaic of land use ecology, and are aware of the effects of deforestation in the wider patterns, have been and remain vital components of the Amazonian Amazonian context. economy, and their supplies of food and other resources have relieved
Within the community there are disagreements over certain pressure on less disturbed regions. In the turbulent state of ParA with practices. Some families object vigorously to the cutting of forests its land struggles, the relative peace in the Bragantina points to a
4 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
pattern of predominant land tenure by small farmers with some larger Instituto de Desenvolvimento Econ6mico-Social do Par. "Regi~es rural holdings as a source of longterm rural stability. Such neglected do Pard." In Par6 Desenvolvimento: Amazdnia Eco-Vis6es. areas and their stages of capoeira deserve more from the Brazilian and international research communities. Bel6m, IDESP, 1992.
Loureiro, V.R. Os Parceiros do Mar: Natureza e Conflito na Pesca References da Amaz6nia. Bel6m, CNPq/MPEG, 1985.
Altii, M. Agroecology: The Scientific Basisfor Sustainable Loureiro, V.R. "A Hist6ria Social e Econ6mica da Amaz6nia." In Altieri, M. Agroecology: The Scientific Basis for Sustainable Freire, G. and Freire, A. R., eds. Estudos e Problemaas
Agriculture. Berkley, Division of Biological Control, Univer- Freire, G. and Freire, A. R., eds. Estudos e Problems
sity of California, 1983. Amaz6nicos: Histdria Social e Econ6mica e Temas Especiais.
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Bel6m, UFPa. pp. 9-56, 1992.
Anderson, R. L. Following Curupira: Colonization and Migration Bel, UFPa. pp. 9-56,1992.
in Pard, 1758 to 1938. Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Lustosa, A.A. No Estudrio Amaz6nico: A Margem da Visita Pastoin Pard, 1758 to 1938. Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Miral. Bel6m, Conselho Estadual de Cultura, 1973. crofilms, 1976.
Magalh~les, B. O Cafi: Na Histdria, no Folclore e nas Belas Artes. Calzavara, B. B., Milller, C. H., and Kahwage, O. N. Fruticultura Magalhes, B. 0 Caf: NaHist6ria, noFolclorenaselasAres.
Sno Paulo, Editora Nacional, 1980.
Tropical: 0 Cupuaguzeiro Cultivo, Beneficiamento e Utilizagfdo
do Fruto. Bel6m, EMBRAPA/CPATU, 1984. Moreira,I.V. VocabuldrioBdsicodoMeioAmbiente. RiodeJaneiro,
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Bantam, 1990. Smith, N. J., Williams, J., Plucknett, D. J., and Talbot, J. P. Tropical
Forests and Their Crops. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1992. Clay, J. "Buying in the Forest A New Program to Market Sustainably Wadsworth, F. H. "Secondary Forest Management and Plantation
Collected Tropical Forest Products Protects Forests and Forest Wadsworth, F. H. "Secondary Forest Management and Plantation
Forestry Technologies to Improve the Use of Converted TropiResidents." In Redford, K.H. and Padoch, C., eds. Conservation Forestry Technologies to Improve the Use of Converted Tropical Lands." In Technologies to Sustain Tropical Forest Reof Neotropical Forests: Working from Traditional Resource
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A Man Facing Southeast (Argentina)
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 5
Observing Protestant Participation in Peruvian Politics
by E. Eduardo Romero P.
Protestantism was a key factor in the 1990 Peruvian election progressive and traditional Roman Catholic theologians and politiof President Alberto Fujimori. Although Fujimori himself is a devout cians; and academicians, secular scholars, and politicians. Catholic, a clear consensus established Protestants as key players in Secondary data were gathered in the United States and Peru from the emerging political space in Peru (Barreto, 1991; Degregori and public and private libraries, bookstores and the archives of the Grompone, 1991; Klaiber, 1992). Eighteen Baptists, Methodists, and National Peruvian Council of Evangelicals and of the Archbishop of Pentecostals were voted into office in both the upper and lower Lima. Data were divided into three categories: newspapers and news chambers of the national congress. In addition, a Baptist won the magazines; literature produced by Protestant and Catholic religious second Vice-Presidency.' Almost one-third of the senators and almost groups; and academic literature published by universities or thinkone-half of the diputados2 of the governing party, Cambio-90, were tanks. Protestant. This electoral success challenged the presumption of From these data, a timeline was developed outlining Roman Catholic political hegemony in this Andean country. Protestantism's relationship to politics, and it defines the temporal
Few observers have documented Protestant involvement in boundaries of this study. This was subsequently divided into three formal Peruvian politics prior to the 1990 elections. Nevertheless, time periods: 1956-1968; 1968-1980; and 1980-1990. These periods since the mid-1950s there has been a clear, increasing participation are characterized by specific events that changed the relationships by, and inclusion of, Peruvian Protestants in formal national politics, among Protestants, the Catholic Church, and the national political In 1956, the first Protestant national diputado was elected. Since that system. time, there has been a Protestant in every democratically elected
national government and constituent body. Democracy: 1956-1968
The current general literature concerning Protestantism in Latin The national elections of 1956 signaled a return to democracy in America does not acknowledge Protestant participation in politics Peru after eight years of military dictatorship. In these elections, the until the late 1980s. Two seminal books, published in 1990, were electorate expanded as suffrage was granted to women for the first Tongues of Fire: The Explosion of Protestantism in Latin America time. Former President Manuel Prado won the Presidency for a and Is Latin America Turning Protestant? The first was written by second time, after an eleven-year hiatus, by forming an alliance with David Martin, a British sociologist who suggests that Protestantism the still clandestine center-left American Revolutionary Popular in Latin America represents a Weberian religious phenomenon that Alliance, or Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA) will inevitably provide for its participants' social and material ascen- party. This collaboration united his stability with the party's reformdancy. The second was written by David Stoll, an American ist potential. anthropologist, who argues that Protestantism in Latin America is However, the candidacies of Fernando Belainde Terry, Hdctor largely a result of continued North American proselytization and has Comejo ChAvez, and Jos6 Ferreira Garcia to different political posts only recently inculcated itself in Latin American culture. These itles, offered an insight into the changing political and religious dynamics and the literature they have spurred, present Protestants as inherently of that election year. The first two men are well-known in Peruvian apolitical, or at least politically conservative, and describe their history and represented the particular tension that existed within the political activity as a relatively recent occurrence. Catholic Church at that time. Belatinde was the scion of an elite and
This article addresses the need to examine Protestant involve- traditional Peruvian family. Born in Arequipa, he was a tall, handment in Peruvian politics before the 1990 election and focuses on the some man, married to a woman from a prominent family from Lima. period from 1956 to 1990. It presents the historical development of Belatinde wasamodem Peruvian, an architect withaNorth American Protestant participation in formal politics at the national level in and European education, and the founder of Popular Action orAcci6n relation to the changing political dynamics of the Roman Catholic Popular (AP), a center-right political party. HewasthesonofaPrime Church. It concludes that Protestants have been active in national Minister and the nephew of Victor Andres Belatinde, the famous politics for almost forty years and suggests that their broader partici- Catholic apologist. Although he had experimented with progressive pation in 1990 stems from this historical participation. This study politics earlier, by 1956 his presidential candidacy represented many presents a more complete analysis of Protestant participation in the of the interests of the traditional sector of the Roman Catholic 1990 elections and offers a longer historical account of the relation- Church. ship between Latin American Protestants and the political system. The second man, Cornejo, had cut his political teeth as the personal secretary of President Bustamante in 1945. He was a stocky
Methodology orator with thick glasses that accompanied his intellectual personalPrimary data were collected largely in Peru between May and ity well. By 1955, Cornejo had successfully linked many progressive August of 1992 with the financial assistance of a Nutley Research Catholics into a formal political party, Christian Democracy or Assistantship granted by the University of Florida's Center for Latin Democracia Cristiana (DC), which challenged the unity of the American Studies and with support from the Escalante family. Catholic church in public political affairs. In 1956, the DC presented Interviews centered on the rationale for the development of its own list of congressional candidates. Protestantism's political involvement in Fujimori's 1990 electoral Both of these men's parties had significant electoral successes in victory. Four types of respondents were interviewed: the Protestant the Congress. Belarinde, although failing to win the presidency, had elite, consisting of pastors, academicians, and politicians; Protestant launched a dynamic new party, AP, which would in time take him laityofdifferentsocial,economic,geographic,andracialbackgrounds; twice to the presidency. Cornejo, elected to the lower house of
6 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
Congress along with many of his partisans, succeeded in dividing the During this time, the DC developed an alliance with the AP that dominating ecclesiastical power structure, bifurcating the homoge- contributed to Belatinde's election to the presidency in 1963 with neous public political representation of the Roman Catholic Church. 39% of the vote and to Cornejo's election as a senator.4 The temThe third political actor was a relatively unknown figure, Josd porary healing of the politico-religious rift that the Christian DemoFerreira Garcia. He was almost the complete antithesis of both the cratic party had created within the Catholic Church produced sucpatrician Beladnde and the intellectual Comejo. Ferreira was a cessful electoral consequences. Both traditional and progressive second-generation Peruvian born of Brazilian immigrants. Hewasan Catholic forces were again represented under one roof in the governunderground member of the illegal, historically anti-clerical APRA ing coalition. party. He was both a selvdtico (of the jungle) and a serrano (of the Josd Ferreira Garcia ran again for a senate seat on the APRA highlands), having grown up in Iquitos, Loreto and having chosen his party ticket for the Department of Pasco. While APRA's presidential residence in Cerro de Pasco, Pasco. He was also dark-skinned, had candidate won 35% nationally, he won only 25% in the Department a limp, and was a Protestant, an elder of the Peruvian Evangelical of Pasco compared with the AP candidate's 49%. However, despite Church or Iglesia Evangilica Peruana. Despite these potentially the poor showing of the APRA party on the presidential level in debilitating factors, when he ran for a diputado seat in 1956 as an Pasco, Ferreira was able to retain his seat. Of the five senatorial independent from the Department of Pasco, he won handily with candidates who gained a seat in the Department of Pasco, Ferreira acknowledged APRA support.3 received the most votes.
The roles that Beladnde and Cornejo played in these elections In the planned elections of 1969, an APRA victory seemed demonstrated the crisis facing the Roman Catholic Church as conser- likely. Ferreira was better placed than ever to represent Protestant vative and progressive factions challenged each other for political interests inside a governing party, having served the party for 12 space. With the Catholic Church internally preoccupied, Ferreira years, firstasadiputadoandthenasasenator. Butanothercoupd'etat entered the congress in 1956 relatively unobserved as the first denied Haya not only the Presidency but also Ferreira his second Protestant national congressman. senatorial term in Congress. This time the junta would stay in power
The elections in 1962 were a tightly contested battle that in- for twelve years. cluded new political figures. Belatinde had been on the campaign
trail since his loss of the Presidency six years earlier and now had the Dictatorship: 1968-1980 explicit, public endorsement of his uncle, Victor Andres Belatinde. The military dictatorship of General Juan Velasco Alvarado His uncle's endorsement helped him gain support within the tradi- interrupted the participation of Protestants in formal politics. Howtional Catholic hierarchy, and Belatinde received 32% of the presi- ever, this period of nationalism and nationalization affected Protesdential vote. tantism by making it more nationalistic and autochthonous. PeruviComejo, running as the presidential candidate for the Christian ans replaced many foreign missionaries in seminaries,pastorates, and Democratic party, received less than five percent of the national vote. other important leadership roles. Nevertheless, the DC garnered more votes than the three new leftist Velacso's regime also revitalized politico-religious divisions, parties combined. The APRA party ran under its own banner for the especially among Peru's Catholic elite. While the government of first time in thirty years and its presidential candidate, Victor Radl President Velasco exiled or isolated many representatives of the Haya de la Torre, won 33% of the national vote. traditional political and religious hierarchy, it invited the participaJos6 Ferreira had completed a successful first term as a diputado, tion of the more progressive elements left over from the Christian establishing himself not only as a regional politician, but as a national Democratic party. President Belatinde was exiled during this time Protestant leader. He attended and spoke at national and international while Senator Cornejo served as an important personal advisor to Protestant fora and congresses. Citizens of all Protestant denomina- General Velasco. Later Cornejo became editor of the country's tions came to his congressional office in search of political and largest newspaper, El Comercio, which had been nationalized under economic assistance. Ferreira would often be referred to as "our" the military regime. congressman by Protestants in different parts of Peru even though he The Roman Catholic Church experienced a growth of clerics was technically a representative of a specific department. supporting progressive ideals, and it is no coincidence that Father
APRA rewarded Ferreira for his legislative and political work Gustavo Gutierrez wrote The Theology of Liberation in this context. with a slot on its 1962 senatorial list as a candidate from Pasco. Gutierrez headed the National Office of Social Information, or Ferreira won this seat in spite of the fact that Beladinde and the AP OficinaNacional de Informaci6n Social, through which many clerics received twice as many presidential votes in the Department of Pasco publicly identified themselves with the progressive military regime. than did Haya and the APRA. This time there were no coattails for The military government under General Francisco Morales Ferreira; he won the election on his own merit. Bermddez moved towards re-democratization by setting elections for
Even though APRA had won a slight plurality over AP in the a constituent assembly in 1978. Once again an expanded electorate Presidential elections of 1962, it failed to receive the constitutionally emerged as the voting age was lowered from 21 to 18 years of age. required minimum of 33 1/3% to win. The political parties attempted Sixty percent of the population was voting for the first time for either to solve this crisis among themselves both informally and through the president or the congress, which helped to produce noticeable shifts congress, but their deliberations ended in conflict. Peru's first in partisan representation. institutional military junta took over in the political mayhem that The AP party chose not to participate in the constituent assembly ensued and set new presidential and congressional elections for 1963. as a rebuff to the military government. The DC party had split, with
E. Eduardo Romero P. is a candidate for an M.A. in Latin American Studies. A native of Peru, he holds B.A.s in Economics and in
Political Science from Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He has also studied at La Universidad Cat6lica in Lima, Peru.
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 7
Luis Bedoya Reyes forming the Popular Christian Party, or Partido a sports figure made it difficult to present his candidacy and election Popular Cristiano (PPC). This group embodied the more conserva- solely in terms of his religion. Nevertheless, Alvarado represented tive elements of the Catholic hierarchy. During the elections of 1978, part of the diversity of the Protestant makeup and his political with the tacit support of Fernando Belatinde and his party, the PPC participation tied Protestants closer to the APRA party. received 24% of the national vote.
Cornejo, with the remainder of the DC, made his last showing as Democracy: 1980-1990
a political candidate in 1978 and won a seat in the constituent The electorate continued to grow as illiterates were given the assembly. As a party, however, the Christian Democrats failed to right to vote for the first time in 1980. The Roman Catholic Church receive popular supportand polled less than 3% nationally. Comejo's emerged from the military years as divided as ever with an increasing attempt to create a progressive Catholic political alternative was number of conservative Opus Dei members, a surge in a Catholic usurped by the formal left, which included many Catholics. The new charismatic movement, and the continued growth of Liberation parties on the left received a cumulative vote of 34%, which rivaled Theology. Yet Beladnde was able to coalesce many of these interests the APRA vote of 35%. The Catholic Church was politically together, forming a union between AP, the conservative PPC, and the polarized, being represented in the constituent assembly by either the remains of the progressive DC to win a second presidential term. conservative PPC or the radical left. The return to full-fledged democracy also witnessed the return of
In 1978, Protestants faced two particularly serious political Ferreira, whose political recuperation followed quickly on the heels challenges. First, all the seats in the constituent assembly would be of his physical recovery. The APRA party offered Ferreira another chosen nationally. Up to this point, "their" representative had been senate slot which, under the new constitution, was to be elected geographically defined and elected by the department of Pasco. nationally instead of by department. While APRA's presidential Ferreira would not be able to rely on his Pasco base but would need ticket lost to Belatinde's AP, Ferreira was able to create a successful significant national support. senatorial campaign attracting Protestants at the national level.
The second challenge for Protestants wasjustas critical. Ferreira The return to democracy also catalyzed the candidacies of other suffered an onset of hemiplegia, a type of severe paralysis, and was Protestants. Alvarado's one-time participation in the constituent therefore unable to run in 1978. The APRA party, however, recog- assembly indicated, particularly to younger Protestants, the potential nized that Ferreira's political potential did not derive from his for increased Protestant participation in national politics. However, persona but from his religious affiliation; his seat was a Protestant many did not share Ferreira's progressive ideals and some were not seat. This became evident when Ferreira and his cadre were allowed sympathetic to the APRA party. Therefore, a group of Protestants to choose a substitute candidate without any party interference. Pedro presented themselves in the 1980 elections as a conservative option Arana Quiroz, a chemist by education and a Presbyterian minister by for the Protestant vote by organizing the Evangelical Front, or Frente profession, was chosen after some deliberation. Arana was active Evangglico (FE).5 This was the first time that a specifically Protesboth as a Protestant leader and as an APRA militant. tant party offered congressional candidates. Many in this group came
APRA won a plurality in the constituent assembly of 1978. from Alvarado's Christian Missionary Alliance denomination which However, Arana surprised many party officials by receiving more had grown significantly during the military years. This group failed votes than some of the party leaders. Of the 37 nation-wide APRA miserably at the polls,6 but their efforts demonstrated an initial candidates elected to the new constituent body, Arana received the restlessness among diverse Protestants seeking a stronger political fourth highest number of votes. His election suggested that much of voice at the national level. Ferreira's appeal had been in his religious identity. Arana was given The next national elections were held in 1985. The Beladinde prominent leadership positions within the constituentbody, especially government had lost so much popular support that his AP received on matters concerning health, education, and the state of religious less than 5% of the national vote and was on the verge of extinction. freedom. It is significant to note that the new constitution no longer During this time, the PPC tried to capitalize on the Vatican's harsh held Roman Catholicism as the official religion of the State of Peru. criticism of Liberation Theology by presenting themselves as the Article 86 states that standard bearers of Catholic politics. However, the PPC received less
than 20% of the national vote. Thus the traditional and conservative
Within a framework of independence and autonomy, the wings of the Catholic Church, represented by AP and PPC, garnered State recognizes the Catholic Church as an important ele less than one quarter of the national vote, largely under the aegis of
ment in the historical, cultural, and moral formation of Peru. an extremely conservative group.
The State offers it its cooperation. The State may also The United Left, or Izquierda Unida (IU), a union largely of
establish different types of cooperation with other [religions Marxist parties, co-opted much of the progressive Catholic vote. For (Klaiber, 1992,353). a time there were wide-spread rumours that FatherGustavo Gutierrez,
the author of The Theology of Liberation, would run as a viceThe new constituent assembly provided Protestants not only presidential candidate on the IU ticket. Although this never matewith a transfer of leadership from Jos6 Ferreira to Pedro Arana, but rialized, it served to indicate where progressive Catholics placed their also an additional Protestant representative. The nationally renowned electoral hopes. retired race car driver and member of the Christian Missionary and In 1985 the APRA candidate, 35-year-old Alan Garcia P6rez, Alliance (CMA) Protestant denomination, Arnaldo Alvarado, was won the presidency with 42% of the vote.7 Each party could offer also voted into the assembly. Alvarado had been a long-standing only 60 senatorial candidates8 and, with the generational shift in the member of the APRA party and had served as the party's treasurer. APRA party leadership, Ferreira struggled to keep his seat. He finally He had recently become a member of the CMA church and had no was given the 59th slot of 60 and was able to place 24th among the qualms about presenting himself as a Protestant. However, his 32 winning APRA Senators. Although Ferreira was able to maintain relatively recent conversion to Protestantism and his national fame as
8 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
his political viability, his victory was numerically less significant knowledged to be part of the backbone of Cambio-90 by both the than the political upset created by Pedro Arana in 1978.9 popular media and academic scholars. However, most of these
Protestant political activity, however, was not in decline. Rather, observers interpreted this example of Protestant participation in they experienced dramatic growth,and theirpoliticalactivity became national politics as a spontaneous, first-time occurrence. increasingly differentiated. Senator Ferreira has suggested in his
autobiography that since 1980 virtually every other political party Conclusion included Protestants on their congressional lists (Ferreira, 1989). 10 In This article focuses on the period from 1956 to 1990 and fills the 1985, the Association and Movement of Renovating Action, or historical gap that exists in examining Peruvian Protestant involveAsociaci6n y Movimiento de Acci6n Renovadora (AMAR), an ex- ment in national politics before the 1990 election. The historical clusively Protestant political party, was formed. While it incor- development of Protestant participation in formal politics at the porated many of FE's more conservative leaders, AMAR tried to national level is presented within the context of the changing political present itself as encompassing a broad political spectrum. Even dynamics of the Roman Catholic Church in the political system. The though it offered candidates for both houses in congress, AMAR weakened leadership of the Roman Catholic Church provided space failed to elect a single representative, for a challenge by rising social groups and institutions seeking to
The 1990 national elections were particularly fraught with establish a new system of rules and benefits.
religious rifts. Belaiinde's AP entered into a new alliance with the These dynamics are indirectly related to the political participaPPC and the newly formed Liberty Movement, or Movimiento tion ofProtestants. However, because of growing Protestant political
Libertad, led by the internationally famous novelist and agnostic involvement, the Catholic hierarchy and the political system faced Mario Vargas Llosa. Together they formed the Democratic Front, or even more serious crises, creating greater political and religious FrenteDemocrdtico (FREDEMO). While the Vatican had expressed space. Traditional Catholic church authority was weakened by the certain reservations about agnosticism years earlier, the new Arch- creation of the Christian Democratic Party in the 1950s, the develbishop of Lima and conservative Opus Dei member, Augusto opment of Liberation Theology in the 1960s, its relationship with the
Alzamora, was able to make an apology for Vargas Llosa, and he military government in the 1970s, and the rise of the political left in became identified as the candidate of the moderate to conservative the 1980s. The election of a neo-conservative Archbishop of Lima in sector of the Catholic hierarchy (Degregori and Grompone, 1991). 1990, Augusto Alzamora, only served to polarize existing tensions.
The APRA party entered into a political crisis much as the AP did Church critic Luis Pdsara notes that the institutional Catholic church in 1985, although it was not as severe. Senator Ferreira decided to did not go through a dramatic political change during this period. retire and endorsed Pedro Arana once again as his substitute. Arana, Rather, it experienced "an internal process of diversification of the surprising candidate of the 1978 constituent assembly, was unable religious and political positions." 12 to run a succesful campaign largely because of the APRA political The traditional political system also reached critical points with crisis. APRA received slightly more than 20% of the national vote, redemocratization and the creation or recognition of new parties in and Arana was not elected. Charges of moral ineptitude against the 1956, a military coup in 1968, the election of left and center-left APRA party may have made it difficult for Protestants to identify partiesin the 1980s, andthevictoryofadarkhorsecandidatein 1990. with and vote for the party. Each period presented the traditional church and political party
Despite Arana's loss, the 1990 election provided other alterna- structures with opportunities to provide leadership and authority, but tives for Protestant political involvement. The Renovating Union of they failed repeatedly to respond topopular social needsanddemands. PeruvianEvangelicalsorUni6nRenovadoradeEvangdlicosPeruanos By 1990, Protestants were one of several important social groups (UREP), a largely Pentecostal party, emerged during the 1990 competing for political and religious legitimacy. campaign. UREP offered its own congressional candidates but met Protestant involvement in the Peruvian elections of 1990 was with no electoral success. The Odrian National Union, or Uni6n widely noted but its political history has been completely ignored. Nacional Odriista 11 (UNO), explicitly campaigned for Protestant This article demonstrates that the formal Protestant involvement in votes. UNO even offered to include Protestants on their congressional Peruvian national politics in 1990 was far from an historical aberration. lists, but no one accepted the invitation. In 1990, UNO also failed to Protestants of many denominations have carved out political space, elect anyone. participating in every democratic congress or constituent assembly
In 1988, Carlos Garcfa Garcia, a Baptist minister and former over the past 35 years. They are still a small percentage of the president of the National Council of Evangelicals in Peru, or Concilio Peruvian population, especially when compared with Protestant NacionalEvangilico delPerg (CONEP), organized an informal group representation in other Latin American countries. However, they are of Protestants to study the possibility of setting up a Protestant and have been, important actors in the Peruvian political arena. political party. In 1989, this group, made up largely of Methodists,
Baptists,and Pentecostals, allied itself with Alberto Fujimori Fujimori, Bibliography the Rector of the Agrarian University of La Molina and with a
confederation of small business owners, led by Juan San Roman. Astiz, Carlos Alberto. "The Catholic Church in Latin American Together, they formed Cambio-90 and offered presidential and con- Politics: A Case Study of Peru." In Pollock, David H. and Ritter, gressional candidates. Fujimori became the presidential candidate Archbishop R.M., eds. Latin American Prospectsfor the 1970s: while Garcfa and San Roman were the candidates for vice-presiden- What Kind of Revolutions? New York: Praeger Publishers, cies. Also, 60 Protestants were included in the 180 congressional 1973. slots for Cambio-90. Barreto, Wilson Jaime. Marketing Politico: Elecciones 1990. Lima:
Cambio-90 won the election, and Garcia became one of the Vice- Universidad del Pacffico, 1991.
Presidents. Protestants were also elected to four senate and 14 Bourricaud, Francois. Podery Sociedad en el Pera Contemporineo. diputado seats on the Cambio-90 ticket. They were widely ac- Buenos Aires: Ediciones Sur, 1967.
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 9
Concilio Nacional Evang6ico del Per. Directorio Evang.ico,
1986: Lima, Callao, y Balnearios. Lima: Promies, 1986. Spring Speakers
Degregori, Carlos IvAn and Grompone, Romeo. Demonios y
Redentores en el Nuevo Perd: Una Tragedia en Dos Vueltas. at CLAS
Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, 1991.
Ferreira Garcia, Jos6. De los Llanos Amaz6nicos a la Cumbre de los Alln Burns, (Department of Anthro.pology, UF) and Liz
Andes. Lima: Editora Universal, 1989. Libby, (MALAS student) Desperate Futures:
Gutierrez, Gustavo. Teologia de Liberaci6n. Lima: Ediciones iThe Insurrection in Chiapeas, Mexico u
Futuras, 1969. Sonia Catasus, (Center for Demographic Studies, UniverKlaiber S.J., Jeffrey. The Catholic Church in Peru, 1821-1985. sity of Havana, Cuba) Cuban Wfe omen Today: A SocioWashington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, EcoinofHaaCubmai oil e oa ASco
1992. Economic~ )r eraphi c Profile.
Martin, David. Tongues of Fire: The Explosion of Protestantism in Luis Miguel Glave, (Universidad Aut6noma de M6xico
Latin America. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990. Ixtapalapa) Campe inos en la Econom a Colonial del
Matos Mar, Jos6. Desborde Popular y Crisis del Estado. Lima: Alto Peru.
CONCYTEC, 1988. Andres Guerrero, (Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias
Pdsara, Luis. Radicalizaci6n y Conflicto en la Iglesia Peruana. Sociales)Ethnic Doninationand thePostcolonialState:
Lima: Ediciones El Virrey, 1986. The Ecuadorean Case.
Pike, Frederick. The Modern History ofPeru. New York: Praeger, Peter Iurlihy, (Department of Geography, University of
1969. Kansas) Participatory Mapping of Indigenous Lands.
Roncagliolo, Rafael. Quidn Gan6? Elecciones 1931-1980. Lima: Renee Larrier, (Rockefeller Humanities Fellow) "Having
DESCO, 1980. Our Say": Subversion and Resisiance in Caribbean
Stoll, David. Is Latin America Turning Protestant? Los Angeles: Liaur e. r ,d i c C
University of California Press, 1990. i tae
Strong, Simon. Shining Path: Terror and Revolution in Peru. New Andre Moskowitz, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of RoYork: Random House, 1992. miance Languages and Literatures, UF)Food t ems with
Zavala Hidalgo, Rub6n. Historia de las Asambleas de Dios del Perg. Names that Vary by Region in Spain andSpanishAimerica.
Lima: Ediciones Dios es Amor, 1989. Gerald Murray, (Department of Anthropology, UF) Re,
quien for theStateFarm ? The Policy Shift to EntrepreNotes .... e : i burial Farming in Rural Cuba.
1 Peru's 1979 Constitution provided for a president and two vice-presidents. Keri-Anne Nolan, (CLAS Actiing Associate Director) R
2 A member of the lower chamber of the national legislature. iEducation.fPiadrtenC aRaRa
3 The fact that Manuel Prado, the APRA-supported candidate, won in the Richiard Price, (RockefellerHunianitiesFellow) Caribbean province suggests the possibility of a coattail effect. One of Ferreira's first Crosscurrents: Nostalgia, Ethnicity and Nationalism. political acts in Congress was to help re-establish APRA as a legal political a Pi UaiitdSh r r. iii :.
party. Say Price, (Unaffiliated Scholar) "French Primitive": On
4This is roughly equal to the 5% and 32% the CD and AP received in 1962 the Appropriation of African American Art..... respectively. Arlan Rosenbloonm, (Professor of Pediatrics and Chief of
5 This acronym, FE, translates as "faith," an important dimension and identi- Pediatric Endocrinology, UF) Bienvenidos a Mi Tierra fier of Latin American Protestantism. de Soledad: From Poetry to Molecular Biology in
6 The Partido Socialista Peruano was the party with the smallest registered Southern Ecuador. number of national votes in 1980 with 12,000 votes for senate seats and 10,000 Richard Shaull, (PrincetorTheological Seminary) Theofor diputado seats (Roncagliolo, 1980). The Frente Evangdlico did not even o register this many votes even though conservative estimates placed Protestants logians and Social Scieists Look at Pentecostalism in at 5% of the total population (overone millionpeopleor over 100,000 of voting Latin America. age) Harold Stahiner, (Department of Religion, UF) From
7 The APRA party created a pact with the Christian Democrats in 1985 for "Object"to "Subject": "Otherness" in LatinAtmerican largely philosophical reasons rather than for any numerical advantage. .: .:Christian Traditions and Movements.
8 In 1985, the senate consisted of 60 seats, and each party presented a list Mairk Thurner, (Department of History, UF) The (Post) including a candidate for each seat. Colonial Andean Predicament: Unimagined Political
9 Senator Ferreira did receive national attention when, at the end of 1986, the Communities in 19th Century Peru. national magazine Gente, with a circulation of over 100,000, chose him as the Marcelo de Urioste, (William E. Carter Hispanic Scholar, "Senator of the Year." (Ferreira, 1989).
"Senator of the Year." (Ferreira, 1989). Ph.D. candidate in the College of Journalism and
10 However, these candidates have been difficult to identify. It may be that Communications, UF) The Democratic Revolution in these other Protestant candidates either received no votes and were quicklyLaitAeia hBoiinas forgotten or did not make their religious affiliation obvious. 11 UNO are followers of former President General Manuel Odria (1948-1956). Philip Williams, (Department of Political Science, UF) 12 Translation by author of this article. El Salvador's "Election of the Century."
10 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
TCD PROGRAM NEWS
The Tropical Conservation and Development Program pro- Kirsten Silvius, Zoology, Ph.D. program.
vides an interdisciplinary framework with which to study the Project: Peccaries, People and Palms: Structuring Processes in
combined issues of biological conservation and rural development the Yanomami Amazon.
primarily in Latin America. Listed below are the latest recipients Amanda Stronza, Latin American Studies, M.A. program.
of TCD support: Project: Alternatives to Conservation and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Two Grassroots Organizations in Madre de Charles Wagley Endowed Fellowship Dios, Peru.
Mark Swanson, Anthropology, Ph.D. program.
Connie Campbell, Anthropology, Ph.D. program, was the first Project: Conservation With Development: A Study of the FIRENA
recipient of the Wagley fellowship. She will travel to Brazil to Project inerDonith Replic.
conduct research for her project, A Socioeconomic Analysis of Project in the Dominican Republic.
Non-timber Forest Product Processing Initiatives in the Western
Amazon. Travel Grants
Graduate Fellowships Heliodoro Arguello, Geography, Ph.D. program.
Invited observer at the 1994 annual meeting of the International
Eliana Binelli (Brazil), Latin American Studies, M.A. program. Wood Products Association, Orlando, Florida.
Charlene Brewster (Trinidad), Food and Resource Economics, Connie Campbell, Anthropology, Ph.D. program.
Ph.D. program. Participant in a plenary session entitled"Environment and Applied
Vanessa Slinger (Trinidad), Latin American Studies, M.A. Anthropology: Latin American Forests and Farmlands, Policies program. and People" at the 1994 annual meeting of the Society for Applied
Amanda Stronza (USA), Latin American Studies, M.A. program. Anthropology, Canctin, Mexico.
Maasaki Yamada (Japan), Forestry, Ph.D. program. Peter Cronkleton, Anthropology, Ph.D. program.
Presented a paper at the 1994 annual meeting of the Society for 1994 Field Research Grants Applied Anthropology, Cancdn, Mexico.
Cristina Espinosa, Anthropology, M.A. program.
Maria Arguello, Latin American Studies, M.A. program. Presented a paper at the 1994 annual meeting of the Society for
Project: Non-timber Extractive Activities in Northwestern Ecua- Applied Anthropology, Canctin, Mexico.
dor: A Case Study. Eduardo Ifiigo, Wildlife and Range Sciences, Ph.D. program.
Marielos Claros-Pefia, Botany, M.Sc. program. Will present a paper and organize a session at the 1994 meeting of
Project: Ecological and Socioeconomic Aspects of Palm Heart the Society for Conservation Biology, Guadalajara, Mexico.
Extraction in Populations of Euterve vrecatoria in Bolivia. Francisca Saavedra, Soil Sciences, Ph.D.
Peter Cronkleton, Anthropology, Ph.D. program. Summer internship at the Conservation and Research Center,
Project: The Role of Tenure Security, Infrastructure, and Commu- Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia.
nity Organization in Farmers' Long-term Investment Strategies in Five M.A. and Ph.D. students, Latin American Studies, AnthroAcre, Brazil. pology, and Political Science.
Edward Ellis, Latin American Studies, M.A. program. Presented papers and/or observed the 1994 meeting of the Latin
Project: The Dynamics ofLand and Tree Use in Colonist Farming American Studies Association, Atlanta, Georgia.
Systems of the Cayambe-Coca Region, Ecuador.
Cristina Espinosa, Anthropology, M.A. program. Other TCD-Supported Overseas Activities
Project: Structural Adjustment, Peasant Strategies, Gender and
Environment in Peru. The TCD Program will fund a field course on tropical wildlife
Robert Godshalk, Wildlife and Range Sciences, Ph.D. program. management in the Peruvian Amazon at the Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Project: Conservation and Management of the Caiman, Caiman Community Reserve, Loreto Province, Peru this summer. The two ycare Daudin, in the Lowlands of Bolivia. week course has been coordinated by Richard Bodmer, Visiting
Josh McDaniel, Anthropology, M.A. program. Assistant Professor at the Center for Latin American Studies.
Project: Fishery Management in the Peruvian Amazon. Instructors will include TCD Assistant Director Peter Polshek and
Deborah McGrath, Forestry, Ph.D. program. Avecita Chicch6n, who earned her Ph.D. in Anthropology at UF
Project: Population Structure, Natural Regeneration, Manage- in 1992 and is now Peru Program Director for Conservation ment Practices, and the Potential for Sustained-Yield of Five International. UF students include Nicole Gottdenker (Infectious Economically Important Tree Species in an Extractive Reserve Diseases, Ph.D.), Barbara Gunderson (Postbac.), Kathryn Lynch Acre, Brazil. (MALAS), Josh McDaniel (anthrolopology, M.A.), Amanda
Holly Payne, Latin American Studies, M.A. program. Stronza (MALAS), and Michael Valqui (Wildlife, M.Sc.). Ten
Project: Informal Rules Developed by Small-Scale Fishers for undergraduate students from the Universidad Nacional de la Alleviating Marine Resource Depletion in Chile. Amazonia Peruana in Iquitos, Peru are also enrolled in the course.
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 11
THE WORLD OF THE GULF EI
UF Preparing for Future F
Opportunities in Cuba
Last fall, PresidentJohn Lombardi asked L
CLAS Director Terry McCoy to assemble a
university-wide working group to conduct a
systematic inventory of UF interests and
projects regarding Cuba and to advise him
on how the University should respond to the
challenges and opportunities presented by ak resumption of relations-whenever this
might occur-between the US and Cuba.
Because of geographic proximity, historical
ties, and a large Cuban-American community, it is clear that no state will be more
affected by a change in US-Cuban relations
than Florida. UF, as Florida's oldest and
largest university, has a responsibility to Dr. Terry McCoy speaks at the inauguration of The World of the Gulf help prepare the state for closer ties with program at the Universidad Veracruzana. Seated at center is Emilio Gidi Cuba. UF also commands an impressive set Villarreal, Rector of the Universidad Veracruzana, and seated to his left of Cuban resources, such as the Braga Broth- is Carmen Blazquez Dominquez, Director of Research at the Universidad ers Collection at the George A. Smathers Veracruzana. Library.
The Cuba working group, composed of
26 faculty and administrators from 22 different university units, identified a wide range
of potential and ongoing projects dealing UF Explores the W world ojthe Gulf
with Cuba. Among the active projects are
collaborative research on citrus diseases; A contingent of 12 UF faculty members tocreateaconsortium of Gulf state universiarchaeological studies on the Spanish colo- traveled to Mexico in early February to par- ties (beginning with UF, UVC, Florida Internial period that linked Florida closely to ticipate in a program at the Universidad national University, and the Universidad Cuba; the restoration and preservation of Veracruzana (UVC) in Xalapa. The fourth Aut6nomadeYucatin)linkedelectronically historical sites; clarification of conflicting event in the World of the Gulf program co- through INTERNET. The consortium will property rights; the status of women; agri- sponsored by UF and UVC consisted of a hold its first meeting in Xalapa in Novemcultural tradeissueslinkingFloridaandCuba; research colloquium on citrus in the Gulf of ber. UF and UVC also agreed to continue and ecological studies. Mexico basin, a working seminar on the performance and scholarly exchanges in the
In April, the College of Law held a Gulf and the Caribbean, an exhibition of arts.
symposium with the participation of distin- photographs by UF Fine Arts faculty mem- The UF delegation consisted of Chris guished legal experts on the 1992 Cuban bers, and a concert by faculty from the De- Andrew, Christina Gladwin and Thomas Democracy Act that prohibits the subsidiar- partment of Music. Spreen from the Department of Food and
ies of US firms from doing business with The photo exhibit and concert were held Resource Economics; Karen Valdes, DirecCuba. On June 3 and 4, CLAS and the at the beautiful Museum of Anthropology tor of University Galleries; Giacomo Oliva, Florida Sea Grant Program will sponsor a while the other two events took place on the Chairman of Music; Jana Lower, Mark Tansymposium entitled Past, Present and Fu- UVC campus. Over 75 persons participated ner and Kevin Sharpe from the Department tureRecreationalBoating andMarine Rela- in the citrus colloquium, which is part of an of Music; Murdo MacLeod, History; Allan tions with Cuba: The Florida Perspective. ongoing collaborative UF-UVC research Bums, Anthropology; and John Scott, Art Within the next several years, the working project. During the seminar, UF and UVC History. Richard Tardanico of Florida Intergroup plans to hold a major conference on researchers agreed to develop joint research national University participated, and the Cuba. The group identified the following projects around a series of Gulf-Caribbean Florida/Mexico Institute provided financial three broad projectareas where UFhas unique themes such as inter-ethnic relations, the assistance as did various units at UF. CLAS resources and interests: environment/re- concept of the Gulf as a regional system, the Director Terry McCoy headed the UF delsource conservation; farming systems/mar- literature of the Gulf and Caribbean, and egation. keting and trade; and genetics/biotechnology, economic modernization. They also agreed
12 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
IE CENTER NEWS11111
Amazon Research and Training Program Enters a New Phase
The Amazon Research and Training areas,PESACRE will help producers in these Tambopata/Candamo region near the BraProgram (ARTP) was founded in 1980 un- and neighboring communities develop and zilian border in Peruvian Amazonia. UF der the leadership of the late Dr. Charles test appropriate agroforestry technologies also has long-standing research experience Wagley. Currently, the ARTP provides the thatcan improve their subsistence and market and ties to organizations in the eastern Amazonian focus within the Center's inter- production while reducing the pressures to Amazonian state of Para, Brazil. TCD will disciplinary Tropical Conservation and De- clear forests. During Phase II, UF and support student and faculty research and velopment (TCD) program, which is co- PESACRE also will continue to train local training initiatives that contribute to conserdirected by Dr. Steven Sanderson and Dr. technicians; to develop ways to foster self- vation and development projects in these Marianne Schmink. The TCD program pro- management in collaborating communities; and other Amazonian sites. vides graduate fellowships and research to disseminate the project's approach and Under Dr. Schmink's direction, TCD is funding for UF students and faculty and results to other producers and to scientists also providing financial support for a colsponsors visiting professors, lectures, and technicians; and to establish a sustain- laborative program (with UF's Women in courses, and special interdisciplinary projects able professional and financial basis for Agricultural Development, or WIAD) enthat focus on the links between biodiversity PESACRE as an organization. titled GAT:ORS: "Gender Analysis Trainconservation and rural peoples. In future years, the TCD program will ing: Optimizing Resources Sustainably."
From 1980 to 1993, the ARTP and the seek to build on this successful experience of GAT:ORS participants Dr. Schmink, Dr. TCD published periodic newsletters. From linkingUF'sacademicprogramswithapplied Sandra Russo, and graduate students Anne now on, news of these two programs will be research and training in collaboration with Todd-Bockarie, Deborah McGrath (forestry), reported regularly in the Latinamericanist. local institutions in several different sites. Bea Covington, Gretchen Greene (Food and
Building on long-standing relations with Dr. Richard Bodmer, TCD visiting professor, Resource Economics), and Constance organizations in the Amazon region, the directs a ten-year project in the Peruvian Campbell (Anthropology) are developing a ARTP has developed stronger ties between Amazon region near Iquitos that works with set of training materials focused on gender TCD'sacademicprogramsatUFandapplied local communities to implement wildlife and stakeholder analysis, natural resource research and training programs in specific management strategies and address other management, and community participation sites in Amazonia. Since 1986, UF has been priority development needs. Dr. Avecita in conservation and development. The mainvolved in a collaborative applied research Chicch6n, UF graduate and representative terials will be tested in UF classes and fieldand training program in the state of Acre in for Conservation International in Peru, works based training programs and published as a western Brazil under the direction of Dr. with several local organizations in the training manual. Schmink. This program, which has been
supported since 1990 by a major grant from
USAID, seeks to strengthen the capacity for Remembering Richard Horton
improving the production systems of lowresource producers in Acre on a sustainable Richard Nelson Horton, candidate there, he was selected to participate in an basis. The thrust of the project is the for the Master of Arts in Latin American exchange program with the Brazilian strengthening of PESACRE, an inter-insti- Studies, diedinanautoaccidentinAugust Army. For six months, Captain Horton tutional organization committed to research, of 1993. worked shoulder toshoulder with Brazilian
extension, and training activities using adap- Captain Horton was born in New Army Officers in the Amazon jungle. tive, participatory methods in collaboration York on November 13, 1961 of Hooker Captain Horton arrived at the Univerwith local communities and organizations. W. Horton and Dianne McLeod Horton. sity of Florida in August of 1992 in order
Since the USAIDprojectbegan in 1990, Dick, as he was known by his friends, to conduct his Foreign Area Officer PES ACRE has established itself as a credible attended East High School in Coming, training under the auspices of the Center professional institution and a key develop- New York, and graduated in 1980 with for Latin American Studies. Before his ment organization within the state. Follow- outstanding academic honors and re- untimely death, Captain Horton was ing an extensive evaluation of its projects markable athletic achievements. Imme- conducting research in support of his and accomplishments, PESACRE is now diately after graduation, Dick entered the masters thesis which dealt with the Cuban
entering a second phase of grant activity that United States Military Academy at West insurrection of 1912. He was scheduled to consists of an agroforestry field program to Point. In 1984 he was commissioned as a complete the M. A. in Latin American be carried out in four focus communities Second Lieutenant in the United States Studies in December, 1993. His next representing the diversity of Acre's small Army. assignment was in Bogota, Colombia.
producers (rubber tappers, indigenous com- Captain Horton served a three-year Captain Horton is survived by his munities, and agricultural colonists). With tour of duty with the United States Army parents, a younger brother, and a daughsupport from UF in key research and training South in the Republic of Panama. While ter.
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 13
Annual Conference Focuses on The Wisdom of the Maya
The 43rd Annual Conference of the
Center for Latin American Studies was held Maya Theater Group Visits Local Schools
March 19-26 and focused on contemporary
Maya culture. Specialists in Maya art, cul- ChildrenatDuvalandTalbotelemen- acted with the children even though there ture, and language came to discuss the cur- tary schools were excited, transfixed, were only a few children whospoke Spanrent condition and future directions of the afraid, and delighted when jaguars, arma- ish. The children understood the characMaya world. The Wisdom of the Maya dillos, monkeys, and other characters from ters, however, and heard about the lives of
combined scholarship with music, theater, the Sna Jtzi'bajom theater group did a the Maya actors from CLAS students and photography, film, and weaving to give a workshop in their schools as part of the Dr. Robert Laughlin of the Smithsonian. broad representation of the eight million Wisdom of the Maya conference, These An added benefitof the performances
Maya people who live in Mexico, Guate- schools,as well as several in South Florida, isthatchildrenwereabletoseenon-whites mala, and the United States. got a close-up view of Maya people and as role models who are doing successful
The conference aimed at reaching be- one of their artforms. Children learned artistic and intellectual activities. Itwasan yond the university setting. Therefore, it greetings in Maya and were allowed to try exhilarating experience for both the chilbegan in South Florida with theater presen- on the masks themselves. "Are the masks dren and the theater group. It broke down tations from the Tzotzil Maya group Sna really made out of paper?" the children stereotypes of indigenous people and Jtzi'Bajom (House of the Writers). The asked, amazed by the realism of the cos- brought CLAS to the community of troupe performed two plays for the Guate- tumes. The performers went into the au- Gainesville. malan and Mexican immigrant communities diences, acted out short scenes, and interof Immokalee, Indiantown, and Lake Worth.
Audiences enjoyed the humorous play, The
Lazy Man and the Vulture, and the premiere the great pyramids of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, erature papers with her animated film, The ofAllforAll, aplay on the insurrection of the Palenque, and Tikal were abandoned. The Popol Vuh: Creation Myth of the Maya. Ejircito Zapatista de Liberacitn Nacional sessions, however, showed that there are Gabriela Vargas Cetina (McGill University/ in the Mexican state of Chiapas. Over 1,000 contemporary Maya who have retained their CIESAS-Chiapas) described the politics of Central American immigrant farm workers art and philosophy, but who also have mod- the historic Jarana Dance while Waldemaro came to the performances in South Florida. em problems and plans for the future. Concha (UADY) analyzed the cultural conOn Wednesday, March 23, the confer- The history and politics session began tent of photographs from the Yucatan.
ence moved to the UF campus for the official with a paper by Jakaltek anthropologist Three photographic exhibits compleopening ceremony. The welcoming words Jeronimo Camposeco. Camposeco, a mem- mented this session. Mgrida: The Awakenof UF president John Lombardi and Con- ber of the Maya-rights organization Corn ing of a Century included 30 photographs of ference Director Allan Bums preceded the Maya, discussed the political history of the the life and architecture of the Yucatec city keynote address by Dr. Victor Montejo, a Maya diaspora. His presentation was fol- of Mdrida at the turn of the century. Harold Jakaltek Maya anthropologist who teaches lowed by the premier of Olivia Carrecia's W. Kemp (UF) presented his exhibition, at Bucknell University. His talk, entitled film on the Maya diaspora in the United Stephens and Catherwood Revisited, which The Navel of Earth, the Navel of Heaven: States, Mayan Voices, American Lives. includes modern day photographs of the Pan Mayanism and the Multiplicity of Maya This session proceeded with three pa- sites visited by 19th century US explorers of Culture, challenged the divisions and bor- pers on the Yucatec Maya. Francisco the Maya world. The last exhibition exposed ders originally drawn by the Spanish colo- Fernandez, of the Universidad Aut6noma de the city of M6rida through the eyes of stunizers that still separate Maya peoples today. YucatAn (UADY), spoke on cultural diver- dents who participated in the UF/UADY The concept of Pan Mayanism pervaded the sity in the YucatAn. Genny Negroe, also of study abroad program. conference with the participation of Maya UADY, discussed saints and devotion in The third session focused on gender, scholars and artists from YucatAn, Chiapas, colonial YucatAn. Finally, Kathleen Logan, ethnicity, and health. Arecelly Cob Cumi, a Guatemala, and the United States. from Florida International University, re- representative from the YucatAn State legisThe geographical diversity of the par- viewed the role of Maya women in politics. lature, discussed her experiences as a Maya ticipants' origins contributed to the wealth in The second session, Art and Aesthetics, woman in politics. Mary Elmendorf (UF) topics and issues discussed. The speakers combinedscholarshipwithexhibitions. Brian delivered her paper, The Many Worlds of presented papers in four sessions: History Gollnick (University of California, San Di- Maya Women, and Marcia Good Maust (UF) and Politics; Art and Aesthetics; Gender, ego), Douglas Cameron (Ursinus College), presented the findings of her research on Ethnicity, and Health; and Environment, and Barbara and Dennis Tedlock (State Uni- Maya urban midwifery in Mdrida. Alicia Re Philosophy, and Local Development. versity of New York at Buffalo) presented Cruz (University of North Texas) presented
The Maya are often thought of as an papers on Maya literature. Patricia Amlin Female Symbolism in Between Worlds of ancient civilization that disappeared when (San Francisco State) supplemented the lit- Production.
14 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
im iCENTER NEWS 1193111
UF Students and
in SfAA Meeting
The 1994 annual meetings of the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) were
held April 13-17 in Cancdn, Quintana Roo,
Mexico. They were organized by CLAS
affiliate faculty member Allan Burns, M.A.
students Liz Libby and Antoni Castells i
Talens, and Angela Sands, a recent UF
graduate. The theme for the meetings was
"Social Science for the Next Generation,"
Members of the Sna Jtzi'Bajom theatre group perform in front of an and over700participants from countries
audience in Gainesville during the Wisdom of the Maya Conference presented papers in both English and Spanish, the two official languages of the meetThe session was complemented by a Project) raised concerns about grassroots ings.
paperon AIDS and the lowland Mayapeople development. The sessions ended with an The meetings also focused on Canctin by Carter Wilson (University of California, open discussion on the Maya agenda moder- and the Maya people. The Maya perceive Santa Cruz) and by June Nash's (City Uni- ated by Victor Montejo. Canctin as a location of great wealth and
versity of New York) paper on ethnicity on On Saturday, the workof Mayaweavers opportunity, but also as aplace where degrathe Mexican-Guatemalan border. from Chiapas, Mexico and Totonicapan, dation and misery are commonplace. To
The final session concentrated on the Guatemala was featured at the Florida Mu- address these issues, the meetings included environment and local development. Jeff seum of Natural History. The weavers dem- sessions on the stratification of economic Jorgenson (UF) and Abelino Mirando Olam onstrated their craftand answered questions. development, the spread of AIDS, the role of (CentrodeInvestigacionesdeQuintanaRoo) Accompanying the demonstration was an local people in environmental parks, and the discussed environmental concerns in exhibition entitled TheArtofWeaving, which influence of tourism on small communities. Quintana Roo, Mexico. Josd Roberto Mo- consisted of textiles and photographs orga- Several Maya participants led special rales Sic (International Maya League) talked nized by Laurie Wilkins (Florida Museum of roundtable discussions that focused on their about the link between the environment and Natural History). The conference ended on participation in applied anthropology. The Maya cosmology. Pedro Meza Meza (Sna Saturday afternoon with an encore perfor- meetings also included a roundtable on the Jolobil) and Francis Dixon (Adopt a Village mance by the Sna Jtzi'Bajom theater group January 1 insurgency of the National at the Museum. Zapatista Army of Liberation.
UFhada strong presenceatthe meetings.
Faculty members Allan Bums, Elizabeth
MALAS Student Witnesses Chiapas Uprising Guillette, Anthony Oliver-Smith, Anita
Spring, and Paul Doughty presented papers.
On January 1, 1994, three hundred, the events that took place. It appeared in the In addition, the following UF students prelargely indigenous insurgents took over San January 1994 issue of The Gainesville sented papers: Suzanne Autumn, Al Bay, Cristobal de las Casas in Chiapas, Mexico. Iguana. Connie Campbell, Thomas Hales (with
During that same day, several other towns in We woke up on New Year's day to find Christopher Ohm Clement of the University the highlands of Chiapas were simultaneously that a group of people armed with rifles, ofMiami),PeterCronkleton, BruceDalusio, occupied. The insurgents stated that they machetes, arrows, and guns fashioned from Larry Elliott, Pedro Farias-Nardi, Joel chose San Cristobal in particular because of wood had taken over San Cristobal. Rumor Freehling, Julian Arturo (with Kathleen the presence of tourists. They calculated that had it that the "rebels," "insurgents," "Indi- Gladden of Indiana University of Pennsylan insurrection in a tourist center would ans" had blockaded the entrances to San vania), Marcia Good Maust, Karen Hjerpe, capture the most attention. MALAS student Cristobal, released all of the prisoners from David Jamison, David Samuel Meyercord, Liz Libby was in San Cristobal de las Casas the local jail, and occupied the local govem- Angela P. Sands, and David Forrest. when the insurrection began. The following ment administration buildings. is an abridged version of her description of (see Chiapas on page 17)
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 15
INDI CENTER NEWS
SOUTREACH CLAS Welcomes Spring Rockefeller
NEWS Humanities Fellows
During the Spring semester, CLAS form of a talk entitled "Having Our Say": welcomed the secondgroup of Rockefeller Subversion and Resistance in Caribbean Humanities Fellows for the 1993-94 aca- Literature. In March she presented a The goal of the Outreach Program is to demic year. The three-year Rockefeller paper entitled "Genderized Resistance in promote the study of Latin American subject program in Afro-American Identity and Women's Narratives" at the African Litmatter in pre-collegiate education. To do Cultural Diversity, co-sponsored by the erature Association conference, Beyond this, we conduct workshops, provide con- Center forLatin American Studies and the Survival: African Literature and the suiting services, publish a newsletter, and Center for African Studies, began lastFall. Search for New Life, in Accra, Ghana. maintainaResourceLibraryofitemsthatare A new group of scholars from Latin Richard Price, currently an
available on loan through the mail to educa- America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the unaffiliated anthropologist, is the other tors throughout the Southeastern United United States will be provided with re- Rockefeller Humanities Fellow at CLAS States. The Outreach Program was managed search support at CLAS each semester thissemester. PricehastaughtatStanford, during 1993-1994 by Dr. Kerri-Anne Nolan, through the Spring of 1996. Another ele- Yale, Johns Hopkins, the University of Acting Associate Director. ment of the program is the Rockefeller Minnesota, Princeton, and the University
Colloquium Series which includes talks by of Paris. Price, who now lives in Diversity Workshops each visiting fellow and by other scholars Martinique with his wife and collaboraAgnes Ngoma Leslie, Outreach Director who concentrate on Afro-American issues. tor, anthropologist Sally Price, has written of the Center for African Studies, and Kerri- Renee Larrier, Associate Professor of fifteen books on Afro-Caribbean and AfAnne Nolan united forces during the Spring French and Women's Studies at Rutgers rican-American art and cultural history. to travel throughout Florida giving one-day University, is one of two Rockefeller Hu- His latest work, Alabi's World, has won workshops in five school districts. During inanities Fellows now at CLAS. She is a several prizes, including the J.I. Staley the Exploring African and Latin American member of several professional organiza- Prize in Anthropology from the School of Diversity workshops, over200 social studies Lions and has served as a consultant and American Research in the United States, teachers and district supervisors learned why advisory editor. Since earning her Ph.D. in the Albert Beveridge Prize from the and how they should teach their students French literature at Columbia University, American Historical Association, and the about Africa and Latin America and how to where she completed a dissertation on the Gordon K. Lewis Memorial Award for access related resources. Several school Haitian novel, she has expanded her re- CaribbeanScholarshipfromtheCaribbean districts have already invited the two Cen- search and writing interests to include an- Studies Association. ters to provide similar workshops during the tobiography, poetry, theater, and women While at CLAS, Dr. Price is complet1994-95 academic year. writers in francophone Africa and the Car- ing two books with co-author Sally Price.
ibbean. She has won several grants to TheffirstisentitledOntheMallandwillbe New Traveling Suitcases support her research as well as recognition published by the Folklore Institute of InAnew Traveling Suitcase on Costa Rica for her teaching. diana University, Bloomington Indiana.
for secondary schools brings the total num- While at CLAS, Dr. Larrier is com- It deals with the 1992 Festival of Ameriber of these unique artifact kits to twelve. pleting a book on women's oral and writ- can Folklife. The second work, Enigma This small trunk contains over 100 items ten narratives. Her participation in the Variations, isanintellectual"whodunnit" including both The Tico TimesandLaNacitn Rockefeller Colloquium Series was in the (see Rockefeller on page 17) newspapers, political propaganda from the
1994 presidential elections, a high school
uniform, and dried vines from the rain forest. Didlogo Newsletter Teachers who participated in a Fulbright- The Outreach Program staff has pub- still available. Circulation of Didlogo has Hays Study Abroad Program sponsored last lished the Spring 1994 edition of the pre- increased from 400 to over 2,000 in the past summer by the History Teaching Alliance collegiate teacher newsletter, Didlogo. The year. and Barry University have donated three topic was "Instructional Resources on Latin Please contact the Outreach Program, boxes of materials to be used as the basis for America." Two dozen publishers, area stud- Center for Latin American Studies, P. 0. a new Traveling Suitcase on Honduras. iescenters, and educational distributors pro- Box 115530, University of Florida, Gracias to Dr. Anthony Beninati, group vided resources for examination for this Gainesville, FL 32611-5530, or telephone leader, and all the teachers who collected issue. Most of these will be added to the 904-392-0375 if you want more information materials! Look for this addition to the Outreach Resource Library. Back issues of on outreach or would like to be added to the Outreach Program next Fall. the Winter 1994 edition on Costa Rica are Didlogo mailing list.
16 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
IgE!IICENTER NEWS iEZ
Harn Exhibit Features Brazilian Concrete PoetPre-Columbian Art Essayist Comes to UF
In January, the Ham Museum of Art On March 18, the Ham Museum hosted
introduced Human and Divine in Ancient a multimedia presentation by the internationAmerican Art, a new exhibit featuring 138 allyrenownedconcretepoet-essayistAugusto
objects. Inspired by, and based upon the de Campos and his son, musician Cid Camstrength of the permanent collections of the pos. Entitled "Concrete Poetry: A NonHam, it will remain on long-term view. Reading," Augusto began with a creative
John F. Scott, UF Associate Professor of art lecture illustrated with sound recordings and
history and recognized scholar in the field of slides. The "musivocovisual" event continpre-Columbian art, served as the guest cura- ued with the collaboration of bassist-guitartor for the exhibit. ist-programmer Cid. Features included such
The exhibition focuses on images of varied neomodern works as
human beings and divinities from pre- 1"cidadeCITYcit6" and "Bomb Poem."
Columbian civilizations in both hemispheres Augusto de Campos' foundational work has
of the Americas. These societies had spe- been featured inexhibitions around theworld
cialists who mastered techniques to work since the 1960s. Most recently in the United
hard materials into the images they envi- States, it has been highlighted at Harvard
sioned. They also created artificial materi- (1992), the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
als such as ceramics and stucco and utilized Statue of a Male Musician Figure with New York (1986), and UF (1989), in an them in architecture, utilitarian objects, and Turtle Shell Drum, 300-500, Early exhibit co-sponsored by the Center. Howthe inarhitctueutiitria obecs, nd Classic Period, red-slipped ceramic,
pure sculpture. from Nayarit, Mexico. Courtesy of the ever, the Ham performance was his inauguThe objects selected for this exhibition Samuel P. Har Museum of Art, Uni- ral multimedia event outside of Brazil. represent six major culture regions: the versity of Florida. Augusto and Cid continued on to Miami to
Eastern North American Woodlands, perform at the Center for Fine Arts. These
Mesoamerica, Lower Central America, the language, Roman Catholic religion, and ar- Florida appearances were produced by Northern Andes, the Central Andes, and the tistic styles. Today, many isolated groups of Tigertail Productions of Miami. Antilles. With a 3,000 year time span creat- Native Americans exist beneath this "Latin The Ham eventwas co-sponsoredby the ing variation even within the same ethnic America" veneer and are descended from Florida-Brazil Institute and the Department group, each region was as culturally diverse the makers of these objects. They still of Romance Languages and Literatures, with as Europe. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish maintain theirown languages, cultural traits, the collaboration of the Center for Latin Conquest imposed a superficial uniformity a few crafts, and the experience of being American Studies and the UF Brazilian on the area, which consisted of colonial marginalized in their original homeland. Portuguese Club. laws, grid-plan urban settlements, Spanish
Chiapas (from page 15) Rockefeller (from page 16)
Walking toward the town square from By about 9 a.m., most of the tourists- about forgery in the world ofprimitiveart. In our hotel, we noticed thatall of the stores and mainly Germans and other Europeans and a addition, he took part in the Rockefeller restaurants were closed. When we reached few Americans-hadconvenedin the square. Colloquium Series by giving a talk entitled the square, we saw the rebels in and around Tourists began packing up their rental cars, Caribbean Crosscurrents: Nostalgia, the public buildings. Inside the buildings, and one person had a huge camper/van that Ethnicity and Nationalism. we could hear people breaking windows and they filled with 20 to 30 people to take out of The Rockefeller Colloquium Series also furniture while slogans supporting the EZLN San Cristobal. A caravan proceeded out of included two talks by scholars who were not (Ejircito Zapatista deLiberaci6nNacional) town, headed by a local San Cristobalian, RockefellerHumanitiesFellows. SallyPrice, and denouncing the government had been whose car was emblazoned with a banner who recently authored Primitive Art in painted on the outside walls. that read Comisi6n de Derechos Humanos CivilizedPlaces, gaveatalkentitled "French
The next morning we got up at 5 a.m. to (Human Rights Commission). I asked him Primitive": OntheAppropriationofAfricanfind that the EZLN had pulled out some time if he was a local official, and he answered AmericanArt. In addition, Nadine Fernandez, in the night. No buses were running and the that he was just a citizen concerned with the an anthropologist from the University of tourists were beginning to worry that they safety of the tourists. We all followed him California, Berkeley, spoke on Romance in wouldn't be able to get out of Chiapas. out of town. Black and White: Interracial Couples in
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 17
Private Support Provides a Sound Base for CLAS
Core funding for CLAS comes from the have created other sources of ongoing sup- William E. Carter Hispanic Scholar University of Florida. Federal grants are port for CLAS and its students. These pri- in Residence Fund: Created by the family another important source of support, espe- vate funds are listed below, and friends of the late Professor of Anthrocially the National Resource Center grant "We are extremely grateful for the gifts pology and CLAS Director to sponsor disfrom the U.S. Department of Education. that established these funds, and we would tinguished visitors in the Latin American Private funding in the form of gifts for per- welcome additional contributions to any of arts and humanities who have thus far inmanent endowments managed by the Uni- them, or funding of new ones," CLAS Direc- cluded a Brazilian pianist, a Peruvian guitarversity of Florida Foundation has assumed a tor Terry McCoy stresses. "Our current ist, and a Bolivian writer. central role over the past decade in sustain- priorities are to complete the Wagley and Colonel Glen A. Farris Scholarship ing the Center. The Bacardi Family Eminent Farris endowments ($100,000 each) in order Fund: Cuban-American alumni established Scholar Chair in Latin American Studies, to qualify them for matching support ($50,000 this award to honor Col. Ferris, who as which brings adistinguished Latin American each) from the state." Anyone wishing to Foreign Student Advisor in the 1960s, asscholar to campus for one semester every make a gift should contact Terry McCoy at sisted them when they were students at UF. year and funds one graduate assistantship, is the Center (904-392-0375) or the University Once endowed, it will support scholarships the Center's largest endowment In addi- of Florida Foundation (904-392-1691). for advanced undergraduate and graduate tion, generous gifts from friends of the Center students in the field of Latin American Studies, with preference given to outstanding
Roy A. Howard Scholarship Fund for
Latin American Students: Justestablished
CLAS Names New Affiliates from the estate of Roy and Sadie Howard, it
will support graduate assistantships for stuGeorge W. Tanner (Forestry), (MOU) signed in 1992 by the University dents in the field of Latin American Studies.
P.K.Nair (Forestry), Lauren Chapman of Florida and UACh for collaboration in Alfred Hower Travel Prize: Endowed (Zoology),ColinChapman(Zoology), and scientific and technical activities. Nair is by the late Alfred Hower, Professor of PorWalter S. Judd (Botany) have een named also supervising one Ph.D, student con- tuguese and Latin American Studies, it affiliate faculty of the Center for Latin ducting field research in CostaRica andan supports participation of students in the UF American Studies. M.S. student doing field research in the summer Portuguese and Brazilian studies
Tanner, who received his Ph.D. in highlands of Ecuador. program in Rio de Janeiro.
RangeEcologyfromTexasA&MUniver- Colin Chapman, whoreceivedaPh.D. Notley Scholarship Fund in Latin
sity in 1979, is currently involved in the in Zoology and Anthropology from the American Studies: This award supports an restoration of wet prairies along the University of Alberta in 1987, and Lauren academic year assistantship and the summer Kissimmee River, dry prairies on the Chapman, who received a Ph.D. in Biol- field research of an outstanding student in Myakka River State Park in Sarasota, and ogy from McGill University in 1990, have the Center's MA program, giving preference Xeric longleaf pine communities on Eglin conducted research in Costa Rica and are to students from Latin America. AirForceBase. Currently,heisamember currentlyworkinginKibaleForestNational Vining Davis Endowment: An unreof six Ph.D. and three M.S. academic Park, Uganda, at the base of the Rwenzori stricted endowment given to CLAS by the advisory committees for students doing Mountains. Theiracademic interests cover Arthur Vining Davis Foundation. their research in Latin American coun- such areas as adaptations of fish to low Charles Wagley Graduate Fellowship tries. oxygen environments, primate social or- Fund: Created in 1992 to honor the late
Nair, who earned his Ph.D. in ganization, and forest restoration. Charles Wagley and his seminal work on
Agronomy from Pantnagar Agricultural Judd,whoreceivedhisPh.D.inBotany Brazil, this fund will endow fellowships for
University in Indiain 1971 and a Doctorate from Harvard University in 1978, has en- UF graduate students involved in social sciin Tropical Agriculture in Germany in gaged in research in the systematics of the ence research in Latin America, especially 1978, has been involved as a Technical Ericaceae and Melastomataceae (two Brazil. Dr. Marianne Schmink is coordinatAdviser to the newly created Centro de flowering plant families that are most di- ing fund-raising efforts for the Wagley award. Agroforesteria para el Desarrollo verse in tropical montane habitats), the A. Curtis Wilgus Felowship Fund:
Sostenible at the Universidad Autonoma floristics of the Greater Antilles, and the Created in honor of the founding director of Chapingo (UACh) in Chapingo, Mexico. principles/methods of systematics. Judd the School of Inter-American Studies, the Thiscenter wasestablishedunderthe terms has conducted most of his field workinthe forerunner of CLAS, this award annually of a Memorandum of Understanding Greater Antilles, especially Haiti and the supports the summer field work of students
Dominican Republic. doing thesis or dissertation related work in
Latin America and the Caribbean.
18 Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994
|Hillull NEWS & NOTES
Faculty News & Notes for African Studies traveled throughout the state during the Spring giving
five one-day Exploring African and Latin American Diversity workshops
to 228 social studies teachers and district supervisors. Nolan is leaving the
David Bushnell, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, is in University of Florida and moving to Costa Rica inMay where she will be the process of coordinating the preparation of the volume, Sim6n Bolivar building a home and writing a book on Costa Rican rural primary y los Estados Unidos, for the University of Florida and the Comit6 del education policies and practices (forthcoming, OrganizationofAmerican Bicentenario de Sim6n Bolfvar in Caracas. In addition, he and Neill States). Macaulay (Professor Emeritus, Department of History) have recently Charles A. Perrone, Associate Professor, Department of Romance published a second revised edition of The Emergence ofLatin America in Languages and Literatures, co-edited a new edition of the best-selling title the Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994). in the Center's publication series, Crdnicas Brasileiras: Nova Fase; Larry N. Crook, Assistant Professor, Department of Music, re- second, revised edition of Crdnicas Brasileiras (Gainesville, FL: Unicently conducted two trips to Salvador, Bahia in Northeastern Brazil to versity of Florida Press, Spring 1994). The book is dedicated to the investigate contemporary musical expressions of Black consciousness, memory of the original editor, Alfred Hower, who died in 1992. In The trips were funded with a DSR grant. His article, "Black Conscious- addition, Perrone published "Jolo CabraldeMeloNeto"in Encyclopedia ness, Samba-Reggae, and the Re-Africanization of Carnival Music in of World Literature in the Twentieth Century, vol. 5, (New York: Brazil," was recently published in the journal, The World ofMusic 35 (2): Crossroads, 1994). Perrone introduced the lecture-performance of the 90-108, 1993. renowned Brazilian poet-essayist Augusto de Campos and his son Cid
Tom Fullerton, Senior Economist, Bureau of Economic and Busi- Campos entitled "VIVA VAIA: Understanding Augusto de Campos" at ness Research, had "A Macroeconometric Forecasting Model for the the Center for Fine Arts in Miami on March 20. Perrone organized the Colombian Economy" published in the journal, Ensayos Sobre Politica multimedia performance by the father-son duo at the Ham Museum on Econdmica. Fullerton also teaches a course on Latin American econom- March 18. He also presented a paper entitled "Balancing Acts: Nationics. alism in Mid-Century Vanguards" at the Latin American Studies AssoDavid Geggus, Professor, Department of History, recently edited ciation Congress in Atlanta in March and organized a workshop of the The French Revolution Research Collection: Section 11:2, The Colonies, Florida Portuguese Language Development Group at the BrazilLooks to a 20,000-page collection of printed primary sources on microfiche with the Future conference in Orlando on April 15-16. Lastly, Perrone an accompanying guide and interpretive essay. concluded his term as Chair of the Executive Committee, Division of
Randal Johnson, Professor and Chair, Department of Romance Luso-Brazilian Language and Literature, Modern Language Association Languages and Literatures, participated on the panel "The Construction and will serve a final year as its president. of National Identity: A Roundtable Discussion" and chaired the session Helen Safa, Professor, Departmentof Anthropology,just completed "The Social Relations of Literary Production" at the Modern Language a book entitled The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and IndusAssociation Convention in Toronto in December, 1993. Johnson's trialization in the Caribbean, which will be published by Westview Press article,"The Riseand Fall of Brazilian Cinema, 1960-1990,"was recently laterthisyear. Thebookis acomparisonof theimpact ofpaid employment published in Portuguese as "Ascensdo e Queda do Cinema Brasileiro," tr. on women factory workers in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Alberto Alexandre Martins, Revista USP 19 (setembro a outubro): 30-49, Republic, in which she has done primary field research since 1980. 1993. The following articles are in press: "As Relagaes Sociais da Safa's other recent publications include: "The New Women WorkLiteratura Brasileira," in Revista de Critica Literaria Latinoamericana; ers" in the Summer 1993 issue of NACLA; "Leacock and the International "Brazilian Modernism: An Idea out of Place?" in Modernism and its Women's Movement" in From Labrador to Samoa: The Theory and Margins, A.L. Geist, J.B. Monle6n, J. Talens, eds. (University of Practice ofEleanor Burke Leacock, published by the American AnthroMinnesota Press/Hispanic Issues); and "The Dynamics of the Brazilian pological Association, 1993; "TheSocial and Economic Consequences of Literary Field, 1930-1945," in Luso-Brazilian Review. After 11 years at Export Led Industrialization in the Caribbean Basin" in Comparative the University of Florida, Johnson will be leaving to join the faculty of Development Experiences, S. Kim, C. Kim and Y. Gong Ajou, eds., UCLA on July 1, 1994. Korea: University Press, 1993; and "Las Mujeres y la Industrializaci6n
Terry L. McCoy, Director, Center for Latin American Studies, enelCaribe: UnaComparaci6ndePuertoRicoylaRepdblicaDominicana" spoke to senior level administrators of the Federal Aviation Administra- in Genero y Trabajo, Ma. del Carmen Baerga, ed., The University of tion on "Latin America and the New World Order" at the Aviation Puerto Rico Press, 1993. International Roundtable in Washington in June, 1993. In July, he served Safa is also directing the Rockefeller Humanities Fellowship proas a facilitator in the Haiti Government/Business Partnership Conference gram entitledAfro-American Identity and CulturalDiversity. Twoto four attended by exiled president Jean-Bertrand Aristide and members of the scholars are selected per academic year who work in this area of study and Haitian business community. In August, he and Elizabeth Lowe gave a are resident in the United States, Africa, the Caribbean, or Brazil. two-week workshop under the auspices of the US Information Agency on Safa was invited to give a plenary address at the International La Investigaci6n Universitaria en las Humanidades y las Ciencias Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences in Mexico City Sociales at the Universidad de los Andes and Universidad Javierana in last summer and again at the Congress of the Latin American Studies Bogoti. In January 1994, McCoy served as a consultant to the Latin Association this March. Before the LASA Congress, she and Mercedes American program at the University of Georgia. Gonzalez de la Rocha (CIESAS-Guadelajara) organized a pre-Congress
Kerri-Anne Nolan, Acting Associate Director and Outreach Coor- seminar on women and structural adjustment that was held inGuadalajara, dinator, recently had "Latin America in the Social Studies" published in Mexico. The seminar included about ten participants from the US and the Spring 1994 issue of Trends and Issues, the journal of the Florida Mexico and was supported by CONACYT (ConsejoNacional de Ciencia Council forthe Social Studies. She and Agnes Ngoma Leslie of the Center y Tecnologfa) in Mexico and the Division of Sponsored Research at UF.
Latinamericanist, University of Florida, Spring 1994 19
She also co-organized a working group on women and development as Colleges, and to the Board of Advisors of the Rainforest Foundation, part oftheLASA TaskForce on ScholarlyRelations with Cuba, which held USA. a meeting in Havana last July and in Gainesville, immediately preceding Amelia S. Simpson, Adjunct Faculty, Department of Romance the LASA Congress. At the LASA Congress, this working group made Languages and Literatures, published "Xuxa and the Politics of Gender," up a panel on gender issues in contemporary Cuba. She was also an Luso-Brazilian Review 30 (Summer): 95-106, 1993, and she presented invited speaker at Gettysburg College last fall, and at the 1993 meeting of "Xuxa and the Xhaping of Brazil: Brasileiros Prefer Blondes" at the Latin the Association for Women and Development. American Studies Association Congress in Atlanta in March. In addition,
Steven Sanderson, Professor, Department of Political Science, has Simpson is teaching a special topics course in Women's Studies entitled been named to the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the "Blondes: The Cultural Construction of Identity" during the Spring Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Last fall, he semester. participated in an international workshop on global land use and cover James Simpson, Professor, Department of Food and Resource Ecochange organized by Clark University and the University of Oxford at nomics, presented a paper entitled "Uso del Proceso Presupuestado en Woodstock, England. He co-wrote, with Kent Redford, a paper entitled Diagn6sticos Econ6micosde Producci6n Ganaderia en Areas Tropicales" "Naming, Claiming and Distributing Biota: The Contest for Ownership at the XVI Simposium de Ganaderla Tropical in Veracruz, Mexico. of the World's Biodiversity" for a conference on biodiversity conserva- William Tilson, Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, tion sponsored by the Center of Tropical Conservation at Duke University and Director, Preservation Institute: Caribbean (PI:C), will work with and the Howard Gilman Foundation at White Oak Plantation, Florida. Alfonso Architects of Miami and Tampa and a studio of graduate students
Marianne Schmink, Professor, Latin American Studies and An- duringthe first Summer session, 1994tostudytherapidlychangingurban thropology, also serves as co-director of a three-year USIA-sponsored patterns of several ethnic neighborhoods in the Miami area. A series of Inter-University Exchange Program with the Federal University of Minas analytical drawings and video tapes are planned as outcomes of this Gerais (UFMG), Brazil. In December of 1993, the program organized an ongoing research project. He will also coordinate with Raul Garcia a international conference entitled On Common Ground: Interdisciplinaty course entitled "Introduction to Architectural Preservation of the CaribApproaches to Biodiversity Conservalion and Land Use Dynamics in the bean," June 27-August 5. The Organization of American States will New-World in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The conference was co-sponsored provide 12 full fellowships for students and professionals from the West by UF and UFMG, Conservation International of Brazil, and the Latin Indies to attend the course. Approximately 35 students from the United American Studies Association through its Task Force on Scholarly States and abroad arc expected to attend. Relations with the Natural Science Community (chaired by Dr. Schmink). Philip Williams, Associate Professor, Department of Political SciA conference proceedings is now in preparation. In addition, Schmink ence, organized together with the Centro de Investigaciones Tecnol6gicas chaired a session entitled"North-South Collaboration in Farming Systems (CENITEC) the first-ever conference on civil-military relations in El Research and Extension in Acre, Brazil" at the North American Sympo- Salvador. The one-day conference, held on October 7, 1993 in San sium of the Association for Farming Systems Research and Extension, Salvador, was attended by approximately 450 people, including over 100 University of Florida, in October, 1993. She also published, with Charles military officers. Panelists included the Minister of Defense, the exH. Wood, "The Military and the Environment in the Brazilian Amazon" Minister of Defense from Guatemala, representatives of the United in the Journal of Political and Military Sociology 21 (Summer): 81-105, Nations, and the presidential candidates of the principal political parties. 1993. Lastly, Schmink was named to a three-year term of the Standing The conference proceedings arc being published by CENITEC. Williams Committee on International Exchange of the Commission on International also had an article, "Dual Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Popular Affairs of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant and Electoral Democracy in Nicaragua," published in the January 1994 issue of Comparative Politics.
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