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Latinamericanist. Volume 27. Number 2.
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University of Florida, Center for Latin American Studies
Loach, Peter W.
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Full Text
Center for Latin Americ (Studes
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Volume 27 Number 2
May 1992
La tinamericanist Peter W. Loach, Editor
Edmund R. Zavada, Layout
This issue's feature article is a comparative study of the relative sustainability of two bean production methods in Costa Rica. It is followed by two articles which appear in the occasional Reflections and Commentary column. The first underscores the importance of incorporating the self-expressed needs of indigenous communities within the debate over conservation and development of the Amazon Basin, and the second discusses the role of the Organization of American States in today's evolving international relations arena.
INTRODUCTION duction of frijol espeque, almost one-half of the bean-growing
The introduction of "green revolution" technologies has farmers continue to use the traditional planting practice,frijol significantly increased the worldwide production of basic tapado. For farmers who adopted frijol espeque, a combination
food grains by focusing on the development of high-yielding of land degradation and economic inflation has decreased the varieties of basic grains, which have produced greater yields profitability of bean production. when rates of fertilizer use have increased (Brown, 1970). At The low rate of adoption of frijol espeque, combined with
the farm level, however, many agriculturalists have been the lack of sustained profitability of this practice, raises several
unable to adopt such technologies, due to low access to credit questions. These include: and markets, insecure or usurious tenure agreements, and What unique role does frijol tapado play in the farming system that is not
their inability to afford agrochemical inputs (Roling et al., 1976; fulfilled by frijol espeque? Fliegel, 1984). Consequently, the impact of the green revolution has accentuated differences in the production capacities of Has frijol espeque been adopted equally by all farmers and has the adoption rich and poor farmers. Moreover, the indiscriminate or in- of this practice affected all farmers equally?
complete adoption of green revolution technologies has accel- What factors within or outside of the farming system have affected farmer erated environmental degradation. Soil nutrient depletion has adoption of frijol espeque and the sustainability of this practice? occurred when farmers have adopted land-use intensive What are the characteristics of frijol espeque that promote land degradation?
farming practices when they are unable to use fertilizers to replace the nutrients they removed during land clearing and What factors should have been considered in the development and introducharvest. At the same time, erosion has resulted when tech- tion of frijol espeque to enhance its adoption and sustainability?
nologies developed for level lands have been inappropriately practiced on steeply sloping lands (Eckholm, 1976; Lal, 1984a). To answer these questions, an integrated farming systems
In Costa Rica, an agrochemical input-based bean growing study was conducted in the southern Pacific zone of Costa Rica method was introduced to replace a traditional, crop-fallow, between March 1990 and August 1991. This article discusses or shifting, agricultural production method. The introduced the results of the studyboth within the context of the study area bean-planting method, referred to asfrijol espeque, was devel- and as a paradigm for development processes elsewhere. It oped to permit increased land-use intensity and provide in- also provides recommendations for changes in the process of creased bean-growing productivity. Ten years after the intro- technology development and introduction in order to enhance agroecosystem sustainability and equitability within the
Barbara Bellows uitt complete her Ph.D, in soil science, with farming farming community.
systems minor, in May 7992. She received a B.A. in South Asian PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
studies in 1976 from the University of Wisconsiti-Mcdison and ai
M.S.inAgronomyand Soil Sciencefrom the Universityof Hazaii in Agricultural sustainability consists of the interaction 19I8. Her dissertation research was conducted in conjunction with among agriculture, household economics, the environment, CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture) and CA TI society, and agricultural policies. Practically, sustainable agri(Centerfor TropicalAgriculture Investigation and Training),located culture describes agricultural production methods that can be in Turr a, Costa Rica. adopted easily by small-scale farmers. From the agroecosystem

perspective, sustainable agriculture encompasses practices with three on-farm experiments. The three formal surveys that have a minimal negative impact on the environment, rely consisted of an introductory interview and two economic predominantly on nutrient recycling for the maintenance of surveys. The first survey, including 51 farmers, obtained basesoil fertility, and promote agroecosystem diversity for pest line information regarding bean growing practices. The two and disease control. economic surveys followed the first and second cropping
Conway (1985:35) defined agroecosystem sustainability seasons, and included 31 and 42 farmers, respectively. The onas "the ability of the system to maintain productivity in spite farm experiments were designed to compare frijol tapado and of a major disturbance such as caused by intensive stress or a frijol espeque in terms of productivity and effects on soil large perturbation." According to the Technical Advisory degradation. Committee of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)', sustainable agriculture "should BEAN PRODUCTION IN COSTA RICA involve the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or THE FARMING COMMUNITY enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving Unlike the majority of other Latin American countries,
natural resources" (CIMMYT, 1989; as quoted in Harrington, Costa Rican farmers grow beans principally as a sole crop, in 1991:7). rotation with maize, rather than as an intercrop with maize.
Agricultural development programs emphasizing Bean production in Costa Rica is primarily the work of smallsustainability contrast with development programs empha- scale farmers who have access only to marginal lands. In the sizing increased productivity through the use of agrochemical study area, over 70 percent of bean growing farmers planted inputs. Programs emphasizing productivity often increase three hectares or less of beans. Land used for bean production national production of commodities but also often enhanced typically had slopes greater than 25'. Approximately one-third social inequities. Small-scale farmers face disadvantages in of the farmers interviewed planted beans as sharecroppers. adopting agrochemical input-based farming practices due to Tenancy agreements were both temporary and exploitive. their limited access to cash or credit. These farmers also typi- Tenants usually rented land for less than four planting seasons, cally farm marginalland: land that is steeply sloping, degraded, paying sharecropping charges that were either one-half or or infertile. Farming practices developed on experiment sta- one-third of the obtained yield. Small-scale landowners ditions, which are typically located on fertile, level land, are often vided their land among beans, coffee, and vegetable producpoorly adapted for use on these marginal lands. Farmers who tion. Large-scale landowners devoted a majority of their land are share croppers or tenants are further disadvantaged since to beef cattle production. they are unable to implement practices requiring long-term
control over the land they farm. FRIJOL TAPADO
Recognizing the constraints of small-scale farmers, pro- The traditional bean production method is a pre-Hisponents of sustainable development do not place priority on panic practice, referred to as frijol tapado or covered beans economic growth and agricultural productivity, but instead (Patiflo, 1965). Still practiced on 49 percent of the land devoted emphasize the importance of equity (de Janvry and Garcia, to bean production (CIAT, 1988), frijol tapado is a broadcast1988; Redclift, 1989; Korton, 1990). They stress that for the planted, shiftingagriculturalpractice.Thisproductionmethod development and dissemination of agricultural technologies differs from slash-and-burn shifting agricultural methods. to be sustainable, technical analyses of agricultural Adapted forareas where heavy rainfall does not permitburning,
methodologies are insufficient. The political agenda to pro- fallow residues are not cut and burned prior to planting, as in vide farmers with the ability to implement recommendations slash-and-burn practices. Instead, frijol tapado is planted by must also be promoted (Altieri, 1989). broadcasting, or manually scattering seeds, within an uncut
Most agricultural practices require trade-offs between fallow growth of brush or forest regrowth. Immediately after productivity, sustainability, and equity. Sustainable systems the seeds are broadcast, the fallow growth is cut down and exhibit long-term productivity, but may have low economic chopped into fine pieces using a machete. The cut, fallow viability in the short-term (Barbier, 1989). Conway (1991) growth is left on the soil surface as a mulch. Slash-mulch argued that in some situations, to obtain higher levels of practices similar to frijol tapado continue to be practiced productivity or equity, sustainability may need to be sacri- throughout highrainfall areas ofCostaRica, Panama, Colombia, ficed. In Costa Rica, interactions among bean production Ecuador, and Brazil (H.D. Thurston, personal communication). methods, increasing population, land-use competition, the Frijol tapado uses no commercial inputs and requires low environment, and the farming community have affected both labor inputs. Typically, no crop-maintenance labor inputs are the productivity and the sustainability of bean production. used in frijol tapado production from the time of planting until STUDY METHODOLOGY harvest. The minimal expenditures of cash and labor required
for frijol tapado production make it a low-risk production
The study was conducted in the subdistrict of Pejibaye de system.
Perez Zeled6n, Costa Rica. Tenants and farmer-landowners In Costa Rica, frijol tapado is produced during the second
who grewbeans on steep lands were interviewed in conjunction (October-January) growing season. This growing season is
CGIAR is the coordinating organization for over twenty international agricultural research centers (IARC) including: CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Cali, Colombia), CIMMYT (International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat, Mexico City), CIP (International Potato Center, Lima, Peru), IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture-Ibadan, Nigeria), and IIRI (International Rice Research Institute, Los Bafios, Philippines).

characterized by heavy rainfall prior to and during the plant- growing season. This dry season permits farmers to harvest ing season, and dry weather during the harvest season. In and dry their beans with minimal risk of crop losses due to addition to frijol tapado production, the highly profitable bean sprouting. Bean sprouting is a major cause of yield loss coffee harvests also occur duringthis season. Since frijol tapado when continuous rainfall does not permit farmers to dry their requires labor inputs only during planting and harvest, farm- beans between harvesting and threshing. In mountainous ers are able to engage in both frijol tapado production and areas, continuous rainfall during the first growing season coffee harvest activities. prevents farmers from adopting frijol espeque.
Frijol tapado has characteristics that enhance Other than climatic factors, the adoption of frijol espeque
agroecosystem sustainability. The retention of cut fallow resi- is favored by high land-use competition, accessibility to inputs dues on the soil surface provides additions of organic matter to and markets from the farmstead, and the availability of cash or the soil and promotes nutrient recycling. The mulch layer also credit for inputs. Alternatively, continued use of frijol tapado protects the steeply sloping lands used for frijol tapado pro- is encouraged by the availability of excess land, low access to duction against the impact of rainfall and consequent soil cash or credit, remoteness from marketing centers, and high crusting and soil losses due to erosion. It also inhibits weed opportunity value for labor in other on- or off-farm activities. emergence and regrowth, as well as the dissemination of the Farmers in the area of Pejibaye de Perez Zeled6n were
soil-borne fungal infestation, web blight (Galindo et al., 1983), encouraged to adopt frijol espeque through the implementaa disease which is often yield-limiting in bean production. tionofaUS Agency forInternationalDevelopment-sponsored Additionally, tree trunks from woody fallows may be left farm loan and technology transfer program (Chapman et al., uncut to provide stakes for the trellising of the traditional, 1983). Initiated in 1982, this program assisted farmers in adoptindeterminate bean varieties. ing frijol espeque by making farm loans available through the
Since frijol tapado is a shifting agricultural method, it is National Bank of Costa Rica (BNCR) and introducing "geland-use extensive. Several hectares of land must be available netically improved" seed varieties through the National Profor fallowing for each hectare of beans produced, since the land duction Council (CNP). is fallowed for up to five years between bean croppings. Although the farm loan program assisted farmers in iniDuring the fallow period, soil fertility is regenerated and pest tially adopting frijol espeque, in recent years farmers' access to populations are reduced. Human population increases, com- input loans has decreased. During 1990-1991, the BNCR probined with the effects of government programs promoting the vided loans only to farmers who planted at least two hectares production of cattle (Annis, 1987) and coffee (Chapman et al., of beans. This provision excluded over 35 percent of the 1983), have decreased the availability of land for frijol tapado farmers from access to farm loans. In 1990, the extension arm production. As land-use pressure has increased, farmers have of the CNP was dismantled and BNCR offices in small towns been forced to reduce the duration of the fallow periodbetween were closed in an effort to reduce government costs. As a frijol tapado production cycles. Presently, most frijol tapado result, the rural populationbecame increasingly disarticulated production uses land fallowed for only 9 or 21 months. The from the urban market economy and farmers became inreduction in the fallow / cropping ratio has decreased both the creasingly dependent on local vendors for loans and marketproductivity and the sustainability of frijol tapado. ing outlets. Meanwhile, a rapid rise in inflation resulted in a
Increased land use for cattle production has also displaced decrease in the price paid for beans while fertilizer prices small crop producers. As a result of a World Bank-sponsored
farm loan program for cattle production (Annis, 1987), the percentage of farms of greater than 50 hectares increased while Figure 1 Factors affecting decision to plant the percentage of farms with less than five hectares decreased frijol tapado vs. frijol espeque
(Chapman et al., 1983). Of the landlords interviewed, 70 percent stated that within the past ten years, they had decreased 1, .te aea subject to
the amount of land available to tenants for bean production. m.... a.i?
Is there a high opportunity value Is there a high opportunity
The agrochemical input-based frijol espeque method was for lahorct ....te oher than vlue for labr .,ities
beattgtowing? other than bean growing?
developed to allow farmers to adopt continuous cropping Y I
practices. This production method does not rely on fallows, I
Is the land availahla I vosepition for In the land steeply
but instead relies on fertilizers to maintain soil fertility and plat bea? and high? sloping?
pesticides to control pest and disease infestations. Crop main- ra v
penance activities are facilitated by planting beans in straight r
Does the farer like to Does not Does the farmer have Is the land steeply Plant Plant
rows using a metal tipped, wooden digging stick, rather than plant frijol tapado? plant hean. inputs? sloping? frijol fijol by broadcasting as in frijol tapado. Y N 0 N V ,pqu
TRANSITION FROM FRIJOL TAPADO TO FRIJOL ESPEQUE ,e dr ing facilities Ds the farmer Plant Plant Plant ftijol Plant
available during fimt like to plant f rijl Ieiol tapado or frijol fijol
growing soaon? [rijol tapado? tapado tapado. espoqun. espeque.
Several factors affect the decision to make a transition 1 .
from frijol tapado to frijol espeque (Figure 1). The principal one
is climate. Frijol espeque has been almost universally adopted Plant pbael D not Platothfrjo Pla, by farmers in low-elevation locations, such as Pejibaye, which frijo, frijol plant be.-. tpaado and frijol
iapado espeque, frijol espeque, espeque,
have a short dry season at the end of the first (May-July)

Figure2a Change in the Colon:Dollar Useof rotations, however, wasconsideredbymanysmallExchange Rate scale landowners as "a luxury" which they could not afford.
140 Use of mulch-based practices also may not be economically
120 practical for many small-scale farmers. The Costa Rican Min100 istry of Agriculture is presently promoting the adoption of a
mulch-based planting practice intermediary to frijol tapado 80 and frijol espeque. This practice is characterized by cutting and
60 retaining residues on the soil surface, then planting beans
through the residues using a digging stick. Planting through a .3
40 thick mulch layer, however, may prolong planting time by as
20 much as 25 percent compared to planting on cleared soil. Since
time and labor are the limiting factors at planting, adopting (- N 01 0 mulch-based practices would either increase labor expenses or
..... a). aaaI Idecrease the amount of land farmers could plant. Due to their
Source: Central Bank of Costa Rica. limited access to cash, land, and labor, less than one-half of the
farmers interviewed were able to apply agrochemicals accordFigure 2b Change in the Price of Beans andintoeesonrcm ndin.
Complete Fertilizer ing to extension recommendations.
The frijol espeque seasonbegins at the end of the long, dry,
40 fartlizer 50kg "hungry" season and less than one month before the beginning
405 ----beanies 0 kg$ Iof the school year. Cash needed for chemical inputs was in 30 competition with cash needed for food and school supplies.
0 25 0Tenant farmers also admitted to using farming practices on
20 rented land that abused or degraded the land. One-half of the
15 tenant respondents said that if they planted on their own land,
10 they would not burn the land but instead would use soil5, ,, conserving measures.
The profitability of frijol espeque production was related
Sources: Centro Nacional de Producci6n (official government to the farmer's access to land. The high cost of sharecropping price lists); Fetica S.A. (a major Costa Rican fertilizer company). limited the tenants' ability to purchase agrochemical inputs.
While over 75 percent of the landowners applied fertilizers, remained relatively stable (Figure 2a & 2b). These factors less than one-third of the tenant farmers used fertilizers, herdecreased the margin of profit which farmers received for their bicides, or insecticides. Landowners spent significantly more beans. on commercial inputs and obtained significantly higher yields
for frijol espeque than did tenants. Landowners also obtained DECLINING SUSTAINABILITY DUE TO INCOMPLETE ADOPTION OF higher net and gross returns for bean production than did FRIJOL ESPEQUE tenants. The net returns obtained by tenant farmers for each
In conjunction with the adoption of frijol espeque, farmers day of frijol espeque labor were less than the wage paid to a day adopted agricultural practices inappropriate for the steeply laborer. For these farmers, the profitability of bean farming sloping lands typically used for bean production. To facilitate was less than working as an occasional hired laborer. planting and crop maintenance activities for frijol espeque Thus, despite the decreasingprofitability of bean farming, production, farmers burned all crop and fallow residues prior most tenants felt that they had no option but to continue to planting. This practice decreases nutrient recycling, in- farming. More than 83 percent of the respondents indicated creases soil erosion, and enhances pest and disease infestation that they wished to quit farming. According to respondents, levels. Soil erosion losses of greater than five tons per hectare many tenant farmers already have left farmingto lookforwork per growing season were monitored on fields that had been in the urban sector or have moved out of the area in search of used for a frijol espeque-maize rotation for over four years. more fertile lands. Repeated burning and continuous cropping also significantly INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FRIJOL TAPADO AND FRIJOL ESPEQUE increased labor inputs required for weeding compared to mulched fields. Numerous farmers reported near total crop In the Pejibaye area, frijol tapado and frijol espeque exlosses for frijol espeque due to web blight. isted as complementary rather than competitive forms of
The frijol espeque practices used by small-scale farmers production. One-half of the tenant farmers and 42 percent of did not reflect their knowledge about either soil conservation the farmer-landowners planted beans usingboth frijol espeque or input-use practices. Instead, farmers' practices reflected and frijol tapado practices. For farmers with landholdings their limited access to land, labor, and cash. Most frijol espeque sufficient to place land in fallow, frijol tapado was used primafarmers realized that pest problems could be decreased and rily to produce beans for seed and home consumption. Landyields increased by not burning the residues, and using instead owners also used frijol tapado as a yield-producing method of a mulch-based planting system, or placing land into a fallow clearing land prior to planting beans using frijol espeque or rotation every three to four years. placing the land into pasture.

For tenant farmers, frijol tapado represented a low-risk, periments conducted in conjunction with this study showed
economic safety net for increasing the household income, that agrochemical input use permitted the production of acDespite the relatively high profits possible from coffee har- ceptable yields while masking soil degradation. Analyses of
vests, most frijol tapado farmers were economically dependent introduced technologies should include determinations of
on both the receipts from harvesting coffee and from growing environmental and economic degradation in addition to asfrijol tapado. They used the receipts from the coffee harvest to sessments of productivity. pay for household expenses during the second growing sea- Continued use of a traditional farming practice is often
son, while yields from the frijol tapado harvests supported the not due to a lack of information or unwillingness of farmers to
family during the extended dry season. For these farmers, experiment or change. Instead, it maybe indicative of a unique
diminished availability of land for frijol tapado production has function of the traditional practice within the farming system. resulted in increased out-migration to seek employment in In Costa Rica, frijol tapado serves as a low-cost, low-risk
either the urban areas or in the banana plantations. practice to provide subsistence food and supplemental income
for small-scale and tenant farmers. The continued limitation of research and extension programs to promote frijol espeque Figure 3a Idealized Effects of Technology Introduction while not addressing the problems of frijol tapado production
INCREASED___ INCREASED LAND_ DECREASE DECREASED enhances inequities within the farming community.
FRIJOL ESPEcUE USE Altieri, M.A. 1989. Agroecology: A new research and development paradigm
INCREASED YIELDS for world agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 27:37-46.
SUPPORT PRICES AND Annis, S. 1987. Costa Rica's Dual Debt: A Story About a Little Country That
MARKETING PROGRAMS INCREASED PROFITS Did Things Right. World Resources Institute. Washington, D.C.
Barbier, E.B. 1989. Economics, Natural Resource Productivity, and Development: Figure 3b Actual Effects of Technology Introduction Conventional and Alternative Views. Earthscan Publications, Ltd. London.
Brown, L. 1970. Seeds of Change: The Green Revolution and Development in the Cattle Loan/Prograr 1970's. Praeger Publishers. New York.
Decreased profitability D ceend profiablny Chapman, J.A., E. Martinez, T. Ammour, J.A. Carol, M. Cuvi. 1983. Cambio
of bean production ofba rooto
n o Tner-o land out bTecnol6gicoyRelaci6nesSocialesdeProducci6n. Loas Pequenos Productores
Tr ans oand outo
of bD....ed info del Discrito de Pejibaye, Costa Rica. IICA. San Jos6, Costa Rica.
L nd degradation of lrerd afarlaban CIAT. 1988. Annual Report. International Center for Tropical Agriculture. Cali,
1 p production Colombia.
eneasd filbiorytof De ored availablty of CIMMYT. 1989. Toward the 21st Century: Strategic Issues and the Operational
Increased landuse land fo Outants nobsford e rs n of Strategies of CIMMYT. International Center for the Improvement of Maize
.nfensity for bean taborers -no and Wheat. Mexico City.
production urban areas
Conway, G.R. 1985. Agroecosystem analysis. AgriculturalAdministration, 20:3155.
CONCLUSIONS Conway, G.R. 1991. Sustainability in agricultural development: Trade-offs
with productivity, stability and equitability. Paper presented at the 11th Research and extension efforts in Costa Rica have been Annual Association of Farming Systems Research and Extension Sympodirected at encouraging farmers to replace frijol tapado with sium. East Lansing, MI.
frijol espeque. Frijol espeque was promoted to raise productiv- de Janvry, A. and R. Garcia. 1988. Rural poverty and environmental degradation in Latin America: Causes, effects, and alternative solutions. Paper ity through increased land-use intensity and the utilization of presented at the International Consultation on Environment, Sustainable
agrochemical inputs (Figure 3a). Several factors, both within Development, and the Role of Small Farmers. International Fund for Agriand outside the sphere of the technology introduction pro- cultural Development. Rome.
gram, however, diminished the productivity of frijol espeque. Eckholm, E. P. 1976. Losing Ground: Environmental Stress and World Food ProsThe promoters of frijol espeque did not consider the marginal pects. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. New York.
Fliegel, F.C. 1984. Extension communication and the adoption process. In: B.E. farming conditions of small-scale farmers, labor constraints Swanson (ed.). Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual. FAO. Rome.
during the production season, or the role of frijol tapado in the Galindo, J.J., G.S. Abawi, H.D. Thurston, and G. Galvez. 1983. Effects of farming system. Program development also did not account mulching on web blight of beans in Costa Rica. Phytopathology. 73:610-615.
for interactions between bean and cattle production programs Harrington, L.W. 1991. Measuring sustainability: Issues and alternatives. A
paper presented at the 11th Annual Association for Farming Systems Re(Figure 3b). Consequently, a program designed to increase the search and Extension Symposium. Michigan State University. East Lansing,
productivity and profitability of bean production has instead Mi.
resulted in increased land degradation and displacement of Korton, D.C. 1990. Getting to the 21st Century: Voluntary Action and the Global
the poorest sector of the farming community. Agenda. Kumarian Press. West Hartford, CN.
of agricultural development programs re- Lal, R. 1984. Soil erosion from tropical arable lands and its control. Advances in
Sustainability oAgronomy, 37:183-249.
quires a reorientation of processes used in identifying, testing, Patifio, V. M. 1965. Historia de la Actividad Agropecuaria en America and promoting agricultural technologies. Agricultural tech- Equinoccia. la Edicion. Imprenta Departmental. Cali, Colombia.
nologies should be approached from the viewpoint of a sys- Redclift, M. 1989. The environmental consequences of Latin America's agricultems analysis rather than based on analyses of discrete agro- tural development: Some thoughts on the Bruntland Commission Report.
nomic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors (Conway, World Development, 17:365-377.
Roling, N., J. Ashcroft, and F.W. Chege. 1976. The diffusion of innovations and 1991). Agronomic comparisons of agricultural technologies the issue of equity in rural development. In E.M. Rodgers. Communication and
limited to measurements of productivity are ineffective in development. Sage Publications. Beverly Hills, CA.
assessing the sustainability of the technologies. On-farm ex5

Since the early 1960s, I have worked in lowland Bolivia, of the region, and very few indigenous groups have avoided the westernmost part of the Amazon Basin. Typically, I leave this clash of cultures. Unfortunately for many, these first the US from Miami, traveling on Lloyd Aereo Boliviano, encounters brought sickness and death, resulting in swift and Bolivia's national airline, arriving in the lowland city of Santa final extinction before any outsider even knew of their existCruz de la Sierra after an all-night flight. The flight makes one ence. Countless other communities simply disappeared as stop in Panama for refueling, and then we take a direct route Indians were enslaved to build the fortunes of notorious over the western Amazon, arriving at our destination an hour rubber barons who routinely tortured and murdered them. or two after sunrise. As the plane travels south, passengers Among the Panoans, a single linguistic group ravaged by the invariably comment on the vastness of the forest that is re- rubber boom, once thriving populations were reduced to vealed beneath us as the sun gradually rises to the left of the fragments: the Sharanahua in 1973 numbered only 90 indiaircraft. For, inspiteofthedevastationtotherainforest occurring viduals; the Chacobo in 1980, 260; the Matis in 1981, 138; and in many areas of the Amazon, much of this great wilderness is the Pacahuara now consist of nine people. still intact; and those who view it from a small window at Those who survive have experienced assimilation, 33,000 feet never fail to express their awe. marginalization, and certainly acculturation, finding themFrom this height, the Amazon has the appearance of a selves in a life and death struggle to hold onto their land, gray-green carpet, broken now and then by the ribbon of a values, and heritage as distinct ethnic groups. In recent years, meandering river. When I fly in to my research site a few days Native Amazonians have begun to fight back. They have later on a single engine Cessna, the forest takes on much formed political action groups, and have organized their local greater definition, with patches of trees in bloom, enormous constituencies under broad umbrella organizations such as lianas, stately emergents, and graceful, feather-like palms all COICA (The Coordinating Body for the Indigenous Peoples' visible in the landscape. Still, even at this much lower altitude, Organizations of the Amazon Basin), to voice their concerns to the forest exudes a silence and sense of impenetrability that national and international policy-makers who consistently many finding daunting if not threatening. As the small plane ride roughshod over the interests of indigenous people. These moves under the clouds, I am constantly struckby the thought groups have received support from organizations such as that under the canopy passing below much is going on, all but Cultural Survival, Survival International, the Interamerican invisible from the indifferent perspective of air travel. Foundation, and more recently from conservation groups who
I reflect on stories told to me by the Yuquf Indians, the realize that they share many goals with indigenous peoples of native Amazonian group I am on my way to work with, that the neotropics. However, this newfound relationship between relate how prior to contact they would look up through gaps conservation interests and indigenous rights organizations in the trees and see aircraft passing overhead. Ironically, in has not been without conflict. those days preceding any knowledge of the outside world, Perhaps in an overzealous attempt to promote and protect
these strange flying silver objects were thought to be evil the rights of indigenous peoples, conservationists and anthrospirits that could bring great harm to the Yuqui. The Yuqui pologists alike have presented Native Amazonians as peoples remained safely hidden from view under the protection of the with an inherent conservation ethic. As University of Florida canopy, building small fires whose smoke would mingle with biologist Kent Redford has commented, we have created a new the haze of the forest and dissipate before any telltale sign fallacy, that of the "ecologically noble savage," to the detriwould make known their presence. ment of both indigenous peoples and the environment. While
Travelers who periodically visited this area, navigating many native peoples have demonstrated that indigenous the narrow passages of rivers, or in more recent times flying knowledge can offer the insights and experience of hundreds swiftly over the difficult terrain, saw only the unending mo- if not thousands of years of adaptation to a fragile environnotony of an alien and hostile world. For them, this was ment, we also know that in the face of an expanding market unoccupied and unused land, an empty forest, waiting to be economy and the pressures of development, Indians like anybrought under the domination of the "civilizing" force of the one else are capable of overexploiting their resources. axe.There are very few peoples like the Yuqui left in the AllynacLeanteananProfessorfAnthropology the L~niersit:y
Amazon today, people who through historical accident and o Central Florida, is currently a Senior Fellow with the UP Tropical the vagaries of geopolitics managed to escape the onslaught of Coneron Snted thca
European settlers and the heirs to their traditions. The push to United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development develop the Amazon has now reached virtually every corner (UNCED).

This in no way should diminish our desire to encourage attack by proselytizers of Western religious ideology, frethe preservation of this knowledge, and more importantly, to quently impose rules of conduct that prohibit destructive use find ways to compensate indigenous peoples for the use of this of natural resources. As animists, believing that all things expertise. Intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples is animate and inanimate possess a spirit, they see themselves as a real issue that needs addressing, particularly given the part of the natural world; as recipients of the Judeo-Christian growing interest in finding sustainable, non-destructive uses tradition, they often are taught that nature is to be exploited of forest resources. Indian peoples are being asked to surren- and dominated. der their hard-won secrets of tapping the riches of the rain Indigenous patterns of communal land use still hold forest for the good of the planet, and in many cases, for the much greater promise for conservation than do western nogood of the industrialized world. Once this knowledge has tions of individual property rights that compel the struggling been freely given, the response is often to rob Indians of those settler to sell to the highest bidder and move on. Nonetheless, very resources they have offered with an open hand. Indig- most Latin American countries with agrarian reform laws enous people have the right to expect a fair exchange for their have difficulty dealing with the notions of both communal expertise from those who would use it for financial gain. land ownership and the granting of large tracts of land for
By paintingIndians as inherently natural conservationists purposes other than intensive agriculture. The philosophy, we also do them the disservice of failing to recognize that they often codified in law, that the forest must be destroyed to are part of a changing world and are subject to immense qualify land as being legitimately used must be changed. pressures to increase their participation in a wider political Indians not only have the right to retain and use the lands that system. Once in contact with the national society of which they they traditionally occupy, but even under conditions of acculquickly discover they are now a part, indigenous peoples turation, still offer the best hope for conserving, managing, and frequentlywant formal education, health care, and commodities rationally usinglarge areas of tropical forest and thus preserving that improve their quality of life and assist them in meeting the some of the biodiversity within it. requirements of becoming full participants in nation states and In June this year, the UN Conference on the Environment the world community. These services and commodities require and Development will convene in Brazil, a country which at least minimal involvement in the cash economy, a fact that encompasses the largest part of the Amazon Basin. Indigenous immediately places new demands on traditional resource use. people will be heard at this conference, but they will need the Typically, Indians must look to the forest for the products that understanding and support of everyone-delegates, observhave value in the outside world, and this exploitation may not ers, and those who follow the proceedings from more distant always be sustainable. places. We can expect that new environmental and development
At the same time, conservationists cannot demand that in policies will emerge as a result of this meeting, policies that will order to retain their land, native peoples must remain in have long-term repercussions on the future of Native isolated, stagnant communities using only limited forms of Amazonians and other indigenous peoples throughout the technology to exploit the environment in ways dictated by world. I believe that as a non-Indian, I can best serve their outsiders. Unfortunately, as is often the case, this strategy interests at this conference by simply reiterating their own denies the dynamic nature of culture and leads only to societies clearly- stated concerns and requests made by COICA to the that inevitably suffer marginalization, poverty, and the de- conservation community: struction of those very traditions and values that were naively "We are concerned that you have left us, the Indigenous thought to be preserved by these attempts to stop the forces of Peoples, out of your vision of the Amazonian Biosphere. The change. Rather, conservationists should work with native focus of concern of the environmental community has typically peoples as equal partners in developing alternative strategies been the preservation of the tropical forest and its plant and to forest destruction, listening to their needs and learning from animal inhabitants. You have shown little interest in its human indigenous experience. Native Amazonians know the forest inhabitants who are also part of that biosphere. better than anyone else. And while they may not be natural "We are concerned about the 'debt for nature swaps' conservationists one and all, many respect the need to conserve which put your organizations in a position of negotiating with the forest and the resources it holds if for no other reason than our governments for the future of our homelands. We know to insure their own survival. of specific examples of such swaps which have shown the most
Through generations of trial and error, indigenous peoples brazen disregard for the rights of the indigenous inhabitants have selected and cultivated native crops that are well-adapted and which are resulting in the ultimate destruction of the very to the soil and climatic conditions of the Amazon. They have forests which they were meant to preserve. developed methods of cultivation that produce excellent har- "We are concerned that you have left us Indigenous vests on difficult tropical soils. Indigenous peoples have learned Peoples and our organizations out of the political process to manage wild species of fruits and nuts to insure both their which is determining the future of our homeland. While we own sustenance as well as that of the fish and game on which appreciate your efforts on our behalf, we want to make it clear they depend for meat. Their belief systems, under unrelenting continued on page 9...

pursue: 1) implementation of democracy in lieu of fascist or
THE OAS IN THE NEW WORLD ORDER: communist government; 2) installation of a free market
A NEED TO REDEFINE SOVEREIGNTY? economy; and 3) reliance upon the rule of law to solve potential
bJoehM. Bernadel problems. In light of this concept, what should be the role of an
&y Jsephinternational organization such as the GAS in the face of a illegitimate takeover within one of the member states?
Well before the 1948 Bogoti Conference, which saw the Perhaps encouraged by a political climate in which for the adoption of the present Charter of the Organization of Ameni- first time in four decades all member states were enjoying can States, the central principle underlying the inter-American democratic rule, the OAS was already moving at its Santiago system was that of mutual respect for the sovereignty, inde- Conference, toward the adoption of stronger mechanisms to pendence, and territorial integrity of all member states. In line ensure the consolidation of regional democracies. A key initiawith these principles was the concept of non-intervention by tive was the decision to have an automatic convening of all any state in the domestic affairs of another. In 1967 and 1985, foreign ministers within ten days of any crisis that threatened the Charter was amended to reflect the desires of member democracy in the hemisphere. Since specific options were not states to "modify the working structure of the organization" clearly stipulated in the initiative, it gave rise to conjecture (GAS Charter, 1989). More recently, in June 1991, during its about a possible break with the central principle of non21st General Assembly in Santiago, Chile, in what has been intervention. construed as a departure from the sacrosanct tenets of non- Frustration engendered by the perceived inability of the intervention, the OAS stipulated some steps itwill take to deter present GAS Charter to resolve adequately many issues was and punish illegitimate regimes in the region in the "future." evident during our MOAS deliberations, reflecting a broader With the coup d'6tat in Haiti some three months later in public dissatisfaction with the half-way measures exemplified September 1991, the "future" was suddenly the present and in the handling of the Haitian crisis. After all, there was a clearthe GAS was challenged to a test of its resolve. Today, the cut case of violation of international norms, of defiance of the questions are: Should the GAS remain, as presently constituted, international community, and of a threat to hemispheric peace simply a consultative body, or should it be strengthened so as the forceful overthrow, by military leaders, of a legitimately to be able to back up its rhetoric and enable it to successfully constituted democratic government. A clearer scenario, reresolve conflict in the region? Will the GAS become a force at quiring swifter and more immediate action will probably last, or will it be dismissed as another "Potomac debating never exist. And yet, some six months later, the situation is far society"? from being resolved. In February, Emory University political
These concerns and many others were hotly debated scientist Robert A. Pastor underscored the repercussions of during the Twelfth Annual Model Organization of American hesitant reaction when he wrote: "Last fall, Venezuelan States (MOAS), held in Washington, D.C., November 11-15, President Carlos Andr6s Perez, Latin America's most forceful 1991. MOAS is the only simulation of a regional international spokesman for democracy, argued that if the GAS failed to body held at the headquarters of the organization (see related reverse the coup in Haiti, then every democracy in the hemiarticle, p.1'4). Every year it invites some 400 students from sphere would be at risk. The coup still stands and Mr. Perez' some 42 universities to represent the 36 member states of the prophesy came true in his country' (1992). The joke is already GAS and to take a stand in discussing the prevailing issues circulating among Haitians, here and in Haiti, that General facing the Americas and to propose solutions. Seven Univer- Cedras of the Haitian army had ordered the February coup in sity of Florida students serendipitously represented the member Venezuela because P6rez had given shelter to Haiti's Jeanstate of Haiti and were in the "hot seat" throughout the Bertrand Aristide. Recognizing this danger to regional deconference, in light of the recent coup in that country. mocracy, many U.S. newspaper editorials and columnists, and
This forum provided the impetus for my reflections on the various political leaders, are calling for additional steps, inrole of the GAS during these tumultuous socio-political changes cluding multinational intervention. that face not only our hemisphere but indeed the rest of the The concept of the New World Order, if more fully subworld. I submit that one way the GAS might respond to these scribed to by member states of the GAS, could provide the new developments is through a redefinition of the principle of organization with the legitimacy necessary to consider yet sovereignty. As presently understood within the international stronger measures in the handling of the Haitian crisis or community sovereignty refers to the autonomy, the indepen- similar future crises in the hemisphere. Should sovereignty dence, and the freedom of each state from external control, remain such an absolute principle, or can it be partially or Although a strict definition of sovereignty is not readily ac- temporarily ceded to a joint authority, even one external to the cepted by all members of the international community, it is party or parties involved? The reluctance to redefine the safe to say that military intervention in a nation's internal JoehM. Bend a Haittirn-Amerkan, will comnpltee the M4ALAS affairs by any external force has not been embraced. degreethis Suimmer withaoncentration inPolitical Sineand thesis
The "New World Order," writes political scientist William workon the Hait ian military, A Maporin the US, Army, hewtl ei A. Miller (1991), is a concept, as articulated by the Bush an asignment at the Department of Defense it Wa~hington, 0l,C, n administration, recommending that countries aggressively August.

principle of sovereignty was understandable at a time when REFERENCES cold war security requirements could have provided the United Ball, Margaret. (1969). The OAS in Transition. Durham, N.C.: Duke University States with a pretext for unilateral military or political inter- Press. vention in the Americas, a probability that was perhaps as Crossette, Barbara. (March 11, 1992). NATO Eyes Military Role to Halt disquieting to Latin Americans as the threat of communism. Azerbaijani Feud. The New York Times. But times have changed and the OAS needs new tools for new Miller, William A. (November 1991). New World Order: What in the World Is tasks. It? Washington International.
OAS. (1989). Charter of the OAS. Washington, D.C.: OEA/SER A/2, English One of these "new" tools could be the Inter-American Rev. 2.
Defense Board (IADB). A lesser known organ of the OAS, but Pastor, Robert A. (February 9, 1992). Coup Threat Calls for Hemispheric nonetheless an important one, the IADB was established in Measures. Atlanta Constitution. 1942 specifically for hemispheric defense and security. While still entrusted with that mission, the Board today, made up THE FOREST IS NOT EMPTY
only of 20 of the 36 member states, is primarily focused on promoting military cooperation and solidarity among all na- ... continued from page 7 tions of the Americas. I believe this body should become fully integrated into the GAS, and that all members should consider that we never delegated any power of representation to the
interatd ito he ASandthatallmemersshold onsder environmentalist community nor to any individual or organijoining. Such a move would strengthen the OAS and provide enionmentat community it with the multilateral basis to implement stronger measures z Within that county.
to potet dmocacy n te Aerias."We propose that you work directly with our organizatperhpt democrat ic in tiut rios options on all your programs and campaigns which affect our
Perhaps the democratic institutions presently in place in hmlns
many OAS member countries are not sufficiently strong to ho ends. withstand the risks inherent in rapid political change. Never- "We propose that you swap 'debt for indigenous stewtheless, at a time when the United Nations has sent its peace- ardship' which would allow your organizations to help return keeping forces to the Middle East, Africa, India, Southeast Asia areas of the Amazonian rainforest to our care and control. (Cambodia), Eastern Europe, and Latin America (El Salvador), t epopose establishin manent di g th you and when NATO is considering intervention to help settle the toeveo feud in Azerbaijan (Crossette, March 11, 1992), isn't it con- forest. ceivable that the OAS should take a more prominent, active w e pro eni hands nit tho
role in its own community? worldwide environmentalist community who:
It is customary for the OAS to review the resolutions recognize our historical role as caretakers of the Amazon Basin submitted and adopted by the members of the MOAS. At supportoureffortstoreclaimanddefendourtraditionalterritories
times, these resolutions find their way to the actual OAS accept our organizations as legitimate and equal partners forum. I do not doubt that our deliberations received added "We propose reaching out to other Amazonian peoples scrutiny this year, for while we students debated ways to such as the rubber tappers, the Brazil-nut gatherers, and others strengthen the OAS as a political forum and to restore democ- whose livelihood depends on nondestructive extractive acracy in Haiti, the actual diplomats were huddled in the back tivities, many of whom are of indigenous origin. rooms of the very same building grappling with similar issues. "e propof ha o id in g orn. It was a true case of art imitating life. As students we felt "We propose that you consider allying yourselves with privileged to be on center stage at such a critical period in the us, the Indigenous Peoples of the Amazon, in defense of our life of an institution which under one form or another has been Amazonian homeland (COICA, excerpts from 'Two Agendas promoting representative democracy and trying to raise the op n uae
living standards of citizens of the Americas since the Lima 1989). Conference of 1847. While future participants may not be as The United Nations has designated next year, 1993, as the fortunate as our group was to represent a country embroiled in Year of Indigenous Peoples. But this celebration will have little such a relevant crisis, I enjoin all students of Latin American meaning if sound and just decisions regarding the rights of studies to take the opportunity to participate in MOAS. indigenous people are not made this year in Brazil. Perhaps it
It is my hope that the OAS will continue to consider is fitting that in 1992, the year marking the 500th anniversary regional democracy as its greatest goal and will show a will- of the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, some attempt be ingness to make hard choices while pursuing that goal. In a made to rectify the horrendous effect this arrival had on native speech given at the OAS on November 15, while the MOAS peoples. While there is no way to undo the past, we can was in session, Argentine President Carlos Saul Menem put it influence the course of the future. The forest is not empty, and succinctly: "La experiencia de Haiti, nos sefiala que la buena its fate certainly should not be determined without the full disposici6n y la concreta orientaci6n precisan todavia de m~is participation of the indigenous people who consider it their agiles mecanismos y facultades para armonizar nuestras iniciativas y decisiones. Esta es la hora del cambio, de la imaginaci6n, de la creatividad."

The Center for Latin American resettled to make way for major devel- derstanding the Political Culture of InStudies' (CLAS) forty-first annual con- opment projects, particularly reservoirs, voluntary Resettlement in Mexico." ference, "Involuntary Migration and highways, and hydroelectric complexes. Eleno GarciaBenavente, of the Comisi6n Resettlement in Latin America," was Other affected groups, such as indig- Federal de Electricidad in Mexico, spoke held on April 2-4,1992. The conference's enous peoples in the AmazonBasin, have on the "Desarrollo institucional en el organizers, Drs. Anthony Oliver-Smith been relocated simply because they have proceso de los reacomodos and Art Hansen of the Department of occupied land desired for use by major- involuntarios: Aspectos relevantes de la Anthropology, assembled a number of ity populations. Frequent failure of experiencia de la Comisi6n Federal de important scholars and policy makers planned resettlement projects to meet Electricidad de Mexico." Endingthe first from Latin America and offered them the needs of involuntarily relocated day, Alaka Wali, of the University of the opportunity to exchange perspec- peoples compounds the trauma of dis- Maryland's Department of Anthropoltivesoncauses, problems, and strategies ruption. It has also become clear that ogy, presented"RegionsofTurmoil:The for confronting the difficult complex of large-scale involuntarily resettled Politics of Involuntary Resettlement." issues represented by the involuntary populations seriously affect environ- Each paper was followed by a vigorous resettlement of populations. mental conditions and resource alloca- discussion by conference participants
Involuntary migration and resettle- tion in the receiving areas, and present and the audience at large.
ment are major problems in Latin difficult economic and social problems On Friday, Elena Correa Cortes, of
America. As many as 4.5 million Latin for the host countries and regions. Proyecto Guavio in Bogota, Colombia, Americans have had to flee their nations Events and policies that drive in- started the day with her paper on or have suffered internal displacement voluntary migration and resettlement in "Identificaci6n de variables psicosociales because of political oppression, war, or LatinAmericahavebecomeincreasingly implicados en los procesos de conditions created by natural and tech- common and severe in the last twenty- desplazamiento y relocalizaci6n nological hazards. Hundreds of thou- five years, and show little sign of abat- involuntario de poblaciones." Alex sands of people have been uprooted and ing. Latin American development pri- Stepick, of the Department of Anthroorities currently include projects that pologyandSociologyatFloridaInternahave or are destined to collectively up- tional University, spoke on "Prejudice FACULTY SPEAK AT root many hundreds of thousands of Against Pride: The Resettlement of HaiEARTH SUMMIT people before the year 2000. If these tian Refugees in Miami." Though
problems are to be addressed produc- Leopoldo Bartolom6 of the Latin AmeriThe Gainesville Chapter of the tively in terms of human welfare and can Faculty of the Social Sciences at the United Nations Association very suc- regional development, cost/benefit Universidade de Brasilia was unable to cessfully organized and held analyses must be carried out through attend the conference, his paper, "Gainesville's Earth Summit" on the interdisciplinary and cross-national col- "Fighting Leviathan: The Articulation University of Florida campus last Feb- laboration. Not only must academic and Spread of Local Opposition to ruary 4-5. The conference, inspired by questions of social and psychological HydrodevelopmentinBrazil," was read. the upcoming June UN Conference on dynamics be addressed, but also issues Finally, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro of the Dethe Environment and Development of development policy and practice. partment of Anthropology at the
(UNCED) in Rio de Janiero, Brazil, fea- The conferencebegan on Thursday, Universidade de Brasilia, presented a tured presentations by CLAS' Drs. April 2, with President John Lombardi's paper on "Impact and Participation: The
Steven Sanderson and Allyn Stearman. commentary on the important nature of Pueblo of Ituzaingo (Corrientes, ArgenDr. Sanderson, Professor of Politi- the issues to be discussed. Dr. Terry tina) and the Yacyreta Project."
cal Science and Director of the Tropical McCoy, Director of CLAS, welcomed On Saturday Maria Teresa Serra Conservation and Development Pro- the conference participants to the Uni- Fernandes, of ELETROBRAS in Brazil,
gram (TCD), gave the Keynote Address versity of Florida. Miguel Alberto presented the final paper, entitled on the subject of "UNCED and the En- Bartolom6, of the Instituto Nacional de "Economic Growth, Hydropower Devironmental Agenda of the 1990s." Antropologia e Historia at the Centro velopment, and Population Resettlement
Dr. Stearman, Professor of Anthro- Regional de Oaxaca of the Universidad in Brazilian Amazonia." The conference pology at the University of Central de M6xico, opened the conference with was concluded with panel summary Florida and Senior Fellow with the TCD his paper on "Presas relocalizaciones de discussions led by Alicia Barabds of the Program at UF, presented a paper en- Indigenas en America Latina ." Scott Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e titled, "The Forest Is Not Empty: Indig- Robinson, of the Universidad Aut6noma Historia, Centro Regional de Oaxaca and enous People, Conservation, and Devel- Metropolitana in Mexico, presented the conference co-organizers, Anthony opment in Amazonia" (see p. 6). "Participation and Accountability: Un- Oliver-Smith and Art Hansen.

i1camat-i CENTER NEWS Ei
Three separate proposals from alcohol and drug use, the skills neces- Throughout this Spring, and conCLAS affiliate faculty have won awards sary to resist pressures to use alcohol tinuing in the Fall, the Center for Latin this Spring from the University of and drugs, and the helping roles peers American studies has organized a Miami's North-South Center. Drs. can play in the prevention of alcohol and number of events highlighting various
Charles H. Wood, Associate Professor of drug-related problems. aspects of Mexico and its relations with
Sociology, and Jos6 Alberto Magno de Middle school teachers in five pri- the United States. CLAS received a delCarvalho will be investigating "Frontier vate and five public schools in La Paz egation from Veracruz, Mexico, helped Expansion, Deforestation and will be selected and trained in the sponsor and coordinate a conference on Biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon, implementation of the unit, with assis- the U.S.-Mexican free trade agreement, 1980-1991." Dr. Gerardo Gonzdlez, tance from an instructor's manual now and featured a photography exhibit of Chairperson of the Department of being developed. It is also expected that Mexican artists (see p.14).
Counselor Education, intends to con- networks developedbetween personnel From March 2-6, a delegation of
duct a survey of drug education in Bo- in the schools, Ministry of Health, and faculty members from the Universidad livian schools. Finally, Dr. Elizabeth professional psychological societies in Veracruzana visited the University of Lowe, Acting Executive Director of the Bolivia, and knowledge gained as a re- Florida campus for a number of proFlorida/Brazil Institute will be Co-Prin- sult of this project, will have implications ductive meetings with CLAS faculty and cipal Investigator with Dr. Jon L. Mills, for dealing with other international UF administrators on the subject of the Director of the Center for Governmental health problems such as HIV infection U.S.-Mexican free trade agreement and Responsibility, for a Florida/Parand and AIDS. the strengthening of ties between UF
(Brazil) Collaboration Project on Envi- The Florida/Parand project will be and UV. Last October, a CLAS delegaronmental Administration. carried out by a consortium of institu- tion had travelled to UV for a "Coloquio
Dr. Wood and Dr. Carvalho, a fac- tions in the southern Brazilian state of Sobre el Papel de las Universidades en el ulty member of the Center for Economic Parand and experts on environmental Marco del Tratado del Libre Comercio." Development and Regional Planning legislation from Florida. The objective of The delegation included CLAS Director (CEDEPLAR) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, the program, which will feature confer- Dr. Terry L. McCoy; Dr. Christopher 0. will develop an interdisciplinary per- encesandsitevisitsinParandandFlorida Andrew, Director of the Trade and Agspective that joins three sources of data on environmentally challenging areas, ricultural Policy Center at UF; Dr. for every county (municipio) in is to produce a bilingual manual for the Michael W. Gordon of the UF Law
Amazonia: 1) sociodemographic and administration of endangered environ- School; Dr. Don McGlothlin, Deanofthe economic information, derived from ments in Brazil and Florida. Dr. Mills is College of Fine Arts; and Prof. George samples of the 1980 and 1991 demo- the author of Florida's Environmental Scheffer of the College of Architecture. graphic censuses; 2) satellite images of Protection Act; he and his colleagues On March6,CLASjoinedtheTampa changes in land cover over the same will work with Brazilian counterparts to Bay International Trade Council and the period; and 3) biological data on the update both legislation and environ- Latin American and Caribbean Center spatial distribution of animal species. mental management tools forthe partner at Florida International University in The research design investigates hy- states. sponsoring a conference on "U.S.potheses that specify relationships both Mexican Free Trade: Challenges and
within and across each of the three Opportunities for Florida." Highlights
analytical tiers. The project willbe ajoint of the conference, which saw over one
effort between UF faculty members and hundred participants, included an
CEDEPLAR in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. opening statementby UF PresidentJohn
Dr. Gonzilez will be embarking on V. Lombardi, and an insightful luncheon
a study, in April 1992, to test the cross- speech by U.S. Rep. Sam Gibbons (D-Fl,
cultural application of an alcohol and Tampa), Chair of the House Subcomdrug education unit in the middle schools mittee on Trade of the Committee on
of La Paz, Bolivia. The drug education Ways and Means.
unit consists of twelve individualized This Fall, another delegation from
skills-based curricular sessions designed UV will arrive at CLAS for further meetto raise awareness of the risks associated ings and a variety of cultural events and
with alcohol and other drug use, the lectures.
factors that contribute to the initiation of

The popular artifact collections known as traveling suit- editor, with faculty ethnomusicologists Larry Crook and cases were in use almost constantly during the academic year. Deborah Pacini Hernandez serving on the advisory board. An Materials for a complete new suitcase on Venezuela were interview with Charles Keil, author of Urban Blues and Tiv donated by Margaret J. Keller, a Spanish teacher at Seminole Song, will be featured. Contact the Center about receiving it. Middle School in St. Petersburg, Florida. Recipient of a For further information about Outreach services, contact Rockefeller Scholarship in 1989, Keller consulted with Out- Linda Miller, Center for Latin American Studies, 319 Grinter reach Coordinator Linda Miller on types of artifacts to look for Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2037 (phone during her summer of language and culture study in Venezu- 904-392-0375; FAX 904-392-7682). ela. Spanish teachers were introduced to the collection by Keller at the 1991 meeting of the Florida Foreign Language Association.
Other suitcases in the program are on Bolivia, Brazil, LIBRARIAN ROSA MESA
Mexico, Peru, the Caribbean, and Central RETIRES
~~America. Artifacts are being collected for a dupicate suitcase on Mexico and new suitcases on Rosa Mesa, a virtual institution at the University Argentina, Colombia, and Costa Rica. If you are Libraries' Latin American Collection, has retired. For interest i doatig atifats r wuldlik to over three decades, she helped build up the renowned develop your own suitcase for classroom use, collection and caringly guided countless hundreds of
0 contact Linda Miller at the address below, students, faculty, and visiting scholars through its
U MULTICULTURAL WORKSHOP corridors. Her expertise and friendly manner will be
T Ethnomusicologist Charles Keil gave a Bfoel hiser baontmny tUFi.91,Rsa
R multicultural workshop on "Incorporating Af- r eive her ph.D.tman MLS degee fn16,Roma hed R rican and Latin American Music into the Public Uncivesdd e PhavnaiD 4 and 1960 derespeomtive
E School Curriculum" to Alachua County teach- Utlngtniveri e experaie94nce throghou heei-y
A ers; he chairs American Studies at SUNY-Buf- UtlznexnsvepricehouottehmA falo. Larry Crook, UF ethnomusicologist and sphere, she has compiled a number of bibliographies,
C director of the Brazilian Music Ensemble, of- reference resources, and bookreviews, including: Latin
H feed eachrs ollo-upactiitis. Cookand American Serial Documents for Colombia, Brazil, Cuba,
H Cfried teaer fllow-upactiviotie coolan Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay,
ChristedSao the Alarv chu Coutyechols Perdi, Uruguay, and Venezuela (a holding list in 12
Landa theiservc eaventshp n ai volumes); and "The ALA Yearbook 1977: A Review of
Lmeicnd Milrhe worksops onetnarLatn Library Events, 1976," in Inter-American Review of Biblitameriand StJhs Coumbus Qucensthenaryuto- ographies, Vol. XXVIII, No.1, 1978.
insSt.looina Cont Scols the So u th-,an Current MALAS student Eduardo Romero recently
wet Falorida Coatio ote ScalSude.n commented that, "Dofia Rosa offered much more than
at Vldota impressive knowledge of the collection. She always
SUMMER INSTITUTE added interesting anecdotes on the scholarly exploits
of students and faculty whom she has assisted over the
The History Teaching Alliance and the Center for Latin years. Her insightful suggestions were always carefully American Studies will cosponsor "Encounters of Culture: Per- gvnadmd yrsac htmc oestsy
spectives on the Columbian Quincentenary," a summer insti- in. tute for Florida social studies teachers. The institute is made gOeapc fhrcrerhr htIrmme
possible by the generous support of the Florida Humanities most was her great care of visitors to the Collection," Council. Since 1988, the Center has organized annual institutes recalls CLAS Director Terry McCoy. "Often when I am and numerous workshops for teachers on five centuries of in Latin America and meeting with scholars who have history in the Americas. done research at UF, they immediately and warmly
DIALOGO inquire, 'How is Dofia Rosa?"' Indeed, she has made
many friends over the years through her thoughtful
Dialogo, the outreach newsletter, is about to reappear after guidance of others. We all wish her well in the future. a hiatus of almost ten years, with a special issue on Latin American music. Graduate Assistant Darby Raiser is student __________________________12

I1011011 CENTER NEWS i111i
Seven UF students, attending the twelfth annual Model The Tropical Conservation and Development Program at Organization of American States in Washington, D.C., No- CLAS has announced the recipients of its fellowships for the vember 11-15, represented the member state of Haiti, a chal- upcoming summer and academic year. Receiving Fellowship lenging task given the September 20 military coup in that Awards for the1992-93 year were: country (see related article p.8). Sandra Encalada-Boomershine (Ecuador), entering M.S. candiModel OAS is the only simulation of a regional interna- date in Wildlife Biology.
tional body held at the headquarters of the organization. This Jos6 Gobbi (Argentina), entering MALAS-TCD candidate. was the second year of UF's participation, and MALAS student Hugo Guillen (M6xico), continuing M.E. candidate in EnvironMark Baird was on hand to advise the delegates on parlia- mental Engineering. mentary procedure, based on his experience as Head Delegate Joe Meisel (USA), entering M.S. candidate in Wildlife Biology. at the eleventh model. MALAS student Joseph Bernadel, who Heidi Rubio (Colombia), entering MALAS-TCD candidate. is a Haitian-American, lent verisimilitude to the group, serv- Francisca Saavedra (Chile), entering M.S. candidate in Foring as Head Delegate on the General Committee. Kelly Crosby estry. and Liza Marie Perdomo served on the Juridical and Political Charles Tambiah (Sri Lanka), entering Ph.D. candidate in Committee. William Jimenez and MALAS student Ydwine Wildlife Biology.
van Gorkum formed the I conomic and Social Committee.
van Gorkum formed othe Ednomic and Social Committee. Rajaratnam Rajanathan (Malaysia), received a Summer 1992
Elizabeth Smith worked on the Educational, Scientific, and fellowship for continuing study as an M.S. candidate in WildCultural Committee, and Robert Ballou formed the Adminis- life Biology. trative and Budgetary Committee. Dr. Linda Miller continued Heliodoro Argiiello (Colombia), enteringpost-bacalaureate in
*Heliodoro Argilello (Colombia), entering post-bacalaureate in
in her second year as faculty advisor and chaired the faculty Forestry, won a fellowship for the Fall 1992 semester. advisors' meeting at the OAS. Rosa Lemos de Sa (Brazil), continuing Ph.D. candidate in
Wildlife Biology, also won a fellowship for Fall 1992.
Norris H. Williams. Curator and Chairman, Department MontserratOrd6fxez, FulbrightVisitingProfessorat CLAS, of Natural Sciences, Fl'-rida Mv- -um of Natural History, re- holds aPh.D.inComparativeLiterature from theUniversity of ceived his Ph.D. from the University of Miami in 1971, his B.S. Wisconsin at Madison, and is Professor of Literature at the and M.S. in 1964 and 1966, respect -ely, from the University of Universidad de Los Andes, and a part-time faculty member at Alabama, and has been at UF sin,; 1981. His teaching experi- the Universidad Nacional, in BogotA, Colombia. Dr. Ord6fiez ences have included courses in e 1lution, reproductive biol- is a widely published poet and essayist, with specializations in ogy of flowering plants, field botany, speciation, plant diver- Latin American women's literature and the narrative of the sity, and scientific photography. Dr Williams' research inter- jungle. She is the author of La vordgine: Textos critics (BogotA: ests, which have taken him to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Alianza, 1987), Ekdysis (poems, 1987), the annotated edition of Panama and Suriname, include: attraction of euglossine bees Jos6 Eustasio Rivera's La vordgine (Madrid: CAtedra, 1990), and to floral fragrances and poii nation nf aroids, gesneriads, and is presently working on a book on gender and Latin American orchids by euglossine bees; systematics and evolution of the narrative. During her semester at CLAS, she taught a Latin Orchidaceae; and the chemistry of floral fragrances. Currently American seminar titled "Beyond 1992: Inter-American Culhe is conducting a study of native orchids of Ecuador. He co- tural Encounters," and participated in the CLAS Colloquium authored, with R.L. Rodriguez Caballero, et al, Gineros de Series with a talk on "Reflejos de la novela de la selva: selva Orquideas de Costa Rica (Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, espejo y selva bruja." She also gave an invited lecture on "One 1986), contributing part of the Spanish botanical portion of the Hundred Years of Unread Writing: Colombian Women Writtext and a translation of the book into English. Dr. Williams ers," at the Center for Research on Women at Tulane Univeralso has published numerous articles including: "A New sity, and presented papers at the Conference on "RediscoverSpecies of Gongora (Orchidaceae) from Ecuador," with C.H. ing America 1492-1992" at Louisiana State University, and the Dodson and W.M. Whitten, in Lindleyana (1989, 4:30-32); Thirteenth Annual Conference on Latin American Literature, "Function of Glandular Secretions in Fragrance Collection by entitled "Encuentros con el otro: Latinoambrica y Espafia" at Male Euglossine Bees (Apidae: Euglossini)," with W.M. Whitten Montclair State University, New Jersey. and A.M. Young, in J. Chemical Ecology (1989,15:1285-1295); and
"Stanhopea panamensis, A New Species from Central Panama
(Orchidaceae)," with W.M. Whitten, in Lindleyana (1988, 3).

i~~tiCENTER NEWS 110111
The Amazon Re- '" a, being planned for social scisearch and Training Pro- ence methodologies, gender
gram at the University of issues, and environmental
Florida's Center for Latin planning. Two PESACRE
American Studies contin- members will be on the UF
ues to strengthen its pro- campus this summer to regram of collaborative ceive training in innovative
work in Brazil through extension techniques and
two major federal grants. agricultural research.
The first award, a three- During its first year,
year grant from the United PESACRE has grown from
States Agency for Inter- an informal group of local
national Development technicians to a model NGO
(USAID) is now in its dedicated to research,
eighteenth month of training and extension, and
project activities in the to stimulating inter-institustate of Acre. A second Cartaxo Nobre, PESACRE's Executive Coordinator, interviews an indigenous leader in one of Acre's tional cooperation. award from the United indigenous reserves. With support from a US AID grant, UF and PESACRE are working together with PESACRE has been a cataStates Information forest-dwelling communities on agroforestry and natural forest management projects. Photo by Connie lytic force in strengthening
Campbell. ltcfrei teghnn
Agency (USIA) for $74,990 inter-institutional relations
is in its second year of supporting a of 1992. Dr. Schmink has been in Acre among state and federal governmental collaborative research and educational since August of 1991 and will return to agencies, NGOs and international instiprogram at the state of Minas Gerais' the UF campus this May. tutions. Continued training of local
Universidade Federal (UFMG). Through the UF-USAID grant, technicians in interdisciplinary and parThe USAID grant was awarded in PESACRE now has 11 projects in ticipatory research and extension in
August of 1990 through AID's Global agroforestry and natural forest manage- conjunction with rubber tappers, coloClimate Change Program. The grant ment which are complemented by tech- nist farmers and indigenous groups,
supports the "Agroforestry Develop- nical assistance and rural extension ac- stands out as one of PESACRE's major ment Program for Small Producers in tivities. These projects include "Collec- achievements. The capacityof the group the State of Acre, Brazil" with a total tion, Conservation and Study of Native to establish and maintain trusting and budget of $ 1,160,462. UF's counterpart Fruit Trees of Acre," "Economic and interactive working relationships with institution on this project is the Acre- Floral Potential ofNative Palm Species," producercommunitieshasbeenthecorbased non-governmental organization "Participatory Research in Agroforestry nerstone of PESACRE's success during (NGO), PESACRE (Pesquisa e Extensao Systems in Extractive Reserves" and its first year. em Sistemas Agroflorestais do Acre), a "Model Apiary and Laboratory for the The second grant, UF's collaboramembership organization composed of Control of Honey Quality". These and tiveprogramwiththeUFMG, hasproven researchers and technicians from Acre's other projects are carried out by local very effective in stimulating interdisciuniversity, state and federal agencies, technicians working together with colo- plinary action on the UFMG campus. In and local NGOs. PESACRE grew out of nist farmers, rubber tappers, and indig- November of 1990, UFMG faculty reprethe two training courses in farming sys- enous communities. sentatives from the department of Ecoltems research and extension offered by Along with these field projects, ogy, Conservation and Wildlife ManUF in 1988 and 1989 in Acre with the PESACREhascarriedoutmanytraining agement and the Center for Developsupport of the Ford Foundation. activities for local technicians. In Octo- ment and Regional Planning
PESACRE now has over 50 technical ber 1991, PESACRE sponsored a two- (CEDEPLAR) met with UF counterparts
members from 13 institutions in Rio day methodological workshop on in Gainesville. UFMG faculty's collaboBranco, the capital of Acre. In Septem- "Women in Agroforestry Production" rativeexperienceduringthistripresulted ber of 1990, MALAS graduate Connie with Dr. Marianne Schmink and Connie in a joint proposal between the two deCampbell travelled to Acre with Dr. Campbell servingasinstructors. Injuly partmentsforamajorresearchendeavor Marianne Schmink to initiate program 1991, UF agronomy professor Dr. Ken in the Rio Doce Valley of Minas Gerais. activities. Ms. Campbell served as the Buhr led a course on field plot tech- UFMG has received a $1,497,000 grant UF Field Coordinator for the program's niques and statistics for PESACRE from the Brazilian government for this first year and will return to Acre in May members. Additional workshops are continued next page...

On April 19,1992, Dr. Alfred Hower,
Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages and Literatures and Latin
American Studies, died. He was 77.
Dr. Hower taught at the University
of Florida for 25 years, retiring formally
in 1985, but continuing to teach for two
more years. He was widely known as
the co-editor, with Richard Preto-Rodas,
of a bestselling text for the teaching of
Portuguese, Cronicas Brasilieras: A Portuguese Reader. The two also co-edited a
teaching text of stories and poems by
Brazilian writer Carlos Drummond de
Andrade, Quarenta Historinhas e Cinco
Participants in the UF-sponsored course in farming systems research and training in 1989 in Acre, Brazil. Many of these Poemas. A third collaborative effort grew local researchers are now members of PESACRE. Photo by Connie Campbell. out of the 30th annual CLAS conference; the book, Empire in Transition: The Portuguese World in the time of Camoes, cornenvironmental analysis research project. framework of analysis for the develop- memorated the 400th anniversary of the
During1991,fourfacultyexchanges ment of interdisciplinary research great Portuguese poet, Luis de Camoes, took place. UFMG Professor Castor projects. Some of these projects will be withaselectionofarticleson16thcentury
Cartelle Guerra visited the UF campus funded under the new program in the PortugalanditspresenceinBrazil, Africa, from January through February of 1991. Rio Doce Valley. As part of the course, and Asia. During his stay he worked closely with participants took a field trip to the Rio "For many years, his dedicated Dr. David Webb of the Florida Museum Doce site. teaching and boundless enthusiasm for
of Natural History. UF Sociology Pro- Future activities under the USIA his subject prepared students like me to
fessor Charles H. Wood visited the exchange include a research workshop conduct research in Brazil," said Linda
UFMG in June of 1991 to plan for an in May of 1992 as a follow-up to the Miller, CLAS Outreach Coordinator. interdisciplinary course on Population course offered by Dr. Wood. UF Pro- "His teaching extended outside the and Environment. Dr. Tom Crisman of gram Director Dr. Marianne Schmink classroom to organizing an annual BraUF's Department of Environmental En- will also visit Belo Horizonte in May to zilian Carnaval and weekly bate-papo gineering visited UFMG in August to conduct an interdisciplinary seminar on discussion groups. In addition, he asconsult with counterpart faculty about "Women and Development: Project sisted in the summer study abroad prothe development of a course in tropical Methodologies." The course will pro- gram in Brazil and a faculty exchange limnology to be offered at the Federal vide a background in using gender as a agreement in Portugal. Faculty and stuUniversity in Brasilia. From the UF De- variable in conservation and develop- dents alike benefited from the great care partment of Wildlife Biology, Professor ment projects. he took in the many courses he taught."
Lyn Branch spent three days in Belo "Al Hower created and sustained
Horizonte during which she consulted the Portuguese language program at UF,"
with UFMG faculty regarding possible said CLAS Director Terry McCoy. "He
collaborative projects, program devel- was also a key member of the Brazilianists
opment and training. contingent. Brazil had no greater friend
In November of 1991, the highlight than Al Hower."
of the USIA exchange program took He was born in 1915 in New York
place. Dr Charles Wood returned to City, and after delaying his education
UFMG to offer the course on Population due to the Depression, received the A.B.
and Environment for graduate students with distinction (Phi Beta Kappa) from
from both participating UFMG pro- the University of Michigan in 1939. His
grams. The course, modelled on inter- M.A. was from Northwestern (1940), and
disciplinary graduate seminars offered
at UF, will help to provide a common continued on page 17...

ManuelAIvarez Bravo, photographer, 1990. A photograph by Carole Patterson featured in her UF Grinter Gallery exhibit (Feb.
15-March 15), "Capturing the Spirit: Portraits of Contemporary Mexican Artists," which included text by author Margaret
Sayers Peden. Photo courtesy of Carole Patterson.
Ballet de Caracas, sponsored by the Center for the Performing Arts (CPA). The William Carter Scholar Fund was established in
Luis Arturo.Ramos.(Mexicanauthor), honor of Dr. William Carter, who from 1962 to 1978 as Li Atugo Rinors (Mexicand athore spfceofnordabyothe Professor of Anthropology and Director of CLAS, conCoudes ofan rtgas, spoke and The fiofteationath tributed greatly through his teaching, research,.and ad-.
Sneetude and rrs spok Conprr "Teito" ofthministrative skills to Latin American studies at DR. The
Intelecual nd rite inContmpoary exio."Fund, endowed by his family and friends, sponsors Latin Arturo Sandoval and the Cuban-American jazz En- American arts and humanities.
semble, sponsored by CPA. In March, the Fund brought distinguished Brazilian
Sukay (Bolivianmusic), sponsored by Acrosstown Repetory classical pianist Luiz de ivoura Castro for arecital entitled,
Theatre and CPA. "Music of the Americas." The program highlighted the
Top Vice @Haitian Band), sponsored by Club Creole. music of Cuba, Brazil, and Are .ia.Mr. de Moura
Castro's performance was the first annually occurring Los Arboles se Mueren de Pie dramana, sponsored by cultural event to be the Fund,
Latinos en Acci~n and Student Government,
i~li~ ii ii::iiii: i l~ ~ iiiil~ i~ iii~ iiiiiiiiiii~ ~~ii!!~ ~! ~ ~!!i ii! !!ii!!i:i!~ ~~~~~iiiiiiiiii~~!!~ ~!! i~::::!!!!:!!!!~ iiiii :::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::: : ::::::::::::: :: :: ::::::::: :::::: ; ::::::::::::::::: : ::::: ::: ::: :: :1 6: :: :: ::: ::::::

SURROUNDING COLUMBUS David Bray (Inter-American Foundation), "Forests and
QUINCENTENARY Forest Movements in Mexico: From Concessions to
Community Control."
Daniel Mato (Professor, Universidad Central de VenezuSilvano Lora (Artist from the Dominican Republic) per- Dela), "The Making of Oral Literature Ethnicad Naformed "Murals to Music: A Celebration of Art, Dance tonal Identity in the Caiea tional Identity in the Caribbean."
and Music," with the help of the musical group, The Montserrat Ordofiez (Visiting Fulbright Professor from
Experontsrraterdoiez.(isitig.Fubngh Professor from .......
Experience. the Universidad Nacional de Colombia), "Reflejos de la
Murdo MacLeod (Graduate Research Professor, History, Novela de la Selva: Selva Espejo y Selva Bruja."
UF), "Changes in American Economics After the Spanish Charles Keil ( Professor, State University of New York at Invasion." Buffalo), The Case for Quick and Dirty Fieldwork:
Manuel Moreno Fraginals (Cuban historian and author), Some Method Paradigms Compared'." "El Significado Simbolico del Quincentenario en el Claudette Werleigh (Formercounselorto the PrimeMinCaribe Hispano." ister of Haiti), "Effects of the Recent Coup in Haiti."
Frank Moya-Pons (Dominican Historian and Visiting Jaqueline Pitanguy (Laurie NewJerseyChairof Women's
Professor,UF), "Demographic Decline inthe Caribbean Studies at Rutgers University), "Violence in Brazil: A
After 1492." Gender Perspective."
William Barlow (Associate Professor, Howard UniverOfelia Schutte (Associate Professor of Philosophy, UF), sity), "Cuban Mediaat the Crossroads."
"Ethics, Conquest, and Cultural Diversity: Reflections Connie Campbell (UFDepartmentof AnthropologyPh.D.
on the Quincentenary." student) presented a paper for the "Women's Studies
Conference: Women and Politics in the 1990s," (March 20-21) entitled "Rural Women's Groups in the Western Amazon."
Diane Soles (1992 MALAS graduate) presented Women's Grassroots Organizations and the Transition to Democracy in Chile," also for the Women's Studies ConALFRED HOWER ference.
Bogumila Lisocka-Jaegermann (Visiting Fulbright ..continued from page 15 Scholar from Poland), "Cuban Oriente: A Cultural Regton."
the Ph.D. in Portuguese and Spanish from Harvard Uni- Deborah Pacini Hernandez (Assistant Directorof CLAS), versity (1954). Dr. Hower served in the U.S. Army during "African Popular Music and Cultural Identity in World War II, receiving the Bronze Star for meritorious Cartagena, Colombia. a C i
service in the Philippines. Before coming to UF, he taught Cartagena, Colombia." at Rutgers University.
. SPRING FILM SERIES In recognition of his contribution to scholarship on SPRING FILM SERIES
Brazilian studies and the Portuguese language, the Alfred Maria Antonia (Cuba, 1990, Sergio Giral). Hower Book Prize was established, and Dr. Lower at- El Otro Francisco (Cuba, 1974, Sergio Giral). tended the first award ceremony shortly before his death. Portrait of Teresa (Cuba, 1979, Pastor Vega). lhe 1991 winner was Brazilian novelist Roberto Reis (Uni- Rodrigo D (No Future) (Colobia, 1990, Victor Gavaria). versity of Minnesota) for his book, The Pearl Necklace., an Rodrigo D (No Future) (Colombia, 1990, Victor Gavara). analysis of eight works of fiction from 1850-1950 which Sugar Cane Alley (Martinique, 1984, Euzhan Palcy). emphasizes the authoritarian undercurrent in Brazilian Pixote (Brazil, 1981, Hector Barbenco). cultural discourse. The prize is given to authors writing in AMAZON DOCUMENTARY NIGHT: English on Brazilian topics, and the manuscript is pub- Nomads of the Rainforest (1989). lished by the Center through the University of Florida Kayapo: Out of the Forest (1989). Press.
Home of the Brave (1987).

Gene Cranston Anderson, RN, FAAN, Professor of Nursing, lerton reviewed Eliana Cardoso and Ann Helwege's newbook,
and Sharleen Simpson, RN, were in Cali, Colombia, May 25- Latin America's Economy (1992, the MIT Press). Fullerton and June 9,1991, to study skin-to-skin contact between mothers and Ajay Kapur, Senior International Economist at Wharton Econotheir preterm infants beginning in the delivery room. They metrics in Philadelphia, published "Forecasting Money Mulfound this method was safe and health- and cost-effective. They tipliers in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela" in Lecturas de collaborated with Humberto Rey Vargas, M.D., and Luz An- Econom[a, a South American journal edited by the Economics gela Argote, RN, at the Universidad del Valle, Cali, and were Research Center at the University of Antioquia in Medellin, joined by Dr. Susan Ludington, CNM, and Annie Hollingsead, Colombia. In April 1991, he presented "Energy-Based IndusMSN, from UCLA. This method, which usually begins days or trialization in Venezuela: Will It Work?" at the WEFA Intemaweeks postbirth, was first studied in BogotA and is becoming tional Economic Outlook Conference in what was formerly common in some developing countries and across Scandinavia. East Berlin, Germany. It is usually called Kangaroo Care because it resembles the way
female kangaroos use their pouch to marsupialize (mother) David Geggus, Associate Professor of History, has been named their young, who are all born prematurely. In addition to two to the International Advisory Board of the Nieuwe West-lndische earlier publications on Kangaroo Care, Dr. Anderson is co- Gids (Leiden). He recently published "The Causation of Slave author and author of two recently published research reports, Rebellions: An Overview," in Indian Historical Review (Vol. 15, "Physiologic Responses to Skin-to-Skin Contact in Hospital- New Delhi), and an essay on the effects of the American ized Premature Infants" and "Overview of Current Knowl- Revolution on France and its colonies in the Blackwell Encycloedge About Skin-to-Skin (Kangaroo) Care for Preterm Infants," pedia oftheAmerican Revolution. He is currently completing, with in the Journal of Perinatology (Vol. 11, 1991). Drs. Anderson and Barry Gaspar, the editing of The Greater Caribbean in theAgeof the LudingtonpresentedtheirfindingsonJune10,1991inOrlando, French and Haitian Revolutions, to which he contributes an
Floridaatthe EighthNationalMeetingof the Nurses Association overview chapter and another on slave revolts in the Spanish of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. West Indies. During the 1992-93 academic year, he will be on Whilein Colombia, Dr. Anderson presented two invited papers sabbatical leave completing a book on the Saint Dominigue at the International Perinatal Congress, Universidad del Valle, slave revolution. Cali, entitled, "Crying in Newborn Infants: Research and Im- Jane Landers, Adjunct Assistant Professor of History, recently plications for Practice" and "What is Known About Skin-to- delivered an invited paper entitled "Africans and Native Skin (Kangaroo) Care Today?" Americans on the Southeastern Colonial Frontier," at The
Cesar N. Caviedes, Professor of Geography, recently published Columbus Quincentenary Conference, "Will the Circle Be Elections in Chile: TheRoadTowardDemocratization (LynneRienner Unbroken: Historical Perspectives on the African Diaspora," Publishers, Boulder, 1991), which analyzes plebiscites and held at the Smithsonian Institution on February 7, 1992. The elections held in Chile from 1980 to 1989 and studies the conference wasco-sponsoredbytheSmithsonian'sProgramin political process toward full democratization in that country. It African American Culture, The Johns Hopkins University's is a sequel to The Politics of Chile: A Sociogeographical Assessment Program in Atlantic History, Culture, and Society, and the (Westview Press, 1979) in which the author had analyzed the Departments of History and Political Science of Howard Unispatial components of presidential and congressional elections versity. She also lectured on Spanish Florida at the" Comparative held in Chile from 1932 to 1973. These two books have been Colonial Frontiers of North America," a course sponsored by considered the most authoritative works existing about geo- the National Park Service at the Spanish Colonial Research graphical interpretation of elections in Latin America. Dr. Center at the University of New Mexico. Caviedes also recently published "The Southern Cone," a Terry L. McCoy, CLAS Director, and Christopher 0. Andrew, section within the Handbook of Latin American Studies (Vol. 51, Director of the Trade and Agricultural Policy Center at UF, 1991). From January 25 to February 7, 1992, he was an invited visited Cuba in mid-February as guests of the Cuban Academy Guest Lecturer of the American Geographical Society on its of Sciences. In addition to attending events related to the 30th expedition, entitled "The Patagonian Passage", aboard the anniversary of the founding of the Academy and meeting with Seaboume Pride. The trip passed through Chileanand Argentine Cuban officials, McCoy and Andrew were able to tour scientific Patagonia as well as Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn. installations and the University of Havana.
Thomas M. Fullerton, Jr., Senior Economist at the Bureau of Linda Miller, Outreach Coordinator, is the Co-Principal InvesEconomic and Business Research at UF, has published "Ex- tigator for a summer institute grant awarded by the Florida change Rate, Monetary, and Inflationary Dynamics in Co- Humanities Council in their program in "Intercultural Enlombia," in the Best Paper Proceedings of the Atlantic Economic counters: the Making of the Americas." She has also been Society. Fullerton is also the author of "Confessions of an chosento coordinate apre-trip orientation for aFulbright-Hays International Forecaster," published in the special issue on Group Project Abroad in Honduras for elementary and secLatin America of Business Economics. For the same issue, Ful- ondary school teachers.

Francis E. Putz, Associate Professor of Botany, has recently ed- including:"PesquisaRicaemPafsesPobres?",inRevistaBrasileira ited and published, with Harold A. Mooney (Stanford Uni- de Ci0ncias Sociais (16 ano 6, julho de 1991 in Spain); "Los Mitos versity), a book entitled The Biology qf Vines. The book, which de la Prensa y los Votos en las Elecciones de 1990," with Maria contains chapters on vine abundance, biomechanics, physiol- Celina D'Araijo, in Revista de Estudios Politicos (74, Octubreogy, phenology, ethnobotany, and silviculture, includes a Diciembre, 1991); and "A Imprensa e as Eleiqbes de 1990," with contribution by Oliver Phillips (Missouri Botanical Garden) on Maria Celina D'Araiijo, in Revista Brasileira de Estudos Politicos the economicbotany of vines in the neotropics of Latin America. (forthcoming). Dr. Soares has also received a grant from the Brazilian National Research Council to study the military
Helen I. Safa, Professor of Anthropology and Latin American regime in Brazil, and has been renewed as a member of the Studies, organized a panel on "Restructuring and Economic Editorial Board of the Latin American Research Review. Alternatives in the Americas," for the meetings of the American
Ethnological Society in Memphis this past March. This May she
will join a UF faculty group going to Ajou University in Korea
for a joint conference on Development Experiences of Latin ALUMNI AND STUDENTS
America and Korea, where she will present a paper on "The
Social and Economic Consequences of Export-Led Industrial- Jorge Silveira, a 1991 MALAS graduate with a concentration in ization." She will present the same paper inJune at a conference Political Science, has recently returned from Colombia, where organized by UCLA. She hasbeeninvited tomake a presentation he was attached for a year to the U.S. Embassy in Bogota. He in July at a conference on Trajectories of Development and found the experience highly rewarding both for the cultural Patriarchy sponsored by the World Institute for Development immersion as well as for the personal relationships he formed. Economics Research (WIDER) of the United Nations Univer- A member of the U.S. Army, he is currently holding a temposity in Helsinki. She will also complete her consultant work rary assignment in Washington, D.C. to attend attache school, with the women's project at CSUCA in Costa Rica later that and will begin a two year tour in Panama as Assistant Army month. Dr. Safa has several articles in press and continues her Attache in June 1992. work on a manuscript, entitled The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean, for Westview Jenn-Jaw Soong, a 1991 Ph.D. graduate in Sociology, recently Press. received a Chair in Political Economy at a prestigious Taiwanese
university. His dissertation at UF was on "The Political Economy
Steven Sanderson, Professor of Political Science and Director of of Development in the Newly Industrializing Countries: A the Tropical Conservation and Development Program, has Comparative Analysis of Taiwan, South Korea, Brazil and
completed a new book, The Politics of Trade in Latin American Mexico. Development (due this Spring from Stanford University Press).
He is also publishing a number of articles, including: "Mexican Mark A. Wilkins, a 1990 MALAS graduate with a concentration Public Sector Food Policy under Agricultural Trade Liberal- in Political Science, is currently on the Bolivian and Peru desks ization," in Policy Studies Review, a Symposium on Improving of the Defense Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Department of Market Structures in the Third World (in press); and, "The Brief Defense (DOD). In this position, he is conducting policy analyBarren Marriage of Biodiversity and Sustainability," with Kent ses for DOD, the National Security Council, and the White Redford, in the Bulletin of the Ecological SocietyqfAinerica (in press). House. As Chair of the Latin American Studies Association (LASA)
Task Force on Scholarly Relations with the Natural Sciences, he Andrea P. Grosse, a 1992 MALAS graduate with a concentration will be the Workshop Organizer for "Collaborative Research in Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD), conducted and Institution-Building in Global Conservation and Devel- field research last summer on the role that large cattle ranches play in preserving biological diversity in the savanna of subopment" at the September 1992 LASA Conference in Los tropical north-eastern Argentina. Her work, supported by
Angeles. He also gave an invited presentation on "Political Grinter, TCD, and Tinker Foundation grants, also allowed her Reform and Structural Adjustment in Rural Mexico," at UNC the opportunity to give presentations on local television news Chapel Hill in January. He was also invited to present "Inter- programs and at the Rotary Club (for Earth Day). Earlier in national Trade, Natural Resources, and the Protection of the 1991, a bulletin she designed and edited during an internship Environment," at the Organization of American States Corn- at the World Wildlife Fund was published. Last November she mission on the Environment Conference on International Trade, also published, with L. Pinder, a Mammalian Species account of Environment and Sustainable Development in Santiago de the highly endangered marsh deer of South America. Grosse is
Chile this April. currently completing her thesis work and seeking a position in
Gliucio Ary Dillon Soares, Professor of Latin American Studies international conservation. and Sociology, has recently published a number of articles,

Lisa Kerber, a MALAS student with a concentration in Popula- Diane Soles, a 1992 MALAS graduate with a concentration in tion Studies, joined a delegation of twenty U.S. and Canadian Anthropology, gave a paper entitled "Women's Grassroots students for two weeks last December on an academic and Organizations and the Transition to Democracy in Chile," at
cultural program in Cuba. The trip was organized by the the conference "Women in Politics" at UF this past March 20United States Student Association (USSA) and the Cuban 21. The research for the paper, also the subject of her master's
Student Federation. During their stay in Havana, the delega- thesis, was completed last year in Chile through the support of tion attended academic conferences; forums with Cuban stu- the Tinker Foundation and the Inter-American Foundation. dents; meetings with politicians, professionals and workers; She is currently working as the U.S. Program Coordinator for and made visits to medical facilities, childcare centers, art the Centro de Estudios Unidos Colombo-Americano, which is galleries, and the city of Pinar del Rio. located in Sante Fe de Bogota, Colombia.
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