Agronomy notes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00139
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: September 2011
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also available to subscribers via the World Wide Web.
Additional Physical Form: Electronic reproduction of copy from George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida also available.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
 Record Information
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00139


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Agronomy Notes Sep 2011 Volume 35:9 Features: Forage: Winter Forage Selection for 2011 12 .......................Page 3 New Forages of Florida Android App ...................Page 5 Y. Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ( ycnew@ufl.edu) ; A. Blount, Forage Breeder (paspaleum@ufl.edu; J. Ferrel, Extension Weed Specialist (jferrel@ufl.edu); B. Sellers, Extension Weed Specialist (sellersb@u fl. edu);F. Fishel, Pesticide Information Officer (weeddr@ufl.edu); D.C. Odero, Extension Weed Specialist (dcodero@ufl.edu); R. Cherry Entomology and Nem ato logy (rcherry@ufl.edu); D. Wright, Extension Agronomist (wright@ufl.edu). The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar products. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to rac e, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Offi ce. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Millie Ferrer Chancy, Interim Dean. Miscellaneous: Weeds and Pesticides: Aminopyralid Carryover ........................................Page 6 Sugarcane Root Weevil (Diaprepes abbreviates) and weeds ...............................................................Page 8 EPA Announces New On line Label Search Site..............................................................Page 9 Calendar ................................................................Page 7 Crops: Late Planted or Late Emerged Cotton .......................Page 2 Wheat Varieties for 2011 12 ....................................Page 2


4 2 Crops Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist North Florida REC, Quincy wright@ufl.edu Late Planted or Late Emerged Cotton This has been one of the harshest seasons for cotton and peanuts for dryland farmers in recent memory. It is estimated that 25 30% of the cotton fields were not in bloom by the last week of August. Cotton normally sets fruit over an eight week period (July August). Almost 3/4 of the yield is from bolls set during the first three weeks of bloom in the first and second position along the main stem. A general rule of thumb has been that the last viable bloom for a boll that contributes to yield is the first week of September. With blooming starting so late, many of the late planted or late emerged fields will be very low yielding or will not make a yield at all. Management of normal cotton for late set bolls is often not a good decision as they often contribute less than 5% of the yield and jeopardize the remainder of the crop. Bolls on the upper nodes seldom mature if they bloom after early September and they contribute little to the total weight of the cotton crop. me as it changes pH quicker than dolomite even though final yield is usually not impacted. Wheat Varieties for 2011 12 With wheat prices at record highs many growers are considering planting wheat this fall prior to peanut or cotton next year. Variety selection is one of the most important decisions to be made for yield potential. There are several varieties that have good yield potential and pest resistance including AGS 2026, AGS 2035 and an early maturing AGS 2060 which would fit for late planting: USG 3021 which could be planted late due to short vernalization requirement: Pioneer 26R61 is one of the standard varieties and responds to fungicide applications in most years: SS 8641 is later maturing and should be planted early. AGS 2000 and USG 3209 have been the standard varieties for years and will still yield well if management is used including insecticide applications at plant for other races of Hessian fly and fungicides at flag leaf stage. Variety test information can be found at http://www.swvt.uga.edu/ small.html Non blooming cotton at the end of August from late planting Photo by David Wright Harvesting small grain trials at NFREC, Quincy Photo by David Wright


4 3 Winter Forage Selection for 2011 12 Planting of winter annuals offers the opportunity to graze during winter and early spring when warm season grasses like bahiagrass, bermudagrass, or limpograss (mostly in south Florida), are dormant. The quality of cool season forages is higher than that of the dormant grasses, and they provide an alternative to expensive hay and supplements. They can be overseeded into the warm season sod, or planted into a prepared seed bed. Different factors and environmental conditions affect the choice of winter grasses or legumes to be planted and they include winter hardiness, drought tolerance, soil moisture requirement, grazing tolerance, palatability, and disease pressure resistance. Winter forage options for Florida are limited to winter annual grasses and to grow perennial grasses like Fescue. The selection of winter forages for Florida includes annual ryegrass, the small grains (oats, rye, triticale, and wheat), the annual clovers (crimson, ball, berseem, burr medic), and white and red clover that are short lived perennials elsewhere but in Florida they need to be planted annually. For most of the clovers pH needs to be 6.0 or 6.5, so liming for most Florida soils will be needed. Oat: it is the most palatable of small grains but it is also the least winter hardy option. Recommended varieties for Florida include: RAM LA99016, Horizon 201, Plot Spike LA 9339, and SS76 40. Rye: this small grain is the most winter hardy and drought tolerant. Recommended varieties: Florida 401 (for early grazing or use in blends), AGS 104, Wrens 96, Wrens Abruzzi, Bates, Oklon, Wintergrazer 70, and Early Graze. Triticale: This is a productive and disease resistant small grain mostly used for silage and grazing. Recommended varieties: Trical 342 and Monarch (for silage, or grazing when used in blends with ryegrass or other small grains), and 2700 (for grazing). Wheat: Produces mainly in spring (varieties are several, among them SS8641, USG 3592, and Pioneer 26R61 need to use Hessian Fly resistant varieties. Annual Ryegrass: this cool season forage is not a small grain, and has high soil moisture requirements. Recommended varieties: Early Maturity : Attain, Big Boss, Bulldog/Grazer, Diamond T, Flying A, Prine, Rio, TAMTBO, Early Ploid, and Nelson. Late Maturity: Attain, Big Boss, Jumbo, Prine, Rio, TAMTBO, Verdure, Ocala, Nelson, Early Ploid, Passeral Plus, and Marshall. Other ryegrass varieties, such as Florlina, Surrey II, Jackson, Big Daddy, Ed, TAM 90, Brigadier, Fantastic, Graze N Gro, King, and Beefbuilder III have also performed well in regional trials. (Continues next page...) Forages Dr. Yoana Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ycnew @ufl.edu Dr. Ann Blount, Forage Breeder paspalum @ufl


4 4 Winter Forage Selection (...Cont) Winter Legumes: Crimson: early producer. Recommended cultivars: Dixie, and AU Robin. Ball: Adapted to sandy loam to clay soil types. Prefers low wet areas. Varieties: Common, Segrest. Berseem: This clover lacks cold tolerance and it has tolerance to poor drainage. Recommended cultivars: Bigbee, CW9092. Burr Medic: This winter legume is adapted to areas with mild winters. Good drought tolerance. Recommended cultivars: Armadillo, Devine (have performed well in north central FL). Red Clover: adapted to loam, clay loam well drained soils with good moisture. Recommended varieties: Southern Belle (with Root Nematode Resistance), Barduro. White Clover: requires high soil moisture, and it is late producing. Recommended varieties: Osceola, Occoe (both developed in Florida), Louisiana S 1, Regal ladino. Durana and Patriot are well adapted but have a postrate habit and lower initial forage yield. Crimson clover. Photo by Yoana Newman Red clover. Photo by Ken Quesenberry Forages Dr. Yoana Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ycnew @ufl.edu Dr. Ann Blount, Forage Breeder paspalum @ufl


4 Forages Dr. Yoana Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ycnew @ufl.edu 5 New Forages of Florida Android App The Android free app for the Forages of Florida website is now available! Just click the Mobile link added to the top blue bar of the Forages of Florida site, and it will direct you to the correct location. You can also select from the following resources: Android phone app View information about Florida Forage plants from your Android phone. Either search for Forages of Florhttps://market.android.com/details?id=com.agronomy.foragesmobile&feature=search_result Forages of Florida for other phones or tablets If you do not have an Android phone, click this link in your mobile dehttp://agronomy.ifas.ufl.edu/ForagesofFlorida/mobile/site/index.php


4 6 Aminopyralid Carryover Aminopyralid (the active ingredient in Milestone, Chaparral, and GrazonNext) has become a commonly used herbicide in Florida pastures. This herbicide provides control on many weed species while also deliv ering a significant amount of soil activity. Although these herbicides have been very successful in pastures, we see incidents each year with carryover to rotational crops. The most sensitive are solanaceous (tomato, pepper, eggplant) and legume crops (clover, peanut, soybean). Injury on solanaceous crops can be leaf cupping (Figure 1), strapping, and diminished growth (Figure 2). In peanut, the symptoms are generally leaf rolling (Figure 3). Regardless of what symptoms you observe, the effect on the crop can be quite dramatic. If any of these symptoms are observed, it is likely that crop yield will be reduced if it yields at all. Due to carryover concerns, most aminopyralid herbicides one must wait between application and planting of a sensitive rotational crop. Our experience in Florida is that one should wait 3 5 years before planting any solanaceous crop and at least 2 years fo r legume crops or melons. However, it is still possible to observe injury from aminopyralid in fields that were not treated with aminopyralid (see below for more information on this). We have observed situations where a field received a broadcast application of aminopyralid that caused injury across the field when the rotational crop was planted (remember, the label states permanent grass pastures). But more commonly we see issues were the injury is spotty. This is likely to occur from one of two reasons: 1. Spot treatment. When spot treating, most individuals mix a relatively potent herbicide solution and spray a significant amount on the individual weeds. This causes abnormally high soil concentrations that are easily observed the next year. 2. Moving treated hay into an untreated pasture or moving cattle that have consumed aminopyralid treated forage into a field. Aminopryalid is fairly persistent in grass hay. Weed Science Dr. Jason Ferrell, Extension Weed Specialist jferrell@ufl.edu Dr. Brent Sellers, Extension Weed Specialist sellersb @ufl.edu Figure 1. Cupping in eggplant Photo by J. Ferrel Figure 2. Strapping and diminished growth in Tomato. Note elongated leaves. Photo by J. Ferrel


4 7 Aminopyralid Carryover ...(continuation) There is no harm to the cattle from ingesting aminopyralid, nor does it enter their milk supply, so the grazing and haying restrictions are 0 days. However, after ingesting aminopyralid treated hay, the active herbicide is released in manure and urine rather quickly. Again, this concentrates the herbicide onto small areas and increases the likelihood of carryover. If you pasture cows on a treated field and then move them, it is possible to see damage to forage legumes in the second field after the cows release waste. Additionally, sitting aminopyralid treated hay bales in fields can result in the herbicide leaching out of the hay and into the soil. Aminopyralid is a highly effective herbicide that holds many benefits for forage and animal producers across Florida. But if aminopyralid is being utilized, it is important to be aware of the risks associated to potential rotational crops. It should not be applied broadcast to areas that will be used for crop production in the near future. Additionally, if you are leasing land, make sure you ask if aminopyralid (GrazonNext, Milestone, Chaparral) have been used. With commodity prices high, pasture land is increasingly being converted to crop production. Having a carryover issue is a very bad way to start the cropping season. Figure 3. Leaf rolling in peanut. Photo by J. Ferrel Calendar Sep. 9th. 12th Annual Soil and Water Science Research Forum, Gainesville, FL http://soils.ifas.ufl.edu/forum/ Sept. 15th 11th Annual Florida Equine Institute & Allied Trade Show, Ocala, FL http://cflag.ifas.ufl.edu/documents/2011EquineInstit/2011FEIBrochure.pdf Oct. 3 5 Southeast Herbicide Applicator Conference Panama City Beach, FL http://conference. ifas.ufl.edu/sehac/index.html Oct. 16 19 American Society of Agronomy Annual meeting, San Antonio, TX https://www.acsmeetings.org Weed Science Dr. Jason Ferrell, Extension Weed Specialist jferrell@ufl.edu Dr. Brent Sellers, Extension Weed Specialist sellersb @ufl.edu


8 Weed Science Dr. D. Calvin Odero, Extension Weed Specialist dcodero @ufl.edu Dr. Ron Cherry, Entomology and Nematology rcherry @ufl.edu Sugarcane Root Weevil (Diaprepes abbreviates) and Weeds The sugarcane root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviates, is considered an important pest of sugarcane in several regions. In Florida, the presence and spread of D abbreviates in sugarcane in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) where most of the sugarcane is grown has not been reported in the recent past. However, recently two infestations of D abbreviates at two distinctly separate locations 31 miles apart in the EAA have been observed. These infestations have resulted in damage to sugarcane. Damage to sugarcane including stunting, lodging, and upturned stools is attributed to grubs of D abbreviates Adults of D abbreviates do not cause any damage to sugarcane but have been found in the vicinity of commercial sugarcane fields in association with weeds such as sickle pod and coffee senna. Sickle pod and coffee senna are typically found in open spaces in sugarcane fields associated with poor stands or along field edges during the summer months. Given that D abbreviates occurrence is not well documented in the EAA, it is unclear what the feeding preferences of adults are with regard to other weed species. In order to forestall the spread of D abbreviates it is critically important to control weed species such sickle pod and coffee senna in sugarcane fields or along field edges especially in the summer months when these species are prevalent. These weed species can be controlled by spot spraying in open spaces in sugarcane using a tank mix of 2,4 D and glyphosate, and along field edges using the same combination. (All Photos by Dennis Odero) Figure 1. Adult D Abbreviates Figure 2. Sicklepod in a sugarcane field Figure 4: Coffee senna leaf damage from D Abbreviates adult in a sugarcane field. Figure 3: Sickle pod leaf damage from D Abbreviates.


4 9 EPA Announces New On line Label Search Site EPA is releasing a new Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) Web application. PPLS is a collection of over 170,000 current and historical pesticide product labels that have been approved by EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. This new version of PPLS contains many enhanced features to help users locate the labels they need. Using the new system, you will be able to: Search by product name Search by company name Search by EPA Registration Number View labels in PDF format Search label content View the history of products that have been transferred from one company to another This improved Web application can be viewed at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/ppls Pesticides Dr. Fred Fishel, Pesticide Information Director weeddr @ufl.edu