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Agronomy Notes May 2011 Volume 35:5 Features: Forage: Seeded Bermudagrass Varieties ..........................Page 3 Agronomy Notes is prepared by: Maria Ga llo, Chair and Y. Newman, Extension Forage Specialist (ycnew@ufl.edu); J. Ferrell, Ext ension Weed Specialist (jferrell@ufl.edu); D.C. Odero, Extension Weed Specialist (dcodero@ufl.edu); B. Sellers, Extension Weed Specialist ( sellersb@ufl.edu); D. Wright, Extension Agronomist (wright@ufl.edu). The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products na med and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar products. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Scienc es (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportuni ty-Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to indi viduals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extensi on publications, contact your coun ty Cooperative Extension Office Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences /University of Florida/Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean. Crops: Planting Date for Sorghum.................... ............. Page 5 Forage Sorghum Yield .............. .................. ........Page 5 Small Grain Harvest ............... ......................... Page 6 Miscellaneous: Weeds and Pesticides: Pastora Herbicide : for grass control in bermudgrass .................... .......................Page 2 Velvetleaf in Sugarcane Fields ...........................Page 4 Calendar .................. ......................... ................Page 6

PAGE 2

2 Weed Science Dr. Jason Ferrell, Extension Weed Specialist jferrell@ufl.edu Dr. Brent Sellers, Extension Weed Specialist sellersb @ufl.edu Pastora Herbicide : for grass control in bermudagrass Control of annual and perennial grass weeds in hayfields is a battle we fight every year. Though many of these grassy weeds have good forage quality, they often dry sl ower than bermudagrass. The longer we leave the hay in the field, the more likely it is to be rained on. Add itionally, many grassy weeds are a different color than bermudagrass after curing. These grasses can be easily seen in the bale, which reduces the sale price of the product. Or worse, sandbur seeds are baled and th e livestock refuse the hay all together. There are very few options for controlling grass weeds. One option is glyphosate applied at low rates immediately after hay removal and before bermudagrass leafout. Though this option is inexpensive and effective, there is a very narrow window when th e herbicide can be applie d. If applied too late, bermudagrass injury can be observed. Another option is Impose (imazapic, form ally named Plateau or Journey). This postemergence herbicide is effective on crabgrass, vasseygrass, johnsongrass and may other species. But it too has a high injury potential. Impose application must be delayed until the hay has fully recovere d from winter dormancy and rainfall is regular. But even when applied in this manner, it is common to lose one hay cutting due to bermudagrass stunting. Pastora is a new herbicide that is ca pable of controlling a number of gra ssy weeds without some of the limitations and injury potential of other herb icides. Pastora is a mixture of tw o herbicides: nicosu lfuron for grass control and metsulfuron for broadleaf weeds. This product is effective on crabgrass, johnsongrass, sandbur, and is relatively effective on va sseygrass. It can be applie d to bermudagrass at any stag e of growth, but injury is least when applied soon afte r hay cutting. But even if the application is delayed until full greenup, Pastora will only result in about half the injury that could be expected with Impose. Generally speaking, the injury that is observed with Pastora will be approximately 2 weeks of bermudagrass stunting followed by rapid recovery. Although Pastora is a flexible herbicide with the potential to control many grassy weeds, there are limitations. For maximum effectiveness, grasses mu st be small and in the seedling stag e at the time of application. Crabgrass and sandbur that is 2 inches tall will be effectivel y controlled, larger grasses may only be suppressed. Just because grassy weeds have been clip ped down after a recent hay cutting to a 2 inch height does not mean that Pastora will provide effective control. The grasses must be small and in the seedling stage grasses that have tillered and started forming dense mats will be difficult if not impossible to control with Pastora. But it is important to note that Pastora can have positive effects on sandbur, even if the weed is not totally controlled. Sandbur produces a seedhead composed of many spiny burs that can ruin hay quality. If sandbur is sprayed with Pastora after they have exceeded the 2 inch height and seedling stage, the plant will rarely die but abortion of the seedhead is commonly observed. Pastora is an additional product that adds value to our continually growi ng weed control tool box. It is currently priced near $18 per acre, so determining the yield and quality loss of from grassy weeds is important before this product is selected. If you have questions about the herbicides discussed in this article, or othe rs, please contact your local University of Florida IFAS county extension office.

PAGE 3

4 Forages Dr. Yoana Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ycnew @ufl.edu 3 Seeded Bermudagrass Varieties There are numerous seeded bermudagrasses available. Some ar e single types but most of the seed that is marketed are actually blends that contain im proved selections of common and Giant bermudagrass. Many of the seeded types have been develop for cold tole rance in upper latitudes, and in turfgrass breeding programs, which have turned them to market for livestock pr oduction because of their high yields. Production of seeded types in Florida is under evaluation at University of Florida. Current varieties under examination are Cheyenne, Mohawk, and Wrangler, which are cold tolerant; and blends: Texas Tough, Sungrazer, Riata, and Stampede. A description of these t ypes and some of the bl end components follows. Common is a bermudagrass type that is not improved, that is low-priced, and can produce a fair amount of forage with quality comparable to coastal. Giant (NK-37) is a tall growing selection from a much taller a nd leafier common from the Yuma, Arizona river valley (by Northup King Co). Under high moisture climate, pe rsistence has been observed to be 2 to 3 years, fact associated with fungal disease. It is used as a co mponent of many blends, and as a single variety by many because it breaks dormancy10 to 14 days earli er than most types in the market. Cheyenne is a synthetic variety developed for vigorous growth habit and cold toleran ce by Jacklin Seed Co and Pennington Seed; originally developed for turf and later used as a pasture. Mohawk is a fine textured, cold tolerant variety named after the Mohawk Va lley in Arizona, where the seed is produced. It is regarded as one of the most salt tolerant varieties on the market. Wrangler is a variety released by Johnston seed Co., developed for cold tolerance that is comparable to the hybrid bermudagrass Tifton 44. Texas Tough is a blend of 1/3 Giant and 2/3 common; marketed by East Texas Seed Company in Tyler, TX. Sungrazer is a blend with tall growth selected for drought and cold tolerance. Marketed by MBS seed in Denton, TX. Riata is a blend of Wrangler and Riviera, two bermudagrass varieties with improved tolerance to grazing and cold tolerance. Marketed by Johnston Seed Co. Not to be confounded with the new UF Riata bahiagrass. Dry matter production is expected to be variable with some of the varieties that have cold tolerance having more production early in the year. However, in general, dry ma tter yield should be expected for many of them to be comparable to Coastal but lowe r than the high yielding hybrids. Field evaluation of seeded bermudagrasses.

PAGE 4

4 Weed Science Dr. D. Calvin Odero, Extension Weed Specialist dcodero @ufl.edu Velvetleaf in Sugarcane Fields Velvetleaf is a troublesome a nnual weed that occurs throughout the United States. It is in the mallow family and can reach a height of 4 feet. The stem s and twigs are covered with fine hair. Leaves are velvety, heart-shaped, alternate, gradually tapering to a sharp point, 10-15 cm long and nearly as wide with toothed margins. Petioles are hairy and about equal in length to th e blades. Flowers are produced on shor t stalks in the upper leaf axil and consist of five yellow petals fused into a tube. Seeds ar e brown with small star-shape d hairs on the surface. Seeds of velvetleaf can remain viable in the soil for up to 50 years. Velvetleaf is not common in sugarcane fields in the Ev erglades Agricultural Area (EAA), but has recently been observed in some fields. This weed sp ecies is extremely aggressive and shoul d managed appropriately to forestall its spread in the EAA. Combination of sugarcane herbic ides Atrazine and 2,4-D will be effective on velvetleaf. Velvetleaf should be treated early to have good herbicide efficacy. It is important to physically remove any velvetleaf you come across before th ey produce seed. This weed species should be watched and monitored closely in the EAA to prevent it from spreading further. Velvetleaf in sugarcane following tr eatment with Atrazine and 2,4-D Photo by D. Calvin Odero

PAGE 5

5 There is a relatively wide range in planting dates for sorghum in the southeastern United States, mainly because sorghum germination is closely linked to soil temp erature. For good stand development, it is important to ensure that the soil temp erature at the 2-inch depth is at least 65F. Cold soils result in poor germination and emergence and lead to poor stand development. Planting too early is one of the most common causes of poor establishment. Plantings may begin in Marc h in south Florida, and early to mid-April in central and north Florida. New plantings can be made into summer until about 120 days prior to desired harvest, or the first frost. Plantings made after mid-June may have lower yields and experience more disease and insect pressure. Plantings made after early July may produce very limited yields because of shortening daylengths. Early planted silage sorghums will produce a second (ratoon) crop in Florida, but yields are generally less than the original harvest. Hybrid forage sorghum yields differ ba sed on the stage of maturity at which the crop is harvested (Table 1). Table 1. Stage of maturity effects on dry matter yields of hybrid forage sorghums in Florida -------------------------------------------------------------------------Maturity Stage Min. Max. Avg. ---------------------------(dry tons/acre)---------------------------------Flowering 3.99 4.42 4.15 Soft Dough 3.72 6.16 5.64 Hard Dough 3.92 6.65 5.83 Vegetative 7.26 7.40 7.36 --------------------------------------------------------------------------Harvesting the crop at the vegetative stage ensures multip le harvests and results in the highest yields, producing yields exceeding 7 dry tons per acre. Lowest yields are obtained when the crop is harvested at the flowering stage. There are no significant differences in yi elds when the crop is harvested at either the soft or hard dough stage. For quality silage harves t at the soft dough stag e is recommended. Crops Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist North Florida REC, Quincy wright@ufl.edu Dr. Yoana Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ycnew @ufl.edu

PAGE 6

6 Calendar To follow the link, press Ctrl and put cursor over link, and click. May 4-6 60th Annual Florida Beef Cattle Short Course, Gainesville, FL http://www.animal.ufl.edu/extension/beef/short.shtml May 17-18 65th Southern Pasture and Forage Crop Improvement Conference, Aiken, SC June 20-24 2011 Florida Cattlemans Association Convention. Marco Island, FL http://www.floridacattlemen.org/convention.html Jul. 3-9 Caribbean Food Crops Society meeting Two Mile Hill, St. Michael, Barbados,. http://www.cfcs2011barbados.org/ Jul. 15-17 Florida Small Farms and Alternative Enterprises Conference Kissimmee, FL. http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/smallfarms/index.html Oct. 3-5 Southeast Herbicide Applicator Conference Panama City Beach, FL http://conference. ifas.ufl.edu/sehac/index.html http://spfcic.okstate.edu Crops Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist North Florida REC, Quincy wright@ufl.edu Small grain appears to be on track to be harvested a week or so earlier than normal. Some of this may be due to the record cold and vernalization re quirements being met earlier than no rmal. Dry weather during the spring has resulted in low disease pressure in most areas. Small grain yields shou ld be good this year with low disease pressure and an earlier harvest. Dry dow n of grain begins as the stalks of the small grain turn brown with moisture content dropping about 2% per day. A rain event or irrigation will inte rrupt the dry down and may increase the moisture content of the grain for a day or two.


Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00135
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: May 2011
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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UF UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA
IFAS Extension


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Y,4 Voldm -5,_,


Features:



Crops:


FlT,,i1,,1. Date for Sorghum............
Forage Sorghum Yield ................
S; '.. .Grain Harvest.................


Forage:

Seeded Bermudagrass Varieties.....

Weeds and Pesticides:

Pastora Herbicide :for grass control,
bermudgrass ....................
Velvetleafin Sugarcane Fields ....


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Miscellaneous:


Calendar .......................... .......


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The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFA % I ., i .! i l i t!,,l 1 .ilI I* I ii, -. .! !iiai. .l .i i i !i.I .ii...1iil .i ..l I.. .i. .'..
research, educational inform ation and other services oil I.. ii.ini r.lii. I ,.i I Ii I I .'i' I- I il. I 'ii 1 .'-.1 .. .I' I I ... i.. i ii.Ii .i '
or national origin. For information on obtaining other c ..lc .i I i..I. I -.i! . I ., IL I -l... I Iii [ 'I- c!.l.! c i ..Ic 'i. III !c i !..1 i ....l 'l [ .c! il t c
Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural S~ ici., c iiiiici "I ~1 i !,,!.l., I.I !c. i cI c!i i.i i!ilc!'!! ic 'I..i


"Agronomy Notes" is prepared by: Maria Gallo, Chair -i..I i 1 !! I i 11 I . i .. i.! i Ii .r 1.1 I. .1.11 I I i !!. I i. !i. i .I
Specialist I! l. 1 II..lr l . D .C. O dero, E extension W e..I ..... i ..I... .... .i l.. I II. I i i .. .! ...I i ..!. i II . il.h.II i
W right, E extension A gronom ist i !! l, ,i l -ill 1.h. T he r .- . I,. 11 .. ., .I. .. i.. ..* *. , _.,. . ,, ..... . ..I, .... I .. I .. .....
signify approval to the exclusion of similar products.







W eed Science Dr. Jason Ferrell, Extension \YWeed Specialist

Dr. Brent Sellers, Extension W\\eed Specialist




Pastora Herbicide : for grass control in bermudagrass

Control of annual and perennial grass weeds in hayfields is a battle we fight every year Thouh man\ of these
grassy weeds have good forage quality, they often dry slower than bermudagrass. The longer \\ e lea\ e the ha\
in the field, the more likely it is to be rained on. Additionally, many grassy weeds are a different color than ber-
mudagrass after curing. These grasses can be easily seen in the bale, which reduces the sale piice of the prod-
uct. Or worse, sandbur seeds are baled and the livestock refuse the hay all together.

There are very few options for controlling grass weeds. One option is glyphosate applied at lo\\ rates immedi-
ately after hay removal and before bermudagrass leaf-out. Though this option is inexpensi\ e and effect\ e.
there is a very narrow window when the herbicide can be applied. If applied too late, bermulldaurass inIjur can
be observed. Another option is Impose (imazapic, formally named Plateau or Journey) Tins postemnerience
herbicide is effective on crabgrass, vasseygrass, johnsongrass and may other species. But it too has a hi lhi in-
jury potential. Impose application must be delayed until the hay has fully recovered from \\ Inter doirmanc\ and
rainfall is regular. But even when applied in this manner, it is common to lose one hay cumLttin due to bermuda-
grass stunting.

Pastora is a new herbicide that is capable of controlling a number of grassy weeds without some of the imitma-
tions and injury potential of other herbicides. Pastora is a mixture of two herbicides: nicosulfuron for grass
control and metsulfuron for broadleaf weeds. This product is effective on crabgrass, johnsonura'ss. sandbur. and
is relatively effective on vasseygrass. It can be applied to bermudagrass at any stage of uio\\ th. but iniu.i is
least when applied soon after hay cutting. But even if the application is delayed until full greenup. Pastora \\ Ill
only result in about half the injury that could be expected with Impose. Generally speaking the inljull that is
observed with Pastora will be approximately 2 weeks of bermudagrass stunting followed b\ rapid reco\ eri

Although Pastora is a flexible herbicide with the potential to control many grassy weeds, there are limitations
For maximum effectiveness, grasses must be small and in the seedling stage at the time of application Crab-
grass and sandbur that is 2 inches tall will be effectively controlled, larger grasses may onl\ be suppressed Just
because grassy weeds have been clipped down after a recent hay cutting to a 2 inch height does not mean that
Pastora will provide effective control. The grasses must be small and in the seedling slaue urasses that ha\ e
tillered and started forming dense mats will be difficult if not impossible to control with Pastora But it is im-
portant to note that Pastora can have positive effects on sandbur, even if the weed is not total\ controlled
Sandbur produces a seedhead composed of many spiny burs that can ruin hay quality. If sandbur is sprayed
with Pastora after they have exceeded the 2 inch height and seedling stage, the plant will rarel dlie but abortion
of the seedhead is commonly observed.

Pastora is an additional product that adds value to our continually growing weed control tool box It is cur-
rently priced near $18 per acre, so determining the yield and quality loss of from grass \\ eedls is important be-
fore this product is selected.

If you have questions about the herbicides discussed in this article, or others, please contact \ our local Uir\ er-
sity of Florida IFAS county extension office.


M







F orages Dr. Yoa tnar ewv ,tn, Extension Forage Specialist




Seeded Bermudagrass Varieties
There are numerous seeded bermudagrasses a\ allable Some are Sinfle t\ pes but most of the seed that is marketed
are actually blends that contain improved selections of common and GCiant berinmuauass Nlaln\ of the seeded
types have been develop for cold tolerance in upper latitudes. and in tI rfurass breeding proU'raims. \\ Inch ha\ e
turned them to market for livestock production because of their hluh \ fields
Production of seeded types in Florida is under e\ aluation at Lill\ ersit\ of Florida Current \ aiieties Linder exami-
nation are Cheyenne, Mohawk, and Wranuler. \\ which are cold tolerant. anid blends Te\xas Touiih. Sinirazer. Ri-
ata, and Stampede. A description of these t\ pes and some of the blend components follow s
Common is a bermudagrass type that is not imipro\ ed. that is lo\\ -priced. and can produce a fair a mount of foraue
with quality comparable to coastal.
Giant (NK-37) is a tall growing selection from a much taller and leafier common from the LYuma. Arizona i\ er
valley (by Northup King Co). Under high moisture climate. persistence lhas been obser\ ed to be 2 to 3 \ ears. tfct
associated with fungal disease. It is used as a component of man\ blends. and as a sinule \ arlet\ b\ many be-
cause it breaks dormancylO to 14 days earlier than most t\ pes in the market
Cheyenne is a synthetic variety developed for \ ioro'01us uro\\ th habit andi cold tolerance b\ Jacklin Seed Co and
Pennington Seed; originally developed for turf and later used as a pasture
Mohawk is a fine textured, cold tolerant ariet\ named after the Mlohai\\ k \alle\ in .Arizona. \\here the seed is
produced. It is regarded as one of the
most salt tolerant varieties on the
market.
Wrangler is a variety released by
Johnston seed Co., developed for cold
tolerance that is comparable to the
hybrid bermudagrass Tifton 44.
Texas Tough is a blend of 1/3 Giant
and 2/3 common; marketed by East
Texas Seed Company in Tyler, TX.
Sungrazer is a blend with tall growth
selected for drought and cold toler-
ance. Marketed by MBS seed in
Denton, TX.
Riata is a blend of Wrangler and
Riviera, two bermudagrass varieties Field evaluation of seeded bermudagrasses.
with improved tolerance to grazing
and cold tolerance. Marketed by
Johnston Seed Co. Not to be confounded \\ ith the ne\\ LF Riata baluhurass

Dry matter production is expected to be \ amiable \\ th some of the \ areties that ha\ e cold tolerance hai\ mn more
production early in the year. However, in general. dri matter \ field should be expected for mIan\ of them to be
comparable to Coastal but lower than the hiuh \ ieldinu hi brlds


Ml





Weed Science


Dr. D. Calvin Odero, Extension \\eed Specialist


u. l, ..| |


Velvetleaf in Sugarcane Fields

Vel\ etleaf is a troublesome annual \\eed that occuLs throughout the Uninted States It is in the mallo\\ family\ Iand
can reach a height of 4 feet The stems anmd t\ i are co\ ered \\ ith ine hair Lea\ es are \ el\ et\ heart-shaped.
alternate. UIraiLdall\ taperi .ln to a sharp point. 10-15 cm lonu andi nearly\ as \\ l(e \\ th toothed margins Petioles are
hairsi and about equal in length to the blades Flo\\ers are produced on short stalks in the uLiper leaf \ail and
consist of i\ e \ ello\\ petals fused into a tube Seeds aire bro\\n \\ th small star-shapel hairs on the surface Seeds
of \ el\ etleaf can remain i\ able in the soil for up to 503 \ears
Vel\ etleaf is not common in suuarcane fields in the E\ eruladees Auriculltural Area (E.A.A). but has recently\ been
obser\ ed in some tields This \\eed species is e\tremel\ aureSi e and should managed appropriatel\ to forestall
its spread in the E.AA Combination of tsuu,,arcane herbicides .Atrazlne andl 2.4-D \\ ill be effect\ e on \ el\ etleat
Vel\ etleatf should be treated earl\ to ha\ e uood herbicide efficacy\ It is important to ph sicall\ remo\ e an\
vel\ etleaf \ ou come across before the\ produce seed This \\ee species slhouIl be watched d andi monitored closely\
in the EA.A. to pre\ ent it from spreading, fuiilher
























el\ e etleaf in suu,,arcane follo\\ ifnu treatment l\lth Atrazi'ne and 2.4-D
Photo b\ D Cal'\ n l)dero




w IV wVF VV






Crops Dr. David \\"right, Extension Agronomist


Dr. Yoatinti Ne'wlan, Extension Forage Specialist



Planting Date for Sorghum
There is a relatively wide range in planting dates for sorghum in thle southeastern United States. mainly be-
cause sorghum germination is closely linked to soil temperature For uood stand de\ elopment. it is important
to ensure that the soil temperature at the 2-inch depth is at least 1-5 F Cold soils result in pool termination
and emergence and lead to poor stand development.
Planting too early is one of the most common causes
of poor establishment.

Plantings may begin in March in south Florida, and
early to mid-April in central and north Florida. New
plantings can be made into summer until about 120
days prior to desired harvest, or the first frost. Plant-
ings made after mid-June may have lower yields and
experience more disease and insect pressure. Plant-
ings made after early July may produce very limited
yields because of shortening daylengths. Early
planted silage sorghums will produce a second
(ratoon) crop in Florida, but yields are generally less
than the original harvest.







Forage Sorghum Yield
Hybrid forage sorghum yields differ based on the stage of milatuIrit at \\llch the crop is hiar ested ( Table I

Table 1. Stage of maturity effects on dry matter yields of hi bruld tra,,e sorlhium s in Florida

Maturity Stage Min. Max. Avg.
---------------------------------(dry tons/acre)------------------------------
Flowering 3.99 4.42 4.15
Soft Dough 3.72 6.16 5.64
Hard Dough 3.92 6.65 5.83
Vegetative 7.26 7.40 7.36

Harvesting the crop at the vegetative stage ensures multiple har\ ests and result's n the hluhest \ fields. pro-
ducing yields exceeding 7 dry tons per acre. Lowest yields are obtained \\ hen the crop Is har\ ested at the
flowering stage. There are no significant differences in yields \\ hen the ciop is hbar\ ested at either the soft or
hard dough stage. For quality silage harvest at the soft doiuh statue ~s recomimendled







Crops


Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quini wright@ufl.edu


Small grain harvest
Small grain appears to be on track to be harvested a week or so earlier than normal. Some of this may be due to
the record cold and vernalization requirements being met earlier than normal. Dry weather during the spring
has resulted in low disease pressure in most areas. Small grain yields should be good this year with low disease
pressure and an earlier harvest. Dry down of grain begins as the stalks of the small grain turn brown with mois-
ture content dropping about 2% per day. A rain event or irrigation will interrupt the dry down and may increase
the moisture content of the grain for a day or two.


Calendar

To follow the link, press "Ctrl" and put cursor over link, and "click."


May 4-6


May 17-18


June 20-24


Jul. 3-9


60th Annual Florida Beef Cattle Short Course, Gainesville, FL
http://www.animal.ufl.edu/extension/beef/short.shtml


65th Southern Pasture and Forage Crop Improvement Conference, Aiken, SC
http://spfcic.okstate.edu

2011 Florida Cattleman's Association Convention.. Marco Island, FL
http://www.floridacattlemen.org/convention.html

Caribbean Food Crops Society meeting, Two Mile Hill, St. Michael, Barbados,.
http://www.cfcs2011barbados.org/


Jul. 15-17 Florida Small Farms and Alternative Enterprises Conference, Kissimmee, FL.
http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/smallfarms/index.html

Oct. 3-5 Southeast Herbicide Applicator Conference, Panama City Beach, FL
http://conference. ifas.ufl.edu/sehac/index.html



Florida Small Farms and JULY 15-17, 2;oll
.5^ Alternative Enterprises KISSIMMEE FLORIDA
C 0 N F E R E N C E Cultivating Networks, Opportunities and Sustainability



-- -- 1111111F