Group Title: Agronomy Notes
Title: Agronomy notes
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 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Agronomy Department
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: October 2010
Copyright Date: 2010
Subject: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Additional Physical Form: Also available to subscribers via the World Wide Web.
Additional Physical Form: Electronic reproduction of copy from George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida also available.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066352
Volume ID: VID00128
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000956365
notis - AER9014

Full Text


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity-Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap
or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean.

"Agrononly Notes" is prepared by: Maria Gallo, Interim Chair and Y. Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ..s . ~! . ..II. 1.. J. Ferrell, Extension
Weed Specialist I1. ... Il I .II 1.. Fred Fishel . .I. I..t ..II I~....J. Alarois, Plant Pathologist It.~! .... ..t ..!I I~ 1.. D. Wright, Extension Agrononlist
ig !_! !I .. ~~I I. .1.. The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.

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A~flatoxin in Peamits ......................................... Page 2
Drying Peanuts .................... ....................... Page 2
57 ,..~ Giain Seed Supplies ................................ Page 3

M1I 1 Ha~y Feeding Losses-Pintect your Hay
....................... Page 3

Weed: Control:
Post-Hairest Palmer Amalanth Contial .............. Page 4
EPA Plans to Mlore Ahead With NPDES........ Page 5


Calendar ....................... .... .... ............ Page 6

Dr. David Wr~ght, Extension Agronomist

Dr. Jim Marois, Plrant Pathologist

Peanuts in fore ground are not irrigated while but those directly behind are.
Photo by David Wright.

Dryi'ng Peanuts
Peanuts are normally dug and inverted allowing the nuts to be exposed to the sun and air without soil contact for
3 days prior to picking. Moisture content of the peanut during this period will go from 40-50% down to 20-
25% After drying to this level peanuts will be loose in the shell Upon picking peanuts, they will need to be
dried further, usually taking 12 hours or longer in drying wagon at temperatures of 95 degrees oF. Moisture
content should be in the 8-10% range for storage. Drying peanuts to less than 7% can result in damage to the
peanut seed and may lower germination rates. David Wright.

Noirbt Floiida REC, paing

Aflatoxin in Peanuts

Aflatoxin often occurs when peanuts have
been grown without irrigation under
excessively dry conditions. Aflatoxin is
produced by the Aspergillus flavus fungus
during periods of extreme water stress and
high soil temperatures. Lesser corn stalk
borers often bore into the kernels under
these conditions and contribute to the
problem. The mold is most active at seed
moisture contents of 15-35% and where
the skin has been broken. Growers with
irrigation often dig and pick dry corners of
fields that are not irrigated separately from
those under a pivot to keep from
contaminating several loads of peanuts. If
peanuts are found to have aflatoxin, they
will be classified as Seg. III and will go
for oil stock. Nuts will not go into the
edible trade. Seg. III peanuts have less
value to growers so growers should
consider management that will prevent
aflatoxin. Our research has shown that
peanuts grown in rotation with bahiagrass
will have little or no aflatoxin while
treatments alongside in standard row crop
rotations can have aflatoxin under severe
stress conditions. This is due to deeper
rooting following bahiagrass and less
disease and nematode problems.


Dr. David Wn'ght, Extension Agronomist

Dr. Yoana Newman, Extension Forage Specialist

Hay supply keeps increasing
throughout the state, and with the
supply comes storage, feeding, and
how to minimize feeding losses. How
we can minimize the losses in storage
includes choosing a desirable site that
is well drained and close to the
feeding area It also includes the
bale orientation in the field; large
round bales should be placed in rows
that run north and south in order to
allow maximum exposure of the
rounded sides to the sun. What about "
feeding losses? If feeding your..
animals directly mn the pasture, select
a dry spot to place the bale. Place a
rack or barrier between the animal
and the hay, this separation will help Barrier between hay and animals.
to keep the hay in one spot and keep Photo by Yoana Newman
the animal from trampling and
defecating on it. Racks also help when consumption of sand is a concern.



North Florida REC, f~iny

Small Grain Seed Supplies

Small grain seed is in short supply this year due to several factors. Weather conditions were unusually wet
during harvest of crops last fall--this excess moisture delayed fields being available to plant, and the record
rainfall during planting season resulted in little small grain being planted. All of these factors resulted n short
seed supply of the best varieties for this year. The high prices now being offered for wheat has increased the
interest in planting with little of the recommended varieties being available for planting. There will be varieties
imported from other areas that are not as well adapted and will require a higher level of management due to not
having the pest package needed for our area. Likewise, vernalization or chilling hours needed for heading out
will be different for varieties developed outside our area. In many cases varieties will not head out if high
chilling hours are required or they will head out too soon and heads will be killed by a late frost. Use only
recommended varieties. Information from our area can be found at
http://www. swvt.uga. edu/2009/sm09/AP 100-contents. pdf


M/7inimz/ing Hay Feed/ing L osses-Protect your Hay

Flowering Palmer Amaranth.
Photo by Jason Ferrell

Weed Science Dr. Json Ferrell, Extension Weed Spe-
cialis t
j fe rrell~uf .edu

Post-Harvest Palmer Amaranth Control

Many cotton and peanut farmers have been
fighting Palmer amaranth all season and
harvest is finally here. Regrettably, we can't
give up on this horrible weed yet. With
daytime temperatures still into the mid-80's or
90's and 12 hours of sunlight, Palmer
amaranth will still germinate and produce
seed. Therefore, giving up on Palmer right
now can undo all the hard work that has been ( .
expended by allowing a late seed crop and P t

After peanuts or cotton is out of the field, we
can use 2,4-D or Weedmaster without as
much concern for sensitive crops. These
herbicides are inexpensive and highly
effective on Palmer amaranth, even those that
are resistant to glyphosate, Cadre, or both.
One application of 2,4-D or Weedmaster will
likely provide enough control that a second
Palmer amaranth crop will not have time to
develop before cool weather brings seed
germination to an end.

Palmer amaranth is a great problem for crop
production, but seed longevity for this plant is
quite short. A few years of proactive
management and the impact of this weed can
be reduced. But, allowing multiple seed
crops, especially those that develop late in the
season when crop competition has been
removed, can be particularly devastating.

Weed Control Dr. Fred Fishel, Pesticide Information Director

EPA Plans to Move Ahead Wi'th NPDES

Lisa Jackson, Administrator of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), announced on September 23
that the EPA intends to issue a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General
Permit (PGP) for point source discharges from the application of pesticides to waters of the United States. This
action is in response to a January 7, 2009, decision by the U. S 6th Circuit Court of Appeals which vacated EPA' s
2006 rulemaking that certain pesticide applications to U. S. waters did not require NPDES permits if they were
used in accordance with the label. As a result of the Court' s decision, NPDES permits will be required by April 9,
201 1, for pesticide application discharges directly to waters of the United States to control pests. EPA provided
public notice of the draft PGP on June 4, 2010, for the control of discharges to waters of the U. S. for the following
four pesticide use patterns:

+ Mosquito and other flying insect pest control;
+ Aquatic weed and algae control;
+ Aquatic nuisance animal control; and
+ Forest canopy pest control.

The Agency plans to issue its final PGP in December 2010. Once issued, the PGP will be implemented in states,
territories, Indian Country lands and federal facilities where EPA is the NPDES permitting authority. In the other
44 states, including Florida, and the Virgin Islands, the state or territory as the NPDES permitting authority will
issue permits similar to the one currently under development at EPA. The Agency has been working closely with
those states to concurrently develop their NPDES permits for pesticide discharges. Full details concerning NPDES
are available at http://cfpub.epa.Rov/npdes/home.cfm?prora id=410

_ _

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Oct. 5 9th Annual Fall Field Day and Open House--North Florida REC http~://

Oct. 12 Ona Field Day http~://
Ona REC, Ona

Oct. 11-14 UF-CTA Potential Invasive Pests Workshop,
Coconut Grove (Miami), Mayfair Hotel

Oct. 19-21 Sunbelt Ag-Expo http,:/ /www. /
Moultrie, Georgia

Oct. 31-Nov 3 American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting http,:/ / ,
Long Beach, California

Nov. 16-18 Tomato Disease Workshop, Balm (Gulf Coast REC)

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