W W UNIVERSITY of
Laudis A New Herbicide for Corn ....................................... Page 2
Cotton, Corn, Soybean- What Crops will be Profitable? Page 2
Winter Grazing and Cover Crops ............................................. Page 3
Checklist for Establishment of New Pastures .................. Page 3
Counterfeit Pesticides on Global Market........................ Page 5-6
Field Days & Other Resources .............................................. Page 4
"Agronomy Notes" is prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman and Yoana Newman, Extension Forage
Specialist ( ., ,,: ,1 ll ..ii J. Ferrell, Extension Weed Specialist (firstname.lastname@example.org); F.M. Fishel,
Pesticide Coordinator (email@example.com); and D. Wright, Extension Agronomist (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Designed by Cynthia Hight (email@example.com.) The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or
warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar products.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity-
Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your
county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Larry Arrington, Dean.
Laudis (tembotrione) is a new "bleaching" herbicide registered for use in corn. Laudis is applied
postemergence at a rate of 3 oz/A and provides excellent control of pigweeds, ragweed, morningglory,
and annual grasses such as crabgrass and goosegrass. This herbicide also possesses a significant level of
soil residual activity. One application of Laudis will generally control sensitive weeds for 4 to 6 weeks
after application. Because of the spectrum of this herbicide, it is an ideal tank-mix partner for glyphosate
and atrazine. Atrazine + Laudis combinations applied to 6" corn has performed very well in University of
Florida trials. However, like most postemergence herbicides, control is maximized if weeds that are less
than 4 inches are sprayed.
Laudis can be applied from corn emergence until the V8 stage of growth. All applications should be
made using either a crop oil or methylated seed oil adjuvant.
Although Laudis has soil residual activity, plant back restrictions are relatively short. Small grains can
be planted within 4 months of application. Plant back for soybeans and cotton are 8 and 10 months,
Dr. Jason Ferrell, Extension Weed Specialist
Costs of seed are increasing on cotton and corn with cotton being the most expensive due to new
Roundup technology as well as stacked Bt traits. At one time seed costs were only a minor part of
production of these crops, but as genetic technology has resulted in less use of pesticide, growers are
being charged more due to the value of these traits to growers. However, growers may want to consider
using the technology only where the benefit is the highest. Fields with low yield potential or other factors
that could increase risks (sandy, non irrigated fields, resistant weeds, etc) could still use standard crops
without genetic technology. Profit margins on these fields are often narrow anyway. Growers are
generally optimistic and will use the latest technology available on all crops. This may be unprofitable
when seed and technology cost as much as $70-85/A for the elite lines of cotton with latest technology.
Growers are more undecided on what crops they will be growing in 2009 than at any time in recent
history. High costs of fertilizer have resulted in budgets for irrigated corn being over $1,000/A.
Commodity prices have varied more in the past 12 months than at any time in the last several decades.
This has led growers to try to find crops that can be grown more cheaply with reduced inputs without
giving up the potential for high yields. The two crops that can be grown without a great deal of response
to direct fertilization are peanut and soybean. Both of these crops do well when grown with residual
nutrients from fertilizer applied to other crops in rotation. Of the common row crops in Florida, corn
requires the most fertilizer inputs followed by cotton Many growers will make last minute decisions on
what crops to plant in which fields. The nematode situation should be taken into consideration since
nematodes can impact yield very significantly and growers will not get the benefit of inputs applied to
the crop even though inputs were applied for high yields.
Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy
Agronomy Notes Pa
Winter Grazing and Co ver Crops
Topdressing small grain with nitrogen for grazing is different than for grain. In most cases, small grain
for grazing is planted earlier than for grain. Therefore, the first application of N is often made in
December for grazing and in late January or early February for grain. This will help spur tillering and
vegetative growth for either use. A total of 90-120 lbs/A of total N is usually adequate for top yields for
grain while 3 applications of N 4-6 weeks apart may be made for grazing with 501bs/A in each
application. Include a total of about 15 lbs sulfur/A with the N to prevent sulfur deficiencies. Weed
control measures should be done when weeds are small and some materials can be mixed with liquid N
to save a trip and application costs. It is important to scout for disease on wheat for grain. In small
grains to be used for grains, time the fungicide applications to go out when the plant is at the stage of flag
leaf to early head emergence.
Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy
S...New Year...New Fields ...or New Pastures!
If this is the case, going over the establishment checklist will help keep in mind details that may
seem obvious but if left unattended will have undesirable impacts such as more weeds or low
germination in the field.
Study the selection of your pasture plant options and choose those that are adapted to your soil type
and climate condition. An adapted forage will propagate and establish promptly helping to reduce
the fertilization and weed control costs.
Buy or use good quality seed (whether it is vegetative planting or true sexual seed). It may not be
the cheapest but keep in mind that in many cases "cheap" turns out expensive.
Select an adequate seeding rate that will guarantee a good stand and will help minimize weed
control practices. Recommended seeding rates for bahiagrass are 20 to 30 lb/acre; if lower seeding
rates are used you will be fighting warm-season grassy weeds that cannot be controlled chemically
until bahiagrass is 6 inches tall.
Check the right seeding depth. A common mistake when planting seeds that are very small, such as
bahiagrass, is to bury the seed too deep. Bahiagrass recommended seeding depth is less than 1/4 in.
Make sure that your seedbed is firm. In many cases an additional roller pass after planting is
necessary to seal in the soil moisture.
If you have not started your soil preparation, you are still on time, use the dry months to till the soil
and get rid of the weeds. Check and prepare your planting equipment, thus when the right weather
conditions are present (moisture and warm weather) you will be prepared with a seedbed rid of
weeds, will have the bag or bags of seed and/or have contracted the sprigging material, will know
what seeding rate to use, and will have the seeding equipment ready to go.
For a listing of the Florida Forage plants, their description, including establishing practices
check the Forages of Florida website at: http://agronomy.ifas.ufl.edu/ForagesofFlorida/index.php
Dr. Yoana Newman
Extension Forage Specialist
Agronomy Notes Pa
Field Days & Other Resources
Strawberry Field Day
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Balm, FL
Maize Genetics Conference, St. Charles, IL
t April 4
April 29 May 1
UF UNIVERSITY of
Entomology and Nematologv
Florida's Agricultural Heritage 25th Anniversary book
presented by the Florida Agricultural Hall of Fame.
800-226-1764 or visit: www.ifasbooks.com
Agronomy Noes Pag
Spring Ranchers' Forum
Yarborough Ranches, Geneva, FL.
Horse Short Course, Okeechobee, FL
For more information, call Lindsey Wiggins at (863) 674-4092.
Silvopasture Tour, Washington County, FL
Range Cattle Field Day
Ona Research and Education Center, Ona, FL
Florida Beef Cattle Short Course
UF Aquatic Weed Control Short Course
Coral Springs, FL
UF/IFAS Extension Symposium
UF Hilton, Gainesville, FL
Southern Pasture and Forage Crop Improvement
Conference, Lexington, KY
National Conference on Ecosystem Restoration
NCER, Los Angeles, CA
Recently, the European Crop Protection Association's (ECPA) reported there is rapid growth in Europe
and other areas of the world of counterfeit and illegally-traded pesticides. These illegal products are
produced and distributed by criminal gangs. They are untested, unregulated and threaten the health of
farmers and consumers and the environment.
The scale and scope of counterfeit pesticides differs from market to market depending on countries'
specificities. Fighting counterfeit pesticides is a complex task. In Europe, there is a dichotomy of more
and more regulation related to pesticide use, yet less and less
i Counterfeit! attention devoted to enforcement of these regulations. This has lead
II i .../...'... .'i..... .../' ,a to more and more abuse. The grave nature of the problem requires
'-i/,.,.;- ...:,.' ~,! '. ', ... ,,,, urgent actions by all stakeholders governments, supranational
.i'' /" 10II...,/. ,, i,'h entities, agricultural producers, as well as the food and pesticide
The Growing Problem In Europe, the growth of counterfeit plant protection products is
worrying. The ECPA estimates that 5% 7% of annual turnover is affected by counterfeiting and
illegal trade. At the time of the report, in U.S. dollars, this is about $260 million $370 million of the
European pesticide business across Europe. In some regional hot spots, 25% or more of the market is
estimated to be counterfeit. These are estimates based on statistics, market dynamics, percentage of
customs seizures and case-by-case country studies. And the problem is growing.
In China and India, illegal pesticides are deemed to make up about 30% and 20% of these markets,
respectively. The rapid growth of chemical manufacturing capabilities in these countries has made this
possible. Pesticide imports from China into the European Union (EU) are growing 8 times faster than
average worldwide pesticides imports into the EU. This is worrying, especially in light of the fact that
86% of counterfeited goods seized in 2006 came from China. There are over 2,000 Chinese companies
formulating pesticides and over 400 involved in manufacturing. Active substances are readily supplied
and exported with no controls to countries around the world where they are formulated and labeled for
onward distribution. Likewise, sophisticated copies of proprietary products are manufactured and
shipped with fraudulent documentation to countries around the world with growing emphasis on
Types of Counterfeit and Illegal Pesticides The nature and extent of counterfeit products and
illegal trade varies per market and can originate from many different sources in many different forms.
The three main areas of illegal activity are
Illegal Parallel Imports
Cotne Agonm Notee Pa..
Agronomy Notes Pall
Containing anything, from water or talc, to diluted and outdated or obsolete : .
stocks, including banned or restricted materials. Some fakes may provide a .
degree of biological control, as they sometimes contain an illegal and
untested copy of the proprietary active substance. These products are often t
sold in simple packs, such as plain bottles with minimal labeling describing
their use and no health and environmental precautions. In the photo, the
fake product is on left and the legitimate product is on the right.
Sophisticated copies of legitimate branded products usually with
high quality labeling and packaging. Most will contain a copy of
the original active ingredient; however, its biological efficacy is
S often diminished due to high levels of impurities of manufacturing
and process by-products. Such products, often difficult even for
experts to distinguish between legitimate and counterfeit ones, are
sold to agricultural producers and only show adverse side effects
4 B, such as crop damage after application. In the photo, the fake
products are on the left.
Fake products (example on the left) are often difficult Illegal parallel imports
to dI, 11., ,,11 lifrom !,.. gai m ,.- products (an example
on the right.) Legitimate parallel traded products substituted with illegal generic
Allphotosfor this article by F. Fishel copies, repackaged and sold as legitimate products. Parallel trade
of plant protection products has been a contentious issue for
several years. However, a recent ruling by the European Court of Justice has lead to the re-adoption of
"common origin" thus precluding the legitimate substitution of an equivalent registered product. The
repackaging of plant protection products is still contested by the plant protection industry as
repackaging compromises the products' integrity and allows for contamination and the use of
unacceptable packaging leading to an inferior product that may cause harm to crops and pose risks to
Pesticides and plant protection products sold and used in Europe are extremely well regulated through
EU and national regulations and legislation and as such are thoroughly tested to ensure the maximum
safety to farmers, the environment, and consumers purchasing and eating fresh produce treated with
any pesticide. We are fortunate that here in the United States our laws and regulations governing
pesticides and their use are well-established, serving to protect human and animal health while
minimizing impacts on the environment.
Dr. Fred Fishel
Pesticide Information Officer
Agronomy Notes Pc