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Agronomy notes
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Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: October 2008
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
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Full Text

IFAS Extension


Agronomy Notes

Volume 32:10 October 2008


Hay and Forage Production Regional Update .................. Page 2
Fall Forage Varieties Recommendations .............................. Page 3
New Oat Cultivar for 2008 Fall Planting ............................ Page 7

Organic Fungicides Control Asian Soybean Rust (ASR)
On Forage Soybean .......................... .................... Page 4
Asian Soybean Rust in 2008 .................................................. Page 4

Weed Control
Control of Prickly Pear Cactus............................................ Page 5
Wax Myrtle Control ...................................... ........................ Page 6
Pesticide Disposal Opportunity Offered .......................... Page 8

Wheat Planting Dates ...............................................................Page 7

Marketing Hype vs. Scientific Data..................................... Page 9
Soil Test and Cover Crops in the Fall.................................. Page 9
Calendar ........................................ .............................................. Page 2

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity-
Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your
county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Larry Arrington, Dean.

Hay and Forage Production Regional Update



Oct. 5-9

Oct. 14

Oct. 15

Nov. 5

American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting
Houston, TX

Sunbelt Ag Expo
Moultrie, GA
Pasture Weed Day
UF/IFAS Ona Range Cattle Research Center, Ona, FL
2008 Florida Ag Expo
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Balm, FL

Nov. 11-14

Methyl Bromide Alternatives Conference
Orlando, FL, http://mbao.org/

Agronomy Notes Pa

Panhandle: Hay production in North-west Florida is close to normal due to the recent rains.
Conditions for hay production, although not excellent, have been adequate. In the area, the second hay
cutting was in August and the third by the end of September. A lot of hay that was ready to be cut was
on hold due to the recent tropical storm but was
eventually cut. This year producers had 2-3 cuttings
because early in the season it was slow due to lack of
moisture, but there has been a dramatic change; if
normal conditions had prevailed from the beginning
of the year, 3 to 4 cuttings on Coastal or 4 to 5 could
be expected on Tifton 85 bermudagrass. Prices of
hay remain high $ 45-50 for round bales, and $ 6-7
for square bales.
Central Florida: Spring and early summer with
reasonable hay making conditions that allowed for 1
cutting, followed by drought and immediate
excessive high moisture that has not allowed any hay
production. Recent storm impacts were most
severely in the Atlantic coast of this region, in
Brevard county, where over 1 foot and in some areas
of hay in North-central Florida. more than 2 were dumped by the storm. Central
Photo: Y. Newman Florida challenges are expected with pests (mole
cricket and worms).
South Florida: Conditions for pasture growth or hay production in the area have been extreme
throughout the year, with no hay production and dry pastures from severe drought until the second
week in July. Recent tropical storm 'Fae' dropped from 5-12 inches of rain in the area which has
allowed to get caught up. Current stocking rates are good but there is not over production of pastures.
Dr. Yoana Newman
Extension Forage Specialist

Third c ,mai


Fall Forage Varieties Recommendations

Winter forages in the state cannot be recommended in a 'recipe' fashion as they don't grow in all places
and all soil types. Winter grasses like cereal Rye adapt well to drier soils but others like ryegrass (cool-
season grass, not a winter grain) require substantial moisture to grow properly. In North and North-
central Florida ryegrass and most of the small grains are recommended. Recommendation for South
Florida is almost exclusively Ryegrass because of the small window of cold temperatures; also
temperature and disease pressure are too high to use any of the small grains for the mid-south and south

Following are the recommend grass varieties for 2008 by maturity

(early, medium, and late), and legumes:

Early: FL401 (for early grazing or use in blends), AGS
Medium: Wrens 96, Wrens Abruzzi, Pennington
Wintergraze 70, and Early Graze.
Late: Bates, Oklon.

Medium: Horizon 201, Horizon 270, Horizon 321,
Horizon 474, SS76-40, and NK-Coker 227
Late: TAMO 406

Wheat: Recommended varieties are all grain types that
may be used for forage.
Medium: AGS 2000 and Pioneer 26R61
Medium-late: USG 3592
*Recommended cultivars with good season long
Early: Ed*
Mid to late*: Jumbo, Florlina, Big Boss, Surrey II,
Jackson, TAM 90, Brigadier, Fantastic.
Late: Jumbo, Prine, Big Daddy, Passeral plus.
Other varieties may be suitable but have not been
recently or tested enough years in Florida.

Legumes Recommended Varieties

White Clover :
Osceola (developed in Florida), Louisiana S-1, Regal,
Ladino, Durana and Patriot. Commercial seed
production of white clover will be limited in 2008.

Dr. Ann Blount
Extension Forage Specialist
North Florida REC, Marianna

Red Clover:
Southern Belle, Cherokee (both developed in Florida),
Bulldog Red, Kenland, and Redland III. Commercial
seed production of red clover will be limited in 2008.

Alfalfa: Alfalfa is usually grown as a winter short-term
perennial in Florida, mainly in north FL.
Florida 99, Bulldog 805, and Amerigraze 702.

Crimson Clover:
Dixie and AU-Robin. Flame, Chief, and Tibbee.
Commercial seed production for these cultivars will be
limited in 2008.

Arrowleaf Clover :
Apache and Yuchi. Apache has improved virus
resistance compared to Yuchi.

Tifblue. Tifwhite and Frost are also recommended,
however, seed is currently unavailable.

Hubam. New varieties should be commercially
available shortly.

Austrian Winter Peas:
Common. Commercial seed production of Austrian
winter pea will be limited in 2008.

Americus, AU-Early Cover, Cahaba White, and Nova
II. Commercial seed production of most vetch varieties
will be limited in 2008.

Ball Clover :
Segrest and common. Commercial seed production was
fair in 2008 and pre-inoculated seed will be available

Dr. Yoana Newman
Extension Forage Specialist

Agronomy Notes Pa

The faculty at the North Florida Research Centers in Marianna and Quincy recently completed a two
year study on control of Asian Soybean Rust on soybeans grown for forage. Soybean hay is highly
nutritious and several north Florida beef and dairy cattle operations are growing Hinson Long Juvenile
(non-GMO) forage soybean as a hay or silage crop. One problem with soybeans grown as a forage
crop is the emergence of a new rust that hurts the foliage of the plant and reduces leaf and seed yields.
There are few legal fungicides to use to protect a forage type crop and they are expensive. Cooperative
efforts among faculty at the NFREC-Quincy have shown that Basic Cu Sulfate and Champion WP
gave us the best control of Asian Soybean Rust when applied at the recommended rates and timing of
application supplied by the manufacturers.

NF REC Marianna: Dr. Ann Blount
(850) 482-9904

NF REC Quincy: Dr. James Marois, Dr. Cheryl Machowiak, Dr. Stephen Olson, Dr. David Wright
(850) 875-7100

Asian soybean rust has been identified all across north Florida this year with most of the sentinel plots
being positive as well as numerous kudzu sites. We have monitored
these plots throughout the season and have watched the disease
progress. Average or better rainfall since late June has resulted in
more soybean rust and earlier infections than had occurred in the
previous 2 dry years.

.'~- _~


Soybean leaves severely infected with soybean rust
September 10, 2008

SThere have been a few commercial fields that had the disease and
some of these were sprayed with a fungicide in mid August. More
S than likely, these fields were infected before spraying in mid August.
Fungicide trials at Quincy have had heavy pressure and should result
in good information on best fungicides and the most effective time of
application. We have had several training sessions for county and
state extension faculty and have trained consultants and others on
identification and control. Much research effort is being expended to
ton find resistant germplasm and how it can be controlled effectively.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy

Dr. James J. Marois, Plant Pathologist
North Florida REC, Quincy

Agronomy Notes Pa

Prickly pear is a not a wide-spread
problem in Florida pastures, but can
devastate a pasture if allowed to
establish. It can be particularly
troublesome in pastures that are
regularly mowed. This is because
prickly pear spreads by fragmentation.
As pads are removed from the parent
plant, they have the ability to root and
form new colonies. Therefore,
mowing a pasture with prickly pear
simply increases the infestation.

Control of prickly pear has
traditionally been a slow and laborious
process. The only effective herbicide
was Remedy mixed as a 20% solution
with basal oil or diesel fuel. Although
effective, this is an expensive mixture
and requires each individual colony to
be sprayed. This has led ranchers and
researchers alike to seek a new control
method that will allow broadcast

a restricted use pesticide and cost will be approximately $25/A. However, it must be noted that control
herbicide application in place of spot

Pricklygpear Cactus

of prickly pear is an extremely slow process. Generally speaking, prickly pear will often survive for over
1 year after application. Therefore, it is important to allow the herbicide sufficient time to act before
decisions about success or failure can be made. Also, do not expect 100% control with one application
of Cleanwave. It is likely that Cleanwave will control a majority of the prickly pear that is present.
However, a follow-up application of Remedy may be necessary two years later to spot-treat colonies that
survived the initial application.

Dr. Jason Ferrell Dr.Brent Sellers, Extension Weed Specialist
Extension Weed Specialist Range Cattle REC, Ona
jferrell@ufl.edu sellersb@ufl.edu

"Agronomy Notes" is prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman and Yoana Newman, Extension Forage
Specialist (ycnew@ufl.edu); A. Blount, Extension Forage Specialist (paspalum@ufl.edu); R. Barnett,
Extension Small Grains Breeding Specialist (rdbamet@ufl.edu); J. Ferrell, Extension Weed Specialist
(jferrell@ufl.edu); F.M. Fishel, Pesticide Coordinator (weeddr @ifas.ufl.edu); J. Marois, Plant
Pathologist (jmarois@ufl.edu); B. Sellers, Extension Weed Scientist (sellersb@ufl.edu); and D. Wright,
Extension Agronomist (wright@ufl.edu). Designed by Cynthia Hight (chight@ufl.edu.) The use of
trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval
to the exclusion of similar products.
Agronomy Notes

Wax Myrtle Control

Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera L.) is a native plant to the southeastern U.S. In most cases, it is scattered
throughout native ecosystems in Florida. However, it can be quite problematic in pastures if left
uncontrolled. It can become a dominant shrub in a pasture landscape that reduces forage yield. In
.-' ,li rangeland, wax myrtle can be suppressed through burning. Then again,
there is usually insufficient fuel to carry a fire into a wax myrtle canopy
A ..t .VI't in an improved pasture setting. Therefore, herbicides applications are
,s. usually necessary in pastures.

-, Control of wax myrtle can be challenging. Considering that this plant can
S 'reach heights of at least 20 feet tall, with canopy widths of 20 to 40 feet,
control of this plant can be extremely difficult. In pastures, the herbicide
recommendation for wax myrtle control is Remedy at 2 pt/acre.
;Lji 'However, there are some things that need to be considered before
applyingg Remedy to control wax myrtle.

First, the response of wax myrtle plants to Remedy can be quite variable. This is largely due to the size of
the plant at application. Research by Dr. Rob Kalmbacher, a retired professor at the Range Cattle REC,
determined that control of plants larger than 2.5 feet was erratic. He found that wax myrtle plants larger
than 2.5 feet should be mowed or chopped, followed by treatment of regrowth. It is recommended that
wax myrtle be chopped in the late fall or early spring followed by treatment of the regrowth the
following fall.

Second, timing of the herbicide application does make a difference. Again, Dr. Kalmbacher found that
late summer/early fall applications of Remedy were quite effective. Why? This is the time that wax
myrtle plants are beginning to store energy to over-winter. Therefore, when the herbicide gets into the
plant, it is also transported to the root system with the energy reserves, resulting in more consistent
control of the plant.


", .- .,
Wax myrtle in this pasture reduces forage yield. To control it, chop or mow to
less than 2.5feet tall at least 6 months before herbicide application.
Photo: B. Sellers

Keys to controlling wax myrtle in
Florida pastures:

* Plants should be no taller than 2.5 feet.
If they are larger than this size, the plants
should be chopped or mowed at least 6
months before herbicide application.

* Treat regrowth of wax myrtle plants in
late summer (no earlier than August) or early
fall (no later than October) with 2 pt/acre

Dr. Brent Sellers, Extension Weed Specialist
Range Cattle REC, Ona

Agronomy Notes Pa


Wheat Planting Date

Normal recommended planting dates for wheat for grain in Florida
is November 15 to December 15

VI gMany growers plant as early as the first week of November
which can be risky with certain wheat varieties. Different
wheat varieties have different vernalization requirements. Ver-
Se nalization is a period of low winter temperatures (40-50 de-
grees F) that is required to initiate flowering or heading and is
often referred to as chilling hours. Varieties with low vernali-
zation requirements may head out early if planted in early No-
vember and then would be subject to freezes if they head out
by mid March. Other varieties of wheat have a longer vernali-
zation requirement and should not be planted late since they
may not receive enough chilling hours to initiate heading.
Generally the later maturing varieties should be planted early
and the early maturing varieties should be planted later. Some
varieties may never head out if planted too late due to not
enough chilling hours. Earlier planted grain normally results
in higher yields than when late planted. Check variety test in-
Small grain in foreground above on April 15, 2008 has
formation for recommended varieties. htm//
higher vernalization requirement than that in the back-oratio fo o aitis
ground. Most high yielding wheat varieties will be headed www. swvt.uga. edu/2008/sm08/RR715-contents.pdf .
out the lastfew days ofA arch or first few days ofApril. r. aid right te n on
Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
Photo D. Wright North Florida REC, Quincy, wright@ufl.edu


New Oat Cultivar for 2008 Fall Planting

Horizon 201 is a new winter oat variety that was co-developed by University of Florida (UF) and
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (LSUAC) and is released under the SUNGRAINS
cooperation. Horizon 201 (experimentally tested as FL99201) has considerable potential for grain,
forage, conservation tillage, and wildlife purposes in the southern U.S. Horizon 201 is typically one of the
highest seed yielding entries in regional trials. Horizon 201 is a good forage oat because of its vigorous
growth and aggressive tillering. Throughout field testing, it was noted as having a high leaf to stem ratio
and was considered a superior forage type. It has excellent grain and forage yield, tall plant height,
average test weight, medium maturity, and excellent crown rust resistance. However, it is susceptible to
stem rust. Horizon 201lis adapted from North Carolina to Texas. This oat also fits in dairy silage
operations where high quality, cool-season forages are utilized for greenchop or silage. Seed of Horizon
201 is available from Plantation Seed Conditioners, Inc., Newton, GA (800-543-4164 or

Dr. Ann Blount, NF REC Marianna Dr. Ron Barnett, NF REC Quincy
Extension Forage Specialist Extension Small Grains Breeding Specialist
paspalum@ufl.edu rdbarnet@ufl.edu

I AgronomyNotesP]

Operation Cleansweep is an opportunity for agricultural operations, golf courses, and pest control
companies that reside in Florida to properly dispose of cancelled, suspended, and unused pesticides.

The program is not intended for universities, pesticide manufacturers and distributors, homeowners,
institutions, or state and local government. Homeowners with pesticides and other household wastes can
locate a collection facility in their area by checking www.earth911.org. Operations Cleansweep has
been a success throughout its history considering the number of pounds of unused pesticide wastes
collected (see table).
Year Number of Counties Number of Participants Pounds Collected*
2000-01 12 374 235,644
2001-02 49 357 224,000
2002-03 37 145 126,235
2003-04 39 207 250,984
2004-05 22 62 78,887
2005-06 29 104 91,359
2006-07 33 138 68,994
2007-08 34 144 82,895

Program funding significantly reduced beginning in 2004-05.

The 2008 Florida Legislature appropriated $100,000 for this fiscal year to contract a private collection
firm to operate a mobile pickup service. Operation Cleansweep provides for a contractor to come
directly to a farm or pesticide application business for pickup and disposal of pesticides when there is a
sufficient quantity in a defined area. A list of participants, quantities, and products will be compiled in
advance of scheduling a pickup or collection. The lists will be compiled by the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) Program Manager. When a list in a region or county
reaches a quantity of 2,000 pounds, a collection will be scheduled by the private contractor.

Acceptable pesticides for pickup include those held in original, unbroken containers, broken or partial
containers, and formulations in aerosol dispensers. Container labels should be intact; however, in
instances where the label is not legible, a decision will be made at the collection site by FDACS if the
material is acceptable for pickup. Leaking containers will be overpacked at the collection site and
accepted for disposal. Gas cylinders are not acceptable.

There is no cost charged to those who participate in the program. For more information, and to be
placed on the list, contact Robin Waddell of FDACS at 1-888-851-5285 or waddelr(@doacs.state.fl.us.
Collection events will begin in December.

Cleansweep Website: www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/cleansweep-pesticides/.

Dr. Fred Fishel
Pesticide Information Officer
Agronomy Notes Pa

Soil Test and Cover Crops in the Fall

Soil tests taken immediately after harvest of crops in the fall can be used to determine fertility requirements and
lime needs for the coming year. Nematode samples can also be taken to help determine rotations.

Lime should be applied in the fall if needed to affect a pH change by the spring.

If cover crops are to be planted and the following crop is a grass or cotton crop, consider planting a few pounds of
crimson clover or other legume to help reduce the commercial nitrogen needed for the following crop. Small grain
cover crops usually need some nitrogen to make adequate growth unless planted behind peanut of soybean. On
sandy soils, some N is needed to make 2 tons or more of dry matter for planting into the following year.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy

Crop growth and good yields are usually made with the right combination of water, nutrients and
sunlight. Good varieties, management, weather, and markets determine whether crops are profitable. As
crop prices rise, we get many questions about materials that are advertised that reduce soil compaction,
enhance nutrient uptake, reduce fertilizer needs, increase rooting, help test weight, decrease nematode
activity, etc. In general, these materials cost only a few dollars per acre and can be applied at very small
rates with claims to having many times the return in crop yield. These high returns for a small investment
usually come with testimonials but often lack scientific data to back it up.

Soil activators, conditioners, yield enhancers and other products Do they work?

Generally, if materials do work, they have been tried and tested in many scientific scenarios and
the materials will be recommended in production guides by state extension services. Where
products really work, the companies are willing to have their products tested against other
materials which will bring to light the value of the materials. With technology being introduced
faster and faster, it is difficult for growers to know what has been scientifically proven vs.
marketing hype. You can usually recognize these products in several ways, including:
SThey rarely have scientific data to back up the claims.
> Most have testimonials from customers.
SThey often have not been tested by the land grant universities.
> The claims are too good to be true.

If you do try these materials on your own farm, always leave test strips that are untreated and test them in
several fields with untreated areas in each field.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy
wright@ufl.edu Agrony
Agronomy Notes