Table of Contents

Agronomy notes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00096
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: January 2008
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00096


This item has the following downloads:

January2008 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text

IFAS Extension

MAgrononiy Votes

Vo8ume 32:1


Corn, Cotton, Soybeans
Check Economics of Crops before
Planting in 2008

Topdress Small Grain with Nitrogen
in Late January or early February

Living Needs for Florida Pastures

Peanut Inoculation

Weed Cotfroe
Thistle Control

Keeping Connected


January 2008

Page 2

Page 2

Page 3

Page 5

Page 4

Page 3

Page 5

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity-
A lirmaliie Action Employer authorized to provide research educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact
your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Larry Arrington, Dean.

eOecq ecoomiCS of crops Oefore growing tnIe in 2008

With fertilizer and fuel prices at the highest prices ever, study the production cost of each crop prior
to committing to growing them. Corn often requires as much as 500 Ibs/A of total N, P, K nutrients
and requires more water than most agronomic crops. The nutrients alone would cost close to $300/A
at current prices. Cotton and peanut are among the most drought tolerant row crops and can do well
with limited or no irrigation. Soybeans normally grow best on heavy soils with good water holding
capacity and can also be double cropped with small grain and after corn. All of these factors have to
be reviewed when growing crops in the new year. When planning your planting, be aware that the
spring of 2008 is projected to be drier and warmer than normal. Plant as early as possible for all
crops since moisture generally becomes more limiting later into the spring if dry conditions persist.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy

Topdress Smnaee gains witA Nitrogen iln ate January

or early Feruary

Small grains should be topdressed with nitrogen no later than early February. Small grains will be
tillering usually by early to mid January if it has been planted timely. Herbicide may be applied with
the nitrogen application to control broadleaf weeds by late January to keep weeds from becoming
too big for effective control. Growers generally use nitrogen with sulfur since most of our soils are
deficient in sulfur. Growers can use 16-19% solutions of nitrogen with sulfur which are usually
cheaper per unit of nitrogen than the more concentrated 28-32% nitrogen solution. However, more
volume is needed to get the same rate (28-32%) when using the low nitrogen concentration solution
(16-19%.) About 90-120 lbs of total nitrogen per acre is enough to make top yields. The total
amount of nitrogen needed depends on soil type, previous crops, and rainfall amount. Additional
nitrogen can be applied about 4-5 weeks after the January February early application if needed.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist
North Florida REC, Quincy

Agronomy Notes P4

-" \grnnolmy Notes" is prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman and Yoana Newman, Extension Forage
Specialist (\Lcnew i'ull.cdul; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist tjialIrrc.llhit.il ull cdu). F.M. Fis-
hel, Pesticide Coordinator (weeddr@ifas.utl.edu); Clyde Fraissc. Extension Climate Specialist
(cfr;ii.s.,.eUiull cdu); James J. Marois, Extension Agronomist (ilnaroilnr ull.edui; and D.L. Wright,
Extension *\grononlisi (dluI @iis ull.tdu). Designed by Cynthia Hight. The use of trade names
does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the
exclusion of similar products.

tifhing Needs for FHorida Pastares\

The reason for liming pastures is to guarantee the right soil conditions for the
pasture plant to take up the soil nutrients.

If the soil pH is not the correct one, soil nutrients will not be available for the plant to absorb
them. In many cases, raising the pH of the soil by applying lime makes the nutrients available at
less cost than applying those nutrients through inorganic fertilizer. Only apply lime when your
soil test recommendation calls for it otherwise you might be spoiling what might be an
existing good soil condition, plus if it is not needed you are just wasting money.

The soil pH, or soil reaction, is a
measure of the degree of acidity or
alkalinity of the soil. A soil pH
-. reading of 7.0 is neutral, below 7.0
is acid, and above 7.0 is basic or
alkaline. The target pH for most
Storage crops is slightly acidic
(6.0); perennial peanut has a target
F pH of 6.0; cool-season annual
So ... : .-. grasses, 6.0. Most legumes will
require a slightly higher pH: warm
-season legumes or legume-grass
mixtures, 6.5; soybeans, 6.5.

However, for perennial warm-
season 'bahiagrass' the target pH
is 5.5 for any fertilization management intensity used (High-N, Medium-N, or Low-N
fertilization). And for limpograss the target pH is one of the lowest at 5.0.

Whichever the pasture plant, this soil pH will only be determined by doing a soil
test. The coming months. January and February, are timely for lime application, particularly if
you are plant ing new areas or renovating others.

Dr. Yoana Newman
Extension Forage Specialist

FLOR Keeping Connected
I FAS Extension UF/IFAS
For a list ing of hInsects, Mites En tomology and Nem atology
and other topics. check: newsletter available at
http :U,/pests. i fas. u fl.ed u/ http://,e nt new s.ifas.ufl.edu/

Agronosey Notes P

fAist e Cotrol

January is a time when most people are not thinking about pasture maintenance. But right now is
when thistles are the most productive. In January, most thistles are still in the rosette stage (a small
ring of leaves on top of the ground) and are easily overlooked. However, as warm weather
approaches the thistle will send up a stalk and produce a flower.

A single thistle plant can produce at least 4,000 seeds that will drift in the wind andproduce
higher thistle populations in the pasture the following year.

Consequently, management practices need to be conducted prior to flower formation for effective
thistle control. Even if thistles have not infested your pasture in the past, it is ideal that your
pastures are scouted in late fall through mid-spring to ensure that thistles do not get out of control.
New infestations are easier to manage than large-scale populations.

Although there are at least nine different species of thistle in Florida, most are closely related and
control recommendations will not differ. As a general rule, thistles in the rosette stage are much
easier, and cheaper, to control than thistles that are flowering (Table 1). If caught early, a few
dollars per acre of 2,4-D ester is the best solution. This application is best made when daytime
temperatures are consistently in the 60s. Applications made during a cold snap can decrease

Herbicide Thistle Growth Stage
Rate $/A"
Rosetteb Bolting' Flowering
2,4-D 2 qt/A 6 90 85 40

Weedaster 2 pt/A 6 95 90 55

Remedy 2 pt/A 21 95 90 75

Pasturegard 3 pt/A 18 95 90 70

Milestone oA 11 99 95 90

a Approximate herbicide costs.
b The rosette stage is when the thistle forms a low-growing ring of leaves.
c The bolting stage is when the thistle forms a stalk and prepares to flower.

-'ot' is the time to quickly scout your pastures and determine if enough thistles are present to
S require a herbicide application. If so, spraying early will always be easier and provide much
greater dividends. For more information on thistle control, check the reference titled: Thistle
Control in Pastures at h11p:' cd is. ifas.utl.cdu AG253.

Dr. Jason Ferrell, Extension Weed Specialist
jferrell( ufl.edu

Agronomy Notes Pc

There is much speculation about whether to inocul
to be inoculated and if newer, higher yielding varie
older varieties.

A study was conducted in 2007 with three of the nc
McCloud to compare inoculated with non inoculate
planting methods.

Tillage did not affect nut yield with 4297 lb acre-'
strip till a\ raged across inoculations and cultivars.
without loss of yield and can reduce input costs anc
treatments had slightly higher yield than non-inocu
harrowed), but results were reversed in strip till tre;
the inoculated and 4299 Ibs acre-' for the non-inocu
in bahiagrass for 3 years and had not been in peanu

Results from this study indicate that inoc
old or new varieties ofpeanuts ifpeanuts h

However, cultivars varied in yield with Florida 07 1
by AP-3, 4371, and McCloud, 4335. Yield different
AP-3 in conventional tillage with non-inoculation I
than non-inoculated AP-3.

Dr. David Wright, Extension Agronomist,
North Florida REC, Quincy

January 26-31 American For;
Louisville, Ken

January 29-30 19th Annual F
at the Best Wes

February 3-5 Southern Asso
Dallas, Texas

July 13-17 Caribbean Fo(
Miami, FL H

ate peanuts each year and how often they need
ties have a greater need to be inoculated than

ewer peanut variety ics, Florida 07, AP-3, and
xd plots over conventional and strip tillage

for conventional tillage and 4372 lbs acre' for
These data indicate that tillage can be reduced
I increase net economic return. Inoculated
lated plots in conventional tillage (turned and
atment. Peanut yields were 4371 lbs acre-' for
elation treatments even though the area had been
Its for more than 6 years.

elation may not be important for either
iave been grown in the fields within five

having highest yield of 4668 lbs acre-' followed
ce was only detected between Florida 07 and
Florida 07 being significantly higher yielding

age and Grassland Council (AFGC)

lorida Ruminant Nutritional Symposium
tern Gateway Grand in Gainesville, FL
:c. ifs.ufl.edu/ruminant

ciation of Agricultural Scientists (SAAS)

)d Crops Society Meeti
osted by UF/IFAS


AgronomyyNotes P