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Agronomy notes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00084
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: January 2007
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00084


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Vol. 31:1 January 2007


G enetic Technology for Corn ........................................ ........... ............... 2
Starter Fertilizer Placement Efficiency on Corn........ ....................... .............. .2

Hay Quality Helping W ith W inter Feeding Costs...............................................2

Specialty Soybeans in the Future...................................................... ....... 3

Non-Selective Herbicides for Dormant Pastures and Hayfield .............................3

Conservation Tillage and Carbon Credits........................................................ ...4
Do We Always Have to Follow the Pesticide Label?.............................4
N ew Hires in Agronomy ..................... ......... ....................................... 5

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity _Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/ Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/ University of Florida/ Larry Arrington, Dean.

Genetic Technology for Corn

It is difficult for growers to know what
technology will make money or save costs
making the technology worth the expense.
Florida growers have embraced Roundup
Ready technology in corn and want the best
yielding hybrids using that technology.
Many of the new hybrids are available with
both Roundup Ready and Bt. Growers who
plant corn into green, living cover crops or
winter grazing have to use soil insecticides
at planting or the southern corn rootworm
may reduce stand by 100% in some cases.
In cases where soil insecticides are not
normally used there would be an economical
benefit from Bt controlling corn root worm.
It is important when choosing this
technology to make sure that the Bt is
effective against corn rootworm since many
of the Bt events that first came on the
market are effective against European corn
borer and not corn rootworm. Florida has
not typically had problems with European
corn borer but may have trouble with fall
armyworm if planted late and this
technology has had limited success against
fall armyworm. The Bt available against
corn root worm is different than the Bt that
is effective against corn borer. Therefore,
with any technology, make sure that you
know what you are buying and what pest it
is controlling. Most of the research has
shown that Bt root worm hybrids protect the
root system better than chemical control
and, in dry years, has the advantage of
protecting the entire root system.

David Wright

Starter Fertilizer Placement Efficiency on

Most soil test results are based on studies
done with broadcast applications of
fertilizer. In Florida and other states,
research with phosphorus (P) fertilization on
corn shows that the relative efficiency of

banded P at planting is increased from 2:1 to
3:1. Banding can save money as well as
avoid P runoff into streams and lakes.
Starter fertilizer placement is critical to good
germination and early plant growth.
Fertilizer should not be applied in furrow
with the seed without some impact on
germination. It is far safer to apply starter
fertilizer in bands using 2" X 2" placement.
When surface applied, place it 2" from the
row for each 201bs/A ofN applied in the
starter fertilizer.

David Wright

Hay Quality Helping With Winter
Feeding Costs

It is that time of the year when most of the
hay crop has been harvested and not much
can be done about the maturity affecting
forage quality of a stand. But as a producer,
you still have control over how to avoid
further quality changes and losses due to
weathering, particularly in a state with such
high relative humidity. Hay left on the field
undergoes substantial deterioration because
of direct contact with the ground and lack of
protection from rain or other weathering
elements (these losses can be greater than
50%, with animal refusals making up
approximately 20% and dry matter losses
30%). Losses can be minimized by isolating
the hay from the ground using gravel, tires
or any device that would keep the hay out of
direct contact with the soil (total losses in
this case may be around 30-40%). The ideal
situation is to store hay off the ground and
under a barn. In the case of barn-stored hay,
losses to weathering are completely
minimized (2% loses in dry matter and 1%
losses to animal refusal).

Also during this time of year, reducing on
hay losses can help lower your winter
feeding costs. If you don't already have
one, a physical barrier, such as a feeding
rack or ring, is a good investment for

feeding livestock large round bales. If
feeding directly on the ground, use your
lowest quality hay first so that refusals,
mainly straw, will serve as the flooring or
ground cover for placement of the new hay

Hay feeding in the winter is an expensive
practice. If hay is your last resort (and it
should be) make sure you buy hay based on
nutritive value. Buy it from someone who
can provide you with a forage test result and
buy it on a weight basis. This is the only
way to guarantee you are getting your
money's worth. Testing the quality of your
hay will help you select the right hay and
supplement that will meet your animal
nutritional requirements.

Yoana Newman

Specialty Soybeans in the Future

Soybean growers in the SE, and the U.S. in
general, have adopted Roundup Ready
technology because it helps them with weed
control. Almost 80% of the U.S. soybean
acreage is planted to this technology.
Considering the recent ban of cooking oil
high in trans fat for use in restaurants in
New York, and other cities sure to follow,
the next technology will probably be
consumer oriented and will start a trend for
the next generation of soybean technology.
Trans fat is formed when soybean oil is
hydrogenated to make it solid for margarine
or shortening and to extend the shelf life.
Linolenic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid
that causes food to become stale or rancid.
The average soybean variety has about 7%
linolenic acid. There are low linolenic
soybeans that have only 1% linolenic acid
and do not require hydrogenation of the oil
for long shelf life. There are four traits
available at the current time with low
linolenic acid. In 2006, there were about
450 million pounds of low linolenic acid oil
produced out of 8 billion total pounds used
in the U.S. With New York being the first

city requiring more healthy oil in
restaurants, you can be sure that we will
have many more soybeans grown with low
linolenic acid in the future as well as other
specialty oils. More can be found out about
the low linolenic soybeans at

David Wright

Non-Selective Herbicides for Dormant
Pastures and Hayfields

Winter is not a common time to think about
controlling weeds in pastures and hayfields
but, especially during mild winters, the
presence of winter weeds will compete with
the forage grass as it transitions from
dormancy. This competition will slow
greenup of the forage and cause delays in
early season grazing or first cutting yield.
However, there are ways to control these
winter weeds, rather inexpensively, while
improving first cutting quality and allowing
grazing earlier in the season.

In North Florida where bermudagrass and
bahiagrass go fully dormant, an application
of Roundup Weathermax (glyphosate) at 8
to 11 fl. oz/A will effectively control many
weedy grasses and broadleaf weeds. In a
pasture setting, these weedy grasses may be
beneficial for early-season grazing, but in
hay fields these grasses will greatly decrease
the value of the hay and increase drying time
of the first cutting. It is important that
glyphosate be applied when the desirable
forage grasses are fully dormant.
Applications made before or after dormancy
can cause injury and delay spring greenup.

Gramoxone Inteon is an ideal product in
Central or South Florida where bahiagrass or
bermudagrass do not go fully dormant. It is
also an ideal product in North Florida if the
pasture has begun to transition from
dormancy prior to the application.
Gramoxone Inteon is often not as effective
as glyphosate on weedy grasses, but it

possesses greater flexibility because it can
be applied to pasture grasses that have
transitioned from dormancy and grown to a
height of 3 inches. This application is
possible because Gramoxone Inteon does
not translocate to the root system. Treated
leaves will indeed be killed by the herbicide,
but the root system remains healthy and
growth will quickly resume. Gramoxone
Inteon should be applied at 1.5 to 1.8 pt/A
with the addition of a spray adjuvant.

Using either Roundup Weathermax or
Gramoxone Inteon, as described here, have
no restrictions for grazing or harvest.
However, it must be noted that Gramoxone
Inteon is a Restricted Use Herbicide and
requires the possession of a proper herbicide
license for purchase or application of the

Jason Ferrell

Conservation Tillage and Carbon Credits

The new farm bill is expected to include
new incentives for farmers to sequester
carbon and reduce greenhouse emissions.
One principal way to sequester carbon is
through plant biomass. Converting from
conventional tillage to conservation tillage
planting can increase soil organic carbon by
430 lbs/A per year. Adding a cover crop can
sequester 300 more lbs/A per year. Adding
a perennial grass in a 2-year rotation can add
another 200 lbs/A per year. The sod based
rotation currently being researched can help
mitigate the greenhouse gas emission
problem and increase soil organic matter as
a way to increase water and nutrient holding
capacity. Conservation tillage in the U.S.
has leveled out at near 40% and would
increase to near 95% if farmers were to
receive an incentive of up to $40 per acre if
converting to conservation farming
practices. It has also been estimated that for
each ton of carbon emitted $20 of damage is
done to crops, health, etc. There will be a
concerted effort to improve and make people

aware of the impacts that their jobs, cars,
heating, lighting, etc. have on greenhouse
emissions and how everyone can help.
Farmers will be in the center of the progress
toward a cleaner environment.

David Wright

Do We Always Have to Follow the
Pesticide Label?

I can't recall anyone making that statement
directly to me, although I'm sure some may
often have that thought. Those in the
Pesticide Information Office (PIO),
including myself, at times may practically
murmur the following words in our sleep:
"It is a violation of Federal law to use this
product in a manner inconsistent with its
labeling." In various terms, that is the
message we constantly deliver to our
clientele. But is that always the case?

Pesticide labels are recognized in a court of
law; but, there are some uses of the term
where there are exceptions that are not
illegal uses. First, applying a pesticide using
a dosage, concentration, or frequency less
than the one specified on the labeling unless
the labeling specifically prohibits deviation
from those application factors. A second use
is to apply a pesticide to a pest not specified
on the labeling. The key issue in this case is
that the site, crop, or animal is approved and
listed on the labeling. If it has been
determined that the product must only be
used for the pests specifically contained on
the labeling, then there will be wording to
that effect in the labeling. Or, if it has been
determined that the use of a product against
other pests would cause unreasonable
adverse effects on the environment, then the
labeling would contain 'prohibitive'
terminology. Application method can be
another non-labeling use. In this case, a
product may be applied using any method
unless the labeling specifically calls for use
of that specified method. Another area that
is permitted in many situations is to mix a

pesticide with a fertilizer prior to
application, as long as the mixture is not
prohibited by the labeling.

Those are four areas of handling a pesticide
that, at times, have been questioned for
clarification from the PIO. Some pest
managers have prior experience with
handling a certain product and may feel
comfortable using the product in any of
those manners. But, anyone who does so
should keep in mind that the pesticide
manufacturer will not come to the rescue in
the event of a pest control failure or any
other undesirable outcome. The standard
words will never go out of style read and
follow all pesticide labels.

Fred Fishel

New Hires in Agronomy

We are very pleased to announce that two
new faculty members have recently joined
the Agronomy Department:

JOAO VENDRAMINI was appointed to the
position of Assistant Professor Forage
specialist. He is stationed at the ONA
Research and Education Center in Ona,
Florida, with extension (35%) and research
(65%) responsibilities. His research
program will mainly focus on different
aspects of the plant-animal interface. Dr.
Vendramini received his M.S. in Animal

Science from the University of Sao Paulo,
Brazil and Ph.D. in Agronomy from
University of Florida. After completing the
Ph.D., Dr. Vendramini joined Texas A&M
University where he served as an assistant
professor and forage specialist for the East
region of Texas. Joao (Joe) will focus
primary efforts in south central Florida. Dr.
Vendramini joined the University of Florida
in August, 2006.

YOANA C. NEWMAN was recently
appointed to the position of Assistant
Professor Forage Specialist. She will be
stationed in Gainesville with extension
(70%) and research (30%) responsibilities in
forage management and production. Dr.
Newman received her M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees in Agronomy from University of
Florida. After completing the Ph.D., Dr.
Newman worked as a research associate for
UF/IFAS investigating different aspects of
forage science and afterwards went to Texas
A&M University as an assistant professor
and extension forage specialist for the
North-Central region of Texas. Yoana will
focus primary efforts in north and central
Florida but will also serve statewide
extension coordination for forages.

We are certainly pleased to welcome Joao
(Joe) and Yoana (Joanna) to our

Jerry Bennett

he use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
Prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist i .i~i II., .i ,,l ..h.I F.M. Fishel, Pesticide Coordinator
-.I.h i ,,i11 .I .. Yoana Newman, Extension Forage Specialist ('. I1 ,,li .i..i D.L. Wright, Extension Agronomist