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 Table of Contents
 Nematode activity on wheat and...
 Leaf spot occurrence on ryegrass...
 Control spring weeds in hay...
 Warm season annual grasses and...
 Grazing management
 Spanish peanuts
 Response of sugarcane to potassium...
 Acrobat MZ labeled for tobacco
 Tobacco transplant regulations
 Maintenance of tobacco beds
 Retrofitting tobacco barns
 Publications
 Confirm registration withdrawn
 Field crop values for 1999


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00075
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: March 2000
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00075

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Nematode activity on wheat and oats
        Page 2
    Leaf spot occurrence on ryegrass in Florida
        Page 2
    Control spring weeds in hay fields
        Page 2
    Warm season annual grasses and pastures renovation
        Page 2
    Grazing management
        Page 3
    Spanish peanuts
        Page 3
    Response of sugarcane to potassium fertilization
        Page 3
    Acrobat MZ labeled for tobacco
        Page 3
    Tobacco transplant regulations
        Page 4
    Maintenance of tobacco beds
        Page 4
    Retrofitting tobacco barns
        Page 4
    Publications
        Page 4
    Confirm registration withdrawn
        Page 4
    Field crop values for 1999
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences March 2000


DATES TO REMEMBER


April 10-14 Agronomy Department Review Gainesville
May 15-19 Aquatic Weed Control Shortcourse Ft. Lauderdale



IN THIS ISSUE PAGE

FORAGE
Nematode Activity on W heat and Oats ........................................................ ................. 2
Leaf Spot O ccurrence on Ryegrass in Florida ............................................................................... 2
Control Spring W eeds in H ay Fields ................................................. ................................ 2
Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture Renovation....................... ............. ................. 2
G razing M anagem ent ................................................................ ............................................ 3

PEANUT
Spanish Peanuts ...................................... ..................... 3

SUGARCANE
Response of Sugarcane to Potassium Fertilization ......................... .................. ..................... 3

TOBACCO
Acrobat M Z Labeled for Tobacco .............................................. ................................... 3
Tobacco T transplant R regulations ....................................... .................................................... 4
M maintenance of T tobacco B eds ........................................... .................................................... 4
R etrofitting T tobacco B arns ................................................ .................................................... 4

MISCELLANEOUS
P ub licatio n s ........................................................................................ ............................... 4
Confirm Registration W withdraw n ............................................... ................................... 4
F ield C rop V alues for 1999 ..................................................... .............................................. 5


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









NEMATODE ACTIVITY ON WHEAT AND OATS

We have had several encounters with general poor health on
forage plantings of small grains, particularly, wheat. The
malaise appears similar to a nutrient deficiency, as plants are
stunted, chlorotic and have dead lower leaves. There may be
some leaf reddening, but no lesions or leaf spots are
noticeable. We have seen this on early planted wheat and
oats. This is the second season that we have identified this
syndrome, in which seedlings test positive for Rhizoctonia,
Pythium and Phytophthora. The seedling diseases may
actually be secondary to some low levels of plant-parasitic
nematode activity. Reniform, stunt, spiral, root-knot and
dagger nematodes have been found in soil samples around
the poor stands. While nematode activities may be reduced
by cold temperatures, they may have allowed an entrance for
diseases and have weakened the plant's defenses.

Richard Sprenkel has photographed the symptoms. If you
suspect a similar situation, sample soil for nematodes.
Contact Jim Rich, Extension Nematologist (850-875-7130)
and Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist (850-875-
7154) at the NFREC-Quincy.

ARB

LEAF SPOT OCCURRENCE ON RYEGRASS IN
FLORIDA

This is a reminder that gray leaf spot has been found this year
on ryegrass plants in north Florida. We have seen a low level
of infection in the ryegrass variety trials at Quincy. The
disease is known as gray leaf spot, caused by Pyricularia
species and may occur on early planted ryegrass pastures.
This is the same disease, with similar symptoms, as is found
on St. Augustine grass. Plants have been somewhat stressed
from the drought in early fall and the warm temperatures
have caused the disease to be more pronounced. In a random
check of several producers' ryegrass plantings in Gadsden
and Jackson Counties, all pastures were free and clean of any
symptoms. Gray leaf spot is a common disease on turf
grasses and there are no recommended controls for use on
forages. The disease should dissipate with cooler weather.

The leaf spot tends to be round to oblong in shape and its
color may vary from tan to grey with purple or brown
borders. Lesions can also form on the stem of the plant. Some
chlorosis may also occur around the lesion. Should you have
any questions concerning the disease, please feel free to
contact us at the addresses below. Agents who have plant
samples with similar symptoms may send them to the Plant
Diagnostic Clinic at the North Florida Research and
Education Center at Quincy.

Ann Blount, Forage Specialist, ablount@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu,
850-875-7129.


Gordon Prine, Field Crop Ecologist, 352-392-1811.
Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist,
tmomol@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7154.
Hank Dankers, Senior Biological Scientist,
wadanA@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7140,
North Florida Research and Education Center, 30 Research
Rd., Quincy 32351.

ARB

CONTROL SPRING WEEDS IN HAY FIELDS

Broadleaf weeds in the first hay crop can sometimes be a
problem. Burning at or just before green up will control
many of the spring weed seedlings. If it is not possible to
bur then a timely application of a herbicide can be used.
Banvel, 2,4-D, or the combination of the two are available
for use on grass hay fields. Banvel (dicamba) at 0.25 lbs plus
2,4-D at 0.75 lbs per acre usually gives better control than
either herbicide used alone. Annual weeds should be treated
soon after emergence. Perennial weeds (such as dogfennel)
should be allowed to obtain a leaf surface large enough to
allow sufficient spray coverages (about 12"-18" tall).
Individuals using these herbicides should read the label
carefully and observe all safety precautions. These
herbicides can drift and may cause damage to nearby
vegetable or tobacco crops. Avoid drift. If there is a
vegetable or tobacco crop growing adjacent to the hay field,
it may be wise to simply forgo application of the herbicide.
See the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the Sunshine, "
Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland 2000", for
additional information.

CGC

WARM SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES AND PASTURE
RENOVATION

The two most popular warm season annual grasses are pearl
millet and sorghum x sudangrass. Both should be planted on
sites that have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass will
tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better than pearl millet.
Therefore, it may be the better choice on some flatwoods
sites. These grasses should not be planted until the soil is
warm. The earliest planting date is usually mid March to mid
April.

When or where should these crops be used? These crops can
be useful in a pasture renovation program. For instance, if
you desire to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as Tifton-9
bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till and plant the land to a
summer annual grass or some other crop for one or more
seasons before planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual
grass can be followed in the fall with a cool season annual
such as ryegrass or a small grain. The Tifton-9 would thenbe









NEMATODE ACTIVITY ON WHEAT AND OATS

We have had several encounters with general poor health on
forage plantings of small grains, particularly, wheat. The
malaise appears similar to a nutrient deficiency, as plants are
stunted, chlorotic and have dead lower leaves. There may be
some leaf reddening, but no lesions or leaf spots are
noticeable. We have seen this on early planted wheat and
oats. This is the second season that we have identified this
syndrome, in which seedlings test positive for Rhizoctonia,
Pythium and Phytophthora. The seedling diseases may
actually be secondary to some low levels of plant-parasitic
nematode activity. Reniform, stunt, spiral, root-knot and
dagger nematodes have been found in soil samples around
the poor stands. While nematode activities may be reduced
by cold temperatures, they may have allowed an entrance for
diseases and have weakened the plant's defenses.

Richard Sprenkel has photographed the symptoms. If you
suspect a similar situation, sample soil for nematodes.
Contact Jim Rich, Extension Nematologist (850-875-7130)
and Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist (850-875-
7154) at the NFREC-Quincy.

ARB

LEAF SPOT OCCURRENCE ON RYEGRASS IN
FLORIDA

This is a reminder that gray leaf spot has been found this year
on ryegrass plants in north Florida. We have seen a low level
of infection in the ryegrass variety trials at Quincy. The
disease is known as gray leaf spot, caused by Pyricularia
species and may occur on early planted ryegrass pastures.
This is the same disease, with similar symptoms, as is found
on St. Augustine grass. Plants have been somewhat stressed
from the drought in early fall and the warm temperatures
have caused the disease to be more pronounced. In a random
check of several producers' ryegrass plantings in Gadsden
and Jackson Counties, all pastures were free and clean of any
symptoms. Gray leaf spot is a common disease on turf
grasses and there are no recommended controls for use on
forages. The disease should dissipate with cooler weather.

The leaf spot tends to be round to oblong in shape and its
color may vary from tan to grey with purple or brown
borders. Lesions can also form on the stem of the plant. Some
chlorosis may also occur around the lesion. Should you have
any questions concerning the disease, please feel free to
contact us at the addresses below. Agents who have plant
samples with similar symptoms may send them to the Plant
Diagnostic Clinic at the North Florida Research and
Education Center at Quincy.

Ann Blount, Forage Specialist, ablount@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu,
850-875-7129.


Gordon Prine, Field Crop Ecologist, 352-392-1811.
Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist,
tmomol@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7154.
Hank Dankers, Senior Biological Scientist,
wadanA@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7140,
North Florida Research and Education Center, 30 Research
Rd., Quincy 32351.

ARB

CONTROL SPRING WEEDS IN HAY FIELDS

Broadleaf weeds in the first hay crop can sometimes be a
problem. Burning at or just before green up will control
many of the spring weed seedlings. If it is not possible to
bur then a timely application of a herbicide can be used.
Banvel, 2,4-D, or the combination of the two are available
for use on grass hay fields. Banvel (dicamba) at 0.25 lbs plus
2,4-D at 0.75 lbs per acre usually gives better control than
either herbicide used alone. Annual weeds should be treated
soon after emergence. Perennial weeds (such as dogfennel)
should be allowed to obtain a leaf surface large enough to
allow sufficient spray coverages (about 12"-18" tall).
Individuals using these herbicides should read the label
carefully and observe all safety precautions. These
herbicides can drift and may cause damage to nearby
vegetable or tobacco crops. Avoid drift. If there is a
vegetable or tobacco crop growing adjacent to the hay field,
it may be wise to simply forgo application of the herbicide.
See the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the Sunshine, "
Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland 2000", for
additional information.

CGC

WARM SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES AND PASTURE
RENOVATION

The two most popular warm season annual grasses are pearl
millet and sorghum x sudangrass. Both should be planted on
sites that have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass will
tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better than pearl millet.
Therefore, it may be the better choice on some flatwoods
sites. These grasses should not be planted until the soil is
warm. The earliest planting date is usually mid March to mid
April.

When or where should these crops be used? These crops can
be useful in a pasture renovation program. For instance, if
you desire to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as Tifton-9
bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till and plant the land to a
summer annual grass or some other crop for one or more
seasons before planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual
grass can be followed in the fall with a cool season annual
such as ryegrass or a small grain. The Tifton-9 would thenbe









NEMATODE ACTIVITY ON WHEAT AND OATS

We have had several encounters with general poor health on
forage plantings of small grains, particularly, wheat. The
malaise appears similar to a nutrient deficiency, as plants are
stunted, chlorotic and have dead lower leaves. There may be
some leaf reddening, but no lesions or leaf spots are
noticeable. We have seen this on early planted wheat and
oats. This is the second season that we have identified this
syndrome, in which seedlings test positive for Rhizoctonia,
Pythium and Phytophthora. The seedling diseases may
actually be secondary to some low levels of plant-parasitic
nematode activity. Reniform, stunt, spiral, root-knot and
dagger nematodes have been found in soil samples around
the poor stands. While nematode activities may be reduced
by cold temperatures, they may have allowed an entrance for
diseases and have weakened the plant's defenses.

Richard Sprenkel has photographed the symptoms. If you
suspect a similar situation, sample soil for nematodes.
Contact Jim Rich, Extension Nematologist (850-875-7130)
and Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist (850-875-
7154) at the NFREC-Quincy.

ARB

LEAF SPOT OCCURRENCE ON RYEGRASS IN
FLORIDA

This is a reminder that gray leaf spot has been found this year
on ryegrass plants in north Florida. We have seen a low level
of infection in the ryegrass variety trials at Quincy. The
disease is known as gray leaf spot, caused by Pyricularia
species and may occur on early planted ryegrass pastures.
This is the same disease, with similar symptoms, as is found
on St. Augustine grass. Plants have been somewhat stressed
from the drought in early fall and the warm temperatures
have caused the disease to be more pronounced. In a random
check of several producers' ryegrass plantings in Gadsden
and Jackson Counties, all pastures were free and clean of any
symptoms. Gray leaf spot is a common disease on turf
grasses and there are no recommended controls for use on
forages. The disease should dissipate with cooler weather.

The leaf spot tends to be round to oblong in shape and its
color may vary from tan to grey with purple or brown
borders. Lesions can also form on the stem of the plant. Some
chlorosis may also occur around the lesion. Should you have
any questions concerning the disease, please feel free to
contact us at the addresses below. Agents who have plant
samples with similar symptoms may send them to the Plant
Diagnostic Clinic at the North Florida Research and
Education Center at Quincy.

Ann Blount, Forage Specialist, ablount@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu,
850-875-7129.


Gordon Prine, Field Crop Ecologist, 352-392-1811.
Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist,
tmomol@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7154.
Hank Dankers, Senior Biological Scientist,
wadanA@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7140,
North Florida Research and Education Center, 30 Research
Rd., Quincy 32351.

ARB

CONTROL SPRING WEEDS IN HAY FIELDS

Broadleaf weeds in the first hay crop can sometimes be a
problem. Burning at or just before green up will control
many of the spring weed seedlings. If it is not possible to
bur then a timely application of a herbicide can be used.
Banvel, 2,4-D, or the combination of the two are available
for use on grass hay fields. Banvel (dicamba) at 0.25 lbs plus
2,4-D at 0.75 lbs per acre usually gives better control than
either herbicide used alone. Annual weeds should be treated
soon after emergence. Perennial weeds (such as dogfennel)
should be allowed to obtain a leaf surface large enough to
allow sufficient spray coverages (about 12"-18" tall).
Individuals using these herbicides should read the label
carefully and observe all safety precautions. These
herbicides can drift and may cause damage to nearby
vegetable or tobacco crops. Avoid drift. If there is a
vegetable or tobacco crop growing adjacent to the hay field,
it may be wise to simply forgo application of the herbicide.
See the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the Sunshine, "
Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland 2000", for
additional information.

CGC

WARM SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES AND PASTURE
RENOVATION

The two most popular warm season annual grasses are pearl
millet and sorghum x sudangrass. Both should be planted on
sites that have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass will
tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better than pearl millet.
Therefore, it may be the better choice on some flatwoods
sites. These grasses should not be planted until the soil is
warm. The earliest planting date is usually mid March to mid
April.

When or where should these crops be used? These crops can
be useful in a pasture renovation program. For instance, if
you desire to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as Tifton-9
bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till and plant the land to a
summer annual grass or some other crop for one or more
seasons before planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual
grass can be followed in the fall with a cool season annual
such as ryegrass or a small grain. The Tifton-9 would thenbe









NEMATODE ACTIVITY ON WHEAT AND OATS

We have had several encounters with general poor health on
forage plantings of small grains, particularly, wheat. The
malaise appears similar to a nutrient deficiency, as plants are
stunted, chlorotic and have dead lower leaves. There may be
some leaf reddening, but no lesions or leaf spots are
noticeable. We have seen this on early planted wheat and
oats. This is the second season that we have identified this
syndrome, in which seedlings test positive for Rhizoctonia,
Pythium and Phytophthora. The seedling diseases may
actually be secondary to some low levels of plant-parasitic
nematode activity. Reniform, stunt, spiral, root-knot and
dagger nematodes have been found in soil samples around
the poor stands. While nematode activities may be reduced
by cold temperatures, they may have allowed an entrance for
diseases and have weakened the plant's defenses.

Richard Sprenkel has photographed the symptoms. If you
suspect a similar situation, sample soil for nematodes.
Contact Jim Rich, Extension Nematologist (850-875-7130)
and Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist (850-875-
7154) at the NFREC-Quincy.

ARB

LEAF SPOT OCCURRENCE ON RYEGRASS IN
FLORIDA

This is a reminder that gray leaf spot has been found this year
on ryegrass plants in north Florida. We have seen a low level
of infection in the ryegrass variety trials at Quincy. The
disease is known as gray leaf spot, caused by Pyricularia
species and may occur on early planted ryegrass pastures.
This is the same disease, with similar symptoms, as is found
on St. Augustine grass. Plants have been somewhat stressed
from the drought in early fall and the warm temperatures
have caused the disease to be more pronounced. In a random
check of several producers' ryegrass plantings in Gadsden
and Jackson Counties, all pastures were free and clean of any
symptoms. Gray leaf spot is a common disease on turf
grasses and there are no recommended controls for use on
forages. The disease should dissipate with cooler weather.

The leaf spot tends to be round to oblong in shape and its
color may vary from tan to grey with purple or brown
borders. Lesions can also form on the stem of the plant. Some
chlorosis may also occur around the lesion. Should you have
any questions concerning the disease, please feel free to
contact us at the addresses below. Agents who have plant
samples with similar symptoms may send them to the Plant
Diagnostic Clinic at the North Florida Research and
Education Center at Quincy.

Ann Blount, Forage Specialist, ablount@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu,
850-875-7129.


Gordon Prine, Field Crop Ecologist, 352-392-1811.
Tim Momol, Extension Plant Pathologist,
tmomol@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7154.
Hank Dankers, Senior Biological Scientist,
wadanA@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu, 850-875-7140,
North Florida Research and Education Center, 30 Research
Rd., Quincy 32351.

ARB

CONTROL SPRING WEEDS IN HAY FIELDS

Broadleaf weeds in the first hay crop can sometimes be a
problem. Burning at or just before green up will control
many of the spring weed seedlings. If it is not possible to
bur then a timely application of a herbicide can be used.
Banvel, 2,4-D, or the combination of the two are available
for use on grass hay fields. Banvel (dicamba) at 0.25 lbs plus
2,4-D at 0.75 lbs per acre usually gives better control than
either herbicide used alone. Annual weeds should be treated
soon after emergence. Perennial weeds (such as dogfennel)
should be allowed to obtain a leaf surface large enough to
allow sufficient spray coverages (about 12"-18" tall).
Individuals using these herbicides should read the label
carefully and observe all safety precautions. These
herbicides can drift and may cause damage to nearby
vegetable or tobacco crops. Avoid drift. If there is a
vegetable or tobacco crop growing adjacent to the hay field,
it may be wise to simply forgo application of the herbicide.
See the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the Sunshine, "
Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland 2000", for
additional information.

CGC

WARM SEASON ANNUAL GRASSES AND PASTURE
RENOVATION

The two most popular warm season annual grasses are pearl
millet and sorghum x sudangrass. Both should be planted on
sites that have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass will
tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better than pearl millet.
Therefore, it may be the better choice on some flatwoods
sites. These grasses should not be planted until the soil is
warm. The earliest planting date is usually mid March to mid
April.

When or where should these crops be used? These crops can
be useful in a pasture renovation program. For instance, if
you desire to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as Tifton-9
bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till and plant the land to a
summer annual grass or some other crop for one or more
seasons before planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual
grass can be followed in the fall with a cool season annual
such as ryegrass or a small grain. The Tifton-9 would thenbe








planted in June following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation before each crop
is planted. The multiple tillage operations should eliminate
most of the old pasture grass and grass seed. This process
involves considerable expense; therefore, the producer must
make good use of the forage produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during hot weather
and may be ready to graze in 35 to 40 days after planting.
They are very productive if fertilized properly and can
provide high quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals such as
developing heifers or stockers that require a higher quality
forage than that required by mature animals. Also, be
prepared to graze rotationally. Remember, do not graze
sorghum x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller. This
is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning problem that can
occur in very young plants. Prussic acid is not a problem in
pearl millet.

One complaint about summer annuals is that they can
produce too much growth and will "get away from you."
They do require a high stocking rate. When excess growth
occurs, move young animals to a fresh pasture and let the
mature cow herd clean up behind them. Stems may need to
be mowed after grazing.

CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Some pastures may have been grazed very close during the
winter. Pastures with grasses such as Floralta Limpograss
(Hemarthria) or Callide Rhodesgrass should be vacated
before spring growth starts and then allowed to accumulate
at least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is resumed.
Graze rotationally taking no more than half of the top
growth. During the warm season, it is important to always
leave some leaf on the plants after grazing. This will help to
maintain a healthy productive stand. Graze bahiagrass
pastures while other grasses are recovering from winter
stress. Bahiagrass with its more prostate growth habit and
large accumulation of stolons can withstand greater grazing
pressure than many other grasses.

CGC

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be an opportunity for farmers to plant spanish
market-type peanuts again in 2000. In 1999, several growers
were apparently satisfied with their spanish peanuts. The
reason for contracts for spanish peanuts is that production of
this type has declined in Texas and Oklahoma, the traditional
areas of production, and supplies do not meet demand.
Yields of spanish peanuts grown in Florida are generally


below yields of runners, but better contract prices may make
them profitable. Spanish peanuts normally mature in about
120 days after planting, and since the seed are not dormant,
they should be dug as soon as they are mature in order to
prevent losses due to sprouting. Vine growth of the spanish
varieties is usually less than that of runners, so twin rows or
some form of close rows would be advisable if digging
equipment is compatible with the narrow rows. Seed should
be placed 2-3 inches apart in the row, but since the seed are
smaller than that of runners, fewer pounds of seed will be
needed per acre. Tamspan 90 is generally the most popular
variety grown in the southwestern production areas because
of higher yields.

EBW

RESPONSE OF SUGARCANE TO POTASSIUM
FERTILIZATION

Previous research we conducted in the greenhouse at
SWFREC indicated a linear response of sugarcane to K
application at rates up to 450 lbs./acre. A study was
conducted for 3 years in Hendry County to investigate the
effects of three K fertilizer rates (150, 225, and 300 lbs./acre)
on the performance of sugarcane in the field. Plots ranged
from 6 to 10 acres and each of the 9 plots was an entire
harvest unit, at the mill. The K rates were delivered in 3 (for
150 and 225 lbs./acre) or 4 (for 300 lbs./acre) applications
and all other fertilization and management practices were
maintained constant. Since no yield response (tonnage or
sucrose) to K was verified in the first year, sampling of the
water inthe irrigation ditches adjacent to every plot was done
and K determinations were made. Water K ranged from 9 to
14 ppm. The same rates of K were applied in two subsequent
years and no differences in yields were verified for the
second or third year. It is possible that high rates of K
fertilization used for several years prior to this study are the
reason for our results.


RMM

ACROBAT MZ LABELED FOR TOBACCO

A Special Local Need label has been issued for the use of
Acrobat MZ to control blue mold in Florida tobacco. The
label will expire at the end of the year and growers must have
a copy of the label if using the fungicide. The label does not
include plant bed use. If blue mold appears after
transplanting, or if it is reported in nearby locations,
application of Acrobat MZ would be advisable. Conditions
that favor blue mold development are wet and cool weather.
Growers that see any blue mold should report it so that other
growers can begin applications.

EBW








planted in June following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation before each crop
is planted. The multiple tillage operations should eliminate
most of the old pasture grass and grass seed. This process
involves considerable expense; therefore, the producer must
make good use of the forage produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during hot weather
and may be ready to graze in 35 to 40 days after planting.
They are very productive if fertilized properly and can
provide high quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals such as
developing heifers or stockers that require a higher quality
forage than that required by mature animals. Also, be
prepared to graze rotationally. Remember, do not graze
sorghum x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller. This
is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning problem that can
occur in very young plants. Prussic acid is not a problem in
pearl millet.

One complaint about summer annuals is that they can
produce too much growth and will "get away from you."
They do require a high stocking rate. When excess growth
occurs, move young animals to a fresh pasture and let the
mature cow herd clean up behind them. Stems may need to
be mowed after grazing.

CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Some pastures may have been grazed very close during the
winter. Pastures with grasses such as Floralta Limpograss
(Hemarthria) or Callide Rhodesgrass should be vacated
before spring growth starts and then allowed to accumulate
at least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is resumed.
Graze rotationally taking no more than half of the top
growth. During the warm season, it is important to always
leave some leaf on the plants after grazing. This will help to
maintain a healthy productive stand. Graze bahiagrass
pastures while other grasses are recovering from winter
stress. Bahiagrass with its more prostate growth habit and
large accumulation of stolons can withstand greater grazing
pressure than many other grasses.

CGC

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be an opportunity for farmers to plant spanish
market-type peanuts again in 2000. In 1999, several growers
were apparently satisfied with their spanish peanuts. The
reason for contracts for spanish peanuts is that production of
this type has declined in Texas and Oklahoma, the traditional
areas of production, and supplies do not meet demand.
Yields of spanish peanuts grown in Florida are generally


below yields of runners, but better contract prices may make
them profitable. Spanish peanuts normally mature in about
120 days after planting, and since the seed are not dormant,
they should be dug as soon as they are mature in order to
prevent losses due to sprouting. Vine growth of the spanish
varieties is usually less than that of runners, so twin rows or
some form of close rows would be advisable if digging
equipment is compatible with the narrow rows. Seed should
be placed 2-3 inches apart in the row, but since the seed are
smaller than that of runners, fewer pounds of seed will be
needed per acre. Tamspan 90 is generally the most popular
variety grown in the southwestern production areas because
of higher yields.

EBW

RESPONSE OF SUGARCANE TO POTASSIUM
FERTILIZATION

Previous research we conducted in the greenhouse at
SWFREC indicated a linear response of sugarcane to K
application at rates up to 450 lbs./acre. A study was
conducted for 3 years in Hendry County to investigate the
effects of three K fertilizer rates (150, 225, and 300 lbs./acre)
on the performance of sugarcane in the field. Plots ranged
from 6 to 10 acres and each of the 9 plots was an entire
harvest unit, at the mill. The K rates were delivered in 3 (for
150 and 225 lbs./acre) or 4 (for 300 lbs./acre) applications
and all other fertilization and management practices were
maintained constant. Since no yield response (tonnage or
sucrose) to K was verified in the first year, sampling of the
water inthe irrigation ditches adjacent to every plot was done
and K determinations were made. Water K ranged from 9 to
14 ppm. The same rates of K were applied in two subsequent
years and no differences in yields were verified for the
second or third year. It is possible that high rates of K
fertilization used for several years prior to this study are the
reason for our results.


RMM

ACROBAT MZ LABELED FOR TOBACCO

A Special Local Need label has been issued for the use of
Acrobat MZ to control blue mold in Florida tobacco. The
label will expire at the end of the year and growers must have
a copy of the label if using the fungicide. The label does not
include plant bed use. If blue mold appears after
transplanting, or if it is reported in nearby locations,
application of Acrobat MZ would be advisable. Conditions
that favor blue mold development are wet and cool weather.
Growers that see any blue mold should report it so that other
growers can begin applications.

EBW








planted in June following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation before each crop
is planted. The multiple tillage operations should eliminate
most of the old pasture grass and grass seed. This process
involves considerable expense; therefore, the producer must
make good use of the forage produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during hot weather
and may be ready to graze in 35 to 40 days after planting.
They are very productive if fertilized properly and can
provide high quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals such as
developing heifers or stockers that require a higher quality
forage than that required by mature animals. Also, be
prepared to graze rotationally. Remember, do not graze
sorghum x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller. This
is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning problem that can
occur in very young plants. Prussic acid is not a problem in
pearl millet.

One complaint about summer annuals is that they can
produce too much growth and will "get away from you."
They do require a high stocking rate. When excess growth
occurs, move young animals to a fresh pasture and let the
mature cow herd clean up behind them. Stems may need to
be mowed after grazing.

CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Some pastures may have been grazed very close during the
winter. Pastures with grasses such as Floralta Limpograss
(Hemarthria) or Callide Rhodesgrass should be vacated
before spring growth starts and then allowed to accumulate
at least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is resumed.
Graze rotationally taking no more than half of the top
growth. During the warm season, it is important to always
leave some leaf on the plants after grazing. This will help to
maintain a healthy productive stand. Graze bahiagrass
pastures while other grasses are recovering from winter
stress. Bahiagrass with its more prostate growth habit and
large accumulation of stolons can withstand greater grazing
pressure than many other grasses.

CGC

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be an opportunity for farmers to plant spanish
market-type peanuts again in 2000. In 1999, several growers
were apparently satisfied with their spanish peanuts. The
reason for contracts for spanish peanuts is that production of
this type has declined in Texas and Oklahoma, the traditional
areas of production, and supplies do not meet demand.
Yields of spanish peanuts grown in Florida are generally


below yields of runners, but better contract prices may make
them profitable. Spanish peanuts normally mature in about
120 days after planting, and since the seed are not dormant,
they should be dug as soon as they are mature in order to
prevent losses due to sprouting. Vine growth of the spanish
varieties is usually less than that of runners, so twin rows or
some form of close rows would be advisable if digging
equipment is compatible with the narrow rows. Seed should
be placed 2-3 inches apart in the row, but since the seed are
smaller than that of runners, fewer pounds of seed will be
needed per acre. Tamspan 90 is generally the most popular
variety grown in the southwestern production areas because
of higher yields.

EBW

RESPONSE OF SUGARCANE TO POTASSIUM
FERTILIZATION

Previous research we conducted in the greenhouse at
SWFREC indicated a linear response of sugarcane to K
application at rates up to 450 lbs./acre. A study was
conducted for 3 years in Hendry County to investigate the
effects of three K fertilizer rates (150, 225, and 300 lbs./acre)
on the performance of sugarcane in the field. Plots ranged
from 6 to 10 acres and each of the 9 plots was an entire
harvest unit, at the mill. The K rates were delivered in 3 (for
150 and 225 lbs./acre) or 4 (for 300 lbs./acre) applications
and all other fertilization and management practices were
maintained constant. Since no yield response (tonnage or
sucrose) to K was verified in the first year, sampling of the
water inthe irrigation ditches adjacent to every plot was done
and K determinations were made. Water K ranged from 9 to
14 ppm. The same rates of K were applied in two subsequent
years and no differences in yields were verified for the
second or third year. It is possible that high rates of K
fertilization used for several years prior to this study are the
reason for our results.


RMM

ACROBAT MZ LABELED FOR TOBACCO

A Special Local Need label has been issued for the use of
Acrobat MZ to control blue mold in Florida tobacco. The
label will expire at the end of the year and growers must have
a copy of the label if using the fungicide. The label does not
include plant bed use. If blue mold appears after
transplanting, or if it is reported in nearby locations,
application of Acrobat MZ would be advisable. Conditions
that favor blue mold development are wet and cool weather.
Growers that see any blue mold should report it so that other
growers can begin applications.

EBW








planted in June following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation before each crop
is planted. The multiple tillage operations should eliminate
most of the old pasture grass and grass seed. This process
involves considerable expense; therefore, the producer must
make good use of the forage produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during hot weather
and may be ready to graze in 35 to 40 days after planting.
They are very productive if fertilized properly and can
provide high quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals such as
developing heifers or stockers that require a higher quality
forage than that required by mature animals. Also, be
prepared to graze rotationally. Remember, do not graze
sorghum x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller. This
is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning problem that can
occur in very young plants. Prussic acid is not a problem in
pearl millet.

One complaint about summer annuals is that they can
produce too much growth and will "get away from you."
They do require a high stocking rate. When excess growth
occurs, move young animals to a fresh pasture and let the
mature cow herd clean up behind them. Stems may need to
be mowed after grazing.

CGC

GRAZING MANAGEMENT

Some pastures may have been grazed very close during the
winter. Pastures with grasses such as Floralta Limpograss
(Hemarthria) or Callide Rhodesgrass should be vacated
before spring growth starts and then allowed to accumulate
at least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is resumed.
Graze rotationally taking no more than half of the top
growth. During the warm season, it is important to always
leave some leaf on the plants after grazing. This will help to
maintain a healthy productive stand. Graze bahiagrass
pastures while other grasses are recovering from winter
stress. Bahiagrass with its more prostate growth habit and
large accumulation of stolons can withstand greater grazing
pressure than many other grasses.

CGC

SPANISH PEANUTS

There may be an opportunity for farmers to plant spanish
market-type peanuts again in 2000. In 1999, several growers
were apparently satisfied with their spanish peanuts. The
reason for contracts for spanish peanuts is that production of
this type has declined in Texas and Oklahoma, the traditional
areas of production, and supplies do not meet demand.
Yields of spanish peanuts grown in Florida are generally


below yields of runners, but better contract prices may make
them profitable. Spanish peanuts normally mature in about
120 days after planting, and since the seed are not dormant,
they should be dug as soon as they are mature in order to
prevent losses due to sprouting. Vine growth of the spanish
varieties is usually less than that of runners, so twin rows or
some form of close rows would be advisable if digging
equipment is compatible with the narrow rows. Seed should
be placed 2-3 inches apart in the row, but since the seed are
smaller than that of runners, fewer pounds of seed will be
needed per acre. Tamspan 90 is generally the most popular
variety grown in the southwestern production areas because
of higher yields.

EBW

RESPONSE OF SUGARCANE TO POTASSIUM
FERTILIZATION

Previous research we conducted in the greenhouse at
SWFREC indicated a linear response of sugarcane to K
application at rates up to 450 lbs./acre. A study was
conducted for 3 years in Hendry County to investigate the
effects of three K fertilizer rates (150, 225, and 300 lbs./acre)
on the performance of sugarcane in the field. Plots ranged
from 6 to 10 acres and each of the 9 plots was an entire
harvest unit, at the mill. The K rates were delivered in 3 (for
150 and 225 lbs./acre) or 4 (for 300 lbs./acre) applications
and all other fertilization and management practices were
maintained constant. Since no yield response (tonnage or
sucrose) to K was verified in the first year, sampling of the
water inthe irrigation ditches adjacent to every plot was done
and K determinations were made. Water K ranged from 9 to
14 ppm. The same rates of K were applied in two subsequent
years and no differences in yields were verified for the
second or third year. It is possible that high rates of K
fertilization used for several years prior to this study are the
reason for our results.


RMM

ACROBAT MZ LABELED FOR TOBACCO

A Special Local Need label has been issued for the use of
Acrobat MZ to control blue mold in Florida tobacco. The
label will expire at the end of the year and growers must have
a copy of the label if using the fungicide. The label does not
include plant bed use. If blue mold appears after
transplanting, or if it is reported in nearby locations,
application of Acrobat MZ would be advisable. Conditions
that favor blue mold development are wet and cool weather.
Growers that see any blue mold should report it so that other
growers can begin applications.

EBW








TOBACCO TRANSPLANT REGULATIONS


The Florida Department of Agriculture's Division of Plant
Industry will again regulate the shipment of tobacco plants in
2000. To be eligible for interstate shipment, plants must be
grown in an enclosed screen/greenhouse and be inspected
twice weekly. Yellow sticky traps must be used to detect
whiteflies, and Admire or another approved insecticide must
be used for whitefly control. A certificate must accompany
all containers. Field grown plants are not eligible for
interstate treatment. All transplant producers are required to
be registered with the Division of Plant Industry and any
movement of transplants into or within the State of Florida
requires a general nursery certificate. Those growers that
import tobacco plants into Florida should make sure that
their supplier complies with the Division of Inspection
regulations.


EBW

MAINTENANCE OF TOBACCO BEDS

It is important to maintain tobacco plant beds during
transplanting, not only to insure the quality and quantity of
plants, but also because of the possibility of a need for
additional plants. Clipping should be practiced in order to
improve the efficiency of pulling and also to keep plants
from getting too large for transplanting. Irrigation,
fertilization, and the application of insecticides and
fungicides may be needed to control growth and to reduce
losses from pests. Be prepared to protect beds in case of late
season freezes.


EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

The Tobacco Industry Leadership Group has announced that
funding has been arranged to assist growers in the
conversion of tobacco barns to indirect burners. For barns
converted before August 1, 2000, $3000 per barn will be
provided. Between August 2, 2000 and June 30, 2001,
$2600 per barn will be provided. The grower will have to
provide any additional funding needed to convert the barns,
and the funds can be applied toward the purchase of new
barns. Certification will be required in 2001. Equipment
manufacturers should soon be providing information as to
replacement burners that they will build. In addition to the
extra funding, it is possible that 2000 tobacco cured in
retrofitted barns could be favored by buyers during auctions.
While many details about this program will be available
later, Florida growers should begin considering their actions
for the 2000 season.
EBW


The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each
publication is also available.

SSAGR15 Diagnosing Herbicide Injury 2000
SSAGR40 Cherokee Red Clover
SSAGR53 Savanna Stylo Production Guide
SSAGR61 Aeschynomene
SSAGR63 Forage Testing The University of Florida,
IFAS, Extension Forage Testing Program
SSAGR66 Cover Crops
SSAGR69 Silage Crops for Dairy and Beef Cattle
SSAGR105 Common Name, Chemical Name and
Toxicity Rating of Herbicides
SSAGR106 Names and Addresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators

The following NEWpublications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR72 Basic Cultural Practices for Flue-Cured


SSAGR73
SSAGR74
SSAGR18


Tobacco
Growing Tobacco in the Home Garden
Cultural Practices for Peanuts
Smutgrass Control in Perennial Grass
Pastures


CONFIRM REGISTRATION WITHDRAWN

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services has withdrawn the Section 24 C registration
Confirm 2F (tebufenozide-active ingredient) agricultural
insecticide for control of lepidopterous pests (fall armyworm
and grass looper) in pastures and rangelands. Confirm 2F is a
growth regulator product which interferes with the molting
and metamorphosis process in lepidopterous insects. Fall
armyworm and grass looper pressure in 1998 was so great,
that Confirm 2F was considered as an alternative to Lannate,
if 1) Lannate did not give sufficient control or 2) if there were
insufficient quantities of Lannate available. In addition,
Lannate requires 7-day grazing and 3-day haying restrictions,
while Confirm requires only a period for chemical dry-off.
The situation that occurred in 1998 did not, thankfully,
repeated itself in 1999.

The reason for the denial was that EPA did not find the
residue tolerances adequate for Section 24 C registration.
Under an emergency condition, tolerances are acceptable for
a Section 18 registration. If emergency conditions arise in
2000, which warrant a need for armyworm and grass looper
control, a petition for a Section 18 will be submitted.

ARB & RKS


PUBLICATIONS








TOBACCO TRANSPLANT REGULATIONS


The Florida Department of Agriculture's Division of Plant
Industry will again regulate the shipment of tobacco plants in
2000. To be eligible for interstate shipment, plants must be
grown in an enclosed screen/greenhouse and be inspected
twice weekly. Yellow sticky traps must be used to detect
whiteflies, and Admire or another approved insecticide must
be used for whitefly control. A certificate must accompany
all containers. Field grown plants are not eligible for
interstate treatment. All transplant producers are required to
be registered with the Division of Plant Industry and any
movement of transplants into or within the State of Florida
requires a general nursery certificate. Those growers that
import tobacco plants into Florida should make sure that
their supplier complies with the Division of Inspection
regulations.


EBW

MAINTENANCE OF TOBACCO BEDS

It is important to maintain tobacco plant beds during
transplanting, not only to insure the quality and quantity of
plants, but also because of the possibility of a need for
additional plants. Clipping should be practiced in order to
improve the efficiency of pulling and also to keep plants
from getting too large for transplanting. Irrigation,
fertilization, and the application of insecticides and
fungicides may be needed to control growth and to reduce
losses from pests. Be prepared to protect beds in case of late
season freezes.


EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

The Tobacco Industry Leadership Group has announced that
funding has been arranged to assist growers in the
conversion of tobacco barns to indirect burners. For barns
converted before August 1, 2000, $3000 per barn will be
provided. Between August 2, 2000 and June 30, 2001,
$2600 per barn will be provided. The grower will have to
provide any additional funding needed to convert the barns,
and the funds can be applied toward the purchase of new
barns. Certification will be required in 2001. Equipment
manufacturers should soon be providing information as to
replacement burners that they will build. In addition to the
extra funding, it is possible that 2000 tobacco cured in
retrofitted barns could be favored by buyers during auctions.
While many details about this program will be available
later, Florida growers should begin considering their actions
for the 2000 season.
EBW


The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each
publication is also available.

SSAGR15 Diagnosing Herbicide Injury 2000
SSAGR40 Cherokee Red Clover
SSAGR53 Savanna Stylo Production Guide
SSAGR61 Aeschynomene
SSAGR63 Forage Testing The University of Florida,
IFAS, Extension Forage Testing Program
SSAGR66 Cover Crops
SSAGR69 Silage Crops for Dairy and Beef Cattle
SSAGR105 Common Name, Chemical Name and
Toxicity Rating of Herbicides
SSAGR106 Names and Addresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators

The following NEWpublications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR72 Basic Cultural Practices for Flue-Cured


SSAGR73
SSAGR74
SSAGR18


Tobacco
Growing Tobacco in the Home Garden
Cultural Practices for Peanuts
Smutgrass Control in Perennial Grass
Pastures


CONFIRM REGISTRATION WITHDRAWN

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services has withdrawn the Section 24 C registration
Confirm 2F (tebufenozide-active ingredient) agricultural
insecticide for control of lepidopterous pests (fall armyworm
and grass looper) in pastures and rangelands. Confirm 2F is a
growth regulator product which interferes with the molting
and metamorphosis process in lepidopterous insects. Fall
armyworm and grass looper pressure in 1998 was so great,
that Confirm 2F was considered as an alternative to Lannate,
if 1) Lannate did not give sufficient control or 2) if there were
insufficient quantities of Lannate available. In addition,
Lannate requires 7-day grazing and 3-day haying restrictions,
while Confirm requires only a period for chemical dry-off.
The situation that occurred in 1998 did not, thankfully,
repeated itself in 1999.

The reason for the denial was that EPA did not find the
residue tolerances adequate for Section 24 C registration.
Under an emergency condition, tolerances are acceptable for
a Section 18 registration. If emergency conditions arise in
2000, which warrant a need for armyworm and grass looper
control, a petition for a Section 18 will be submitted.

ARB & RKS


PUBLICATIONS








TOBACCO TRANSPLANT REGULATIONS


The Florida Department of Agriculture's Division of Plant
Industry will again regulate the shipment of tobacco plants in
2000. To be eligible for interstate shipment, plants must be
grown in an enclosed screen/greenhouse and be inspected
twice weekly. Yellow sticky traps must be used to detect
whiteflies, and Admire or another approved insecticide must
be used for whitefly control. A certificate must accompany
all containers. Field grown plants are not eligible for
interstate treatment. All transplant producers are required to
be registered with the Division of Plant Industry and any
movement of transplants into or within the State of Florida
requires a general nursery certificate. Those growers that
import tobacco plants into Florida should make sure that
their supplier complies with the Division of Inspection
regulations.


EBW

MAINTENANCE OF TOBACCO BEDS

It is important to maintain tobacco plant beds during
transplanting, not only to insure the quality and quantity of
plants, but also because of the possibility of a need for
additional plants. Clipping should be practiced in order to
improve the efficiency of pulling and also to keep plants
from getting too large for transplanting. Irrigation,
fertilization, and the application of insecticides and
fungicides may be needed to control growth and to reduce
losses from pests. Be prepared to protect beds in case of late
season freezes.


EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

The Tobacco Industry Leadership Group has announced that
funding has been arranged to assist growers in the
conversion of tobacco barns to indirect burners. For barns
converted before August 1, 2000, $3000 per barn will be
provided. Between August 2, 2000 and June 30, 2001,
$2600 per barn will be provided. The grower will have to
provide any additional funding needed to convert the barns,
and the funds can be applied toward the purchase of new
barns. Certification will be required in 2001. Equipment
manufacturers should soon be providing information as to
replacement burners that they will build. In addition to the
extra funding, it is possible that 2000 tobacco cured in
retrofitted barns could be favored by buyers during auctions.
While many details about this program will be available
later, Florida growers should begin considering their actions
for the 2000 season.
EBW


The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each
publication is also available.

SSAGR15 Diagnosing Herbicide Injury 2000
SSAGR40 Cherokee Red Clover
SSAGR53 Savanna Stylo Production Guide
SSAGR61 Aeschynomene
SSAGR63 Forage Testing The University of Florida,
IFAS, Extension Forage Testing Program
SSAGR66 Cover Crops
SSAGR69 Silage Crops for Dairy and Beef Cattle
SSAGR105 Common Name, Chemical Name and
Toxicity Rating of Herbicides
SSAGR106 Names and Addresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators

The following NEWpublications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR72 Basic Cultural Practices for Flue-Cured


SSAGR73
SSAGR74
SSAGR18


Tobacco
Growing Tobacco in the Home Garden
Cultural Practices for Peanuts
Smutgrass Control in Perennial Grass
Pastures


CONFIRM REGISTRATION WITHDRAWN

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services has withdrawn the Section 24 C registration
Confirm 2F (tebufenozide-active ingredient) agricultural
insecticide for control of lepidopterous pests (fall armyworm
and grass looper) in pastures and rangelands. Confirm 2F is a
growth regulator product which interferes with the molting
and metamorphosis process in lepidopterous insects. Fall
armyworm and grass looper pressure in 1998 was so great,
that Confirm 2F was considered as an alternative to Lannate,
if 1) Lannate did not give sufficient control or 2) if there were
insufficient quantities of Lannate available. In addition,
Lannate requires 7-day grazing and 3-day haying restrictions,
while Confirm requires only a period for chemical dry-off.
The situation that occurred in 1998 did not, thankfully,
repeated itself in 1999.

The reason for the denial was that EPA did not find the
residue tolerances adequate for Section 24 C registration.
Under an emergency condition, tolerances are acceptable for
a Section 18 registration. If emergency conditions arise in
2000, which warrant a need for armyworm and grass looper
control, a petition for a Section 18 will be submitted.

ARB & RKS


PUBLICATIONS








TOBACCO TRANSPLANT REGULATIONS


The Florida Department of Agriculture's Division of Plant
Industry will again regulate the shipment of tobacco plants in
2000. To be eligible for interstate shipment, plants must be
grown in an enclosed screen/greenhouse and be inspected
twice weekly. Yellow sticky traps must be used to detect
whiteflies, and Admire or another approved insecticide must
be used for whitefly control. A certificate must accompany
all containers. Field grown plants are not eligible for
interstate treatment. All transplant producers are required to
be registered with the Division of Plant Industry and any
movement of transplants into or within the State of Florida
requires a general nursery certificate. Those growers that
import tobacco plants into Florida should make sure that
their supplier complies with the Division of Inspection
regulations.


EBW

MAINTENANCE OF TOBACCO BEDS

It is important to maintain tobacco plant beds during
transplanting, not only to insure the quality and quantity of
plants, but also because of the possibility of a need for
additional plants. Clipping should be practiced in order to
improve the efficiency of pulling and also to keep plants
from getting too large for transplanting. Irrigation,
fertilization, and the application of insecticides and
fungicides may be needed to control growth and to reduce
losses from pests. Be prepared to protect beds in case of late
season freezes.


EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

The Tobacco Industry Leadership Group has announced that
funding has been arranged to assist growers in the
conversion of tobacco barns to indirect burners. For barns
converted before August 1, 2000, $3000 per barn will be
provided. Between August 2, 2000 and June 30, 2001,
$2600 per barn will be provided. The grower will have to
provide any additional funding needed to convert the barns,
and the funds can be applied toward the purchase of new
barns. Certification will be required in 2001. Equipment
manufacturers should soon be providing information as to
replacement burners that they will build. In addition to the
extra funding, it is possible that 2000 tobacco cured in
retrofitted barns could be favored by buyers during auctions.
While many details about this program will be available
later, Florida growers should begin considering their actions
for the 2000 season.
EBW


The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each
publication is also available.

SSAGR15 Diagnosing Herbicide Injury 2000
SSAGR40 Cherokee Red Clover
SSAGR53 Savanna Stylo Production Guide
SSAGR61 Aeschynomene
SSAGR63 Forage Testing The University of Florida,
IFAS, Extension Forage Testing Program
SSAGR66 Cover Crops
SSAGR69 Silage Crops for Dairy and Beef Cattle
SSAGR105 Common Name, Chemical Name and
Toxicity Rating of Herbicides
SSAGR106 Names and Addresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators

The following NEWpublications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR72 Basic Cultural Practices for Flue-Cured


SSAGR73
SSAGR74
SSAGR18


Tobacco
Growing Tobacco in the Home Garden
Cultural Practices for Peanuts
Smutgrass Control in Perennial Grass
Pastures


CONFIRM REGISTRATION WITHDRAWN

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services has withdrawn the Section 24 C registration
Confirm 2F (tebufenozide-active ingredient) agricultural
insecticide for control of lepidopterous pests (fall armyworm
and grass looper) in pastures and rangelands. Confirm 2F is a
growth regulator product which interferes with the molting
and metamorphosis process in lepidopterous insects. Fall
armyworm and grass looper pressure in 1998 was so great,
that Confirm 2F was considered as an alternative to Lannate,
if 1) Lannate did not give sufficient control or 2) if there were
insufficient quantities of Lannate available. In addition,
Lannate requires 7-day grazing and 3-day haying restrictions,
while Confirm requires only a period for chemical dry-off.
The situation that occurred in 1998 did not, thankfully,
repeated itself in 1999.

The reason for the denial was that EPA did not find the
residue tolerances adequate for Section 24 C registration.
Under an emergency condition, tolerances are acceptable for
a Section 18 registration. If emergency conditions arise in
2000, which warrant a need for armyworm and grass looper
control, a petition for a Section 18 will be submitted.

ARB & RKS


PUBLICATIONS








TOBACCO TRANSPLANT REGULATIONS


The Florida Department of Agriculture's Division of Plant
Industry will again regulate the shipment of tobacco plants in
2000. To be eligible for interstate shipment, plants must be
grown in an enclosed screen/greenhouse and be inspected
twice weekly. Yellow sticky traps must be used to detect
whiteflies, and Admire or another approved insecticide must
be used for whitefly control. A certificate must accompany
all containers. Field grown plants are not eligible for
interstate treatment. All transplant producers are required to
be registered with the Division of Plant Industry and any
movement of transplants into or within the State of Florida
requires a general nursery certificate. Those growers that
import tobacco plants into Florida should make sure that
their supplier complies with the Division of Inspection
regulations.


EBW

MAINTENANCE OF TOBACCO BEDS

It is important to maintain tobacco plant beds during
transplanting, not only to insure the quality and quantity of
plants, but also because of the possibility of a need for
additional plants. Clipping should be practiced in order to
improve the efficiency of pulling and also to keep plants
from getting too large for transplanting. Irrigation,
fertilization, and the application of insecticides and
fungicides may be needed to control growth and to reduce
losses from pests. Be prepared to protect beds in case of late
season freezes.


EBW

RETROFITTING TOBACCO BARNS

The Tobacco Industry Leadership Group has announced that
funding has been arranged to assist growers in the
conversion of tobacco barns to indirect burners. For barns
converted before August 1, 2000, $3000 per barn will be
provided. Between August 2, 2000 and June 30, 2001,
$2600 per barn will be provided. The grower will have to
provide any additional funding needed to convert the barns,
and the funds can be applied toward the purchase of new
barns. Certification will be required in 2001. Equipment
manufacturers should soon be providing information as to
replacement burners that they will build. In addition to the
extra funding, it is possible that 2000 tobacco cured in
retrofitted barns could be favored by buyers during auctions.
While many details about this program will be available
later, Florida growers should begin considering their actions
for the 2000 season.
EBW


The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. A PDF file for each
publication is also available.

SSAGR15 Diagnosing Herbicide Injury 2000
SSAGR40 Cherokee Red Clover
SSAGR53 Savanna Stylo Production Guide
SSAGR61 Aeschynomene
SSAGR63 Forage Testing The University of Florida,
IFAS, Extension Forage Testing Program
SSAGR66 Cover Crops
SSAGR69 Silage Crops for Dairy and Beef Cattle
SSAGR105 Common Name, Chemical Name and
Toxicity Rating of Herbicides
SSAGR106 Names and Addresses of Some Herbicide
Manufacturers and Formulators

The following NEWpublications are available through
EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SSAGR72 Basic Cultural Practices for Flue-Cured


SSAGR73
SSAGR74
SSAGR18


Tobacco
Growing Tobacco in the Home Garden
Cultural Practices for Peanuts
Smutgrass Control in Perennial Grass
Pastures


CONFIRM REGISTRATION WITHDRAWN

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services has withdrawn the Section 24 C registration
Confirm 2F (tebufenozide-active ingredient) agricultural
insecticide for control of lepidopterous pests (fall armyworm
and grass looper) in pastures and rangelands. Confirm 2F is a
growth regulator product which interferes with the molting
and metamorphosis process in lepidopterous insects. Fall
armyworm and grass looper pressure in 1998 was so great,
that Confirm 2F was considered as an alternative to Lannate,
if 1) Lannate did not give sufficient control or 2) if there were
insufficient quantities of Lannate available. In addition,
Lannate requires 7-day grazing and 3-day haying restrictions,
while Confirm requires only a period for chemical dry-off.
The situation that occurred in 1998 did not, thankfully,
repeated itself in 1999.

The reason for the denial was that EPA did not find the
residue tolerances adequate for Section 24 C registration.
Under an emergency condition, tolerances are acceptable for
a Section 18 registration. If emergency conditions arise in
2000, which warrant a need for armyworm and grass looper
control, a petition for a Section 18 will be submitted.

ARB & RKS


PUBLICATIONS








FIELD CROP VALUES FOR 1999


The Florida Agricultural Statistics Service issued the following estimates of the value of Florida field crops for 1999 with
figures for 1997 and 1998 for comparison. Yield and acreage estimates were given in the February issue of Agronomy
Notes.
EBW


Season Average
Price ($) Value of Production (1000$

Crop Unit 1997 1998 1999 1997 1998 1999

Corn for grain Bu 2.90 2.30 2.30 17,400 7,843 8,556

Cotton Lb 0.654 0.542 0.425 37,388 21,203 26,520

Cottonseed Ton 120.0 110.0 85.5 5,400 2,860 3,848

Hay, all Ton 86.00 114.00 88.50 55,900 65,550 66,729

Peanuts for nuts Lb 0.280 0.298 0.232 63,857 69,464 61,062

Soybeans Bu 7.00 5.20 4.65 7,875 3,588 2,827

Sugarcane Ton 28.70 29.50 NA 465,973 528,788 NA

Tobacco Lb 1.721 1.697 1.729 32,790 29,022 26,454

Wheat Bu 3.40 2.50 2.45 2,254 1,398 882


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. A. Tredaway, Extension
Agronomist; G. M. Prine, Agronomist; and R. J.M Muchovej, Extension Agronomist, North Florida Research and Education Center.