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 Table of Contents
 Bt corn
 Cotton N requirements
 When to harvest small grains for...
 Grazing management of perennial...
 Perennial peanuts
 Somolan and prowl labeled preemergence...
 Peanut varieties
 Peanut supplies
 Twin rows for peanuts
 Sugarcane varieties releases
 Tobacco plant bed management
 Low nitrosamine in tobacco
 Field preparation for tobacco
 Annual summary of 1999 field crop...
 Variety trials
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00074
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: February 2000
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00074

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Bt corn
        Page 2
    Cotton N requirements
        Page 2
    When to harvest small grains for forage
        Page 2
    Grazing management of perennial grasses
        Page 2
    Perennial peanuts
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Somolan and prowl labeled preemergence in peanuts
        Page 5
    Peanut varieties
        Page 5
    Peanut supplies
        Page 5
    Twin rows for peanuts
        Page 5
    Sugarcane varieties releases
        Page 5
    Tobacco plant bed management
        Page 5
    Low nitrosamine in tobacco
        Page 6
    Field preparation for tobacco
        Page 6
    Annual summary of 1999 field crop production
        Page 6
    Variety trials
        Page 7
    Publications
        Page 7
Full Text






AGRONOMY


..U DIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
institute food and Agricultural Science February 2000


DATES TO REMEMBER


April 10-14 Agronomy Department Review Gainesville
May 15-19 Aquatic Weed Control Shortcourse Ft. Lauderdale


IN THIS ISSUE PAGE

CORN
B t C o rn .................................................................. ....................... 2

COTTON
C otton N R equirem ents .................................................................... ........................... 2

FORAGE
When to Harvest Small Grains for Forage .......................... ............................................ 2
Grazing Management of Perennial Grasses .......................... .... .................................. 2
P perennial P eanuts ...................................................................... ..................................... ...... 2

PEANUT
Sonalan and Prowl Labeled Preemergence in Peanuts ....................................................... 5
P eanu t V varieties ........................................................................ ..................... ................ ...... 5
P eanu t Su pp lies ........... .............. ............................... .......................... ................ ....... 5
Tw in R ow s for Peanuts ....................................................................... ........................... 5

SUGARCANE
Sugarcane V varieties R released ............................................ .................................................... 5

TOBACCO
Tobacco Plant B ed M anagem ent ........................................ ................................................... 5
Low N itrosam ine Tobacco ..................................................................... ..................... 6
Field Preparation for T tobacco ............................................ ................................................... 6

MISCELLANEOUS
Annual Summary of 1999 Field Crop Production................................................................. 6
V variety T rials ................. ...................................................................................................... 7
P ub location s ........................................ ... ..... ... ..... ... ....................... ... ................. ..... 7


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.








Bt CORN


Bt corn is not recommended for late planting. It was hoped
that Bt corn would solve the insect problems that were en-
countered on late planted tropical corn. Insect damage was
much less on the Bt corn hybrids tested as compared to non
Bt, but most of these hybrids were developed from early
maturing hybrids developed for mid-west conditions and
had very little disease tolerance. When planted late, Bt's
could generally survive the insect damage only to be later
stricken by rust and corn leaf blight at silking and tasseling.
In many cases, even with fungicides, Bt corn would die from
severe disease problems a few weeks after silking, result-
ing in no grain yield and little biomass for silage. Breeders
are now working to put Bt into tropical germplasm to get
both the disease and insect tolerance which will aid in sum-
mer planting of corn.

DLW

COTTON N REQUIREMENTS

Cotton N requirements should be met early in the season
rather than late. Data from the last several years has shown
that high rates of N late in the season results in a lower yield
due to hard lock bolls that cannot be harvested. Other data
has shown almost no yield response on cotton when the
only N applied was after the third week of bloom even
though petiole nitrate levels are deficient and yield is no
better than cotton that had no N applied at all during the
season. Best yields are usually obtained from N applied at
pinhead square. Late applications are not advised under
most conditions as they can reduce yield instead of increase
them.

DLW

WHEN TO HARVEST SMALL GRAINS FOR FORAGE

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye, triticale)
generally decreases as they mature from the boot to the
dough stage. Lignification of the stem tissue (the stem be-
comes more woody) appears to be the main reason for re-
duced digestibility of the forage. If the forage is to be fed to
high-producing dairy cows, it is suggested that the small
grain crop be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a
feed value close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce the most
digestible nutrients and protein per acre, it is recommended
that the crop be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top quality forage.

CGC


GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build energy reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy condition permits them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. Although bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are susceptible
to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these pastures once they are
grazed down during the winter. Cattle should not be put
back in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational
grazing can be started with cattle being removed when the
grass has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
digitgrasses should also be allowed to regrow to a height of
10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6." In mid-summer,
these pastures need a minimum of one week and preferably
three weeks rest between grazing periods. Three to four
weeks of rest between grazing periods is needed before and
after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing
is needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle numbers adjusted so that a pasture canbe grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC


PERENNIAL PEANUTS

A few calls have recently come in concerning where to find
planting material. The table below is a current list of rhi-
zome sources provided by Dr. Gordon Prine. Also listed are
some commercial digging and planting businesses and
sources of hay.








Bt CORN


Bt corn is not recommended for late planting. It was hoped
that Bt corn would solve the insect problems that were en-
countered on late planted tropical corn. Insect damage was
much less on the Bt corn hybrids tested as compared to non
Bt, but most of these hybrids were developed from early
maturing hybrids developed for mid-west conditions and
had very little disease tolerance. When planted late, Bt's
could generally survive the insect damage only to be later
stricken by rust and corn leaf blight at silking and tasseling.
In many cases, even with fungicides, Bt corn would die from
severe disease problems a few weeks after silking, result-
ing in no grain yield and little biomass for silage. Breeders
are now working to put Bt into tropical germplasm to get
both the disease and insect tolerance which will aid in sum-
mer planting of corn.

DLW

COTTON N REQUIREMENTS

Cotton N requirements should be met early in the season
rather than late. Data from the last several years has shown
that high rates of N late in the season results in a lower yield
due to hard lock bolls that cannot be harvested. Other data
has shown almost no yield response on cotton when the
only N applied was after the third week of bloom even
though petiole nitrate levels are deficient and yield is no
better than cotton that had no N applied at all during the
season. Best yields are usually obtained from N applied at
pinhead square. Late applications are not advised under
most conditions as they can reduce yield instead of increase
them.

DLW

WHEN TO HARVEST SMALL GRAINS FOR FORAGE

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye, triticale)
generally decreases as they mature from the boot to the
dough stage. Lignification of the stem tissue (the stem be-
comes more woody) appears to be the main reason for re-
duced digestibility of the forage. If the forage is to be fed to
high-producing dairy cows, it is suggested that the small
grain crop be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a
feed value close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce the most
digestible nutrients and protein per acre, it is recommended
that the crop be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top quality forage.

CGC


GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build energy reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy condition permits them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. Although bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are susceptible
to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these pastures once they are
grazed down during the winter. Cattle should not be put
back in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational
grazing can be started with cattle being removed when the
grass has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
digitgrasses should also be allowed to regrow to a height of
10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6." In mid-summer,
these pastures need a minimum of one week and preferably
three weeks rest between grazing periods. Three to four
weeks of rest between grazing periods is needed before and
after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing
is needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle numbers adjusted so that a pasture canbe grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC


PERENNIAL PEANUTS

A few calls have recently come in concerning where to find
planting material. The table below is a current list of rhi-
zome sources provided by Dr. Gordon Prine. Also listed are
some commercial digging and planting businesses and
sources of hay.








Bt CORN


Bt corn is not recommended for late planting. It was hoped
that Bt corn would solve the insect problems that were en-
countered on late planted tropical corn. Insect damage was
much less on the Bt corn hybrids tested as compared to non
Bt, but most of these hybrids were developed from early
maturing hybrids developed for mid-west conditions and
had very little disease tolerance. When planted late, Bt's
could generally survive the insect damage only to be later
stricken by rust and corn leaf blight at silking and tasseling.
In many cases, even with fungicides, Bt corn would die from
severe disease problems a few weeks after silking, result-
ing in no grain yield and little biomass for silage. Breeders
are now working to put Bt into tropical germplasm to get
both the disease and insect tolerance which will aid in sum-
mer planting of corn.

DLW

COTTON N REQUIREMENTS

Cotton N requirements should be met early in the season
rather than late. Data from the last several years has shown
that high rates of N late in the season results in a lower yield
due to hard lock bolls that cannot be harvested. Other data
has shown almost no yield response on cotton when the
only N applied was after the third week of bloom even
though petiole nitrate levels are deficient and yield is no
better than cotton that had no N applied at all during the
season. Best yields are usually obtained from N applied at
pinhead square. Late applications are not advised under
most conditions as they can reduce yield instead of increase
them.

DLW

WHEN TO HARVEST SMALL GRAINS FOR FORAGE

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye, triticale)
generally decreases as they mature from the boot to the
dough stage. Lignification of the stem tissue (the stem be-
comes more woody) appears to be the main reason for re-
duced digestibility of the forage. If the forage is to be fed to
high-producing dairy cows, it is suggested that the small
grain crop be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a
feed value close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce the most
digestible nutrients and protein per acre, it is recommended
that the crop be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top quality forage.

CGC


GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build energy reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy condition permits them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. Although bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are susceptible
to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these pastures once they are
grazed down during the winter. Cattle should not be put
back in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational
grazing can be started with cattle being removed when the
grass has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
digitgrasses should also be allowed to regrow to a height of
10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6." In mid-summer,
these pastures need a minimum of one week and preferably
three weeks rest between grazing periods. Three to four
weeks of rest between grazing periods is needed before and
after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing
is needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle numbers adjusted so that a pasture canbe grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC


PERENNIAL PEANUTS

A few calls have recently come in concerning where to find
planting material. The table below is a current list of rhi-
zome sources provided by Dr. Gordon Prine. Also listed are
some commercial digging and planting businesses and
sources of hay.








Bt CORN


Bt corn is not recommended for late planting. It was hoped
that Bt corn would solve the insect problems that were en-
countered on late planted tropical corn. Insect damage was
much less on the Bt corn hybrids tested as compared to non
Bt, but most of these hybrids were developed from early
maturing hybrids developed for mid-west conditions and
had very little disease tolerance. When planted late, Bt's
could generally survive the insect damage only to be later
stricken by rust and corn leaf blight at silking and tasseling.
In many cases, even with fungicides, Bt corn would die from
severe disease problems a few weeks after silking, result-
ing in no grain yield and little biomass for silage. Breeders
are now working to put Bt into tropical germplasm to get
both the disease and insect tolerance which will aid in sum-
mer planting of corn.

DLW

COTTON N REQUIREMENTS

Cotton N requirements should be met early in the season
rather than late. Data from the last several years has shown
that high rates of N late in the season results in a lower yield
due to hard lock bolls that cannot be harvested. Other data
has shown almost no yield response on cotton when the
only N applied was after the third week of bloom even
though petiole nitrate levels are deficient and yield is no
better than cotton that had no N applied at all during the
season. Best yields are usually obtained from N applied at
pinhead square. Late applications are not advised under
most conditions as they can reduce yield instead of increase
them.

DLW

WHEN TO HARVEST SMALL GRAINS FOR FORAGE

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye, triticale)
generally decreases as they mature from the boot to the
dough stage. Lignification of the stem tissue (the stem be-
comes more woody) appears to be the main reason for re-
duced digestibility of the forage. If the forage is to be fed to
high-producing dairy cows, it is suggested that the small
grain crop be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a
feed value close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce the most
digestible nutrients and protein per acre, it is recommended
that the crop be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top quality forage.

CGC


GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build energy reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy condition permits them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. Although bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are susceptible
to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these pastures once they are
grazed down during the winter. Cattle should not be put
back in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational
grazing can be started with cattle being removed when the
grass has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
digitgrasses should also be allowed to regrow to a height of
10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6." In mid-summer,
these pastures need a minimum of one week and preferably
three weeks rest between grazing periods. Three to four
weeks of rest between grazing periods is needed before and
after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing
is needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle numbers adjusted so that a pasture canbe grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC


PERENNIAL PEANUTS

A few calls have recently come in concerning where to find
planting material. The table below is a current list of rhi-
zome sources provided by Dr. Gordon Prine. Also listed are
some commercial digging and planting businesses and
sources of hay.








Bt CORN


Bt corn is not recommended for late planting. It was hoped
that Bt corn would solve the insect problems that were en-
countered on late planted tropical corn. Insect damage was
much less on the Bt corn hybrids tested as compared to non
Bt, but most of these hybrids were developed from early
maturing hybrids developed for mid-west conditions and
had very little disease tolerance. When planted late, Bt's
could generally survive the insect damage only to be later
stricken by rust and corn leaf blight at silking and tasseling.
In many cases, even with fungicides, Bt corn would die from
severe disease problems a few weeks after silking, result-
ing in no grain yield and little biomass for silage. Breeders
are now working to put Bt into tropical germplasm to get
both the disease and insect tolerance which will aid in sum-
mer planting of corn.

DLW

COTTON N REQUIREMENTS

Cotton N requirements should be met early in the season
rather than late. Data from the last several years has shown
that high rates of N late in the season results in a lower yield
due to hard lock bolls that cannot be harvested. Other data
has shown almost no yield response on cotton when the
only N applied was after the third week of bloom even
though petiole nitrate levels are deficient and yield is no
better than cotton that had no N applied at all during the
season. Best yields are usually obtained from N applied at
pinhead square. Late applications are not advised under
most conditions as they can reduce yield instead of increase
them.

DLW

WHEN TO HARVEST SMALL GRAINS FOR FORAGE

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye, triticale)
generally decreases as they mature from the boot to the
dough stage. Lignification of the stem tissue (the stem be-
comes more woody) appears to be the main reason for re-
duced digestibility of the forage. If the forage is to be fed to
high-producing dairy cows, it is suggested that the small
grain crop be harvested at the boot-stage when it will have a
feed value close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce the most
digestible nutrients and protein per acre, it is recommended
that the crop be harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top quality forage.

CGC


GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses need extra
attention in late winter and early spring. When warm weather
arrives, these grasses need time to grow new roots and re-
build energy reserves in the crown and roots. Allowing the
plants to rebuild and attain a healthy condition permits them
to better withstand any stress that might come along during
the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been grazed down to
the ground by mid February or earlier. Although bahiagrass
can withstand a certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the grass starts to
regrow, cattle should be removed from these pastures and
kept off until the grass has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are susceptible
to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta cultivar. Therefore,
cattle should be removed from these pastures once they are
grazed down during the winter. Cattle should not be put
back in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then rotational
grazing can be started with cattle being removed when the
grass has been grazed to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and the other
digitgrasses should also be allowed to regrow to a height of
10 to 12". Rotational grazing can then be started with cattle
being removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass has
been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6." In mid-summer,
these pastures need a minimum of one week and preferably
three weeks rest between grazing periods. Three to four
weeks of rest between grazing periods is needed before and
after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to 14" and then
graze back to a 5" stubble before rotating cattle. If grazing
is needed before the desired height is reached, follow the old
rule of thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture size and
cattle numbers adjusted so that a pasture canbe grazed off in
one week or less.

CGC


PERENNIAL PEANUTS

A few calls have recently come in concerning where to find
planting material. The table below is a current list of rhi-
zome sources provided by Dr. Gordon Prine. Also listed are
some commercial digging and planting businesses and
sources of hay.









Grower name
and address


Phone number


Commercial digging and planting businesses


William Lloyd
Hay Stack Farm
20213 57 Road
Lake City, FL 32024


W.M. and M.W. Donnell
Sand Co., Trucking & Farms
P.O. Box 100
Bellwood, AL 36313

Grimsley Sprigging Services
1590 George Perry Road
Parrot,GA 31777


ParrishAgriturf Services
1185 Hustleville Road
Alvertville, AL 35950


William Jordan
Femside Farms
Rt. 3, Box 1192
Quitman, GA 31643


904-963-3505


334-588-3892
ext. 249


912-623-5670
912-886-3347
561-559-2769


256-878-8142


912-263-4904


Digger (planter)
available



Yes (also planters)
operates mostly FL
but also GA + AL.


Yes (also planters)
operates in AL,
GA and FL.


Yes, No-Till
planter, operates in
SC, AL, GA and
FL

Yes, (Holden No-
Till Sprigger)
operates in AL,
GA and FL

Yes, (Holden No-
Till Sprigger)
operates in GA +
North FL


Rhizomes
available



Florigraze
Arbrook
Ecoturf
Arblick

Florigraze
(20 miles N of
FL/AL border)


Florigraze
(Arbrook may
also be available)


None, but access
to Florigraze and
Arbrook


Florigraze
Ecoturf
Arblick


Commercial Hay and Rhizome Producers


A.C. Peace
5882 Railroad Avenue
Valdosta, GA 31601

Charles Paarlberg
Rt. 1 Box 1195
Lee, FL 32059

Ken Clabough
Rt. 1,Box96A
Greenville, FL 32331

Eugene Rooks
22428 Chinsegut Hill Road
Brooksville, FL 34601

Colin Grimes
17310 Lynndan Drive
Lutz, FL 33649

C.W. "Pete" Collins, Jr.
12530 46 Street
Live Oak, FL 32060


912-559-5609


850-971-5707


Yes, (planter
available with
large orders)

Yes, also rents
planter with
rhizome order


850-584-3866


352-796-8484


Yes, no planter


813-949-3906
912-263-5784


904-842-2933


Florigraze
Arbrook
(Clyattville, GA)


Florigraze
Arbrook


Florigraze
Arbrook
Ecoturf

Florigraze


Florigraze (farm
at Quitman, GA)


Florigraze


Round bales


Square bales
Round bales


Square bales


Round bales


Square bales


Hay
Available



Square bales
Round bales


Round bales


Square bales
Round bales









Grower name
and address


Ken &Amy Edwards
Cedar Creek Ranc
Rt. 4 Box 123
Jasper, FL 32052

Jim Himes
Red Roof Acres
PO Box 1348
Live Oak, FL 32064

William R. LaRosa
Lake Oriole Ranch
8481 Croom Rital Road
Brooksville, FL 34602

Alan Reese
Reese Enterprises
294 Emerald Acres Drive
Crawfordville, FL 32327

Gerald Smith
PO Box 3 06
LaCrosse, FL 32658


Phone number


904-792-3652




904-842-5293




352-799-5202




850-926-3398




904-462-3768


Digger (planter)
available


Rhizomes
available


Florigraze


Hay
Available

Square bales




Square bales




Square bales
Round bales



Square bales




Square bales


JimmyAndrews
or
Johnny Andrews
204 Ivy Street
Perry, FL 3234

Bernard Smith
PO Box26
Madison, FL 32340

Peggy T. Whiddo
PO Box 121
Perry, FL 3234


Bill Spice
11101 Oswalt Road
Clermont, FL 34711-9392


850-584-7920


No, but can
arrange digging


850-973-6293


850-584-4345


352-394-3764


Florigraze
Arbook (peanu
planted nea
Perry, FL)


Florigraze


No, but can
arrange digging &
planting

No, but can
arrange digging &
planting


Florigraze


Florigraze
Ecoturf


Many growers who have acreages of perennial peanutwith hay and rhizomes have not asked tobe listed. You
should check with your county extension agent, who may know of such growers in your county. Growers having
rhizomes and/or hay for sale should register their availability with their County Extension Office orGord
Prine, Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Phone 352-392-1811 ext. 216.

*Has commercial business for custom digging and planting perennial peanut rhizomes;most have trucks to bring
equipment and rhizomes to your farm. They will furnish perennial peanut rhizomes or dig and plant your
rhizomes on your land.
CGC & GMP


Unknown


Unknown


Unknown


Square bales









SONALAN AND PROWL LABELED PREEMERGENCE
IN PEANUTS

The yellow herbicides, Sonalan and Prowl, are now labeled
for preemergence applications in peanut. These herbicides
were previously labeled only as preplant incorporated treat-
ments. They are used to control small-seeded broadleaf
weeds and grasses such as crowfootgrass, crabgrass, and
Texas panicum.

Irrigation within 48 hours is recommended for these herbi-
cides if adequate rainfall has not occurred. Prowl requires
0.75 inches of rainfall or irrigation for activation and can be
applied at planting or up to 2 days after planting. If applying
Sonalan, between 0.5-1.0 inches or rainfall or irrigation is
required to activate the herbicide. Sonalan should be applied
after tillage and planting. If rainfall does not occur and irri-
gation is not applied, a light cultivation will be required for
activity.


JAT


PEANUT VARIETIES

Growers should be giving thought as to the variety to be
planted in 2000, even though there are several weeks before
the normal planting period. For growers in those areas where
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is severe, consideration
should be given to a variety that has resistance to the dis-
ease. Georgia Green has become popular because it has re-
sistance to TSWV and produces high yields. Southern Run-
ner and Virugard are two older varieties that have resistance
to TSWV. Florida MDR 98, and a more recent release from
the University of Florida, Florida C99R, have resistance to
leafspot, white mold, rust, as well as to TSWV. Florida C99R
is in the seed increase stage, and has produced excellent yields
at a number of locations. Usually it is the leading yield pro-
ducer. Florida C99R is a late-maturing variety, which is about
150 days after planting. Data on these and other varieties
can be found in the Marianna NFREC Research Report 00-
1.

EBW

PEANUT SUPPLIES

A larger than normal amount of quota peanuts was placed in
the 1999 crop loan program, and there is little hope for many
of them being redeemed for edible uses. The consequence
will be that these peanuts will be sold for crushing at a price
well below the support level. Over 150,000 tons of quota
peanuts were placed in the loan program for Georgia, Florida,
and Alabama at a support price of approximately $610 per
ton. The price paid for crushing will probably stay well be-
low $300 per ton. Since the peanut program is now a no-
net-cost (to the government) program, assessments may be


needed to make up any losses. The extent of these losses
will not be known until after June 30, the final date for sales.
Over 15,000 tons of additional peanuts were also placed under
loan, but their support price is well below the crushing price.

EBW

TWIN ROWS FOR PEANUTS

There is increasing interest in planting peanuts in twin rows
rather than in single rows. Higher yields and less tomato
spotted wilt are some of the advantages of using twin rows.
The twin rows are about 7 inches apart, with the center of
each pair of rows about the same distance from the next set
of twin rows as when single rows are planted. The disad-
vantages of twin rows include the need for proper planting
equipment as well as digging equipment that will handle the
twin rows.

EBW


SUGARCANE VARIETIES RELEASED


Three new sugarcane varieties have been released for pro-
duction in Florida in a cooperative program by the USDA,
University of Florida, and the Florida Sugarcane League. In
tests, CP 92-1666 produced higher yields because of a greater
number of stalks than the commercial check. The second
variety, CP 92-1641, produced a higher percent of sucrose
in the cane than the commercial check. CP 92-1213 pro-
duced higher cane and sucrose yields than the check variety.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT

During February, plant beds should be maintained so that
they will provide an adequate supply of healthy plants for
transplanting. Provide adequate protection if freezes are pre-
dicted, especially as the plants get larger and touch the plas-
tic cover. During periods of warm weather, the plants may
turn yellow because of heat damage and, if so, the covers
should be removed. If the plants have a slightly yellow color
and are not growing well after the plastic cover is removed,
there may be a nitrogen, magnesium, or sulfur deficiency. If
nitrogen is needed, top dressing with 3-5 pounds per 100
square yards of bed area with an all nitrate fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda, nitrate of soda-potash, or calcium nitrate
should help restore growth and color to the plants. If sulfur
or magnesium deficiency is diagnosed, 3-5 pounds of mag-
nesium sulfate (Epsom salts) per 100 square yards of bed
area should be adequate. Check the beds for diseases, espe-
cially damping off and blue mold. It appears that Dithane
will be the only fungicide that will be labeled for use on
plant beds. Also check for insects, especially aphids, veg-
etable weevil larva, and cutworms. Orthene should provide
control of these pests. Use Dithane and Orthene to insure









SONALAN AND PROWL LABELED PREEMERGENCE
IN PEANUTS

The yellow herbicides, Sonalan and Prowl, are now labeled
for preemergence applications in peanut. These herbicides
were previously labeled only as preplant incorporated treat-
ments. They are used to control small-seeded broadleaf
weeds and grasses such as crowfootgrass, crabgrass, and
Texas panicum.

Irrigation within 48 hours is recommended for these herbi-
cides if adequate rainfall has not occurred. Prowl requires
0.75 inches of rainfall or irrigation for activation and can be
applied at planting or up to 2 days after planting. If applying
Sonalan, between 0.5-1.0 inches or rainfall or irrigation is
required to activate the herbicide. Sonalan should be applied
after tillage and planting. If rainfall does not occur and irri-
gation is not applied, a light cultivation will be required for
activity.


JAT


PEANUT VARIETIES

Growers should be giving thought as to the variety to be
planted in 2000, even though there are several weeks before
the normal planting period. For growers in those areas where
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is severe, consideration
should be given to a variety that has resistance to the dis-
ease. Georgia Green has become popular because it has re-
sistance to TSWV and produces high yields. Southern Run-
ner and Virugard are two older varieties that have resistance
to TSWV. Florida MDR 98, and a more recent release from
the University of Florida, Florida C99R, have resistance to
leafspot, white mold, rust, as well as to TSWV. Florida C99R
is in the seed increase stage, and has produced excellent yields
at a number of locations. Usually it is the leading yield pro-
ducer. Florida C99R is a late-maturing variety, which is about
150 days after planting. Data on these and other varieties
can be found in the Marianna NFREC Research Report 00-
1.

EBW

PEANUT SUPPLIES

A larger than normal amount of quota peanuts was placed in
the 1999 crop loan program, and there is little hope for many
of them being redeemed for edible uses. The consequence
will be that these peanuts will be sold for crushing at a price
well below the support level. Over 150,000 tons of quota
peanuts were placed in the loan program for Georgia, Florida,
and Alabama at a support price of approximately $610 per
ton. The price paid for crushing will probably stay well be-
low $300 per ton. Since the peanut program is now a no-
net-cost (to the government) program, assessments may be


needed to make up any losses. The extent of these losses
will not be known until after June 30, the final date for sales.
Over 15,000 tons of additional peanuts were also placed under
loan, but their support price is well below the crushing price.

EBW

TWIN ROWS FOR PEANUTS

There is increasing interest in planting peanuts in twin rows
rather than in single rows. Higher yields and less tomato
spotted wilt are some of the advantages of using twin rows.
The twin rows are about 7 inches apart, with the center of
each pair of rows about the same distance from the next set
of twin rows as when single rows are planted. The disad-
vantages of twin rows include the need for proper planting
equipment as well as digging equipment that will handle the
twin rows.

EBW


SUGARCANE VARIETIES RELEASED


Three new sugarcane varieties have been released for pro-
duction in Florida in a cooperative program by the USDA,
University of Florida, and the Florida Sugarcane League. In
tests, CP 92-1666 produced higher yields because of a greater
number of stalks than the commercial check. The second
variety, CP 92-1641, produced a higher percent of sucrose
in the cane than the commercial check. CP 92-1213 pro-
duced higher cane and sucrose yields than the check variety.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT

During February, plant beds should be maintained so that
they will provide an adequate supply of healthy plants for
transplanting. Provide adequate protection if freezes are pre-
dicted, especially as the plants get larger and touch the plas-
tic cover. During periods of warm weather, the plants may
turn yellow because of heat damage and, if so, the covers
should be removed. If the plants have a slightly yellow color
and are not growing well after the plastic cover is removed,
there may be a nitrogen, magnesium, or sulfur deficiency. If
nitrogen is needed, top dressing with 3-5 pounds per 100
square yards of bed area with an all nitrate fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda, nitrate of soda-potash, or calcium nitrate
should help restore growth and color to the plants. If sulfur
or magnesium deficiency is diagnosed, 3-5 pounds of mag-
nesium sulfate (Epsom salts) per 100 square yards of bed
area should be adequate. Check the beds for diseases, espe-
cially damping off and blue mold. It appears that Dithane
will be the only fungicide that will be labeled for use on
plant beds. Also check for insects, especially aphids, veg-
etable weevil larva, and cutworms. Orthene should provide
control of these pests. Use Dithane and Orthene to insure









SONALAN AND PROWL LABELED PREEMERGENCE
IN PEANUTS

The yellow herbicides, Sonalan and Prowl, are now labeled
for preemergence applications in peanut. These herbicides
were previously labeled only as preplant incorporated treat-
ments. They are used to control small-seeded broadleaf
weeds and grasses such as crowfootgrass, crabgrass, and
Texas panicum.

Irrigation within 48 hours is recommended for these herbi-
cides if adequate rainfall has not occurred. Prowl requires
0.75 inches of rainfall or irrigation for activation and can be
applied at planting or up to 2 days after planting. If applying
Sonalan, between 0.5-1.0 inches or rainfall or irrigation is
required to activate the herbicide. Sonalan should be applied
after tillage and planting. If rainfall does not occur and irri-
gation is not applied, a light cultivation will be required for
activity.


JAT


PEANUT VARIETIES

Growers should be giving thought as to the variety to be
planted in 2000, even though there are several weeks before
the normal planting period. For growers in those areas where
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is severe, consideration
should be given to a variety that has resistance to the dis-
ease. Georgia Green has become popular because it has re-
sistance to TSWV and produces high yields. Southern Run-
ner and Virugard are two older varieties that have resistance
to TSWV. Florida MDR 98, and a more recent release from
the University of Florida, Florida C99R, have resistance to
leafspot, white mold, rust, as well as to TSWV. Florida C99R
is in the seed increase stage, and has produced excellent yields
at a number of locations. Usually it is the leading yield pro-
ducer. Florida C99R is a late-maturing variety, which is about
150 days after planting. Data on these and other varieties
can be found in the Marianna NFREC Research Report 00-
1.

EBW

PEANUT SUPPLIES

A larger than normal amount of quota peanuts was placed in
the 1999 crop loan program, and there is little hope for many
of them being redeemed for edible uses. The consequence
will be that these peanuts will be sold for crushing at a price
well below the support level. Over 150,000 tons of quota
peanuts were placed in the loan program for Georgia, Florida,
and Alabama at a support price of approximately $610 per
ton. The price paid for crushing will probably stay well be-
low $300 per ton. Since the peanut program is now a no-
net-cost (to the government) program, assessments may be


needed to make up any losses. The extent of these losses
will not be known until after June 30, the final date for sales.
Over 15,000 tons of additional peanuts were also placed under
loan, but their support price is well below the crushing price.

EBW

TWIN ROWS FOR PEANUTS

There is increasing interest in planting peanuts in twin rows
rather than in single rows. Higher yields and less tomato
spotted wilt are some of the advantages of using twin rows.
The twin rows are about 7 inches apart, with the center of
each pair of rows about the same distance from the next set
of twin rows as when single rows are planted. The disad-
vantages of twin rows include the need for proper planting
equipment as well as digging equipment that will handle the
twin rows.

EBW


SUGARCANE VARIETIES RELEASED


Three new sugarcane varieties have been released for pro-
duction in Florida in a cooperative program by the USDA,
University of Florida, and the Florida Sugarcane League. In
tests, CP 92-1666 produced higher yields because of a greater
number of stalks than the commercial check. The second
variety, CP 92-1641, produced a higher percent of sucrose
in the cane than the commercial check. CP 92-1213 pro-
duced higher cane and sucrose yields than the check variety.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT

During February, plant beds should be maintained so that
they will provide an adequate supply of healthy plants for
transplanting. Provide adequate protection if freezes are pre-
dicted, especially as the plants get larger and touch the plas-
tic cover. During periods of warm weather, the plants may
turn yellow because of heat damage and, if so, the covers
should be removed. If the plants have a slightly yellow color
and are not growing well after the plastic cover is removed,
there may be a nitrogen, magnesium, or sulfur deficiency. If
nitrogen is needed, top dressing with 3-5 pounds per 100
square yards of bed area with an all nitrate fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda, nitrate of soda-potash, or calcium nitrate
should help restore growth and color to the plants. If sulfur
or magnesium deficiency is diagnosed, 3-5 pounds of mag-
nesium sulfate (Epsom salts) per 100 square yards of bed
area should be adequate. Check the beds for diseases, espe-
cially damping off and blue mold. It appears that Dithane
will be the only fungicide that will be labeled for use on
plant beds. Also check for insects, especially aphids, veg-
etable weevil larva, and cutworms. Orthene should provide
control of these pests. Use Dithane and Orthene to insure









SONALAN AND PROWL LABELED PREEMERGENCE
IN PEANUTS

The yellow herbicides, Sonalan and Prowl, are now labeled
for preemergence applications in peanut. These herbicides
were previously labeled only as preplant incorporated treat-
ments. They are used to control small-seeded broadleaf
weeds and grasses such as crowfootgrass, crabgrass, and
Texas panicum.

Irrigation within 48 hours is recommended for these herbi-
cides if adequate rainfall has not occurred. Prowl requires
0.75 inches of rainfall or irrigation for activation and can be
applied at planting or up to 2 days after planting. If applying
Sonalan, between 0.5-1.0 inches or rainfall or irrigation is
required to activate the herbicide. Sonalan should be applied
after tillage and planting. If rainfall does not occur and irri-
gation is not applied, a light cultivation will be required for
activity.


JAT


PEANUT VARIETIES

Growers should be giving thought as to the variety to be
planted in 2000, even though there are several weeks before
the normal planting period. For growers in those areas where
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is severe, consideration
should be given to a variety that has resistance to the dis-
ease. Georgia Green has become popular because it has re-
sistance to TSWV and produces high yields. Southern Run-
ner and Virugard are two older varieties that have resistance
to TSWV. Florida MDR 98, and a more recent release from
the University of Florida, Florida C99R, have resistance to
leafspot, white mold, rust, as well as to TSWV. Florida C99R
is in the seed increase stage, and has produced excellent yields
at a number of locations. Usually it is the leading yield pro-
ducer. Florida C99R is a late-maturing variety, which is about
150 days after planting. Data on these and other varieties
can be found in the Marianna NFREC Research Report 00-
1.

EBW

PEANUT SUPPLIES

A larger than normal amount of quota peanuts was placed in
the 1999 crop loan program, and there is little hope for many
of them being redeemed for edible uses. The consequence
will be that these peanuts will be sold for crushing at a price
well below the support level. Over 150,000 tons of quota
peanuts were placed in the loan program for Georgia, Florida,
and Alabama at a support price of approximately $610 per
ton. The price paid for crushing will probably stay well be-
low $300 per ton. Since the peanut program is now a no-
net-cost (to the government) program, assessments may be


needed to make up any losses. The extent of these losses
will not be known until after June 30, the final date for sales.
Over 15,000 tons of additional peanuts were also placed under
loan, but their support price is well below the crushing price.

EBW

TWIN ROWS FOR PEANUTS

There is increasing interest in planting peanuts in twin rows
rather than in single rows. Higher yields and less tomato
spotted wilt are some of the advantages of using twin rows.
The twin rows are about 7 inches apart, with the center of
each pair of rows about the same distance from the next set
of twin rows as when single rows are planted. The disad-
vantages of twin rows include the need for proper planting
equipment as well as digging equipment that will handle the
twin rows.

EBW


SUGARCANE VARIETIES RELEASED


Three new sugarcane varieties have been released for pro-
duction in Florida in a cooperative program by the USDA,
University of Florida, and the Florida Sugarcane League. In
tests, CP 92-1666 produced higher yields because of a greater
number of stalks than the commercial check. The second
variety, CP 92-1641, produced a higher percent of sucrose
in the cane than the commercial check. CP 92-1213 pro-
duced higher cane and sucrose yields than the check variety.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT

During February, plant beds should be maintained so that
they will provide an adequate supply of healthy plants for
transplanting. Provide adequate protection if freezes are pre-
dicted, especially as the plants get larger and touch the plas-
tic cover. During periods of warm weather, the plants may
turn yellow because of heat damage and, if so, the covers
should be removed. If the plants have a slightly yellow color
and are not growing well after the plastic cover is removed,
there may be a nitrogen, magnesium, or sulfur deficiency. If
nitrogen is needed, top dressing with 3-5 pounds per 100
square yards of bed area with an all nitrate fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda, nitrate of soda-potash, or calcium nitrate
should help restore growth and color to the plants. If sulfur
or magnesium deficiency is diagnosed, 3-5 pounds of mag-
nesium sulfate (Epsom salts) per 100 square yards of bed
area should be adequate. Check the beds for diseases, espe-
cially damping off and blue mold. It appears that Dithane
will be the only fungicide that will be labeled for use on
plant beds. Also check for insects, especially aphids, veg-
etable weevil larva, and cutworms. Orthene should provide
control of these pests. Use Dithane and Orthene to insure









SONALAN AND PROWL LABELED PREEMERGENCE
IN PEANUTS

The yellow herbicides, Sonalan and Prowl, are now labeled
for preemergence applications in peanut. These herbicides
were previously labeled only as preplant incorporated treat-
ments. They are used to control small-seeded broadleaf
weeds and grasses such as crowfootgrass, crabgrass, and
Texas panicum.

Irrigation within 48 hours is recommended for these herbi-
cides if adequate rainfall has not occurred. Prowl requires
0.75 inches of rainfall or irrigation for activation and can be
applied at planting or up to 2 days after planting. If applying
Sonalan, between 0.5-1.0 inches or rainfall or irrigation is
required to activate the herbicide. Sonalan should be applied
after tillage and planting. If rainfall does not occur and irri-
gation is not applied, a light cultivation will be required for
activity.


JAT


PEANUT VARIETIES

Growers should be giving thought as to the variety to be
planted in 2000, even though there are several weeks before
the normal planting period. For growers in those areas where
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is severe, consideration
should be given to a variety that has resistance to the dis-
ease. Georgia Green has become popular because it has re-
sistance to TSWV and produces high yields. Southern Run-
ner and Virugard are two older varieties that have resistance
to TSWV. Florida MDR 98, and a more recent release from
the University of Florida, Florida C99R, have resistance to
leafspot, white mold, rust, as well as to TSWV. Florida C99R
is in the seed increase stage, and has produced excellent yields
at a number of locations. Usually it is the leading yield pro-
ducer. Florida C99R is a late-maturing variety, which is about
150 days after planting. Data on these and other varieties
can be found in the Marianna NFREC Research Report 00-
1.

EBW

PEANUT SUPPLIES

A larger than normal amount of quota peanuts was placed in
the 1999 crop loan program, and there is little hope for many
of them being redeemed for edible uses. The consequence
will be that these peanuts will be sold for crushing at a price
well below the support level. Over 150,000 tons of quota
peanuts were placed in the loan program for Georgia, Florida,
and Alabama at a support price of approximately $610 per
ton. The price paid for crushing will probably stay well be-
low $300 per ton. Since the peanut program is now a no-
net-cost (to the government) program, assessments may be


needed to make up any losses. The extent of these losses
will not be known until after June 30, the final date for sales.
Over 15,000 tons of additional peanuts were also placed under
loan, but their support price is well below the crushing price.

EBW

TWIN ROWS FOR PEANUTS

There is increasing interest in planting peanuts in twin rows
rather than in single rows. Higher yields and less tomato
spotted wilt are some of the advantages of using twin rows.
The twin rows are about 7 inches apart, with the center of
each pair of rows about the same distance from the next set
of twin rows as when single rows are planted. The disad-
vantages of twin rows include the need for proper planting
equipment as well as digging equipment that will handle the
twin rows.

EBW


SUGARCANE VARIETIES RELEASED


Three new sugarcane varieties have been released for pro-
duction in Florida in a cooperative program by the USDA,
University of Florida, and the Florida Sugarcane League. In
tests, CP 92-1666 produced higher yields because of a greater
number of stalks than the commercial check. The second
variety, CP 92-1641, produced a higher percent of sucrose
in the cane than the commercial check. CP 92-1213 pro-
duced higher cane and sucrose yields than the check variety.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT

During February, plant beds should be maintained so that
they will provide an adequate supply of healthy plants for
transplanting. Provide adequate protection if freezes are pre-
dicted, especially as the plants get larger and touch the plas-
tic cover. During periods of warm weather, the plants may
turn yellow because of heat damage and, if so, the covers
should be removed. If the plants have a slightly yellow color
and are not growing well after the plastic cover is removed,
there may be a nitrogen, magnesium, or sulfur deficiency. If
nitrogen is needed, top dressing with 3-5 pounds per 100
square yards of bed area with an all nitrate fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda, nitrate of soda-potash, or calcium nitrate
should help restore growth and color to the plants. If sulfur
or magnesium deficiency is diagnosed, 3-5 pounds of mag-
nesium sulfate (Epsom salts) per 100 square yards of bed
area should be adequate. Check the beds for diseases, espe-
cially damping off and blue mold. It appears that Dithane
will be the only fungicide that will be labeled for use on
plant beds. Also check for insects, especially aphids, veg-
etable weevil larva, and cutworms. Orthene should provide
control of these pests. Use Dithane and Orthene to insure









SONALAN AND PROWL LABELED PREEMERGENCE
IN PEANUTS

The yellow herbicides, Sonalan and Prowl, are now labeled
for preemergence applications in peanut. These herbicides
were previously labeled only as preplant incorporated treat-
ments. They are used to control small-seeded broadleaf
weeds and grasses such as crowfootgrass, crabgrass, and
Texas panicum.

Irrigation within 48 hours is recommended for these herbi-
cides if adequate rainfall has not occurred. Prowl requires
0.75 inches of rainfall or irrigation for activation and can be
applied at planting or up to 2 days after planting. If applying
Sonalan, between 0.5-1.0 inches or rainfall or irrigation is
required to activate the herbicide. Sonalan should be applied
after tillage and planting. If rainfall does not occur and irri-
gation is not applied, a light cultivation will be required for
activity.


JAT


PEANUT VARIETIES

Growers should be giving thought as to the variety to be
planted in 2000, even though there are several weeks before
the normal planting period. For growers in those areas where
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is severe, consideration
should be given to a variety that has resistance to the dis-
ease. Georgia Green has become popular because it has re-
sistance to TSWV and produces high yields. Southern Run-
ner and Virugard are two older varieties that have resistance
to TSWV. Florida MDR 98, and a more recent release from
the University of Florida, Florida C99R, have resistance to
leafspot, white mold, rust, as well as to TSWV. Florida C99R
is in the seed increase stage, and has produced excellent yields
at a number of locations. Usually it is the leading yield pro-
ducer. Florida C99R is a late-maturing variety, which is about
150 days after planting. Data on these and other varieties
can be found in the Marianna NFREC Research Report 00-
1.

EBW

PEANUT SUPPLIES

A larger than normal amount of quota peanuts was placed in
the 1999 crop loan program, and there is little hope for many
of them being redeemed for edible uses. The consequence
will be that these peanuts will be sold for crushing at a price
well below the support level. Over 150,000 tons of quota
peanuts were placed in the loan program for Georgia, Florida,
and Alabama at a support price of approximately $610 per
ton. The price paid for crushing will probably stay well be-
low $300 per ton. Since the peanut program is now a no-
net-cost (to the government) program, assessments may be


needed to make up any losses. The extent of these losses
will not be known until after June 30, the final date for sales.
Over 15,000 tons of additional peanuts were also placed under
loan, but their support price is well below the crushing price.

EBW

TWIN ROWS FOR PEANUTS

There is increasing interest in planting peanuts in twin rows
rather than in single rows. Higher yields and less tomato
spotted wilt are some of the advantages of using twin rows.
The twin rows are about 7 inches apart, with the center of
each pair of rows about the same distance from the next set
of twin rows as when single rows are planted. The disad-
vantages of twin rows include the need for proper planting
equipment as well as digging equipment that will handle the
twin rows.

EBW


SUGARCANE VARIETIES RELEASED


Three new sugarcane varieties have been released for pro-
duction in Florida in a cooperative program by the USDA,
University of Florida, and the Florida Sugarcane League. In
tests, CP 92-1666 produced higher yields because of a greater
number of stalks than the commercial check. The second
variety, CP 92-1641, produced a higher percent of sucrose
in the cane than the commercial check. CP 92-1213 pro-
duced higher cane and sucrose yields than the check variety.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT

During February, plant beds should be maintained so that
they will provide an adequate supply of healthy plants for
transplanting. Provide adequate protection if freezes are pre-
dicted, especially as the plants get larger and touch the plas-
tic cover. During periods of warm weather, the plants may
turn yellow because of heat damage and, if so, the covers
should be removed. If the plants have a slightly yellow color
and are not growing well after the plastic cover is removed,
there may be a nitrogen, magnesium, or sulfur deficiency. If
nitrogen is needed, top dressing with 3-5 pounds per 100
square yards of bed area with an all nitrate fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda, nitrate of soda-potash, or calcium nitrate
should help restore growth and color to the plants. If sulfur
or magnesium deficiency is diagnosed, 3-5 pounds of mag-
nesium sulfate (Epsom salts) per 100 square yards of bed
area should be adequate. Check the beds for diseases, espe-
cially damping off and blue mold. It appears that Dithane
will be the only fungicide that will be labeled for use on
plant beds. Also check for insects, especially aphids, veg-
etable weevil larva, and cutworms. Orthene should provide
control of these pests. Use Dithane and Orthene to insure








disease-free and insect-free plants for transplanting. It is
much less expensive to prevent diseases and insects in the
plant bed than to have to spray the fields soon after trans-
planting. Clipping should begin as soon as the plants are
large enough for the practice to begin and repeated as needed
to meet the schedule for transplanting.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO

Interest seems to be increasing over the prospects for curing
low nitrosamine tobacco, but it is not known if there will be
any contracts offered for Florida growers. Barns that are
either originally built or modified to keep the combustion
gases away from the tobacco will be required. Nitrosamines
are formed by reactions between the nitrogen components
of tobacco and the nitrogen oxides found as gas or fuel is
burned. Consequently heat exchangers are required to cure
the tobacco. Conversion of existing barns would cost about
$3000-6000 per barn. Fuel requirements would also increase.
An industry committee has been formed to establish stan-
dards for barns to cure low nitrosamine tobacco.


FIELD PREPARATION FOR TOBACCO
Applications of fumigants, herbicides, and insecticides will
normally be made in February or early March. Prior to these
pesticide applications, the land should be prepared by turn-
ing and/or disking to bury or destroy plant residues. An ex-
ception would be if the fumigant is to be applied with the
turn plow. Fumigants should be applied two weeks prior to
transplanting in order for the gas to escape from the soil and
thus prevent injury to the transplants. If in-row fumigation
is to be used, the pre-plant incorporated herbicides and in-
secticides, such as Prowl and Lorsban, should be broadcast
and incorporated before the in-row fumigation. The reason
for this sequence is to prevent mixing the non-fumigated soil
with the fumigated soil during the incorporation of the her-
bicide and insecticide after the row fumigation. If the fumi-
gant is to be broadcast, then the herbicide-insecticide com-
bination canbe applied after fumigation and near transplant-
ing time without the risk of mixing non-fumigated soil with
fumigated soil. If a disk harrow is used to incorporate the
herbicide and insecticide, double disking, with the second
one at right angles to the first will insure more uniform mix-
ing with the soil. Windbreaks of rye or other small grain
should be planted where needed to prevent sandblasting dam-
age to the newly set tobacco plants.


EBW


EBW


ANNUAL SUMMARY OF 1999 FIELD CROP PRODUCTION

The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has released the following estimates of field crop production in 1999.

Acres Planted (xlOOO) Acres Harvested (x000) Yield per Acre

Crop Florida United Florida United Florida United
States States States

Corn, all 90 77,431 40 grain 70,537 93 bu for 133.8 bu
purposes 37 silage grain grain for grain
6,062 17.0 ton 15.9 ton
silage for silage for silage

Wheat 16 62,814 9 53,909 40.0 bu 42.7 bu

Peanuts 102 1,583 94 1,427.5 2800 lb 2711 lb

Soybeans 20 73,780 19 72,476 32.0bu 36.5 bu

Cotton, all 107 14,855 106 13,381 589 lb 608 lb

Hay, all 260 63,160 2.90 ton 2.52 ton

Tobacco, 6 644.25 2550 lb 1980 lb
all

Sugarcane, 460 991.2 35.6 ton 36.0 ton
sugar and
seed


EBW








disease-free and insect-free plants for transplanting. It is
much less expensive to prevent diseases and insects in the
plant bed than to have to spray the fields soon after trans-
planting. Clipping should begin as soon as the plants are
large enough for the practice to begin and repeated as needed
to meet the schedule for transplanting.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO

Interest seems to be increasing over the prospects for curing
low nitrosamine tobacco, but it is not known if there will be
any contracts offered for Florida growers. Barns that are
either originally built or modified to keep the combustion
gases away from the tobacco will be required. Nitrosamines
are formed by reactions between the nitrogen components
of tobacco and the nitrogen oxides found as gas or fuel is
burned. Consequently heat exchangers are required to cure
the tobacco. Conversion of existing barns would cost about
$3000-6000 per barn. Fuel requirements would also increase.
An industry committee has been formed to establish stan-
dards for barns to cure low nitrosamine tobacco.


FIELD PREPARATION FOR TOBACCO
Applications of fumigants, herbicides, and insecticides will
normally be made in February or early March. Prior to these
pesticide applications, the land should be prepared by turn-
ing and/or disking to bury or destroy plant residues. An ex-
ception would be if the fumigant is to be applied with the
turn plow. Fumigants should be applied two weeks prior to
transplanting in order for the gas to escape from the soil and
thus prevent injury to the transplants. If in-row fumigation
is to be used, the pre-plant incorporated herbicides and in-
secticides, such as Prowl and Lorsban, should be broadcast
and incorporated before the in-row fumigation. The reason
for this sequence is to prevent mixing the non-fumigated soil
with the fumigated soil during the incorporation of the her-
bicide and insecticide after the row fumigation. If the fumi-
gant is to be broadcast, then the herbicide-insecticide com-
bination canbe applied after fumigation and near transplant-
ing time without the risk of mixing non-fumigated soil with
fumigated soil. If a disk harrow is used to incorporate the
herbicide and insecticide, double disking, with the second
one at right angles to the first will insure more uniform mix-
ing with the soil. Windbreaks of rye or other small grain
should be planted where needed to prevent sandblasting dam-
age to the newly set tobacco plants.


EBW


EBW


ANNUAL SUMMARY OF 1999 FIELD CROP PRODUCTION

The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has released the following estimates of field crop production in 1999.

Acres Planted (xlOOO) Acres Harvested (x000) Yield per Acre

Crop Florida United Florida United Florida United
States States States

Corn, all 90 77,431 40 grain 70,537 93 bu for 133.8 bu
purposes 37 silage grain grain for grain
6,062 17.0 ton 15.9 ton
silage for silage for silage

Wheat 16 62,814 9 53,909 40.0 bu 42.7 bu

Peanuts 102 1,583 94 1,427.5 2800 lb 2711 lb

Soybeans 20 73,780 19 72,476 32.0bu 36.5 bu

Cotton, all 107 14,855 106 13,381 589 lb 608 lb

Hay, all 260 63,160 2.90 ton 2.52 ton

Tobacco, 6 644.25 2550 lb 1980 lb
all

Sugarcane, 460 991.2 35.6 ton 36.0 ton
sugar and
seed


EBW








disease-free and insect-free plants for transplanting. It is
much less expensive to prevent diseases and insects in the
plant bed than to have to spray the fields soon after trans-
planting. Clipping should begin as soon as the plants are
large enough for the practice to begin and repeated as needed
to meet the schedule for transplanting.

EBW

LOW NITROSAMINE TOBACCO

Interest seems to be increasing over the prospects for curing
low nitrosamine tobacco, but it is not known if there will be
any contracts offered for Florida growers. Barns that are
either originally built or modified to keep the combustion
gases away from the tobacco will be required. Nitrosamines
are formed by reactions between the nitrogen components
of tobacco and the nitrogen oxides found as gas or fuel is
burned. Consequently heat exchangers are required to cure
the tobacco. Conversion of existing barns would cost about
$3000-6000 per barn. Fuel requirements would also increase.
An industry committee has been formed to establish stan-
dards for barns to cure low nitrosamine tobacco.


FIELD PREPARATION FOR TOBACCO
Applications of fumigants, herbicides, and insecticides will
normally be made in February or early March. Prior to these
pesticide applications, the land should be prepared by turn-
ing and/or disking to bury or destroy plant residues. An ex-
ception would be if the fumigant is to be applied with the
turn plow. Fumigants should be applied two weeks prior to
transplanting in order for the gas to escape from the soil and
thus prevent injury to the transplants. If in-row fumigation
is to be used, the pre-plant incorporated herbicides and in-
secticides, such as Prowl and Lorsban, should be broadcast
and incorporated before the in-row fumigation. The reason
for this sequence is to prevent mixing the non-fumigated soil
with the fumigated soil during the incorporation of the her-
bicide and insecticide after the row fumigation. If the fumi-
gant is to be broadcast, then the herbicide-insecticide com-
bination canbe applied after fumigation and near transplant-
ing time without the risk of mixing non-fumigated soil with
fumigated soil. If a disk harrow is used to incorporate the
herbicide and insecticide, double disking, with the second
one at right angles to the first will insure more uniform mix-
ing with the soil. Windbreaks of rye or other small grain
should be planted where needed to prevent sandblasting dam-
age to the newly set tobacco plants.


EBW


EBW


ANNUAL SUMMARY OF 1999 FIELD CROP PRODUCTION

The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has released the following estimates of field crop production in 1999.

Acres Planted (xlOOO) Acres Harvested (x000) Yield per Acre

Crop Florida United Florida United Florida United
States States States

Corn, all 90 77,431 40 grain 70,537 93 bu for 133.8 bu
purposes 37 silage grain grain for grain
6,062 17.0 ton 15.9 ton
silage for silage for silage

Wheat 16 62,814 9 53,909 40.0 bu 42.7 bu

Peanuts 102 1,583 94 1,427.5 2800 lb 2711 lb

Soybeans 20 73,780 19 72,476 32.0bu 36.5 bu

Cotton, all 107 14,855 106 13,381 589 lb 608 lb

Hay, all 260 63,160 2.90 ton 2.52 ton

Tobacco, 6 644.25 2550 lb 1980 lb
all

Sugarcane, 460 991.2 35.6 ton 36.0 ton
sugar and
seed


EBW









VARIETY TRIALS


Corn, soybean, grain sorghum, and cotton variety trials are
to be coordinated through University of Georgia as they have
a staff devoted to variety testing. Because of their contacts
and our use of their data in Florida, we have joined them in
variety testing efforts to be able to get more information with
less resources than we have had in the past. This should
allow us to present timely information with them publishing
the information in hard copy as well as on the web.


DLW


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently updated and available through EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also
available.


SSAGR-01
SSAGR-02
SSAGR-03
SSAGR-04
SSAGR-05
SSAGR-06
SSAGR-07
SSAGR-08
SSAGR-09
SSAGR-10
SSAGR-12
SSAGR-14
SSAGR-15
SSAGR-16
SSAGR-29
SSAGR-100
SSAGR-103
SSAGR-104
SSAGR-105
SSAGR-108
SSAGR-109
SSAGR-111
SSAGR-239
SSAGR-253


---------- Weed Management in Tobacco 2000
---------- Weed Management in Corn 2000
---------- Weed Management in Peanuts 2000
---------- Weed Management in Cotton 2000
---------- Weed Management in Soybeans 2000
---------- Weed Management in Sorghum 2000
---------- Weed Management in Small Grains 2000
---------- Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland 2000
---------- Weed Management in Sugarcane 2000
---------- Weed Management in Rice 2000
---------- Florida's Organo-Auxin Herbicide Rule 2000
---------- Herbicide Prepackage Mixtures 2000
---------- Diagnosing Herbicide Injury
---------- Approximate Herbicide Pricing 2000
---------- Tobacco Varieties for 2000
---------- Principles of Weed Management
---------- Trade Name, Active Ingredient and Manufacturer of Some Herbicides
---------- Trade Names of Herbicides Containing a Given Active Ingredient
---------- Common Name, Chemical Name and Toxicity Rating of Some Herbicides
---------- Using Herbicides Safely and Herbicide Toxicity
---------- Adjuvants
---------- Weed Management in Fence Rows and Non-Cropped Areas
---------- Sugarcane Nutritional Analysis Program (SNAP)
---------- Backyard Sugarcane


EBW


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. A. Tredaway, Extension
Agronomist; G. M. Prine, Agronomist; and D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist, North Florida Research and Education Center.









VARIETY TRIALS


Corn, soybean, grain sorghum, and cotton variety trials are
to be coordinated through University of Georgia as they have
a staff devoted to variety testing. Because of their contacts
and our use of their data in Florida, we have joined them in
variety testing efforts to be able to get more information with
less resources than we have had in the past. This should
allow us to present timely information with them publishing
the information in hard copy as well as on the web.


DLW


PUBLICATIONS

The following publications have been recently updated and available through EDIS. A PDF file for each publication is also
available.


SSAGR-01
SSAGR-02
SSAGR-03
SSAGR-04
SSAGR-05
SSAGR-06
SSAGR-07
SSAGR-08
SSAGR-09
SSAGR-10
SSAGR-12
SSAGR-14
SSAGR-15
SSAGR-16
SSAGR-29
SSAGR-100
SSAGR-103
SSAGR-104
SSAGR-105
SSAGR-108
SSAGR-109
SSAGR-111
SSAGR-239
SSAGR-253


---------- Weed Management in Tobacco 2000
---------- Weed Management in Corn 2000
---------- Weed Management in Peanuts 2000
---------- Weed Management in Cotton 2000
---------- Weed Management in Soybeans 2000
---------- Weed Management in Sorghum 2000
---------- Weed Management in Small Grains 2000
---------- Weed Management in Pastures and Rangeland 2000
---------- Weed Management in Sugarcane 2000
---------- Weed Management in Rice 2000
---------- Florida's Organo-Auxin Herbicide Rule 2000
---------- Herbicide Prepackage Mixtures 2000
---------- Diagnosing Herbicide Injury
---------- Approximate Herbicide Pricing 2000
---------- Tobacco Varieties for 2000
---------- Principles of Weed Management
---------- Trade Name, Active Ingredient and Manufacturer of Some Herbicides
---------- Trade Names of Herbicides Containing a Given Active Ingredient
---------- Common Name, Chemical Name and Toxicity Rating of Some Herbicides
---------- Using Herbicides Safely and Herbicide Toxicity
---------- Adjuvants
---------- Weed Management in Fence Rows and Non-Cropped Areas
---------- Sugarcane Nutritional Analysis Program (SNAP)
---------- Backyard Sugarcane


EBW


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J. A. Tredaway, Extension
Agronomist; G. M. Prine, Agronomist; and D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist, North Florida Research and Education Center.