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 Table of Contents
 Peanut quota for 2000
 Peanut market assistance progr...
 Virginia peanuts
 Sources of hay
 Cool season forages
 Liming pastures
 Bermudagrass establishment
 Tobacco quota for 2000
 Tobacco farmer assistance...
 Tobacco plant bed management
 Barns for curing low nitrosamine...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00073
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: January 2000
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00073

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Peanut quota for 2000
        Page 2
    Peanut market assistance program
        Page 2
    Virginia peanuts
        Page 2
    Sources of hay
        Page 2
    Cool season forages
        Page 2
    Liming pastures
        Page 2
    Bermudagrass establishment
        Page 3
    Tobacco quota for 2000
        Page 3
    Tobacco farmer assistance program
        Page 3
    Tobacco plant bed management
        Page 3
    Barns for curing low nitrosamine tobacco
        Page 3
Full Text






AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


DATES TO REMEMBER


January 13
January 24-25
January 30-31
February 7
February 7


NOTES


January 2000


Smutgrass Field Day SWREC, Immokalee
Sustainable Agronomic Crop Production In-Service Training NFREC, Quincy
Southern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy Meetings Lexington, KY
Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization District Meeting Live Oak
Florida Tobacco Short Course Live Oak


IN THIS ISSUE


PAGE


PEANUT
P eanut Q u ota for 2000 ............................................................................ ................................. 2
Peanut M market A assistance Program ......................................... ................................................ 2
V irginia P ean u ts ....... ... .................... ..... ..... ... ..... ..... ... ..... ....... ........................ ..... 2

FORAGE
Sources of H ay ............................ ..................... 2
C o ol S easo n F o rag es ................................................................................. ............................... 2
L im in g P astu res ............ ....................... ..... ... ..... ... ..... ... ..... ..... ............................ 2
B erm udagrass E stablishm ent .................................................... ............................................... 3

TOBACCO
T tobacco Q uota for 2000 ........................................................................... ........................ 3
Tobacco Farm er A assistance Program ...................................... ................................................ 3
Tobacco Plant B ed M anagem ent ............................................... .............................................. 3
Barns for Curing Low Nitrosamine Tobacco ............................. .... ............................. 3


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other
extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
/ University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









PEANUT QUOTA FOR 2000

In December, the USDA announced that the peanut quota for
2000 will be 1,180,000 tons, which is the same as the 1999
quota. The quota is based on the quantity of peanuts needed
in the 2000 marketing year for domestic edible and related
uses, excluding seed. The support level for quota peanuts is
set by law at $610 per ton. The support level for additional
peanuts will be announced in February.

EBW

PEANUT MARKET ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Peanut farmers in the United States will receive about $49
million to compensate them for increased production costs
and low prices received for their 1999 crop of peanuts. This
payment will be 5 percent of the respective support prices for
quota and additional peanuts, which will be $30.50 and
$8.75. Each farmer can calculate his expected payment by
multiplying the quantity of peanuts that he produced in 1999
by the applicable rate. Farmers can sign up for payments at
theirUSDA Farm Service Agency county office by February
21, 2000.

EBW

VIRGINIA PEANUTS

Due to the floods in North Carolina and Virginia, peanut
yields in those states are below earlier expectations. It may
be possible that there could be contracts offered to Florida
growers for early delivery of these large-seeded peanuts to
meet demand. Although virginia peanuts have not been
grown to a great extent in Florida in recent years, they have
been grown quite successfully. In general, the production
practices forvirginias are the same as for runners, except that
irrigation, gypsum, and harvesting on time may be more
critical. Also if they are being grown for the in-shell trade, a
bright hull is desirable, which can generally be obtained by
planting on sandy soils that are free of nematodes and pod rot
diseases. Since these peanuts would probably be grown
under contract, the contractor may require certain varieties
and may assist in locating a seed supply.

EBW

SOURCES OF HAY

Check the November 1999 issue of the Florida Market
Bulletin for the Florida Hay Directory. This is a listing of hay
sources in the state. The "Florida Market Bulletin" is
published monthly by the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. Also, if you have access to the


Internet, you can go directly to the hay directory at htt://
www.fl-ag.com/hay/hay or to the home page at htt:
www.fl-ag.com/.

CGC

COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred pounds of ammonium
nitrate contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply
the N after a grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed
down and apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and rotational
grazing (stocking) provides the opportunity to prevent
overgrazing. Allow pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then
graze. When the cool season forages have been grazed down
to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals should be moved to a
new pasture. Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing (stocking) promotes
uniform grazing and maximum use of the forage. If acreage
is limited or growth reduced, use the practice of "Limit
Grazing." Limit grazing is the practice of moving the cattle
in and out of the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for 2 hours or less will conserve forage, yet
permit the animals to obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC

LIMING PASTURES

If soil testing indicates that lime is needed, January and
February may be an opportune time to lime pastures. This is
especially true for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated. Lime reacts with
the soil that it contacts and should be incorporated into the
soil whenever possible. Surface applied lime neutralizes the
soil acidity of the surface soil, but has little immediate effect
on the soil pH below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Topical grasses in general
do not require a high pH. Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of
5.0 to 5.5. The cool season legumes and grasses require a
higher pH and where these are grown liming may be needed
more frequently than is required on permanent grass









PEANUT QUOTA FOR 2000

In December, the USDA announced that the peanut quota for
2000 will be 1,180,000 tons, which is the same as the 1999
quota. The quota is based on the quantity of peanuts needed
in the 2000 marketing year for domestic edible and related
uses, excluding seed. The support level for quota peanuts is
set by law at $610 per ton. The support level for additional
peanuts will be announced in February.

EBW

PEANUT MARKET ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Peanut farmers in the United States will receive about $49
million to compensate them for increased production costs
and low prices received for their 1999 crop of peanuts. This
payment will be 5 percent of the respective support prices for
quota and additional peanuts, which will be $30.50 and
$8.75. Each farmer can calculate his expected payment by
multiplying the quantity of peanuts that he produced in 1999
by the applicable rate. Farmers can sign up for payments at
theirUSDA Farm Service Agency county office by February
21, 2000.

EBW

VIRGINIA PEANUTS

Due to the floods in North Carolina and Virginia, peanut
yields in those states are below earlier expectations. It may
be possible that there could be contracts offered to Florida
growers for early delivery of these large-seeded peanuts to
meet demand. Although virginia peanuts have not been
grown to a great extent in Florida in recent years, they have
been grown quite successfully. In general, the production
practices forvirginias are the same as for runners, except that
irrigation, gypsum, and harvesting on time may be more
critical. Also if they are being grown for the in-shell trade, a
bright hull is desirable, which can generally be obtained by
planting on sandy soils that are free of nematodes and pod rot
diseases. Since these peanuts would probably be grown
under contract, the contractor may require certain varieties
and may assist in locating a seed supply.

EBW

SOURCES OF HAY

Check the November 1999 issue of the Florida Market
Bulletin for the Florida Hay Directory. This is a listing of hay
sources in the state. The "Florida Market Bulletin" is
published monthly by the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. Also, if you have access to the


Internet, you can go directly to the hay directory at htt://
www.fl-ag.com/hay/hay or to the home page at htt:
www.fl-ag.com/.

CGC

COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred pounds of ammonium
nitrate contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply
the N after a grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed
down and apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and rotational
grazing (stocking) provides the opportunity to prevent
overgrazing. Allow pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then
graze. When the cool season forages have been grazed down
to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals should be moved to a
new pasture. Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing (stocking) promotes
uniform grazing and maximum use of the forage. If acreage
is limited or growth reduced, use the practice of "Limit
Grazing." Limit grazing is the practice of moving the cattle
in and out of the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for 2 hours or less will conserve forage, yet
permit the animals to obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC

LIMING PASTURES

If soil testing indicates that lime is needed, January and
February may be an opportune time to lime pastures. This is
especially true for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated. Lime reacts with
the soil that it contacts and should be incorporated into the
soil whenever possible. Surface applied lime neutralizes the
soil acidity of the surface soil, but has little immediate effect
on the soil pH below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Topical grasses in general
do not require a high pH. Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of
5.0 to 5.5. The cool season legumes and grasses require a
higher pH and where these are grown liming may be needed
more frequently than is required on permanent grass









PEANUT QUOTA FOR 2000

In December, the USDA announced that the peanut quota for
2000 will be 1,180,000 tons, which is the same as the 1999
quota. The quota is based on the quantity of peanuts needed
in the 2000 marketing year for domestic edible and related
uses, excluding seed. The support level for quota peanuts is
set by law at $610 per ton. The support level for additional
peanuts will be announced in February.

EBW

PEANUT MARKET ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Peanut farmers in the United States will receive about $49
million to compensate them for increased production costs
and low prices received for their 1999 crop of peanuts. This
payment will be 5 percent of the respective support prices for
quota and additional peanuts, which will be $30.50 and
$8.75. Each farmer can calculate his expected payment by
multiplying the quantity of peanuts that he produced in 1999
by the applicable rate. Farmers can sign up for payments at
theirUSDA Farm Service Agency county office by February
21, 2000.

EBW

VIRGINIA PEANUTS

Due to the floods in North Carolina and Virginia, peanut
yields in those states are below earlier expectations. It may
be possible that there could be contracts offered to Florida
growers for early delivery of these large-seeded peanuts to
meet demand. Although virginia peanuts have not been
grown to a great extent in Florida in recent years, they have
been grown quite successfully. In general, the production
practices forvirginias are the same as for runners, except that
irrigation, gypsum, and harvesting on time may be more
critical. Also if they are being grown for the in-shell trade, a
bright hull is desirable, which can generally be obtained by
planting on sandy soils that are free of nematodes and pod rot
diseases. Since these peanuts would probably be grown
under contract, the contractor may require certain varieties
and may assist in locating a seed supply.

EBW

SOURCES OF HAY

Check the November 1999 issue of the Florida Market
Bulletin for the Florida Hay Directory. This is a listing of hay
sources in the state. The "Florida Market Bulletin" is
published monthly by the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. Also, if you have access to the


Internet, you can go directly to the hay directory at htt://
www.fl-ag.com/hay/hay or to the home page at htt:
www.fl-ag.com/.

CGC

COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred pounds of ammonium
nitrate contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply
the N after a grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed
down and apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and rotational
grazing (stocking) provides the opportunity to prevent
overgrazing. Allow pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then
graze. When the cool season forages have been grazed down
to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals should be moved to a
new pasture. Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing (stocking) promotes
uniform grazing and maximum use of the forage. If acreage
is limited or growth reduced, use the practice of "Limit
Grazing." Limit grazing is the practice of moving the cattle
in and out of the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for 2 hours or less will conserve forage, yet
permit the animals to obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC

LIMING PASTURES

If soil testing indicates that lime is needed, January and
February may be an opportune time to lime pastures. This is
especially true for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated. Lime reacts with
the soil that it contacts and should be incorporated into the
soil whenever possible. Surface applied lime neutralizes the
soil acidity of the surface soil, but has little immediate effect
on the soil pH below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Topical grasses in general
do not require a high pH. Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of
5.0 to 5.5. The cool season legumes and grasses require a
higher pH and where these are grown liming may be needed
more frequently than is required on permanent grass









PEANUT QUOTA FOR 2000

In December, the USDA announced that the peanut quota for
2000 will be 1,180,000 tons, which is the same as the 1999
quota. The quota is based on the quantity of peanuts needed
in the 2000 marketing year for domestic edible and related
uses, excluding seed. The support level for quota peanuts is
set by law at $610 per ton. The support level for additional
peanuts will be announced in February.

EBW

PEANUT MARKET ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Peanut farmers in the United States will receive about $49
million to compensate them for increased production costs
and low prices received for their 1999 crop of peanuts. This
payment will be 5 percent of the respective support prices for
quota and additional peanuts, which will be $30.50 and
$8.75. Each farmer can calculate his expected payment by
multiplying the quantity of peanuts that he produced in 1999
by the applicable rate. Farmers can sign up for payments at
theirUSDA Farm Service Agency county office by February
21, 2000.

EBW

VIRGINIA PEANUTS

Due to the floods in North Carolina and Virginia, peanut
yields in those states are below earlier expectations. It may
be possible that there could be contracts offered to Florida
growers for early delivery of these large-seeded peanuts to
meet demand. Although virginia peanuts have not been
grown to a great extent in Florida in recent years, they have
been grown quite successfully. In general, the production
practices forvirginias are the same as for runners, except that
irrigation, gypsum, and harvesting on time may be more
critical. Also if they are being grown for the in-shell trade, a
bright hull is desirable, which can generally be obtained by
planting on sandy soils that are free of nematodes and pod rot
diseases. Since these peanuts would probably be grown
under contract, the contractor may require certain varieties
and may assist in locating a seed supply.

EBW

SOURCES OF HAY

Check the November 1999 issue of the Florida Market
Bulletin for the Florida Hay Directory. This is a listing of hay
sources in the state. The "Florida Market Bulletin" is
published monthly by the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. Also, if you have access to the


Internet, you can go directly to the hay directory at htt://
www.fl-ag.com/hay/hay or to the home page at htt:
www.fl-ag.com/.

CGC

COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred pounds of ammonium
nitrate contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply
the N after a grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed
down and apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and rotational
grazing (stocking) provides the opportunity to prevent
overgrazing. Allow pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then
graze. When the cool season forages have been grazed down
to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals should be moved to a
new pasture. Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing (stocking) promotes
uniform grazing and maximum use of the forage. If acreage
is limited or growth reduced, use the practice of "Limit
Grazing." Limit grazing is the practice of moving the cattle
in and out of the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for 2 hours or less will conserve forage, yet
permit the animals to obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC

LIMING PASTURES

If soil testing indicates that lime is needed, January and
February may be an opportune time to lime pastures. This is
especially true for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated. Lime reacts with
the soil that it contacts and should be incorporated into the
soil whenever possible. Surface applied lime neutralizes the
soil acidity of the surface soil, but has little immediate effect
on the soil pH below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Topical grasses in general
do not require a high pH. Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of
5.0 to 5.5. The cool season legumes and grasses require a
higher pH and where these are grown liming may be needed
more frequently than is required on permanent grass









PEANUT QUOTA FOR 2000

In December, the USDA announced that the peanut quota for
2000 will be 1,180,000 tons, which is the same as the 1999
quota. The quota is based on the quantity of peanuts needed
in the 2000 marketing year for domestic edible and related
uses, excluding seed. The support level for quota peanuts is
set by law at $610 per ton. The support level for additional
peanuts will be announced in February.

EBW

PEANUT MARKET ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Peanut farmers in the United States will receive about $49
million to compensate them for increased production costs
and low prices received for their 1999 crop of peanuts. This
payment will be 5 percent of the respective support prices for
quota and additional peanuts, which will be $30.50 and
$8.75. Each farmer can calculate his expected payment by
multiplying the quantity of peanuts that he produced in 1999
by the applicable rate. Farmers can sign up for payments at
theirUSDA Farm Service Agency county office by February
21, 2000.

EBW

VIRGINIA PEANUTS

Due to the floods in North Carolina and Virginia, peanut
yields in those states are below earlier expectations. It may
be possible that there could be contracts offered to Florida
growers for early delivery of these large-seeded peanuts to
meet demand. Although virginia peanuts have not been
grown to a great extent in Florida in recent years, they have
been grown quite successfully. In general, the production
practices forvirginias are the same as for runners, except that
irrigation, gypsum, and harvesting on time may be more
critical. Also if they are being grown for the in-shell trade, a
bright hull is desirable, which can generally be obtained by
planting on sandy soils that are free of nematodes and pod rot
diseases. Since these peanuts would probably be grown
under contract, the contractor may require certain varieties
and may assist in locating a seed supply.

EBW

SOURCES OF HAY

Check the November 1999 issue of the Florida Market
Bulletin for the Florida Hay Directory. This is a listing of hay
sources in the state. The "Florida Market Bulletin" is
published monthly by the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. Also, if you have access to the


Internet, you can go directly to the hay directory at htt://
www.fl-ag.com/hay/hay or to the home page at htt:
www.fl-ag.com/.

CGC

COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred pounds of ammonium
nitrate contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply
the N after a grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed
down and apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and rotational
grazing (stocking) provides the opportunity to prevent
overgrazing. Allow pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then
graze. When the cool season forages have been grazed down
to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals should be moved to a
new pasture. Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing (stocking) promotes
uniform grazing and maximum use of the forage. If acreage
is limited or growth reduced, use the practice of "Limit
Grazing." Limit grazing is the practice of moving the cattle
in and out of the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for 2 hours or less will conserve forage, yet
permit the animals to obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC

LIMING PASTURES

If soil testing indicates that lime is needed, January and
February may be an opportune time to lime pastures. This is
especially true for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated. Lime reacts with
the soil that it contacts and should be incorporated into the
soil whenever possible. Surface applied lime neutralizes the
soil acidity of the surface soil, but has little immediate effect
on the soil pH below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Topical grasses in general
do not require a high pH. Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of
5.0 to 5.5. The cool season legumes and grasses require a
higher pH and where these are grown liming may be needed
more frequently than is required on permanent grass









PEANUT QUOTA FOR 2000

In December, the USDA announced that the peanut quota for
2000 will be 1,180,000 tons, which is the same as the 1999
quota. The quota is based on the quantity of peanuts needed
in the 2000 marketing year for domestic edible and related
uses, excluding seed. The support level for quota peanuts is
set by law at $610 per ton. The support level for additional
peanuts will be announced in February.

EBW

PEANUT MARKET ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Peanut farmers in the United States will receive about $49
million to compensate them for increased production costs
and low prices received for their 1999 crop of peanuts. This
payment will be 5 percent of the respective support prices for
quota and additional peanuts, which will be $30.50 and
$8.75. Each farmer can calculate his expected payment by
multiplying the quantity of peanuts that he produced in 1999
by the applicable rate. Farmers can sign up for payments at
theirUSDA Farm Service Agency county office by February
21, 2000.

EBW

VIRGINIA PEANUTS

Due to the floods in North Carolina and Virginia, peanut
yields in those states are below earlier expectations. It may
be possible that there could be contracts offered to Florida
growers for early delivery of these large-seeded peanuts to
meet demand. Although virginia peanuts have not been
grown to a great extent in Florida in recent years, they have
been grown quite successfully. In general, the production
practices forvirginias are the same as for runners, except that
irrigation, gypsum, and harvesting on time may be more
critical. Also if they are being grown for the in-shell trade, a
bright hull is desirable, which can generally be obtained by
planting on sandy soils that are free of nematodes and pod rot
diseases. Since these peanuts would probably be grown
under contract, the contractor may require certain varieties
and may assist in locating a seed supply.

EBW

SOURCES OF HAY

Check the November 1999 issue of the Florida Market
Bulletin for the Florida Hay Directory. This is a listing of hay
sources in the state. The "Florida Market Bulletin" is
published monthly by the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. Also, if you have access to the


Internet, you can go directly to the hay directory at htt://
www.fl-ag.com/hay/hay or to the home page at htt:
www.fl-ag.com/.

CGC

COOL SEASON FORAGES

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season legumes, and
mixtures of these forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grass will need additional
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply an additional
50 to 65 lb/A of N. Two hundred pounds of ammonium
nitrate contains approximately 67 lb of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply
the N after a grazing cycle when the grass has been grazed
down and apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and rotational
grazing (stocking) provides the opportunity to prevent
overgrazing. Allow pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then
graze. When the cool season forages have been grazed down
to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals should be moved to a
new pasture. Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing (stocking) promotes
uniform grazing and maximum use of the forage. If acreage
is limited or growth reduced, use the practice of "Limit
Grazing." Limit grazing is the practice of moving the cattle
in and out of the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for 2 hours or less will conserve forage, yet
permit the animals to obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC

LIMING PASTURES

If soil testing indicates that lime is needed, January and
February may be an opportune time to lime pastures. This is
especially true for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated. Lime reacts with
the soil that it contacts and should be incorporated into the
soil whenever possible. Surface applied lime neutralizes the
soil acidity of the surface soil, but has little immediate effect
on the soil pH below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Topical grasses in general
do not require a high pH. Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of
5.0 to 5.5. The cool season legumes and grasses require a
higher pH and where these are grown liming may be needed
more frequently than is required on permanent grass








pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless it is needed as
indicated by soil testing. To do so, will be a waste of lime and
money.


payment will be based on the reduction of quota from 1998
to 1999. It is expected that Florida growers will receive
between $3 and $4 million. Funds will be distributed in each
state according to formulas established for payments by the
National Tobacco Growers Settlement Trust.


CGC


BERMUDAGRASS ESTABLISHMENT


EBW


TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be established
by planting dug sprigs from mid January through March.
This is especially true for those that produce lots of rhizomes.
The stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very few
rhizomes can be planted in the summer from tops. All of the
bermudagrasses can be established by planting tops in the
summer, but there may be some advantages to planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season. Earlier
planting may result in more complete coverage and more
forage production during the establishment year. Since this
is a cooler time of the year, heat damage ("scalding") is
avoided. There is usually less weed competition in the spring
as compared to summer plantings. On the other hand, failure
may result from a spring drought (April-May). This is
especially true for peninsular Florida.

CGC

TOBACCO QUOTA FOR 2000

The 2000 flue-cured tobacco basic quota will be 543 million
pounds, which is 18.5 percent below the 1999 figure. If it
had notbeenfor a sale of 65.2 millionpounds of tobacco held
under loan by the Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization, the
quota cut would have been about 31 percent. The no-net-
cost assessment for the 2000 crop will be 2.5 cents per pound
each to the producer and the buyer. The reason for the
increase in the assessment is that some of the accumulated
funds from past years had been used to discount the tobacco
sold by Stabilization. The average price support will be
$1.640 per pound, up $0.008 from 1999.

EBW

TOBACCO FARMER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

The USDA has announced that $328 million will be
distributed to tobacco farmers to compensate them for
reduced quota or acreage in the 1999 crop year. The


It is important to establish good stands in January. Check the
soil to be sure that it is moist, but if there is poor drainage
around the beds, be sure to provide ditches to prevent
excessive moisture, and also to prevent water from washing
across the beds during heavy rain. There should be no
significant disease or insect problems during January, but
check the beds frequently to be sure none are present, or that
conditions are not favorable for such development. If fire ant
mounds develop under the covers, Orthene can be used for
control.

EBW

BARNS FOR CURING LOW NITROSAMINE
TOBACCO

Star Scientific, a company that placed about 200 barns
for curing nitrosamine-free tobacco in 1999, has
announced plans to add about 1000 more barns in 2000.
The barns are made available to farmers at no cost
except for site preparation costs, and a contract is
written for the tobacco to be delivered to Star
Scientific. There were two such barns in Florida in
1999. The company has issued their standards and
criteria for allocating barns to growers in 2000.

EBW


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist.








pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless it is needed as
indicated by soil testing. To do so, will be a waste of lime and
money.


payment will be based on the reduction of quota from 1998
to 1999. It is expected that Florida growers will receive
between $3 and $4 million. Funds will be distributed in each
state according to formulas established for payments by the
National Tobacco Growers Settlement Trust.


CGC


BERMUDAGRASS ESTABLISHMENT


EBW


TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be established
by planting dug sprigs from mid January through March.
This is especially true for those that produce lots of rhizomes.
The stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very few
rhizomes can be planted in the summer from tops. All of the
bermudagrasses can be established by planting tops in the
summer, but there may be some advantages to planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season. Earlier
planting may result in more complete coverage and more
forage production during the establishment year. Since this
is a cooler time of the year, heat damage ("scalding") is
avoided. There is usually less weed competition in the spring
as compared to summer plantings. On the other hand, failure
may result from a spring drought (April-May). This is
especially true for peninsular Florida.

CGC

TOBACCO QUOTA FOR 2000

The 2000 flue-cured tobacco basic quota will be 543 million
pounds, which is 18.5 percent below the 1999 figure. If it
had notbeenfor a sale of 65.2 millionpounds of tobacco held
under loan by the Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization, the
quota cut would have been about 31 percent. The no-net-
cost assessment for the 2000 crop will be 2.5 cents per pound
each to the producer and the buyer. The reason for the
increase in the assessment is that some of the accumulated
funds from past years had been used to discount the tobacco
sold by Stabilization. The average price support will be
$1.640 per pound, up $0.008 from 1999.

EBW

TOBACCO FARMER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

The USDA has announced that $328 million will be
distributed to tobacco farmers to compensate them for
reduced quota or acreage in the 1999 crop year. The


It is important to establish good stands in January. Check the
soil to be sure that it is moist, but if there is poor drainage
around the beds, be sure to provide ditches to prevent
excessive moisture, and also to prevent water from washing
across the beds during heavy rain. There should be no
significant disease or insect problems during January, but
check the beds frequently to be sure none are present, or that
conditions are not favorable for such development. If fire ant
mounds develop under the covers, Orthene can be used for
control.

EBW

BARNS FOR CURING LOW NITROSAMINE
TOBACCO

Star Scientific, a company that placed about 200 barns
for curing nitrosamine-free tobacco in 1999, has
announced plans to add about 1000 more barns in 2000.
The barns are made available to farmers at no cost
except for site preparation costs, and a contract is
written for the tobacco to be delivered to Star
Scientific. There were two such barns in Florida in
1999. The company has issued their standards and
criteria for allocating barns to growers in 2000.

EBW


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist.








pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless it is needed as
indicated by soil testing. To do so, will be a waste of lime and
money.


payment will be based on the reduction of quota from 1998
to 1999. It is expected that Florida growers will receive
between $3 and $4 million. Funds will be distributed in each
state according to formulas established for payments by the
National Tobacco Growers Settlement Trust.


CGC


BERMUDAGRASS ESTABLISHMENT


EBW


TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be established
by planting dug sprigs from mid January through March.
This is especially true for those that produce lots of rhizomes.
The stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very few
rhizomes can be planted in the summer from tops. All of the
bermudagrasses can be established by planting tops in the
summer, but there may be some advantages to planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season. Earlier
planting may result in more complete coverage and more
forage production during the establishment year. Since this
is a cooler time of the year, heat damage ("scalding") is
avoided. There is usually less weed competition in the spring
as compared to summer plantings. On the other hand, failure
may result from a spring drought (April-May). This is
especially true for peninsular Florida.

CGC

TOBACCO QUOTA FOR 2000

The 2000 flue-cured tobacco basic quota will be 543 million
pounds, which is 18.5 percent below the 1999 figure. If it
had notbeenfor a sale of 65.2 millionpounds of tobacco held
under loan by the Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization, the
quota cut would have been about 31 percent. The no-net-
cost assessment for the 2000 crop will be 2.5 cents per pound
each to the producer and the buyer. The reason for the
increase in the assessment is that some of the accumulated
funds from past years had been used to discount the tobacco
sold by Stabilization. The average price support will be
$1.640 per pound, up $0.008 from 1999.

EBW

TOBACCO FARMER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

The USDA has announced that $328 million will be
distributed to tobacco farmers to compensate them for
reduced quota or acreage in the 1999 crop year. The


It is important to establish good stands in January. Check the
soil to be sure that it is moist, but if there is poor drainage
around the beds, be sure to provide ditches to prevent
excessive moisture, and also to prevent water from washing
across the beds during heavy rain. There should be no
significant disease or insect problems during January, but
check the beds frequently to be sure none are present, or that
conditions are not favorable for such development. If fire ant
mounds develop under the covers, Orthene can be used for
control.

EBW

BARNS FOR CURING LOW NITROSAMINE
TOBACCO

Star Scientific, a company that placed about 200 barns
for curing nitrosamine-free tobacco in 1999, has
announced plans to add about 1000 more barns in 2000.
The barns are made available to farmers at no cost
except for site preparation costs, and a contract is
written for the tobacco to be delivered to Star
Scientific. There were two such barns in Florida in
1999. The company has issued their standards and
criteria for allocating barns to growers in 2000.

EBW


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist.








pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless it is needed as
indicated by soil testing. To do so, will be a waste of lime and
money.


payment will be based on the reduction of quota from 1998
to 1999. It is expected that Florida growers will receive
between $3 and $4 million. Funds will be distributed in each
state according to formulas established for payments by the
National Tobacco Growers Settlement Trust.


CGC


BERMUDAGRASS ESTABLISHMENT


EBW


TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be established
by planting dug sprigs from mid January through March.
This is especially true for those that produce lots of rhizomes.
The stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very few
rhizomes can be planted in the summer from tops. All of the
bermudagrasses can be established by planting tops in the
summer, but there may be some advantages to planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season. Earlier
planting may result in more complete coverage and more
forage production during the establishment year. Since this
is a cooler time of the year, heat damage ("scalding") is
avoided. There is usually less weed competition in the spring
as compared to summer plantings. On the other hand, failure
may result from a spring drought (April-May). This is
especially true for peninsular Florida.

CGC

TOBACCO QUOTA FOR 2000

The 2000 flue-cured tobacco basic quota will be 543 million
pounds, which is 18.5 percent below the 1999 figure. If it
had notbeenfor a sale of 65.2 millionpounds of tobacco held
under loan by the Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization, the
quota cut would have been about 31 percent. The no-net-
cost assessment for the 2000 crop will be 2.5 cents per pound
each to the producer and the buyer. The reason for the
increase in the assessment is that some of the accumulated
funds from past years had been used to discount the tobacco
sold by Stabilization. The average price support will be
$1.640 per pound, up $0.008 from 1999.

EBW

TOBACCO FARMER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

The USDA has announced that $328 million will be
distributed to tobacco farmers to compensate them for
reduced quota or acreage in the 1999 crop year. The


It is important to establish good stands in January. Check the
soil to be sure that it is moist, but if there is poor drainage
around the beds, be sure to provide ditches to prevent
excessive moisture, and also to prevent water from washing
across the beds during heavy rain. There should be no
significant disease or insect problems during January, but
check the beds frequently to be sure none are present, or that
conditions are not favorable for such development. If fire ant
mounds develop under the covers, Orthene can be used for
control.

EBW

BARNS FOR CURING LOW NITROSAMINE
TOBACCO

Star Scientific, a company that placed about 200 barns
for curing nitrosamine-free tobacco in 1999, has
announced plans to add about 1000 more barns in 2000.
The barns are made available to farmers at no cost
except for site preparation costs, and a contract is
written for the tobacco to be delivered to Star
Scientific. There were two such barns in Florida in
1999. The company has issued their standards and
criteria for allocating barns to growers in 2000.

EBW


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist.








pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless it is needed as
indicated by soil testing. To do so, will be a waste of lime and
money.


payment will be based on the reduction of quota from 1998
to 1999. It is expected that Florida growers will receive
between $3 and $4 million. Funds will be distributed in each
state according to formulas established for payments by the
National Tobacco Growers Settlement Trust.


CGC


BERMUDAGRASS ESTABLISHMENT


EBW


TOBACCO PLANT BED MANAGEMENT


Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be established
by planting dug sprigs from mid January through March.
This is especially true for those that produce lots of rhizomes.
The stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very few
rhizomes can be planted in the summer from tops. All of the
bermudagrasses can be established by planting tops in the
summer, but there may be some advantages to planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season. Earlier
planting may result in more complete coverage and more
forage production during the establishment year. Since this
is a cooler time of the year, heat damage ("scalding") is
avoided. There is usually less weed competition in the spring
as compared to summer plantings. On the other hand, failure
may result from a spring drought (April-May). This is
especially true for peninsular Florida.

CGC

TOBACCO QUOTA FOR 2000

The 2000 flue-cured tobacco basic quota will be 543 million
pounds, which is 18.5 percent below the 1999 figure. If it
had notbeenfor a sale of 65.2 millionpounds of tobacco held
under loan by the Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization, the
quota cut would have been about 31 percent. The no-net-
cost assessment for the 2000 crop will be 2.5 cents per pound
each to the producer and the buyer. The reason for the
increase in the assessment is that some of the accumulated
funds from past years had been used to discount the tobacco
sold by Stabilization. The average price support will be
$1.640 per pound, up $0.008 from 1999.

EBW

TOBACCO FARMER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

The USDA has announced that $328 million will be
distributed to tobacco farmers to compensate them for
reduced quota or acreage in the 1999 crop year. The


It is important to establish good stands in January. Check the
soil to be sure that it is moist, but if there is poor drainage
around the beds, be sure to provide ditches to prevent
excessive moisture, and also to prevent water from washing
across the beds during heavy rain. There should be no
significant disease or insect problems during January, but
check the beds frequently to be sure none are present, or that
conditions are not favorable for such development. If fire ant
mounds develop under the covers, Orthene can be used for
control.

EBW

BARNS FOR CURING LOW NITROSAMINE
TOBACCO

Star Scientific, a company that placed about 200 barns
for curing nitrosamine-free tobacco in 1999, has
announced plans to add about 1000 more barns in 2000.
The barns are made available to farmers at no cost
except for site preparation costs, and a contract is
written for the tobacco to be delivered to Star
Scientific. There were two such barns in Florida in
1999. The company has issued their standards and
criteria for allocating barns to growers in 2000.

EBW


The use oftradenames does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; and C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist.