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 Table of Contents
 Cotton varieties sold under different...
 Time of kill for bahiagrass influences...
 Peanut seed availability
 Drought and weed control
 Early season weed control
 Nitrogen prices and use of...
 Soil nitrogen availability in relation...
 Spring weather conditions and planting...
 UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office...
 New publication
 Updated publication


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00068
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: May 2006
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00068

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Cotton varieties sold under different trade names
        Page 2
    Time of kill for bahiagrass influences nitrogen needs of following crops and decomposition of plant residues
        Page 2
    Peanut seed availability
        Page 2
    Drought and weed control
        Page 3
    Early season weed control
        Page 3
    Nitrogen prices and use of legumes
        Page 4
    Soil nitrogen availability in relation to management
        Page 4
    Spring weather conditions and planting dates for row crops
        Page 4
    UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office offers on-line presentation
        Page 5
    New publication
        Page 6
    Updated publication
        Page 6
Full Text






AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

Vol. 30:5 May 2006




IN THIS ISSUE

FORAGE
Cotton Varieties Sold Under Different Trade Names ..................... 2
Time of Kill for Bahiagrass Influences Nitrogen Needs of
Following Crops and Decomposition of Plant Residues ................. 2

PEANUTS
Peanut Seed Availability ................ ........................ 2

WEED CONTROL
Drought and W eed Control ....................................... 3
Early-Season Weed Control ..................................... .. 3

MISCELLANEOUS
Nitrogen Prices and Use of Legumes ................................ 4
Soil Nitrogen Availability in Relation to Management .................... 4
Spring Weather Conditions and Planting Dates for Row
Crops ................. ... .... .............................. 4
UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office Offers On-line
Presentations .............................................. 5
N ew Publications ........................................ ....... 6
Updated Publications ................ ........................... 6





The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.









Cotton Varieties Sold Under Different
Trade Names

As new technology comes on the market,
there are several companies that do not have
breeding programs, or the rights to a given
technology, and will purchase varieties to
sell under their trade name. Here are some
from different varieties that I have been
made aware of that are the same variety sold
under different trade names: 450001G is the
variety and will be sold as DG 2520 B2RF,
CG 4020 B2RF, ST 4357 B2RF, BW 4630
B2F, Americot 1532 B2RF, and MCS 423
B2RF. 370001G variety will be sold as DG
2100 B2RF, CG 3020 B2RF, BW 3255
B2RF, and Americot 1504 B2RF. 530001G
variety will be sold as CG 3520 B2RF and
ST 4700 B2RF. 010001G will be sold as
DG 2215 B2RF, NG 3273 B2F, and BW
4021 B2RF. 170001G variety will be sold
as ST 5007 B2RF. The variety has to be on
the bag so you can compare if you are
buying seed from several companies. ST is
Stoneville, CG is Croplan Genetics, DG is
Dynagro, and BW is Beltwide Cotton
Genetics.

David Wright

Time of Kill for Bahiagrass Influences
Nitrogen Needs of Following Crops and
Decomposition of Plant Residues

As a general rule, organic materials with a
high C:N ratio (greater than 30) will
immobilize soil nitrogen and slow the
decomposition process. Due to a high C:N
ration, bahiagrass decomposes very slowly.
Therefore, recent research has shown that
crop yields are higher and less nitrogen is
needed on subsequent crops if bahia is killed
in the fall vs. the spring. The extra 3-4
months over winter period allows the
bahiagrass to go through decomposition and


narrow the C:N ratio. The C:N ratio may be
closer to 10-12:1 in the spring if bahia is fall
killed vs. the higher C:N ratio if killed in the
spring. Yields of crops after spring killed
bahiagrass have been increased to the level
of fall killing if an additional 40-60 lbs N/A
is applied to increase decomposition.
However, this is an extra expense and effort
should be made to kill bahiagrass in the fall
if at all possible. It should also be noted that
bahiagrass is easier to kill in the fall as
compared to the spring.

Bahiagrass has also been shown to leave
channels through the soil profile which
increases water infiltration and soil
moisture. This results in cooler and more
moist soils that retain a higher level of
organic matter in equilibrium with its
environment.

David Wright

Peanut Seed Availability

It is important to relate to your seed
suppliers what variety of peanut you would
like to plant next year. There have been
many comments that AP3 and C99R were in
short supply this season. These varieties
have performed very well where TSWV has
been a problem and rank near the top of
most trials in the SE. Although many of the
older varieties of peanuts still produce
superior grades, yields have fallen in recent
years due to less disease tolerance.

Georgia Green still maintains its dominance
on the seed supply and will be the most
commonly planted variety again this season.
However, more seed of the newer varieties
should be available next year. If possible,
get a few bags of a new variety this season
to test its fit on your farm.

David Wright









Cotton Varieties Sold Under Different
Trade Names

As new technology comes on the market,
there are several companies that do not have
breeding programs, or the rights to a given
technology, and will purchase varieties to
sell under their trade name. Here are some
from different varieties that I have been
made aware of that are the same variety sold
under different trade names: 450001G is the
variety and will be sold as DG 2520 B2RF,
CG 4020 B2RF, ST 4357 B2RF, BW 4630
B2F, Americot 1532 B2RF, and MCS 423
B2RF. 370001G variety will be sold as DG
2100 B2RF, CG 3020 B2RF, BW 3255
B2RF, and Americot 1504 B2RF. 530001G
variety will be sold as CG 3520 B2RF and
ST 4700 B2RF. 010001G will be sold as
DG 2215 B2RF, NG 3273 B2F, and BW
4021 B2RF. 170001G variety will be sold
as ST 5007 B2RF. The variety has to be on
the bag so you can compare if you are
buying seed from several companies. ST is
Stoneville, CG is Croplan Genetics, DG is
Dynagro, and BW is Beltwide Cotton
Genetics.

David Wright

Time of Kill for Bahiagrass Influences
Nitrogen Needs of Following Crops and
Decomposition of Plant Residues

As a general rule, organic materials with a
high C:N ratio (greater than 30) will
immobilize soil nitrogen and slow the
decomposition process. Due to a high C:N
ration, bahiagrass decomposes very slowly.
Therefore, recent research has shown that
crop yields are higher and less nitrogen is
needed on subsequent crops if bahia is killed
in the fall vs. the spring. The extra 3-4
months over winter period allows the
bahiagrass to go through decomposition and


narrow the C:N ratio. The C:N ratio may be
closer to 10-12:1 in the spring if bahia is fall
killed vs. the higher C:N ratio if killed in the
spring. Yields of crops after spring killed
bahiagrass have been increased to the level
of fall killing if an additional 40-60 lbs N/A
is applied to increase decomposition.
However, this is an extra expense and effort
should be made to kill bahiagrass in the fall
if at all possible. It should also be noted that
bahiagrass is easier to kill in the fall as
compared to the spring.

Bahiagrass has also been shown to leave
channels through the soil profile which
increases water infiltration and soil
moisture. This results in cooler and more
moist soils that retain a higher level of
organic matter in equilibrium with its
environment.

David Wright

Peanut Seed Availability

It is important to relate to your seed
suppliers what variety of peanut you would
like to plant next year. There have been
many comments that AP3 and C99R were in
short supply this season. These varieties
have performed very well where TSWV has
been a problem and rank near the top of
most trials in the SE. Although many of the
older varieties of peanuts still produce
superior grades, yields have fallen in recent
years due to less disease tolerance.

Georgia Green still maintains its dominance
on the seed supply and will be the most
commonly planted variety again this season.
However, more seed of the newer varieties
should be available next year. If possible,
get a few bags of a new variety this season
to test its fit on your farm.

David Wright









Cotton Varieties Sold Under Different
Trade Names

As new technology comes on the market,
there are several companies that do not have
breeding programs, or the rights to a given
technology, and will purchase varieties to
sell under their trade name. Here are some
from different varieties that I have been
made aware of that are the same variety sold
under different trade names: 450001G is the
variety and will be sold as DG 2520 B2RF,
CG 4020 B2RF, ST 4357 B2RF, BW 4630
B2F, Americot 1532 B2RF, and MCS 423
B2RF. 370001G variety will be sold as DG
2100 B2RF, CG 3020 B2RF, BW 3255
B2RF, and Americot 1504 B2RF. 530001G
variety will be sold as CG 3520 B2RF and
ST 4700 B2RF. 010001G will be sold as
DG 2215 B2RF, NG 3273 B2F, and BW
4021 B2RF. 170001G variety will be sold
as ST 5007 B2RF. The variety has to be on
the bag so you can compare if you are
buying seed from several companies. ST is
Stoneville, CG is Croplan Genetics, DG is
Dynagro, and BW is Beltwide Cotton
Genetics.

David Wright

Time of Kill for Bahiagrass Influences
Nitrogen Needs of Following Crops and
Decomposition of Plant Residues

As a general rule, organic materials with a
high C:N ratio (greater than 30) will
immobilize soil nitrogen and slow the
decomposition process. Due to a high C:N
ration, bahiagrass decomposes very slowly.
Therefore, recent research has shown that
crop yields are higher and less nitrogen is
needed on subsequent crops if bahia is killed
in the fall vs. the spring. The extra 3-4
months over winter period allows the
bahiagrass to go through decomposition and


narrow the C:N ratio. The C:N ratio may be
closer to 10-12:1 in the spring if bahia is fall
killed vs. the higher C:N ratio if killed in the
spring. Yields of crops after spring killed
bahiagrass have been increased to the level
of fall killing if an additional 40-60 lbs N/A
is applied to increase decomposition.
However, this is an extra expense and effort
should be made to kill bahiagrass in the fall
if at all possible. It should also be noted that
bahiagrass is easier to kill in the fall as
compared to the spring.

Bahiagrass has also been shown to leave
channels through the soil profile which
increases water infiltration and soil
moisture. This results in cooler and more
moist soils that retain a higher level of
organic matter in equilibrium with its
environment.

David Wright

Peanut Seed Availability

It is important to relate to your seed
suppliers what variety of peanut you would
like to plant next year. There have been
many comments that AP3 and C99R were in
short supply this season. These varieties
have performed very well where TSWV has
been a problem and rank near the top of
most trials in the SE. Although many of the
older varieties of peanuts still produce
superior grades, yields have fallen in recent
years due to less disease tolerance.

Georgia Green still maintains its dominance
on the seed supply and will be the most
commonly planted variety again this season.
However, more seed of the newer varieties
should be available next year. If possible,
get a few bags of a new variety this season
to test its fit on your farm.

David Wright









Drought and Weed Control

Weed control under dry conditions can be
problematic for two reasons. 1. Weed
competition is most severe during a drought
and, 2. Weeds are less affected by herbicide
applications under dry conditions.

Preemergence herbicides. Preemergence
herbicides require rainfall for incorporation
into the soil. Without rain, the herbicide
will be less active and will result in more
weed escapes. Additionally, many of our
soil applied herbicides are degraded by
sunlight. So, without incorporation by
rainfall, there is less herbicide in the soil and
degradation by sunlight is more common.

Postemergence herbicides. Postemergence
herbicides are also affected by drought.
Weeds growing under drought stress are
more difficult to control. Under dry
conditions, weeds have more wax on their
leaf surfaces, which restricts movement of
the herbicides into leaf tissue. Additionally,
most herbicides need to translocate
throughout the plant to achieve a complete
kill. A drought-stressed plant is growing
very slowly and herbicide movement within
the plant is greatly reduced. This means that
less herbicide enters drought-stressed plants
and what does enter is poorly translocated.
Together, these factors lead to poor control.

For postemergence applications, the addition
of the proper adjuvant can improve weed
control operations under dry conditions.
Some herbicide labels specifically list which
adjuvant should be used under such
conditions. In any case, it is best to be
familiar with the label to optimize herbicide
activity under any environmental condition.

If weeds are actively growing, herbicide
applications can be highly effective.


However, if weeds are wilting during the
day and recovering over the night, an
herbicide application should be delayed
until rainfall has been received and weeds
resume active growth.

Brent Sellers

Early-Season Weed Control

In the last 20 years, herbicide technology
has come a long way. We have transgenic
crops and herbicides that allow us
unprecedented levels of weed control. But,
the effect of early-season weeds is still as
important as ever.

With the development of glyphosate
resistant crops approximately 10 years ago,
there has been a gradual decline in the use of
soil-applied herbicides. Additionally, many
producers are delaying their first glyphosate
application hoping to control more weeds
with a single application. However, these
practices allow weed competition during the
"critical period" for the crop and can
dramatically reduce crop yield. Weed
competition during the first 6 weeks after
crop emergence is the most critical to final
yield. Late-season weeds can make a field
look bad and complicate harvest, but these
late weeds rarely impact crop yield.

As a rule of thumb, if your crop does not
remain clean until July 4th, you will loose
yield. Therefore, using a preemergence
herbicide and properly timing the first
postemergence application is the key to
improving crop yield.

Jason Ferrell









Drought and Weed Control

Weed control under dry conditions can be
problematic for two reasons. 1. Weed
competition is most severe during a drought
and, 2. Weeds are less affected by herbicide
applications under dry conditions.

Preemergence herbicides. Preemergence
herbicides require rainfall for incorporation
into the soil. Without rain, the herbicide
will be less active and will result in more
weed escapes. Additionally, many of our
soil applied herbicides are degraded by
sunlight. So, without incorporation by
rainfall, there is less herbicide in the soil and
degradation by sunlight is more common.

Postemergence herbicides. Postemergence
herbicides are also affected by drought.
Weeds growing under drought stress are
more difficult to control. Under dry
conditions, weeds have more wax on their
leaf surfaces, which restricts movement of
the herbicides into leaf tissue. Additionally,
most herbicides need to translocate
throughout the plant to achieve a complete
kill. A drought-stressed plant is growing
very slowly and herbicide movement within
the plant is greatly reduced. This means that
less herbicide enters drought-stressed plants
and what does enter is poorly translocated.
Together, these factors lead to poor control.

For postemergence applications, the addition
of the proper adjuvant can improve weed
control operations under dry conditions.
Some herbicide labels specifically list which
adjuvant should be used under such
conditions. In any case, it is best to be
familiar with the label to optimize herbicide
activity under any environmental condition.

If weeds are actively growing, herbicide
applications can be highly effective.


However, if weeds are wilting during the
day and recovering over the night, an
herbicide application should be delayed
until rainfall has been received and weeds
resume active growth.

Brent Sellers

Early-Season Weed Control

In the last 20 years, herbicide technology
has come a long way. We have transgenic
crops and herbicides that allow us
unprecedented levels of weed control. But,
the effect of early-season weeds is still as
important as ever.

With the development of glyphosate
resistant crops approximately 10 years ago,
there has been a gradual decline in the use of
soil-applied herbicides. Additionally, many
producers are delaying their first glyphosate
application hoping to control more weeds
with a single application. However, these
practices allow weed competition during the
"critical period" for the crop and can
dramatically reduce crop yield. Weed
competition during the first 6 weeks after
crop emergence is the most critical to final
yield. Late-season weeds can make a field
look bad and complicate harvest, but these
late weeds rarely impact crop yield.

As a rule of thumb, if your crop does not
remain clean until July 4th, you will loose
yield. Therefore, using a preemergence
herbicide and properly timing the first
postemergence application is the key to
improving crop yield.

Jason Ferrell










Nitrogen Prices and Use of Legumes

For years commercial nitrogen prices were
relatively cheap and many growers stopped
using legumes and manure to supplying
nitrogen to subsequent crops. However, this
is changing since higher energy cost has led
to an increase in the cost of nitrogen
fertilizers. Growers need to carefully
consider legume crops that can be used
during the off season or cash crops that can
supply nitrogen. Crops that fix nitrogen and
have been widely used in Florida as a cash
or cover crop are: red clover-110 lbs N/A,
white clover-100 lbs N/A, cowpeas- 90 lbs
N/A, vetch- 80 lbs N/A, soybeans- 60 lbs
N/A, peanuts- 40 lbs N/A, and green beans-
40 lbs N/A. The actual amount fixed will
depend on environmental and soil conditions
and length of growing season. Soybeans,
green beans and field peas can be planted
late in the season (August-September) and
frost may kill them or they may be harvested
for grain if planted early enough. Clovers
and vetch can be planted in the fall after
harvest of most crops and used for cover
crops or grazing.

David Wright

Soil Nitrogen Availability in Relation to
Management

Fertilizer costs have escalated over the last
few years. This has resulted in growers
looking for ways to more efficiently utilize
applications. The graph below shows the
difference in the amount of nitrate nitrogen
available in the top foot of soil by applying
the same amount of nitrogen in 3
applications vs. 2. Multiple applications can
maintain about 50% more available nitrogen
in the top 12" of soil. Split applications of
fertilizer and timing of amounts according to
plant needs are good ways of ensuring


proper fertility at the proper time. Split
application of nitrogen will result in
increased efficiency and utilization by plants
and result in higher yields with less loss to
leaching and runoff.

David Wright

Irrigated- Soil Nitrate- N Soil Depth
N Management


Soil Natrate -, ppm


Ze_ N
--2 NrApp
Z 150 lb N/A.r-
S raktf &a. -SWAP


Spring Weather Conditions and Planting
Dates for Row Crops

The Southeast Climate Consortium has
predicted dry conditions for Florida row
crops this spring (www.agclimate.org).
However, recent reports suggest that normal
weather is returning. To date, conditions
have been dry and many growers are waiting
on rain to finish tillage and begin planting.
Producers who strip tilled or bedded their
land early may have enough moisture to
plant on time. However, some are still
waiting to plant corn. Late planted, non-
irrigated corn may do better than early
planted corn this season. The recommended
planting date for corn is Feb. 15- April 15.
Early planted corn often starts silking and
tasseling by mid May, which is typically
dry. Since summer rains often start by the
mid June, May planted corn will likely have
moisture prior to tasseling. Although late
planted corn often has problems with insects
and diseases, selecting transgenic hybrids
with the Bt gene and good disease resistance
may avoid these problems.










Nitrogen Prices and Use of Legumes

For years commercial nitrogen prices were
relatively cheap and many growers stopped
using legumes and manure to supplying
nitrogen to subsequent crops. However, this
is changing since higher energy cost has led
to an increase in the cost of nitrogen
fertilizers. Growers need to carefully
consider legume crops that can be used
during the off season or cash crops that can
supply nitrogen. Crops that fix nitrogen and
have been widely used in Florida as a cash
or cover crop are: red clover-110 lbs N/A,
white clover-100 lbs N/A, cowpeas- 90 lbs
N/A, vetch- 80 lbs N/A, soybeans- 60 lbs
N/A, peanuts- 40 lbs N/A, and green beans-
40 lbs N/A. The actual amount fixed will
depend on environmental and soil conditions
and length of growing season. Soybeans,
green beans and field peas can be planted
late in the season (August-September) and
frost may kill them or they may be harvested
for grain if planted early enough. Clovers
and vetch can be planted in the fall after
harvest of most crops and used for cover
crops or grazing.

David Wright

Soil Nitrogen Availability in Relation to
Management

Fertilizer costs have escalated over the last
few years. This has resulted in growers
looking for ways to more efficiently utilize
applications. The graph below shows the
difference in the amount of nitrate nitrogen
available in the top foot of soil by applying
the same amount of nitrogen in 3
applications vs. 2. Multiple applications can
maintain about 50% more available nitrogen
in the top 12" of soil. Split applications of
fertilizer and timing of amounts according to
plant needs are good ways of ensuring


proper fertility at the proper time. Split
application of nitrogen will result in
increased efficiency and utilization by plants
and result in higher yields with less loss to
leaching and runoff.

David Wright

Irrigated- Soil Nitrate- N Soil Depth
N Management


Soil Natrate -, ppm


Ze_ N
--2 NrApp
Z 150 lb N/A.r-
S raktf &a. -SWAP


Spring Weather Conditions and Planting
Dates for Row Crops

The Southeast Climate Consortium has
predicted dry conditions for Florida row
crops this spring (www.agclimate.org).
However, recent reports suggest that normal
weather is returning. To date, conditions
have been dry and many growers are waiting
on rain to finish tillage and begin planting.
Producers who strip tilled or bedded their
land early may have enough moisture to
plant on time. However, some are still
waiting to plant corn. Late planted, non-
irrigated corn may do better than early
planted corn this season. The recommended
planting date for corn is Feb. 15- April 15.
Early planted corn often starts silking and
tasseling by mid May, which is typically
dry. Since summer rains often start by the
mid June, May planted corn will likely have
moisture prior to tasseling. Although late
planted corn often has problems with insects
and diseases, selecting transgenic hybrids
with the Bt gene and good disease resistance
may avoid these problems.










Nitrogen Prices and Use of Legumes

For years commercial nitrogen prices were
relatively cheap and many growers stopped
using legumes and manure to supplying
nitrogen to subsequent crops. However, this
is changing since higher energy cost has led
to an increase in the cost of nitrogen
fertilizers. Growers need to carefully
consider legume crops that can be used
during the off season or cash crops that can
supply nitrogen. Crops that fix nitrogen and
have been widely used in Florida as a cash
or cover crop are: red clover-110 lbs N/A,
white clover-100 lbs N/A, cowpeas- 90 lbs
N/A, vetch- 80 lbs N/A, soybeans- 60 lbs
N/A, peanuts- 40 lbs N/A, and green beans-
40 lbs N/A. The actual amount fixed will
depend on environmental and soil conditions
and length of growing season. Soybeans,
green beans and field peas can be planted
late in the season (August-September) and
frost may kill them or they may be harvested
for grain if planted early enough. Clovers
and vetch can be planted in the fall after
harvest of most crops and used for cover
crops or grazing.

David Wright

Soil Nitrogen Availability in Relation to
Management

Fertilizer costs have escalated over the last
few years. This has resulted in growers
looking for ways to more efficiently utilize
applications. The graph below shows the
difference in the amount of nitrate nitrogen
available in the top foot of soil by applying
the same amount of nitrogen in 3
applications vs. 2. Multiple applications can
maintain about 50% more available nitrogen
in the top 12" of soil. Split applications of
fertilizer and timing of amounts according to
plant needs are good ways of ensuring


proper fertility at the proper time. Split
application of nitrogen will result in
increased efficiency and utilization by plants
and result in higher yields with less loss to
leaching and runoff.

David Wright

Irrigated- Soil Nitrate- N Soil Depth
N Management


Soil Natrate -, ppm


Ze_ N
--2 NrApp
Z 150 lb N/A.r-
S raktf &a. -SWAP


Spring Weather Conditions and Planting
Dates for Row Crops

The Southeast Climate Consortium has
predicted dry conditions for Florida row
crops this spring (www.agclimate.org).
However, recent reports suggest that normal
weather is returning. To date, conditions
have been dry and many growers are waiting
on rain to finish tillage and begin planting.
Producers who strip tilled or bedded their
land early may have enough moisture to
plant on time. However, some are still
waiting to plant corn. Late planted, non-
irrigated corn may do better than early
planted corn this season. The recommended
planting date for corn is Feb. 15- April 15.
Early planted corn often starts silking and
tasseling by mid May, which is typically
dry. Since summer rains often start by the
mid June, May planted corn will likely have
moisture prior to tasseling. Although late
planted corn often has problems with insects
and diseases, selecting transgenic hybrids
with the Bt gene and good disease resistance
may avoid these problems.









Cotton should be planted in April or early
May, if possible. In dry years, cotton seed
can lay in the soil and not germinate until
rains occur in mid June. Yields are often
reduced by this scenario since bolls do not
fully mature before frost. Although late-
planted cotton grows well and looks good,
yield is always reduced. Therefore, cotton
should be planted earlier, rather than later, if
the chance of any rain arises.

Peanuts are unique since they can be planted
deeper than any of the other row crops.
Peanut seed will emerge from 2-3 inches, or
deeper. However, like other seed that are
high in oil content, seed should be planted
into moisture for rapid germination. Before
tomato spotted wilt (TSWV) virus, peanuts
were planted in April. The emergence of
this disease has forced later planting such
that the recommended date is now May 11-
May 25. Peanuts perform well when
planted through the first week of June, but
will suffer yield loss if planted later than
this. Early planted peanuts (any time in
April) will likely suffer serious yield loss
from TSWV.

Soybeans can be planted from April to late
August. However, best yields will be made
from May 15- June 15 plantings. Irrigated
soybeans can do very well if planted late,
even when double cropped behind other
crops in June, July, or August. Maturity
group (MG) V soybeans are often the best
choice when considering our typical summer
rainfall patterns. If soybeans are planted in
late May or early June, the maturity of the
soybeans fall around September 25 for MG
V, October 7 for MG VI, October 20 for
MG VII, and November 7 for MG VIII
soybeans. Since rainfall often cuts off after
September 15, MG V soybeans may yield
10-15 bushels


per acre more than later group soybeans
unless irrigation is used.

Planting date for peanut and cotton is April
and May, corn from February until May, and
soybeans May and June. This is a short
period for most of the crops, and in a dry
year, the main cash crop for many Florida
growers can suffer greatly if sufficient
rainfall does not occur to get the crop up to a
good stand during their ideal planting date.
Irrigation may pay for most of these crops
considering the high price for inputs and
land rent.

David Wright


UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office
Offers On-line Presentations

A new feature of the Pesticide Information
Office website is on-line, interactive
presentations available for public viewing.
The presentations include voice narration,
interactive quizzes, and video footage. At
the present time, there are 9 presentations
completed and available for public use and
comment. Users must have Macromedia
Flash Player to run each program; users who
do not presently have that system may
install it from the Pesticide Information
Office site. Each program takes between 30
and 50 minutes to complete, excluding time
needed for the interactive quizzes. The
following are now offered:

The Value of Pesticides in Florida
Understanding Agricultural Pesticide
Applicator Licenses under FDACS
Agricultural Crop Pest Control
The Worker Protection Standard
Pesticide Labeling: The Label










Notice of Applications/Posting and
Information Display under the WPS
WPS Training: A Worker Protection
Standard Training Component
Agricultural Row Crop Pest Control:
Application Equipment
Agricultural Application Equipment
Calibration

To access the site, go to
http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/pio_presentations.h


New Publications

SS-AGR-33 2005 Cotton Variety Trials in
Florida: Early-Maturing Cultivars
SS-AGR-34 2005 Cotton Variety Trials in
Florida: Mid- and Late-Maturing Cultivars

Updated Publications

SS-AGR-71 Forage Grasses for Florida's
Organic Soils


Fred Fishel


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman; M.B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist (mbadjei@ifas.ufl.edu); J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist
(jaferrell@ifas.ufl.edu); F.M. Fishel, Pesticide Coordinator (weeddr@ifas.ufl.edu); C.R. Rainbolt, Extension Agronomist
(crrainbolt@ifas.ufl.edu); B.A. Sellers, Extension Agronomist (sellersb@ifas.ufl.edu); E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist
(ebw@ifas.ufl.edu); D.L. Wright, Extension Agronomist (dlw@ifas.ufl.edu).










Notice of Applications/Posting and
Information Display under the WPS
WPS Training: A Worker Protection
Standard Training Component
Agricultural Row Crop Pest Control:
Application Equipment
Agricultural Application Equipment
Calibration

To access the site, go to
http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/pio_presentations.h


New Publications

SS-AGR-33 2005 Cotton Variety Trials in
Florida: Early-Maturing Cultivars
SS-AGR-34 2005 Cotton Variety Trials in
Florida: Mid- and Late-Maturing Cultivars

Updated Publications

SS-AGR-71 Forage Grasses for Florida's
Organic Soils


Fred Fishel


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman; M.B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist (mbadjei@ifas.ufl.edu); J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist
(jaferrell@ifas.ufl.edu); F.M. Fishel, Pesticide Coordinator (weeddr@ifas.ufl.edu); C.R. Rainbolt, Extension Agronomist
(crrainbolt@ifas.ufl.edu); B.A. Sellers, Extension Agronomist (sellersb@ifas.ufl.edu); E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist
(ebw@ifas.ufl.edu); D.L. Wright, Extension Agronomist (dlw@ifas.ufl.edu).