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 Table of Contents
 Nitrogen fertilization for...
 Cotton root and shoot developm...
 Cotton seed availability
 Peanut planting date
 Is PROWL H20 right for you?
 Dry spring means changes in farm...
 Worker protection standard: a 10...


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Agronomy notes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00067
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: April 2006
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00067

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Nitrogen fertilization for corn
        Page 2
    Cotton root and shoot development
        Page 2
    Cotton seed availability
        Page 2
    Peanut planting date
        Page 2
    Is PROWL H20 right for you?
        Page 3
    Dry spring means changes in farm management
        Page 3
    Worker protection standard: a 10 year summary
        Page 3
        Page 4
Full Text





AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

Vol. 30:4 April 2006



IN THIS ISSUE


CORN

Nitrogen Fertilization for Corn ...................................... 2


COTTON


Cotton Root and Shoot Development ...............................
Cotton Seed A availability .. ......................................


PEANUTS


Peanut Planting Date ...........................................

WEED CONTROL

Is Prow l H 20 right for you? .. ....................................

MISCELLANEOUS

Dry Spring Means Changes in Farm Management .......................
Worker Protection Standard: A 10 Year Summary .......................


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.









Nitrogen Fertilization for Corn


Corn does not have a high requirement for
nitrogen until it starts the peak growth stage.
Peak growth, from March planted corn,
begins about 40 days after planting.
However, early and adequate nitrogen is
very important to final yield. Corn should
have starter nitrogen so optimum growth
occurs until it can be sidedressed.
Sidedressing should take place when corn is
10-15 inches tall with the nitrogen placed as
near the row as possible. Since the root
system of corn extends approximately 3-4
inches on either side of the stalk at this stage
of growth, nitrogen applied on a broadcast
basis has a high likelihood of being lost to
leaching below the root zone. The
application at this stage may add several
bushels of grain and several tons of silage at
harvest. Other applications of fertilizer,
when corn is taller, may be put through the
irrigation system for ease and convenience.


David L. Wright


Many new varieties with new technologies
are available for growers to try. Most of the
new technologies being introduced are new
Bt events, or two different Bt events (in the
same plant) for a wider insect control range
coupled with Roundup Flex. Roundup
Ready Flex allows later applications of
glyphosate to cotton. It is good to try the
technology to see if it has merit on your
farm. The Roundup Ready Flex will help
growers do a better job of controlling weeds
late in the season. However, like all of the
other cotton growing states, residual
herbicides are recommended to combat
weed resistance as long as possible.

There will not be a great deal of seed
available of many of these new varieties, but
trial-size quantities should be obtainable.
All of the other popular cotton varieties will
be in adequate supply.


David L. Wright


Cotton Root and Shoot Development

Cotton plants develop slowly during the first
month. However, at 10 days after
emergence, root growth will be
approximately twice as large as shoot
growth. By 30 days after emergence, top
growth is still slow and root development
may be as much as three times larger than
the top. By first flower, or about 60-65 days
after planting, root growth will level off
while top growth and boll weight will
continue to increase until maturity.

David L. Wright


Peanut Planting Date

Peanut planting date is based on the Tomato
spotted wilt virus index and the damage that
it does to peanut. Many growers may not
start planting peanuts until sometime in
May, but planting after the first week of
May is best. Many of the planting date
studies from the past year showed that good
yields could still be obtained as late as the
first week of June. However, the period
from May 11 to May 25 appears to be
optimum for least damage and best yields.

David L. Wright


Cotton Seed Availability









Nitrogen Fertilization for Corn


Corn does not have a high requirement for
nitrogen until it starts the peak growth stage.
Peak growth, from March planted corn,
begins about 40 days after planting.
However, early and adequate nitrogen is
very important to final yield. Corn should
have starter nitrogen so optimum growth
occurs until it can be sidedressed.
Sidedressing should take place when corn is
10-15 inches tall with the nitrogen placed as
near the row as possible. Since the root
system of corn extends approximately 3-4
inches on either side of the stalk at this stage
of growth, nitrogen applied on a broadcast
basis has a high likelihood of being lost to
leaching below the root zone. The
application at this stage may add several
bushels of grain and several tons of silage at
harvest. Other applications of fertilizer,
when corn is taller, may be put through the
irrigation system for ease and convenience.


David L. Wright


Many new varieties with new technologies
are available for growers to try. Most of the
new technologies being introduced are new
Bt events, or two different Bt events (in the
same plant) for a wider insect control range
coupled with Roundup Flex. Roundup
Ready Flex allows later applications of
glyphosate to cotton. It is good to try the
technology to see if it has merit on your
farm. The Roundup Ready Flex will help
growers do a better job of controlling weeds
late in the season. However, like all of the
other cotton growing states, residual
herbicides are recommended to combat
weed resistance as long as possible.

There will not be a great deal of seed
available of many of these new varieties, but
trial-size quantities should be obtainable.
All of the other popular cotton varieties will
be in adequate supply.


David L. Wright


Cotton Root and Shoot Development

Cotton plants develop slowly during the first
month. However, at 10 days after
emergence, root growth will be
approximately twice as large as shoot
growth. By 30 days after emergence, top
growth is still slow and root development
may be as much as three times larger than
the top. By first flower, or about 60-65 days
after planting, root growth will level off
while top growth and boll weight will
continue to increase until maturity.

David L. Wright


Peanut Planting Date

Peanut planting date is based on the Tomato
spotted wilt virus index and the damage that
it does to peanut. Many growers may not
start planting peanuts until sometime in
May, but planting after the first week of
May is best. Many of the planting date
studies from the past year showed that good
yields could still be obtained as late as the
first week of June. However, the period
from May 11 to May 25 appears to be
optimum for least damage and best yields.

David L. Wright


Cotton Seed Availability









Nitrogen Fertilization for Corn


Corn does not have a high requirement for
nitrogen until it starts the peak growth stage.
Peak growth, from March planted corn,
begins about 40 days after planting.
However, early and adequate nitrogen is
very important to final yield. Corn should
have starter nitrogen so optimum growth
occurs until it can be sidedressed.
Sidedressing should take place when corn is
10-15 inches tall with the nitrogen placed as
near the row as possible. Since the root
system of corn extends approximately 3-4
inches on either side of the stalk at this stage
of growth, nitrogen applied on a broadcast
basis has a high likelihood of being lost to
leaching below the root zone. The
application at this stage may add several
bushels of grain and several tons of silage at
harvest. Other applications of fertilizer,
when corn is taller, may be put through the
irrigation system for ease and convenience.


David L. Wright


Many new varieties with new technologies
are available for growers to try. Most of the
new technologies being introduced are new
Bt events, or two different Bt events (in the
same plant) for a wider insect control range
coupled with Roundup Flex. Roundup
Ready Flex allows later applications of
glyphosate to cotton. It is good to try the
technology to see if it has merit on your
farm. The Roundup Ready Flex will help
growers do a better job of controlling weeds
late in the season. However, like all of the
other cotton growing states, residual
herbicides are recommended to combat
weed resistance as long as possible.

There will not be a great deal of seed
available of many of these new varieties, but
trial-size quantities should be obtainable.
All of the other popular cotton varieties will
be in adequate supply.


David L. Wright


Cotton Root and Shoot Development

Cotton plants develop slowly during the first
month. However, at 10 days after
emergence, root growth will be
approximately twice as large as shoot
growth. By 30 days after emergence, top
growth is still slow and root development
may be as much as three times larger than
the top. By first flower, or about 60-65 days
after planting, root growth will level off
while top growth and boll weight will
continue to increase until maturity.

David L. Wright


Peanut Planting Date

Peanut planting date is based on the Tomato
spotted wilt virus index and the damage that
it does to peanut. Many growers may not
start planting peanuts until sometime in
May, but planting after the first week of
May is best. Many of the planting date
studies from the past year showed that good
yields could still be obtained as late as the
first week of June. However, the period
from May 11 to May 25 appears to be
optimum for least damage and best yields.

David L. Wright


Cotton Seed Availability









Nitrogen Fertilization for Corn


Corn does not have a high requirement for
nitrogen until it starts the peak growth stage.
Peak growth, from March planted corn,
begins about 40 days after planting.
However, early and adequate nitrogen is
very important to final yield. Corn should
have starter nitrogen so optimum growth
occurs until it can be sidedressed.
Sidedressing should take place when corn is
10-15 inches tall with the nitrogen placed as
near the row as possible. Since the root
system of corn extends approximately 3-4
inches on either side of the stalk at this stage
of growth, nitrogen applied on a broadcast
basis has a high likelihood of being lost to
leaching below the root zone. The
application at this stage may add several
bushels of grain and several tons of silage at
harvest. Other applications of fertilizer,
when corn is taller, may be put through the
irrigation system for ease and convenience.


David L. Wright


Many new varieties with new technologies
are available for growers to try. Most of the
new technologies being introduced are new
Bt events, or two different Bt events (in the
same plant) for a wider insect control range
coupled with Roundup Flex. Roundup
Ready Flex allows later applications of
glyphosate to cotton. It is good to try the
technology to see if it has merit on your
farm. The Roundup Ready Flex will help
growers do a better job of controlling weeds
late in the season. However, like all of the
other cotton growing states, residual
herbicides are recommended to combat
weed resistance as long as possible.

There will not be a great deal of seed
available of many of these new varieties, but
trial-size quantities should be obtainable.
All of the other popular cotton varieties will
be in adequate supply.


David L. Wright


Cotton Root and Shoot Development

Cotton plants develop slowly during the first
month. However, at 10 days after
emergence, root growth will be
approximately twice as large as shoot
growth. By 30 days after emergence, top
growth is still slow and root development
may be as much as three times larger than
the top. By first flower, or about 60-65 days
after planting, root growth will level off
while top growth and boll weight will
continue to increase until maturity.

David L. Wright


Peanut Planting Date

Peanut planting date is based on the Tomato
spotted wilt virus index and the damage that
it does to peanut. Many growers may not
start planting peanuts until sometime in
May, but planting after the first week of
May is best. Many of the planting date
studies from the past year showed that good
yields could still be obtained as late as the
first week of June. However, the period
from May 11 to May 25 appears to be
optimum for least damage and best yields.

David L. Wright


Cotton Seed Availability









Is Prowl H20 right for you?

Prowl H20 is an encapsulated formulation of
pendimethalin that has been shown to
provide equivalent weed control to
traditional formulations such as Prowl 3.3
and Pendimax. Prowl H20 also offers
additional advantages over traditional
formulations such as less product odor and
less staining of equipment. However, the
greatest advantage of Prowl H20 is that
degradation due to exposure to sunlight is
much less than with other formulations. For
example, Prowl 3.3EC must be incorporated
with rainfall, irrigation or tillage within 7
days of application to the soil surface. If not
incorporated within this time, sunlight will
degrade the herbicide and significantly
reduce its effectiveness. Conversely, Prowl
H20 is less likely to degrade on the soil
surface. Therefore, Prowl H20 is a good
choice in minimum or strip-till operations
where irrigation or equipment is not used for
herbicide incorporation. This fact allows
more flexibility with Prowl H20 and
provides additional insurance during dry
springs when rainfall may not occur within 7
days of application.

However, Prowl H20 is approximately
$29/gal while Pendimax 3.3 remains at
$24/gal. Additionally, Prowl H20 will only
control weeds if it comes in contact with the
root tip soon after seed germination. Since
many weeds germinate within the top 1" of
soil, some type of incorporation is required
to move Prowl H20 into the soil so that it
will be present to control the germinating
seedlings. Regardless of formulation,
incorporation is required for effective weed
control.

Prowl H20 offers some advantages over the
traditional pendimethalin formulations, but


cost and tillage type should be considered.
If producers intend to mechanically
incorporate the herbicide, Pendimax will
provide equivalent weed control at a lower
price. If no incorporation is planned, Prowl
H20 will potentially provide "insurance"
against dry weather.

Jason A. Ferrell

Dry Spring Means Changes in Farm
Management

Agclimate.org is a crop model program
developed to help growers decide on farm
management strategies. The model
predicted a dry spring which changes the
way we look at planting different crops.
Cotton should be planted as early as possible
so that any moisture will bring it up to a
stand. Waiting for rain may mean planting
past the recommended date or doing tillage
on the next rain and then waiting for another
rain to plant the crop. Cover crops should
be killed as early as possible to keep from
depleting any more soil moisture. This and
other models will help growers make more
informed decisions in the future and take
some of the guess work out of farm
decisions.

David L. Wright

Worker Protection Standard: A 10 Year
Summary

The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is a
Federal regulation designed to protect
agricultural workers (people involved in the
production of agricultural plants) and
pesticide handlers (people mixing, loading,
or applying pesticides or doing other tasks
involving direct contact with pesticides). It
has been in full implementation since 1995.









Is Prowl H20 right for you?

Prowl H20 is an encapsulated formulation of
pendimethalin that has been shown to
provide equivalent weed control to
traditional formulations such as Prowl 3.3
and Pendimax. Prowl H20 also offers
additional advantages over traditional
formulations such as less product odor and
less staining of equipment. However, the
greatest advantage of Prowl H20 is that
degradation due to exposure to sunlight is
much less than with other formulations. For
example, Prowl 3.3EC must be incorporated
with rainfall, irrigation or tillage within 7
days of application to the soil surface. If not
incorporated within this time, sunlight will
degrade the herbicide and significantly
reduce its effectiveness. Conversely, Prowl
H20 is less likely to degrade on the soil
surface. Therefore, Prowl H20 is a good
choice in minimum or strip-till operations
where irrigation or equipment is not used for
herbicide incorporation. This fact allows
more flexibility with Prowl H20 and
provides additional insurance during dry
springs when rainfall may not occur within 7
days of application.

However, Prowl H20 is approximately
$29/gal while Pendimax 3.3 remains at
$24/gal. Additionally, Prowl H20 will only
control weeds if it comes in contact with the
root tip soon after seed germination. Since
many weeds germinate within the top 1" of
soil, some type of incorporation is required
to move Prowl H20 into the soil so that it
will be present to control the germinating
seedlings. Regardless of formulation,
incorporation is required for effective weed
control.

Prowl H20 offers some advantages over the
traditional pendimethalin formulations, but


cost and tillage type should be considered.
If producers intend to mechanically
incorporate the herbicide, Pendimax will
provide equivalent weed control at a lower
price. If no incorporation is planned, Prowl
H20 will potentially provide "insurance"
against dry weather.

Jason A. Ferrell

Dry Spring Means Changes in Farm
Management

Agclimate.org is a crop model program
developed to help growers decide on farm
management strategies. The model
predicted a dry spring which changes the
way we look at planting different crops.
Cotton should be planted as early as possible
so that any moisture will bring it up to a
stand. Waiting for rain may mean planting
past the recommended date or doing tillage
on the next rain and then waiting for another
rain to plant the crop. Cover crops should
be killed as early as possible to keep from
depleting any more soil moisture. This and
other models will help growers make more
informed decisions in the future and take
some of the guess work out of farm
decisions.

David L. Wright

Worker Protection Standard: A 10 Year
Summary

The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is a
Federal regulation designed to protect
agricultural workers (people involved in the
production of agricultural plants) and
pesticide handlers (people mixing, loading,
or applying pesticides or doing other tasks
involving direct contact with pesticides). It
has been in full implementation since 1995.









Is Prowl H20 right for you?

Prowl H20 is an encapsulated formulation of
pendimethalin that has been shown to
provide equivalent weed control to
traditional formulations such as Prowl 3.3
and Pendimax. Prowl H20 also offers
additional advantages over traditional
formulations such as less product odor and
less staining of equipment. However, the
greatest advantage of Prowl H20 is that
degradation due to exposure to sunlight is
much less than with other formulations. For
example, Prowl 3.3EC must be incorporated
with rainfall, irrigation or tillage within 7
days of application to the soil surface. If not
incorporated within this time, sunlight will
degrade the herbicide and significantly
reduce its effectiveness. Conversely, Prowl
H20 is less likely to degrade on the soil
surface. Therefore, Prowl H20 is a good
choice in minimum or strip-till operations
where irrigation or equipment is not used for
herbicide incorporation. This fact allows
more flexibility with Prowl H20 and
provides additional insurance during dry
springs when rainfall may not occur within 7
days of application.

However, Prowl H20 is approximately
$29/gal while Pendimax 3.3 remains at
$24/gal. Additionally, Prowl H20 will only
control weeds if it comes in contact with the
root tip soon after seed germination. Since
many weeds germinate within the top 1" of
soil, some type of incorporation is required
to move Prowl H20 into the soil so that it
will be present to control the germinating
seedlings. Regardless of formulation,
incorporation is required for effective weed
control.

Prowl H20 offers some advantages over the
traditional pendimethalin formulations, but


cost and tillage type should be considered.
If producers intend to mechanically
incorporate the herbicide, Pendimax will
provide equivalent weed control at a lower
price. If no incorporation is planned, Prowl
H20 will potentially provide "insurance"
against dry weather.

Jason A. Ferrell

Dry Spring Means Changes in Farm
Management

Agclimate.org is a crop model program
developed to help growers decide on farm
management strategies. The model
predicted a dry spring which changes the
way we look at planting different crops.
Cotton should be planted as early as possible
so that any moisture will bring it up to a
stand. Waiting for rain may mean planting
past the recommended date or doing tillage
on the next rain and then waiting for another
rain to plant the crop. Cover crops should
be killed as early as possible to keep from
depleting any more soil moisture. This and
other models will help growers make more
informed decisions in the future and take
some of the guess work out of farm
decisions.

David L. Wright

Worker Protection Standard: A 10 Year
Summary

The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is a
Federal regulation designed to protect
agricultural workers (people involved in the
production of agricultural plants) and
pesticide handlers (people mixing, loading,
or applying pesticides or doing other tasks
involving direct contact with pesticides). It
has been in full implementation since 1995.









A complete reference for the WPS is
provided by: How to comply with the
worker protection standard for agricultural
pesticides: what employers need to know
http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/epa-735-b-
05-002.pdf The WPS is a complex
regulation and complete compliance by
agricultural producers has been difficult.
This has been obvious based upon a
summary of agricultural establishment
inspections released by the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services (FDACS). The summary reports
that for 1995 through 2004, there were 4,514
firms inspected, most of which were farms
and nurseries. The results of the FDACS
inspections recorded a total of 2,565
violations. The inspections involved
checking for central posting of information,
worker safety training, decontamination
sites, early re-entry into treated areas, safety
equipment, and other requirements as


outlined by the WPS. Most (67%) of the
violations involved two aspects: central
posting of information and safety training.
Central posting of information includes
providing a place on the agricultural
establishment where workers can learn of
pesticide applications made on the site,
emergency medical facilities that are at their
disposal, and a pesticide safety poster.
Training for workers is required before a
worker accumulates more than 5 separate
days of entry into treated areas where,
within the past 30 days, a pesticide has been
applied or a restricted-entry interval has
been in effect. Pesticide handlers must be
trained before they do any handling task.
The UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office
cooperates with FDACS, various agencies
and commodity associations in helping to
educate the regulated community.

Fred Fishel


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman; M.B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist (mbadjei@ifas.ufl.edu); J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist
(jaferrell@ifas.ufl.edu); F.M. Fishel, Pesticide Coordinator (weeddr@ifas.ufl.edu); C.R. Rainbolt, Extension Agronomist
(crrainbolt@ifas.ufl.edu); B.A. Sellers, Extension Agronomist (sellersb@ifas.ufl.edu); E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist
(ebw@ifas.ufl.edu); D.L. Wright, Extension Agronomist (dlw@ifas.ufl.edu).