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 Table of Contents
 Cotton and new genetic technol...
 U.S. cotton textile industry
 Perennial peanut establishment...
 Read the label - know what you're...
 Rising herbicide prices
 Florida's response to Asian soybean...
 Soil organic matter and perennial...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00063
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: November 2005
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00063

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Cotton and new genetic technology
        Page 2
    U.S. cotton textile industry
        Page 2
    Perennial peanut establishment made faster in Central Florida
        Page 2
    Read the label - know what you're buying
        Page 3
    Rising herbicide prices
        Page 4
    Florida's response to Asian soybean rust
        Page 4
    Soil organic matter and perennial grasses
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION


November 2005


IN THIS ISSUE


COTTON
Cotton and New Genetic Technology
U.S. Cotton Textile Industry .......


. . . . . . . . . 2
. . . . . . . . . 2
.~2


FORAGE
Perennial Peanuts Establishment Made
Faster in Central Florida ...............

WEED CONTROL
Read the Label Know What You're Buying
Rising Herbicide Prices .................

MISCELLANEOUS


Florida's Response to Asian Soybean Rust
Soil Organic Matter and Perennial Grasses


. . . . 4
. . . . 5
.~5


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.









Cotton and New Genetic Technology

The one billionth acre oftransgenic crops
was planted in 2005. This is significant in
that cotton was the first major crop approved
for farmer use only 10 years ago. Cotton
has had the most traits put in it
commercially of all of the crops due to the
amount of spraying for pests and the
economic benefit to growers. The "second
generation" technology will be introduced in
cotton in the 2006 season. These traits will
include Roundup Flex cotton, which allows
cotton to be sprayed over the top throughout
the season and two different Bt technologies
that will control a wider variety of larvae.
Other technology will be available with
resistance traits to two weed control
chemicals. This technology will have
different modes of action for each trait for
better weed control strategies. The new Bt
technology is thought to be less likely to
develop resistance in susceptible insect.
Many other technologies will become
available over the next few years that will
enhance its value to growers as well as to
the consumer. It is possible that many of the
crops may be "designer" crops that meet the
needs of the people growing the crops as
well as those consuming them.

David L. Wright

U.S. Cotton Textile Industry

Cotton was first tried by the Virginia colony
in the early 1600's. By 1700, 20% of the
English colonies in North America had
clothes made from cotton produced in North
Carolina. The first textile mill was built in
the U.S. in the late 1780's. Cotton
production expanded even more quickly
when Eli Whitney the cotton gin in the early
1790's followed by use of power looms in
1815. Textile mills have been a part of the


history of the eastern U.S. ever since.
However, since 1997, 350 mills have closed
and moved to other parts of the world,
mainly India and China, with a loss of over
194,000 jobs averaging $12.50 per hour.
These jobs have been lost to places that
average $2/hr or less in many cases. The
cost for one days work for employees in the
U.S. is $19.4 mil./day vs. $3.1 mil./day for
workers overseas. Jobs go to the least cost
of production areas. Although the U.S. has
adapted well over the years to
unemployment, it will take new technology
and leadership in many areas to stay ahead
of the world. Research has been a key
ingredient in keeping jobs and developing
new industry.

David L. Wright

Perennial Peanuts Establishment Made
Faster in Central Florida

Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) is a warm
season perennial legume that produces high
forage yield with quality almost equal to that
of alfalfa. It has good drought tolerance and
excellent persistence under close grazing.
However, the traditional method of
establishment requires more than 2 years to
obtain a complete cover and this has limited
the widespread use of this otherwise
excellent forage crop. But that is about to
change. A recent study evaluated all
possible combinations of three planting
methods and two rhizome planting rates on
the spread of four rhizoma peanut entries:
Ecoturf, Florigraze and two experimental
(PI 262826 and PI 262833). After the
preparation of a clean seedbed, the
following planting methods were studied in
2004 and 2005 on separate sites: 1)
broadcast separated rhizomes followed by
light disking and then rolling; 2) broadcast
separated rhizomes followed by crimping
into the









Cotton and New Genetic Technology

The one billionth acre oftransgenic crops
was planted in 2005. This is significant in
that cotton was the first major crop approved
for farmer use only 10 years ago. Cotton
has had the most traits put in it
commercially of all of the crops due to the
amount of spraying for pests and the
economic benefit to growers. The "second
generation" technology will be introduced in
cotton in the 2006 season. These traits will
include Roundup Flex cotton, which allows
cotton to be sprayed over the top throughout
the season and two different Bt technologies
that will control a wider variety of larvae.
Other technology will be available with
resistance traits to two weed control
chemicals. This technology will have
different modes of action for each trait for
better weed control strategies. The new Bt
technology is thought to be less likely to
develop resistance in susceptible insect.
Many other technologies will become
available over the next few years that will
enhance its value to growers as well as to
the consumer. It is possible that many of the
crops may be "designer" crops that meet the
needs of the people growing the crops as
well as those consuming them.

David L. Wright

U.S. Cotton Textile Industry

Cotton was first tried by the Virginia colony
in the early 1600's. By 1700, 20% of the
English colonies in North America had
clothes made from cotton produced in North
Carolina. The first textile mill was built in
the U.S. in the late 1780's. Cotton
production expanded even more quickly
when Eli Whitney the cotton gin in the early
1790's followed by use of power looms in
1815. Textile mills have been a part of the


history of the eastern U.S. ever since.
However, since 1997, 350 mills have closed
and moved to other parts of the world,
mainly India and China, with a loss of over
194,000 jobs averaging $12.50 per hour.
These jobs have been lost to places that
average $2/hr or less in many cases. The
cost for one days work for employees in the
U.S. is $19.4 mil./day vs. $3.1 mil./day for
workers overseas. Jobs go to the least cost
of production areas. Although the U.S. has
adapted well over the years to
unemployment, it will take new technology
and leadership in many areas to stay ahead
of the world. Research has been a key
ingredient in keeping jobs and developing
new industry.

David L. Wright

Perennial Peanuts Establishment Made
Faster in Central Florida

Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) is a warm
season perennial legume that produces high
forage yield with quality almost equal to that
of alfalfa. It has good drought tolerance and
excellent persistence under close grazing.
However, the traditional method of
establishment requires more than 2 years to
obtain a complete cover and this has limited
the widespread use of this otherwise
excellent forage crop. But that is about to
change. A recent study evaluated all
possible combinations of three planting
methods and two rhizome planting rates on
the spread of four rhizoma peanut entries:
Ecoturf, Florigraze and two experimental
(PI 262826 and PI 262833). After the
preparation of a clean seedbed, the
following planting methods were studied in
2004 and 2005 on separate sites: 1)
broadcast separated rhizomes followed by
light disking and then rolling; 2) broadcast
separated rhizomes followed by crimping
into the









Cotton and New Genetic Technology

The one billionth acre oftransgenic crops
was planted in 2005. This is significant in
that cotton was the first major crop approved
for farmer use only 10 years ago. Cotton
has had the most traits put in it
commercially of all of the crops due to the
amount of spraying for pests and the
economic benefit to growers. The "second
generation" technology will be introduced in
cotton in the 2006 season. These traits will
include Roundup Flex cotton, which allows
cotton to be sprayed over the top throughout
the season and two different Bt technologies
that will control a wider variety of larvae.
Other technology will be available with
resistance traits to two weed control
chemicals. This technology will have
different modes of action for each trait for
better weed control strategies. The new Bt
technology is thought to be less likely to
develop resistance in susceptible insect.
Many other technologies will become
available over the next few years that will
enhance its value to growers as well as to
the consumer. It is possible that many of the
crops may be "designer" crops that meet the
needs of the people growing the crops as
well as those consuming them.

David L. Wright

U.S. Cotton Textile Industry

Cotton was first tried by the Virginia colony
in the early 1600's. By 1700, 20% of the
English colonies in North America had
clothes made from cotton produced in North
Carolina. The first textile mill was built in
the U.S. in the late 1780's. Cotton
production expanded even more quickly
when Eli Whitney the cotton gin in the early
1790's followed by use of power looms in
1815. Textile mills have been a part of the


history of the eastern U.S. ever since.
However, since 1997, 350 mills have closed
and moved to other parts of the world,
mainly India and China, with a loss of over
194,000 jobs averaging $12.50 per hour.
These jobs have been lost to places that
average $2/hr or less in many cases. The
cost for one days work for employees in the
U.S. is $19.4 mil./day vs. $3.1 mil./day for
workers overseas. Jobs go to the least cost
of production areas. Although the U.S. has
adapted well over the years to
unemployment, it will take new technology
and leadership in many areas to stay ahead
of the world. Research has been a key
ingredient in keeping jobs and developing
new industry.

David L. Wright

Perennial Peanuts Establishment Made
Faster in Central Florida

Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) is a warm
season perennial legume that produces high
forage yield with quality almost equal to that
of alfalfa. It has good drought tolerance and
excellent persistence under close grazing.
However, the traditional method of
establishment requires more than 2 years to
obtain a complete cover and this has limited
the widespread use of this otherwise
excellent forage crop. But that is about to
change. A recent study evaluated all
possible combinations of three planting
methods and two rhizome planting rates on
the spread of four rhizoma peanut entries:
Ecoturf, Florigraze and two experimental
(PI 262826 and PI 262833). After the
preparation of a clean seedbed, the
following planting methods were studied in
2004 and 2005 on separate sites: 1)
broadcast separated rhizomes followed by
light disking and then rolling; 2) broadcast
separated rhizomes followed by crimping
into the









seedbed and then rolling; and 3) plant
separated rhizomes in 6"-furrows of 2 ft
spacing followed by rolling. Rhizomes were
planted either at 1,500 or 3,000 lb per acre.
Ground cover of RPP was estimated
monthly after the February planting. The
spread of RPP was affected independently
by planting method and peanut entry for the
first four months in 2004 and through July
of 2005. Plants that were established using
crimp and roll method generally had greater
percentage ground cover with leaves than
the row and roll method through June.
However, by July (5 months after
establishment) very little differences were
noticed among planting methods with all
treatment combinations providing better
than 90% ground cover. There was an
indication that Florigraze and one of the
experimental accessions established a bit
faster than Ecoturf initially (through May).
The higher planting rate always provided
greater vegetative spread of RPP than the
lower planting rate for the disk and roll and
the crimp and roll but not for the row and
roll methods. At 5 months after planting, all
planting methods, RPP entries and planting
rates provided between 90% and 100%
ground cover with leaves. This study has
shown that rhizome perennial peanuts can
be successfully established on clean seedbed
within one year in central Florida

Paul Mislevy and Martin B. Adjei

Read the Label Know What You're
Buying

Pest problems occur in diverse settings from
agricultural to commercial and residential.
In Florida, pest control is a year-round
consideration and many times a pesticide
will be chosen as part of the management
plan for the problem. If a pesticide will be


part of the management plan, understanding
the contents of the pesticide label is
essential for the product's safe and effective
use.

At the time of this article, there are 14,501
products registered with the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services (FDACS) as pesticides sold within
the state. This many products boggles the
mind, and it can be confusing when
searching for a certain pesticide to control a
particular target pest. A point of confusion is
that product brand names, in some cases,
may be shared. In other words "Product X"
may be an insecticide sold by one company,
yet a different product is sold as the same
brand name by a different manufacturer as a
product to control algae in swimming pools.
Upon an internet search for some products,
you may find that there are actually quite a
few of these situations. How does anyone
know what the product really contains?

Properly interpreting the pesticide label is
crucial to selecting the most appropriate
pesticide products for use and therefore
receiving maximum benefit from their use.
The length of a pesticide label varies widely,
ranging from one to many pages of very fine
print, but the active ingredient will be listed
on the label's front panel beneath the
product's brand name. While the label may
seem overwhelming at first, it does not
require a great amount of time to understand
the information once the general format is
recognized. Label content for a single
product changes frequently; applicators of
pesticides should review labels of products
they will be using on a regular basis. You
should read the pesticide label: before
purchasing the pesticide to ensure that it is
the correct one for the job; before mixing
the pesticide to ensure the proper pesticide
concentration; before applying the pesticide









to ensure proper use; and, before storing of
excess chemical or disposal of the empty
container.

Not following the label's directions can be a
costly mistake. From a lack of satisfactory
pest control to causing excessive damage to
treated sites to steep fines for illegal use; all
are undesirable results from not reading and
following the label. Each day, I receive at
least several pesticide use violations reports
from FDACS. The unfortunate crux of the
matter is that practically all of these cases
could have been avoided by simply reading
and following the label.

Frederick M. Fishel

Rising Herbicide Prices

Energy prices have been on the rise over the
past several months. This has caused the
cost of manufacturing and product
distribution to also increase. To confront
these changes, the general price of all
pesticides is likely to increase in the coming
year. Regrettably, an agriculture distributor
recently related to me that several herbicide
manufactures have already notified in
writing that price increases for their product
portfolio will be announced early in 2006.

With rising prices, it is more important than
ever to make every decision count. It is
important to remember that 100% weed
control all season long is not necessary to
achieve high yields. It is very important to
maintain a weed-free crop for approximately
6 weeks after planting, but late season
weeds rarely impact yield. So, using
preemergence herbicides such as Prowl,
Treflan, or Sonalan often provide a
significant return on the investment
(particularly in areas where Florida pusley
and annual grasses are common) while late-
season postemergence


herbicides may or may not be required. So
rather than using a "standard" herbicide
program on every acre, tailor a weed
management plan to ensure that unneeded
herbicides will not be used. This approach
will lead to high yields and the greatest
return for your weed control dollar.

Jason A. Ferrell

Florida's Response to Asian Soybean
Rust

Asian Soybean Rust (ASR) was on the list
of possible bio-terrorism introductions. It is
believed that hurricane Ivan brought ASR to
North America in 2004, but it did not spread
widely in 2005 for unknown reasons. Even
though soybean acreage is down in Florida,
the eyes of the North American soybean
industry have been on Florida due to the
presence of ASR. ASR has not been found
naturally on any species other than kudzu
and soybeans. Many other legumes have
been planted and monitored for the disease
in Florida but infection has not been
observed on these crops. Soybeans are still
the number one alternative crop for Florida
row crop growers since they are widely
adapted and easily grown with the use of
Roundup Ready technology. As bio-diesel
plants spring up across the U.S., soybeans
are a crop that may make a comeback to the
southeast. Trials at Quincy from 2005 show
that ASR can be controlled with the use of
fungicides and there are some that are more
effective than others. Many of the Midwest
Universities and those in the Southeast are
working in UF plots this fall since the
epidemic has been higher here than at other
locations. Research will continue with
cooperation from many of the Midwest
Universities throughout the fall, winter and
in 2006.

David L. Wright and Mark Marois









to ensure proper use; and, before storing of
excess chemical or disposal of the empty
container.

Not following the label's directions can be a
costly mistake. From a lack of satisfactory
pest control to causing excessive damage to
treated sites to steep fines for illegal use; all
are undesirable results from not reading and
following the label. Each day, I receive at
least several pesticide use violations reports
from FDACS. The unfortunate crux of the
matter is that practically all of these cases
could have been avoided by simply reading
and following the label.

Frederick M. Fishel

Rising Herbicide Prices

Energy prices have been on the rise over the
past several months. This has caused the
cost of manufacturing and product
distribution to also increase. To confront
these changes, the general price of all
pesticides is likely to increase in the coming
year. Regrettably, an agriculture distributor
recently related to me that several herbicide
manufactures have already notified in
writing that price increases for their product
portfolio will be announced early in 2006.

With rising prices, it is more important than
ever to make every decision count. It is
important to remember that 100% weed
control all season long is not necessary to
achieve high yields. It is very important to
maintain a weed-free crop for approximately
6 weeks after planting, but late season
weeds rarely impact yield. So, using
preemergence herbicides such as Prowl,
Treflan, or Sonalan often provide a
significant return on the investment
(particularly in areas where Florida pusley
and annual grasses are common) while late-
season postemergence


herbicides may or may not be required. So
rather than using a "standard" herbicide
program on every acre, tailor a weed
management plan to ensure that unneeded
herbicides will not be used. This approach
will lead to high yields and the greatest
return for your weed control dollar.

Jason A. Ferrell

Florida's Response to Asian Soybean
Rust

Asian Soybean Rust (ASR) was on the list
of possible bio-terrorism introductions. It is
believed that hurricane Ivan brought ASR to
North America in 2004, but it did not spread
widely in 2005 for unknown reasons. Even
though soybean acreage is down in Florida,
the eyes of the North American soybean
industry have been on Florida due to the
presence of ASR. ASR has not been found
naturally on any species other than kudzu
and soybeans. Many other legumes have
been planted and monitored for the disease
in Florida but infection has not been
observed on these crops. Soybeans are still
the number one alternative crop for Florida
row crop growers since they are widely
adapted and easily grown with the use of
Roundup Ready technology. As bio-diesel
plants spring up across the U.S., soybeans
are a crop that may make a comeback to the
southeast. Trials at Quincy from 2005 show
that ASR can be controlled with the use of
fungicides and there are some that are more
effective than others. Many of the Midwest
Universities and those in the Southeast are
working in UF plots this fall since the
epidemic has been higher here than at other
locations. Research will continue with
cooperation from many of the Midwest
Universities throughout the fall, winter and
in 2006.

David L. Wright and Mark Marois









Soil Organic Matter and Perennial
Grasses

The amount of organic matter in the soil is
mainly determined by the environment and
inherent soil factors. However, there are
many factors influenced by human
involvement that can aid in the build up or
destruction of soil organic matter (SOM).
Agriculture research for many years has
focused on increasing yields by use of
commercial fertilizer, chemicals, tillage, and
plant breeding. These are all good
techniques in maintaining or increasing
yield. However, this is not good enough if
U.S. agriculture is to stay productive for
many centuries. Rotation trials conducted
many years ago, all over the U.S., have
shown that tillage, with or without other
techniques, has lowered SOM from 3-4% to
1-2% while actually increasing yield.
However, most of these studies were done
on soils that were in native range grasses for
hundreds of years prior to being plowed up
and planted to wheat, corn or other crops.
These soils did not respond to fertilizer for
the first decade or two or even longer due to
the high SOM and native fertility. After
WWII big equipment was available to plow


up much of the native prairie land and plant
it to row crops. Most of the crop land has
not been back in perennial grasses since that
time resulting in a 50-100% decrease in
SOM. Several research projects are now
underway to look at ways to return SOM to
levels of 100 years ago. Much of this
research shows that it is more profitable to
have diversified farming with livestock and
perennial grasses as part of the system than
just monocropping annual crops. Reduced
tillage and cover crops have increased SOM,
but it has not resulted in the increases noted
with the perennial grasses nor had they had
the impacts on soil quality. Research in the
tri-state area of GA, FL, and AL, with a
perennial grass rotation with
bahiagrass/cotton/peanuts and cattle has
shown that this rotation can be many times
more profitable than a typical peanut/cotton
rotation using conservation tillage and cover
crops. SOM and other soil quality factors
are being improved at the same time. This
project and others like it are being watched
closely by growers to see if it will fit in their
operations.

David L. Wright


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman; M.B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist (mbadjei@ifas.ufl.edu); J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist
(jaferrell@ifas.ufl.edu); F.M. Fishel, Pesticide Coordinator (weeddr@ifas.ufl.edu); C.R. Rainbolt, Extension Agronomist
(crrainbolt@ifas.ufl.edu); B.A. Sellers, Extension Agronomist (sellersb@ifas.ufl.edu); E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist
(ebw@ifas.ufl.edu); D.L. Wright, Extension Agronomist (dlw@ifas.ufl.edu).