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 Table of Contents
 Cotton defoliation decisions
 Small grain and ryegrass variety...
 Peanut planting date
 Asian soybean rust update
 Finding herbicide labels
 Herbicide scams
 Pesticide information available...
 Soil test


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00062
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: October 2005
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00062

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Cotton defoliation decisions
        Page 2
    Small grain and ryegrass variety information for 2006-2006
        Page 2
    Peanut planting date
        Page 2
    Asian soybean rust update
        Page 2
    Finding herbicide labels
        Page 3
    Herbicide scams
        Page 3
    Pesticide information available on the web
        Page 4
    Soil test
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION


October 2005


IN THIS ISSUE


COTTON
Cotton Defoliation Decisions .


FORAGE
Small Grain and Ryegrass Variety Information


for 2005-2006


. . . 2


PEANUTS
Peanut Planting Date ........

SOYBEAN
Asian Soybean Rust Update

WEED CONTROL
Finding herbicide labels ......
Herbicide Scams ..........
Pesticide Information Available

MISCELLANEOUS
Soil T est ..................


on the Web


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.









Cotton Defoliation Decisions


Cotton requires about 155 days from
planting to harvest in Florida. Important
management decisions have to be made
throughout the growing season, but large
amounts of profit can be lost if proper
decisions about defoliation and boll opening
are not made prior to storage in modules.
Stain from poorly defoliated plants and
moisture from the green tissue cause the
biggest loss in quality.

There are several ways to determine when to
defoliate cotton. An old rule of thumb is to
defoliate when 60% of the bolls are open.
Another method is nodes above cracked
bolls (NACB). Research has shown that
cotton with four nodes above the highest
cracked boll can be defoliated without
significant weight or quality loss. IfNACB
counts average five or more, defoliant
applications should be delayed. Bolls set in
mid-summer are usually the largest and
mature in 40 to 50 days, while the bolls set
in August are smaller, take 60 days or longer
to mature, and often contribute little to final
yield. Those late flowers look attractive and
may give the appearance of adding yield,
but should not be given preference over the
fruit that was set during the first 3 to 4
weeks of bloom. It has been shown many
times that the fruit set during the first 4
weeks of bloom normally contributes 90 to
95% of the total yield of the cotton crop.

David Wright

Small Grain and Ryegrass Variety
Information for 2005-2006

Information on ryegrass and small grain
varieties for Florida and Georgia can be
found at www.griffin.uga.edu/sevt.

David Wright


Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has
dictated the planting date for peanut over the
past several years since TSWV has impacted
yields due to early planting. This disease
has to do with high thrips number that
vector the disease and infects the plants.
Thrips numbers have generally declined
rapidly in May result in less TSWV from
May planting. However, there appears to be
a shift in populations from year to year and
the planting date continues to be pushed
later in May. Additional research needs to
be done in this area to determine if earlier
planting could be made instead of delaying
until mid-May. Modeling work with the
PNUTGRO model in Gainesville indicates
that the highest yield could be expected
from an April 15 planting. It was noted that
planting on April 1 would likely result in a
6-8% yield decrease while a May 1 planting
date would decrease yield by approximately
1-2 %. However, the Gainesville area has
not had the spotted wilt pressure that most
of the other areas in the Southeast have
experienced. Variety selection is critical to
keeping this disease at low levels and the
TSWV index should be followed as closely
as possible to obtain low levels of the
disease and high yields. This index is
modified each year to keep growers up to
date with latest research findings.

David Wright

Asian Soybean Rust Update

Asian soybean rust has been identified in all
of the major soybean producing counties in
Florida with most of the sentinel plots
testing positive. We have monitored these
plots throughout the season and have
watched the disease progress. Although dry
weather in late August and early September


Peanut Planting Date









Cotton Defoliation Decisions


Cotton requires about 155 days from
planting to harvest in Florida. Important
management decisions have to be made
throughout the growing season, but large
amounts of profit can be lost if proper
decisions about defoliation and boll opening
are not made prior to storage in modules.
Stain from poorly defoliated plants and
moisture from the green tissue cause the
biggest loss in quality.

There are several ways to determine when to
defoliate cotton. An old rule of thumb is to
defoliate when 60% of the bolls are open.
Another method is nodes above cracked
bolls (NACB). Research has shown that
cotton with four nodes above the highest
cracked boll can be defoliated without
significant weight or quality loss. IfNACB
counts average five or more, defoliant
applications should be delayed. Bolls set in
mid-summer are usually the largest and
mature in 40 to 50 days, while the bolls set
in August are smaller, take 60 days or longer
to mature, and often contribute little to final
yield. Those late flowers look attractive and
may give the appearance of adding yield,
but should not be given preference over the
fruit that was set during the first 3 to 4
weeks of bloom. It has been shown many
times that the fruit set during the first 4
weeks of bloom normally contributes 90 to
95% of the total yield of the cotton crop.

David Wright

Small Grain and Ryegrass Variety
Information for 2005-2006

Information on ryegrass and small grain
varieties for Florida and Georgia can be
found at www.griffin.uga.edu/sevt.

David Wright


Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has
dictated the planting date for peanut over the
past several years since TSWV has impacted
yields due to early planting. This disease
has to do with high thrips number that
vector the disease and infects the plants.
Thrips numbers have generally declined
rapidly in May result in less TSWV from
May planting. However, there appears to be
a shift in populations from year to year and
the planting date continues to be pushed
later in May. Additional research needs to
be done in this area to determine if earlier
planting could be made instead of delaying
until mid-May. Modeling work with the
PNUTGRO model in Gainesville indicates
that the highest yield could be expected
from an April 15 planting. It was noted that
planting on April 1 would likely result in a
6-8% yield decrease while a May 1 planting
date would decrease yield by approximately
1-2 %. However, the Gainesville area has
not had the spotted wilt pressure that most
of the other areas in the Southeast have
experienced. Variety selection is critical to
keeping this disease at low levels and the
TSWV index should be followed as closely
as possible to obtain low levels of the
disease and high yields. This index is
modified each year to keep growers up to
date with latest research findings.

David Wright

Asian Soybean Rust Update

Asian soybean rust has been identified in all
of the major soybean producing counties in
Florida with most of the sentinel plots
testing positive. We have monitored these
plots throughout the season and have
watched the disease progress. Although dry
weather in late August and early September


Peanut Planting Date









Cotton Defoliation Decisions


Cotton requires about 155 days from
planting to harvest in Florida. Important
management decisions have to be made
throughout the growing season, but large
amounts of profit can be lost if proper
decisions about defoliation and boll opening
are not made prior to storage in modules.
Stain from poorly defoliated plants and
moisture from the green tissue cause the
biggest loss in quality.

There are several ways to determine when to
defoliate cotton. An old rule of thumb is to
defoliate when 60% of the bolls are open.
Another method is nodes above cracked
bolls (NACB). Research has shown that
cotton with four nodes above the highest
cracked boll can be defoliated without
significant weight or quality loss. IfNACB
counts average five or more, defoliant
applications should be delayed. Bolls set in
mid-summer are usually the largest and
mature in 40 to 50 days, while the bolls set
in August are smaller, take 60 days or longer
to mature, and often contribute little to final
yield. Those late flowers look attractive and
may give the appearance of adding yield,
but should not be given preference over the
fruit that was set during the first 3 to 4
weeks of bloom. It has been shown many
times that the fruit set during the first 4
weeks of bloom normally contributes 90 to
95% of the total yield of the cotton crop.

David Wright

Small Grain and Ryegrass Variety
Information for 2005-2006

Information on ryegrass and small grain
varieties for Florida and Georgia can be
found at www.griffin.uga.edu/sevt.

David Wright


Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has
dictated the planting date for peanut over the
past several years since TSWV has impacted
yields due to early planting. This disease
has to do with high thrips number that
vector the disease and infects the plants.
Thrips numbers have generally declined
rapidly in May result in less TSWV from
May planting. However, there appears to be
a shift in populations from year to year and
the planting date continues to be pushed
later in May. Additional research needs to
be done in this area to determine if earlier
planting could be made instead of delaying
until mid-May. Modeling work with the
PNUTGRO model in Gainesville indicates
that the highest yield could be expected
from an April 15 planting. It was noted that
planting on April 1 would likely result in a
6-8% yield decrease while a May 1 planting
date would decrease yield by approximately
1-2 %. However, the Gainesville area has
not had the spotted wilt pressure that most
of the other areas in the Southeast have
experienced. Variety selection is critical to
keeping this disease at low levels and the
TSWV index should be followed as closely
as possible to obtain low levels of the
disease and high yields. This index is
modified each year to keep growers up to
date with latest research findings.

David Wright

Asian Soybean Rust Update

Asian soybean rust has been identified in all
of the major soybean producing counties in
Florida with most of the sentinel plots
testing positive. We have monitored these
plots throughout the season and have
watched the disease progress. Although dry
weather in late August and early September


Peanut Planting Date









Cotton Defoliation Decisions


Cotton requires about 155 days from
planting to harvest in Florida. Important
management decisions have to be made
throughout the growing season, but large
amounts of profit can be lost if proper
decisions about defoliation and boll opening
are not made prior to storage in modules.
Stain from poorly defoliated plants and
moisture from the green tissue cause the
biggest loss in quality.

There are several ways to determine when to
defoliate cotton. An old rule of thumb is to
defoliate when 60% of the bolls are open.
Another method is nodes above cracked
bolls (NACB). Research has shown that
cotton with four nodes above the highest
cracked boll can be defoliated without
significant weight or quality loss. IfNACB
counts average five or more, defoliant
applications should be delayed. Bolls set in
mid-summer are usually the largest and
mature in 40 to 50 days, while the bolls set
in August are smaller, take 60 days or longer
to mature, and often contribute little to final
yield. Those late flowers look attractive and
may give the appearance of adding yield,
but should not be given preference over the
fruit that was set during the first 3 to 4
weeks of bloom. It has been shown many
times that the fruit set during the first 4
weeks of bloom normally contributes 90 to
95% of the total yield of the cotton crop.

David Wright

Small Grain and Ryegrass Variety
Information for 2005-2006

Information on ryegrass and small grain
varieties for Florida and Georgia can be
found at www.griffin.uga.edu/sevt.

David Wright


Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has
dictated the planting date for peanut over the
past several years since TSWV has impacted
yields due to early planting. This disease
has to do with high thrips number that
vector the disease and infects the plants.
Thrips numbers have generally declined
rapidly in May result in less TSWV from
May planting. However, there appears to be
a shift in populations from year to year and
the planting date continues to be pushed
later in May. Additional research needs to
be done in this area to determine if earlier
planting could be made instead of delaying
until mid-May. Modeling work with the
PNUTGRO model in Gainesville indicates
that the highest yield could be expected
from an April 15 planting. It was noted that
planting on April 1 would likely result in a
6-8% yield decrease while a May 1 planting
date would decrease yield by approximately
1-2 %. However, the Gainesville area has
not had the spotted wilt pressure that most
of the other areas in the Southeast have
experienced. Variety selection is critical to
keeping this disease at low levels and the
TSWV index should be followed as closely
as possible to obtain low levels of the
disease and high yields. This index is
modified each year to keep growers up to
date with latest research findings.

David Wright

Asian Soybean Rust Update

Asian soybean rust has been identified in all
of the major soybean producing counties in
Florida with most of the sentinel plots
testing positive. We have monitored these
plots throughout the season and have
watched the disease progress. Although dry
weather in late August and early September


Peanut Planting Date









slowed the disease progress, some plots had
severe infestation and were completely
defoliated. Fortunately, only a few
commercial fields had the disease bad
enough that they were completely
defoliated. Other commercial fields were
found to have the disease early, but were
sprayed and apparently kept the disease in
check.

Fungicide trails were done this year and
good rust control was observed. This led to
many of the soybean producing states in the
mid-west to closely watch the reports from
Florida. Additionally, many leading
universities have been sending scientists
down to work on various aspects of the
disease. Many of the county agents with
sentinel plots have also hosted farmers from
the mid-west that wanted to see the disease
and its effects.

Asian soybean rust has stayed in the south
this year being found widely on both
soybean and kudzu. No other legumes or
plants have been found to have rust.
Although volunteer cowpea grew in some
severely infected soybean sentinel plots, no
symptoms on cowpea were observed. Much
research effort is being expended to find out
about this disease and sentinel plots in all of
the soybean producing states saved U.S.
growers over a billion dollars this year by
not spraying one time.

David Wright & Mark Marois

Finding Herbicide Labels

The herbicide market of recent years has
seen numerous company mergers, new
names for old products, many generics, and
even some new herbicides. This means that
many product trade names and herbicide
labels are changing every year. Although
the changes to the label may not be large,
the


subtle verbiage that extension personnel use
when making precise recommendations is
constantly changing. Therefore it pays to
have up-to-date product labels at your
fingertips.

The best source for the most recent
herbicide information is at www.cdms.net.
This website has become the information
repository for most all reputable herbicide
manufactures. This means that herbicide
labels, complete with all state and
supplemental labels, will often appear on
CDMS before anywhere else. So
bookmarking this site is a good idea for
everyone.

However, herbicide labels are often several
pages think and can make finding specific
information difficult. In this case, please
consult the IFAS herbicide
recommendations found at edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
The EDIS website contains weed control
recommendations for all major agronomic
crops and each of these guides are updated
annually to incorporate the latest changes.
Jason Ferrell

Herbicide Scams

There has been a recent spike in the number
of growers being called concerning
herbicide products that supposedly kill
weeds for years. At least two "products"
have been brought to our attention and they
do not exist. In one case, the caller would
not tell his/her name, the company that
makes the product, a contact number or an
address. The caller stated that the product
would be sent for $300.00 and would
control tropical soda apple for 3 years.
Thankfully, no sale was made.

We attempted to find the products in
question. Upon investigation of herbicide









slowed the disease progress, some plots had
severe infestation and were completely
defoliated. Fortunately, only a few
commercial fields had the disease bad
enough that they were completely
defoliated. Other commercial fields were
found to have the disease early, but were
sprayed and apparently kept the disease in
check.

Fungicide trails were done this year and
good rust control was observed. This led to
many of the soybean producing states in the
mid-west to closely watch the reports from
Florida. Additionally, many leading
universities have been sending scientists
down to work on various aspects of the
disease. Many of the county agents with
sentinel plots have also hosted farmers from
the mid-west that wanted to see the disease
and its effects.

Asian soybean rust has stayed in the south
this year being found widely on both
soybean and kudzu. No other legumes or
plants have been found to have rust.
Although volunteer cowpea grew in some
severely infected soybean sentinel plots, no
symptoms on cowpea were observed. Much
research effort is being expended to find out
about this disease and sentinel plots in all of
the soybean producing states saved U.S.
growers over a billion dollars this year by
not spraying one time.

David Wright & Mark Marois

Finding Herbicide Labels

The herbicide market of recent years has
seen numerous company mergers, new
names for old products, many generics, and
even some new herbicides. This means that
many product trade names and herbicide
labels are changing every year. Although
the changes to the label may not be large,
the


subtle verbiage that extension personnel use
when making precise recommendations is
constantly changing. Therefore it pays to
have up-to-date product labels at your
fingertips.

The best source for the most recent
herbicide information is at www.cdms.net.
This website has become the information
repository for most all reputable herbicide
manufactures. This means that herbicide
labels, complete with all state and
supplemental labels, will often appear on
CDMS before anywhere else. So
bookmarking this site is a good idea for
everyone.

However, herbicide labels are often several
pages think and can make finding specific
information difficult. In this case, please
consult the IFAS herbicide
recommendations found at edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
The EDIS website contains weed control
recommendations for all major agronomic
crops and each of these guides are updated
annually to incorporate the latest changes.
Jason Ferrell

Herbicide Scams

There has been a recent spike in the number
of growers being called concerning
herbicide products that supposedly kill
weeds for years. At least two "products"
have been brought to our attention and they
do not exist. In one case, the caller would
not tell his/her name, the company that
makes the product, a contact number or an
address. The caller stated that the product
would be sent for $300.00 and would
control tropical soda apple for 3 years.
Thankfully, no sale was made.

We attempted to find the products in
question. Upon investigation of herbicide









labels, there were no products with the
names provided. If someone calls and offers
a product that will control a weed for 3
years, one has to wonder about the validity
of the call. Additionally, if it kills a
particular weed for 3 years, think what that
may do to your desirable species; it will
likely kill them also (even if it is a real
product).

There are many generic products on the
market today making it difficult to stay
abreast of all the information. However, it
is important that growers rely upon
University of Florida-IFAS weed control
recommendations. If you have questions or
have never heard of a particular product,
contact your county agent to ensure that the
product exists and is labeled for use in
Florida.

Brent Sellers

Pesticide Information Available on the
Web

While doing an information search on
MSN's search engine this week, I obtained
108,322 hits upon entering the key words,
"pesticide information." Where would one
even begin? Most people, including myself,
don't have the time to sort through the
myriad of available sites. But, I do have a
short-list of sites that I keep bookmarked for
the frequent uses I need associated with the
work of the UF/IFAS Pesticide Information
Office. Here are a few samplings along with
a brief description of their content.

UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office:
http://pested.ifas.ufl.edu/. This site contains
information about certification and licensing
of pesticide applicators in Florida. Our
state's laws governing these activities are
extremely complex, but this site can help


sort the confusion. You can also check
listings of state-approved CEU programs
offered within the state as well as across the
U.S. Many of our fact sheets, including
Florida's Pest Management Profiles are
located within this site. Accessing the
Pesticide Information Office's monthly
newsletter, Chemically Speaking, may also
be accomplished within the site.

A site containing similar and some of the
same information as ours is found at the
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services (FDACS):
http://www.flaes.org/. The site was recently
overhauled with a new look, so if you had
been there before, you'll find the navigation
to be a bit different than previously.

Need fact sheets? Virtually any topic,
pertaining to pesticides, pest control,
agronomic production, or anything else may
be found on the EDIS Home site:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Literally, thousands
of guides written by authors throughout
IFAS publish their information on this site.
This site provides access to all of those
short, concise, and factual guides.

The Crop Data Management System
(CDMS) at http://www.cdms.net allows the
user to access more than 100 pesticide
manufacturers' product labels. The system is
kept very current, but keep in mind that
because the labels available through the site
are not the actual product container's label,
EPA does not consider them to be legal
documents.

EPA's Ecotoxicity database contains
toxicity information regarding wildlife, fish,
and plant testing:
http://www.ipmcenters.org/Ecotox/DataAcc
ess.cfm. Any pesticide's active ingredient
that has been required to undergo these










toxicity tests are listed on this site. You can
access each active ingredient and enter any
of the more than 200 species that are used in
the various tests and view those results here.

If you wish to see if any pesticide product is
registered for use in Florida, you can go to
http://state.ceris.purdue.edu/doc/fl/statefl.ht
ml. You can search by active ingredient,
brand name, sites of application, pest to be
controlled, EPA registration number, or
company's name. If you search by active
ingredient, a listing of all state-registered
products containing at least that active
ingredient will be provided.

Fred Fishel


Soil Test

Soil tests taken immediately after harvest of
cotton or peanut can be used to determine
lime as well as fertility requirements for
crops for the coming year. If soil pH needs
adjusting, fall is a good time of the year to
apply needed lime. This is because it may
take as long as 6 months for lime to fully
react. Although a portion of lime begins to
work immediately, added time is always
beneficial. This activity will improve
nodulation since bacteria, the nitrogen fixers
for peanut plants, do better with an adequate
calcium level and with pH around 6.0 or
higher.

David Wright


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J.M. Bennett, Chairman; M.B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist (mbadjei@ifas.ufl.edu); J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist
(jaferrell@ifas.ufl.edu); F.M. Fishel, Pesticide Coordinator (weeddr@ifas.ufl.edu); C.R. Rainbolt, Extension Agronomist
(crrainbolt@ifas.ufl.edu); B.A. Sellers, Extension Agronomist (sellersb@ifas.ufl.edu); E.B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist
(ebw@ifas.ufl.edu); D.L. Wright, Extension Agronomist (dlw@ifas.ufl.edu).