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 Table of Contents
 Row spacing and plant populations...
 Cotton variety selection
 Fertilizing pastures and hay...
 Little yellow flowered legumes
 Warm season annual grasses and...
 Peanut drying
 Peanut seed handling
 Price outlook for peanuts
 Price outlook for peanuts
 Price outlook for peanuts
 Price outlook for peanuts
 Tobacco quota buyout payments
 Control of wild radish at...
 Thistle control in pastures
 Cover crops for strip tillage
 Lime applicants to row crop...
 Nitrogen supplies
 Field crop production


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00055
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: March 2005
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00055

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Row spacing and plant populations for corn
        Page 2
    Cotton variety selection
        Page 2
    Fertilizing pastures and hay fields
        Page 2
    Little yellow flowered legumes
        Page 2
    Warm season annual grasses and pasture renovation
        Page 3
    Peanut drying
        Page 3
    Peanut seed handling
        Page 3
    Price outlook for peanuts
        Page 4
    Price outlook for peanuts
        Page 4
    Price outlook for peanuts
        Page 4
    Price outlook for peanuts
        Page 4
    Tobacco quota buyout payments
        Page 5
    Control of wild radish at burndown
        Page 5
    Thistle control in pastures
        Page 5
    Cover crops for strip tillage
        Page 6
    Lime applicants to row crop land
        Page 6
    Nitrogen supplies
        Page 6
    Field crop production
        Page 7
Full Text







AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

March 2005


IN THIS ISSUE


CORN
Row Spacing and Plant Populations for Corn ...........

COTTON
Cotton Variety Selection ...........................

PASTURES
Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields ..................
Little Yellow Flowered Legumes ....................
Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture Renovation ...

PEANUTS
Peanut D trying ...................................
Peanut Seed Handling .............................
Price Outlook for Peanuts ..........................


TOBACCO
Assessments for Tobacco Buyout ...........
Lump-Sum Payments of Tobacco Buyout ....
Tax Implications of the Tobacco Buyout .....
Tobacco Quota Buyout Payments ..........

WEED CONTROL
Control of Wild Radish at Burdown ........
Thistle Control in Pastures ..............

MISCELLANEOUS
Cover Crops for Strip Tillage .............
Lime Applications to Row Crop Land .......
N itrogen Supplies .......................
Field Crop Production ....................


. . . . . ... 2


. . . . . ... 2


. . . . . ... 2
. . . . . ... 2
.3


. . . . . . . . .. 4
. . . . . . . . 4


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.










Row Spacing and Plant Populations for Corn

Corn is more susceptible to stress than many
crops since it has such a short pollination period
and that period should be as free of water stress
as possible. Many growers are interested in
looking at different row spacing and plant
population, but should consider what other
factors are limiting if irrigated corn is producing
only 140-160 bu/A. When yields get into the
190-220 bu/A range on a consistent basis fine
tuning the plant population and row spacing can
help boost yield. The higher the plant population
and the more narrow the row, the more stress
that will be encountered for water and nutrients
and standability.

DLW

Cotton Variety Selection

A high percentage of the Florida cotton crop will
be planted to a single variety in 2005. This
variety, DP&L 555 is susceptible to root knot
nematode and caution should be taken if cotton
is to be grown in fields where serious nematode
levels are known to exist. Rotation,
recommended nematicides, proper fertilization
and water, and more resistant varieties are a way
to overcome the effects of high nematode levels
in these fields.

DLW

Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields

The six soil-supplied nutrients required by plants
in the largest quantities are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Micronutrents,
iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron,
molybdenum, and chlorine, are also essential but
are used by the plant in very small amounts.
The soil can supply the plant with most, if not
all of these nutrients, but often the supply of one
or more of the nutrients is insufficient for
optimum growth.

Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer nutrient
used on grass pastures and hay fields. It is the
nutrient that is most likely to be deficient and


therefore the one that most often results in
increased forage production. Phosphorus may
be deficient in some areas, but some Florida
soils are high in native P. Also, some pasture
grasses (such as bahiagrass) may extract
sufficient P from the subsoil, even when the P
level in the surface soil is low. Potassium may
need to be added to some pastures, but in South
Fl., bahiagrass pastures on flatwoods that
receive 50 pounds of nitrogen or less per year
have shown little if any response to potassium
fertilization. Under intensive hay or silage
production, where nutrients are removed from
the land, annual applications of P and K are
needed. Where nutrients are being removed in
harvested forage (hay) potassium may reach
critically low levels, where not only plant
growth is reduced, but plants may die. This is
usually indicated by a thinning stand in
bermudagrass hay fields. Potassium can very
quickly become deficient; also calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, and some micronutrients
may eventually become deficient after several
years of cropping. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur,
and the micronutrients are seldom a problem in
pastures where considerable recycling of
nutrients occurs. (Source: Fl.Forage Handbook-
modified).

CGC

Little Yellow Flowered Legumes

At this time of year, small yellow flowered
legume plants can be seen growing along
sidewalks, ditches or in spots in open ungrazed
fields. They will volunteer in these areas year
after year. They are reseeding winter annuals
and are known as 1. Black Medic (Medicago
lupulina), 2. Large Hop Clover (Trifolium
campestre), 3. Small Hop Clover (Trifolium
dubium), and 4. Spotted or Southern Burclover.
They are all characterized by relatively low
yields and a short growing season. Therefore,
they are not usually intentionally planted in
pastures. If they appear, graze them quickly
before they disappear.

CGC










Row Spacing and Plant Populations for Corn

Corn is more susceptible to stress than many
crops since it has such a short pollination period
and that period should be as free of water stress
as possible. Many growers are interested in
looking at different row spacing and plant
population, but should consider what other
factors are limiting if irrigated corn is producing
only 140-160 bu/A. When yields get into the
190-220 bu/A range on a consistent basis fine
tuning the plant population and row spacing can
help boost yield. The higher the plant population
and the more narrow the row, the more stress
that will be encountered for water and nutrients
and standability.

DLW

Cotton Variety Selection

A high percentage of the Florida cotton crop will
be planted to a single variety in 2005. This
variety, DP&L 555 is susceptible to root knot
nematode and caution should be taken if cotton
is to be grown in fields where serious nematode
levels are known to exist. Rotation,
recommended nematicides, proper fertilization
and water, and more resistant varieties are a way
to overcome the effects of high nematode levels
in these fields.

DLW

Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields

The six soil-supplied nutrients required by plants
in the largest quantities are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Micronutrents,
iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron,
molybdenum, and chlorine, are also essential but
are used by the plant in very small amounts.
The soil can supply the plant with most, if not
all of these nutrients, but often the supply of one
or more of the nutrients is insufficient for
optimum growth.

Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer nutrient
used on grass pastures and hay fields. It is the
nutrient that is most likely to be deficient and


therefore the one that most often results in
increased forage production. Phosphorus may
be deficient in some areas, but some Florida
soils are high in native P. Also, some pasture
grasses (such as bahiagrass) may extract
sufficient P from the subsoil, even when the P
level in the surface soil is low. Potassium may
need to be added to some pastures, but in South
Fl., bahiagrass pastures on flatwoods that
receive 50 pounds of nitrogen or less per year
have shown little if any response to potassium
fertilization. Under intensive hay or silage
production, where nutrients are removed from
the land, annual applications of P and K are
needed. Where nutrients are being removed in
harvested forage (hay) potassium may reach
critically low levels, where not only plant
growth is reduced, but plants may die. This is
usually indicated by a thinning stand in
bermudagrass hay fields. Potassium can very
quickly become deficient; also calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, and some micronutrients
may eventually become deficient after several
years of cropping. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur,
and the micronutrients are seldom a problem in
pastures where considerable recycling of
nutrients occurs. (Source: Fl.Forage Handbook-
modified).

CGC

Little Yellow Flowered Legumes

At this time of year, small yellow flowered
legume plants can be seen growing along
sidewalks, ditches or in spots in open ungrazed
fields. They will volunteer in these areas year
after year. They are reseeding winter annuals
and are known as 1. Black Medic (Medicago
lupulina), 2. Large Hop Clover (Trifolium
campestre), 3. Small Hop Clover (Trifolium
dubium), and 4. Spotted or Southern Burclover.
They are all characterized by relatively low
yields and a short growing season. Therefore,
they are not usually intentionally planted in
pastures. If they appear, graze them quickly
before they disappear.

CGC










Row Spacing and Plant Populations for Corn

Corn is more susceptible to stress than many
crops since it has such a short pollination period
and that period should be as free of water stress
as possible. Many growers are interested in
looking at different row spacing and plant
population, but should consider what other
factors are limiting if irrigated corn is producing
only 140-160 bu/A. When yields get into the
190-220 bu/A range on a consistent basis fine
tuning the plant population and row spacing can
help boost yield. The higher the plant population
and the more narrow the row, the more stress
that will be encountered for water and nutrients
and standability.

DLW

Cotton Variety Selection

A high percentage of the Florida cotton crop will
be planted to a single variety in 2005. This
variety, DP&L 555 is susceptible to root knot
nematode and caution should be taken if cotton
is to be grown in fields where serious nematode
levels are known to exist. Rotation,
recommended nematicides, proper fertilization
and water, and more resistant varieties are a way
to overcome the effects of high nematode levels
in these fields.

DLW

Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields

The six soil-supplied nutrients required by plants
in the largest quantities are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Micronutrents,
iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron,
molybdenum, and chlorine, are also essential but
are used by the plant in very small amounts.
The soil can supply the plant with most, if not
all of these nutrients, but often the supply of one
or more of the nutrients is insufficient for
optimum growth.

Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer nutrient
used on grass pastures and hay fields. It is the
nutrient that is most likely to be deficient and


therefore the one that most often results in
increased forage production. Phosphorus may
be deficient in some areas, but some Florida
soils are high in native P. Also, some pasture
grasses (such as bahiagrass) may extract
sufficient P from the subsoil, even when the P
level in the surface soil is low. Potassium may
need to be added to some pastures, but in South
Fl., bahiagrass pastures on flatwoods that
receive 50 pounds of nitrogen or less per year
have shown little if any response to potassium
fertilization. Under intensive hay or silage
production, where nutrients are removed from
the land, annual applications of P and K are
needed. Where nutrients are being removed in
harvested forage (hay) potassium may reach
critically low levels, where not only plant
growth is reduced, but plants may die. This is
usually indicated by a thinning stand in
bermudagrass hay fields. Potassium can very
quickly become deficient; also calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, and some micronutrients
may eventually become deficient after several
years of cropping. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur,
and the micronutrients are seldom a problem in
pastures where considerable recycling of
nutrients occurs. (Source: Fl.Forage Handbook-
modified).

CGC

Little Yellow Flowered Legumes

At this time of year, small yellow flowered
legume plants can be seen growing along
sidewalks, ditches or in spots in open ungrazed
fields. They will volunteer in these areas year
after year. They are reseeding winter annuals
and are known as 1. Black Medic (Medicago
lupulina), 2. Large Hop Clover (Trifolium
campestre), 3. Small Hop Clover (Trifolium
dubium), and 4. Spotted or Southern Burclover.
They are all characterized by relatively low
yields and a short growing season. Therefore,
they are not usually intentionally planted in
pastures. If they appear, graze them quickly
before they disappear.

CGC










Row Spacing and Plant Populations for Corn

Corn is more susceptible to stress than many
crops since it has such a short pollination period
and that period should be as free of water stress
as possible. Many growers are interested in
looking at different row spacing and plant
population, but should consider what other
factors are limiting if irrigated corn is producing
only 140-160 bu/A. When yields get into the
190-220 bu/A range on a consistent basis fine
tuning the plant population and row spacing can
help boost yield. The higher the plant population
and the more narrow the row, the more stress
that will be encountered for water and nutrients
and standability.

DLW

Cotton Variety Selection

A high percentage of the Florida cotton crop will
be planted to a single variety in 2005. This
variety, DP&L 555 is susceptible to root knot
nematode and caution should be taken if cotton
is to be grown in fields where serious nematode
levels are known to exist. Rotation,
recommended nematicides, proper fertilization
and water, and more resistant varieties are a way
to overcome the effects of high nematode levels
in these fields.

DLW

Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields

The six soil-supplied nutrients required by plants
in the largest quantities are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Micronutrents,
iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron,
molybdenum, and chlorine, are also essential but
are used by the plant in very small amounts.
The soil can supply the plant with most, if not
all of these nutrients, but often the supply of one
or more of the nutrients is insufficient for
optimum growth.

Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer nutrient
used on grass pastures and hay fields. It is the
nutrient that is most likely to be deficient and


therefore the one that most often results in
increased forage production. Phosphorus may
be deficient in some areas, but some Florida
soils are high in native P. Also, some pasture
grasses (such as bahiagrass) may extract
sufficient P from the subsoil, even when the P
level in the surface soil is low. Potassium may
need to be added to some pastures, but in South
Fl., bahiagrass pastures on flatwoods that
receive 50 pounds of nitrogen or less per year
have shown little if any response to potassium
fertilization. Under intensive hay or silage
production, where nutrients are removed from
the land, annual applications of P and K are
needed. Where nutrients are being removed in
harvested forage (hay) potassium may reach
critically low levels, where not only plant
growth is reduced, but plants may die. This is
usually indicated by a thinning stand in
bermudagrass hay fields. Potassium can very
quickly become deficient; also calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, and some micronutrients
may eventually become deficient after several
years of cropping. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur,
and the micronutrients are seldom a problem in
pastures where considerable recycling of
nutrients occurs. (Source: Fl.Forage Handbook-
modified).

CGC

Little Yellow Flowered Legumes

At this time of year, small yellow flowered
legume plants can be seen growing along
sidewalks, ditches or in spots in open ungrazed
fields. They will volunteer in these areas year
after year. They are reseeding winter annuals
and are known as 1. Black Medic (Medicago
lupulina), 2. Large Hop Clover (Trifolium
campestre), 3. Small Hop Clover (Trifolium
dubium), and 4. Spotted or Southern Burclover.
They are all characterized by relatively low
yields and a short growing season. Therefore,
they are not usually intentionally planted in
pastures. If they appear, graze them quickly
before they disappear.

CGC










Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture
Renovation

The two most popular warm season annual
grasses are pearl millet and sorghum x
sudangrass. Both should be planted on sites that
have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass
will tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better
than pearl millet. Therefore, it may be the better
choice on some flatwoods sites. These grasses
should not be planted until the soil is warm. The
earliest planting date is usually mid March to
mid April.

When or where should these crops be used?
These crops can be useful in a pasture
renovation program. For instance, if you desire
to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as
Tifton-9 bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till
and plant the land to a summer annual grass or
some other crop for one or more seasons before
planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual grass
can be followed in the fall with a cool season
annual such as ryegrass or a small grain. The
Tifton-9 would then be planted in June
following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation
before each crop is planted. The multiple tillage
operations should eliminate most of the old
pasture grass and grass seed. This process
involves considerable expense; therefore, the
producer must make good use of the forage
produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during
hot weather and may be ready to graze in 35 to
40 days after planting. They are very productive
if fertilized properly and can provide high
quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals
such as developing heifers or stockers that
require a higher quality forage than that required
by mature animals. Also, be prepared to graze
rotationally. Remember, do not graze sorghum
x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller.
This is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning
problem that can occur in very young plants.
Prussic acid is not a problem in pearl millet.


One complaint about summer annuals is that
they can produce too much growth and will "get
away from you." They do require a high
stocking rate. When excess growth occurs,
move young animals to a fresh pasture and let
the mature cow herd clean up behind them.
Stems may need to be mowed after grazing.

CGC

Peanut Drying

Although it is several months until peanut
harvest, growers and particularly new growers,
should plan to have adequate facilities available
when they are needed. Buying points usually
have drying facilities and will dry the peanuts
for a charge. There are on-farm dryers available
in some locations. No matter where the drying
facilities are located, plan to get the peanuts on
the dryer as soon as possible after they are
combined. If drying is not started soon after
combining, the peanuts may start to heat up,
especially if the moisture content is high, and
could result in off flavors and undesirable
grades. The air capacity of the dryer should be
about 12 to 15 cubic feet per minute of air flow
per cubic foot of peanuts (cfm/ft3). If the dryer
was designed for 14-foot trailers, it would
probably be marginal or inadequate if 21-foot or
28-foot trailers are substituted. Be sure that the
dryers are adequate for your needs.

EBW

Peanut Seed Handling

Peanut seed are more fragile than many other
seed, which requires extra care during handling
to prevent loss of germination. When handling
the seed, do not drop or throw bags of seed into
the bed of trucks or storage bins, but rather lay
the bags down gently when loading or
unloading. For most growers, it would probably
be preferable to pick up the seed on the date they
are to be planted so that there would be reduced
handling and risk of damage. In addition, most
seed dealers can provide storage that protects
more against temperature and moisture extremes
than can be provided on the farm. Also be
gentle when pouring seed into the hoppers on










Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture
Renovation

The two most popular warm season annual
grasses are pearl millet and sorghum x
sudangrass. Both should be planted on sites that
have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass
will tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better
than pearl millet. Therefore, it may be the better
choice on some flatwoods sites. These grasses
should not be planted until the soil is warm. The
earliest planting date is usually mid March to
mid April.

When or where should these crops be used?
These crops can be useful in a pasture
renovation program. For instance, if you desire
to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as
Tifton-9 bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till
and plant the land to a summer annual grass or
some other crop for one or more seasons before
planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual grass
can be followed in the fall with a cool season
annual such as ryegrass or a small grain. The
Tifton-9 would then be planted in June
following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation
before each crop is planted. The multiple tillage
operations should eliminate most of the old
pasture grass and grass seed. This process
involves considerable expense; therefore, the
producer must make good use of the forage
produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during
hot weather and may be ready to graze in 35 to
40 days after planting. They are very productive
if fertilized properly and can provide high
quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals
such as developing heifers or stockers that
require a higher quality forage than that required
by mature animals. Also, be prepared to graze
rotationally. Remember, do not graze sorghum
x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller.
This is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning
problem that can occur in very young plants.
Prussic acid is not a problem in pearl millet.


One complaint about summer annuals is that
they can produce too much growth and will "get
away from you." They do require a high
stocking rate. When excess growth occurs,
move young animals to a fresh pasture and let
the mature cow herd clean up behind them.
Stems may need to be mowed after grazing.

CGC

Peanut Drying

Although it is several months until peanut
harvest, growers and particularly new growers,
should plan to have adequate facilities available
when they are needed. Buying points usually
have drying facilities and will dry the peanuts
for a charge. There are on-farm dryers available
in some locations. No matter where the drying
facilities are located, plan to get the peanuts on
the dryer as soon as possible after they are
combined. If drying is not started soon after
combining, the peanuts may start to heat up,
especially if the moisture content is high, and
could result in off flavors and undesirable
grades. The air capacity of the dryer should be
about 12 to 15 cubic feet per minute of air flow
per cubic foot of peanuts (cfm/ft3). If the dryer
was designed for 14-foot trailers, it would
probably be marginal or inadequate if 21-foot or
28-foot trailers are substituted. Be sure that the
dryers are adequate for your needs.

EBW

Peanut Seed Handling

Peanut seed are more fragile than many other
seed, which requires extra care during handling
to prevent loss of germination. When handling
the seed, do not drop or throw bags of seed into
the bed of trucks or storage bins, but rather lay
the bags down gently when loading or
unloading. For most growers, it would probably
be preferable to pick up the seed on the date they
are to be planted so that there would be reduced
handling and risk of damage. In addition, most
seed dealers can provide storage that protects
more against temperature and moisture extremes
than can be provided on the farm. Also be
gentle when pouring seed into the hoppers on










Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture
Renovation

The two most popular warm season annual
grasses are pearl millet and sorghum x
sudangrass. Both should be planted on sites that
have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass
will tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better
than pearl millet. Therefore, it may be the better
choice on some flatwoods sites. These grasses
should not be planted until the soil is warm. The
earliest planting date is usually mid March to
mid April.

When or where should these crops be used?
These crops can be useful in a pasture
renovation program. For instance, if you desire
to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as
Tifton-9 bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till
and plant the land to a summer annual grass or
some other crop for one or more seasons before
planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual grass
can be followed in the fall with a cool season
annual such as ryegrass or a small grain. The
Tifton-9 would then be planted in June
following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation
before each crop is planted. The multiple tillage
operations should eliminate most of the old
pasture grass and grass seed. This process
involves considerable expense; therefore, the
producer must make good use of the forage
produced from the annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during
hot weather and may be ready to graze in 35 to
40 days after planting. They are very productive
if fertilized properly and can provide high
quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals
such as developing heifers or stockers that
require a higher quality forage than that required
by mature animals. Also, be prepared to graze
rotationally. Remember, do not graze sorghum
x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller.
This is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning
problem that can occur in very young plants.
Prussic acid is not a problem in pearl millet.


One complaint about summer annuals is that
they can produce too much growth and will "get
away from you." They do require a high
stocking rate. When excess growth occurs,
move young animals to a fresh pasture and let
the mature cow herd clean up behind them.
Stems may need to be mowed after grazing.

CGC

Peanut Drying

Although it is several months until peanut
harvest, growers and particularly new growers,
should plan to have adequate facilities available
when they are needed. Buying points usually
have drying facilities and will dry the peanuts
for a charge. There are on-farm dryers available
in some locations. No matter where the drying
facilities are located, plan to get the peanuts on
the dryer as soon as possible after they are
combined. If drying is not started soon after
combining, the peanuts may start to heat up,
especially if the moisture content is high, and
could result in off flavors and undesirable
grades. The air capacity of the dryer should be
about 12 to 15 cubic feet per minute of air flow
per cubic foot of peanuts (cfm/ft3). If the dryer
was designed for 14-foot trailers, it would
probably be marginal or inadequate if 21-foot or
28-foot trailers are substituted. Be sure that the
dryers are adequate for your needs.

EBW

Peanut Seed Handling

Peanut seed are more fragile than many other
seed, which requires extra care during handling
to prevent loss of germination. When handling
the seed, do not drop or throw bags of seed into
the bed of trucks or storage bins, but rather lay
the bags down gently when loading or
unloading. For most growers, it would probably
be preferable to pick up the seed on the date they
are to be planted so that there would be reduced
handling and risk of damage. In addition, most
seed dealers can provide storage that protects
more against temperature and moisture extremes
than can be provided on the farm. Also be
gentle when pouring seed into the hoppers on










the planter, and be sure that the seed are not
injured during planting. Seed costs are a major
input in the expenses of growing peanuts, and
poor stands and replanting should be avoided if
at all possible.

EBW

Price Outlook for Peanuts

Both peanut production and consumption have
increased in recent years in the United States.
Unfortunately 2004 production has exceeded
consumption, resulting in estimates of lower
prices in 2005. Production estimates throughout
the 2005 season will influence prices.

EBW


The USDA published a rule on February 10
relating to assessments that will be used to make
buyout payments to quota holders and
producers. Domestic manufacturers and
importers of tobacco and tobacco products will
fund payments through assessments of
approximately $10 billion over the next ten
years. Those companies that are assessed are
those that are required to have a Department of
the Treasury permit to manufacture or import
tobacco products. Information on the volume of
tobacco and excise taxes paid, beginning in
October 2004 and continuing through December
2004, must be sent to the USDA's Commodity
Credit Corporation, which will then compute
each company's share of the first assessment,
which will be due by March 31, 2005.
Subsequent assessments will be adjusted
quarterly according to the market share volume,
and payments will be due at the end of each
quarter. Disbursements to quota owners and
growers, or designated financial institution will
be made annually over a ten-year period.

EBW

Lump-Sum Payments of Tobacco Buyout

The tobacco buyout legislation provided for
financial institutions to help carry out the


provisions of the buyout by allowing payments
to be assigned to them. The financial institution
would provide a lump-sum payment to the
grower and in exchange receive the annual
payments. The USDA entered into a contract
with Wachovia Corporation to conduct an
information campaign so that all potential
beneficiaries would be aware of the provisions
of this program. Letters will be sent to all quota
holders and producers, and there will be
magazine and newspaper ads, radio spots, and
television ads in rural and agricultural media,
and brochures will be made available. Town
hall meetings will be held in key locations. A
National Tobacco Call Center at 1-866-887-
0140 will be in place beginning on March 1, and
the Farm Service Agency web site at
www.fsa.usda.gov/tobacco will be available as a
source of information.


Tax Implications of the Tobacco Buyout

Tobacco buyout funds will be paid to owners of
quota as of October 22, 2004, and to farmers
that grew tobacco in the years 2002, 2003, and
2004. In many cases the Florida quota owner
and the farmer are the same person and would be
entitled to both payments. Both are to be paid
over a ten-year period. The payment to the
producer amounts to a total of $3 per pound and
this payment is considered to be ordinary
income. The payment for quota is considered to
be taxable as capital gains, which requires that
the recipient provide the cost basis for the quota.
Canceled checks that indicate the price paid and
amount of quota purchased would be highly
desirable. If such records are not available, the
quota owner will have to provide some
verifiable evidence of the value of quota when it
was obtained. The Farm Service Agency has
information as to when and how much quota
was transferred, but would not have any record
as to how much was paid for the quota. Quota
obtained through gift or inheritance would have
to be priced according to tax laws applicable to
gifts and inheritance. If land was purchased and
quota was obtained with the purchase, then an
examination of records of land sales, with and
without quota being included may provide an


Assessments for Tobacco Buyout


EBW










the planter, and be sure that the seed are not
injured during planting. Seed costs are a major
input in the expenses of growing peanuts, and
poor stands and replanting should be avoided if
at all possible.

EBW

Price Outlook for Peanuts

Both peanut production and consumption have
increased in recent years in the United States.
Unfortunately 2004 production has exceeded
consumption, resulting in estimates of lower
prices in 2005. Production estimates throughout
the 2005 season will influence prices.

EBW


The USDA published a rule on February 10
relating to assessments that will be used to make
buyout payments to quota holders and
producers. Domestic manufacturers and
importers of tobacco and tobacco products will
fund payments through assessments of
approximately $10 billion over the next ten
years. Those companies that are assessed are
those that are required to have a Department of
the Treasury permit to manufacture or import
tobacco products. Information on the volume of
tobacco and excise taxes paid, beginning in
October 2004 and continuing through December
2004, must be sent to the USDA's Commodity
Credit Corporation, which will then compute
each company's share of the first assessment,
which will be due by March 31, 2005.
Subsequent assessments will be adjusted
quarterly according to the market share volume,
and payments will be due at the end of each
quarter. Disbursements to quota owners and
growers, or designated financial institution will
be made annually over a ten-year period.

EBW

Lump-Sum Payments of Tobacco Buyout

The tobacco buyout legislation provided for
financial institutions to help carry out the


provisions of the buyout by allowing payments
to be assigned to them. The financial institution
would provide a lump-sum payment to the
grower and in exchange receive the annual
payments. The USDA entered into a contract
with Wachovia Corporation to conduct an
information campaign so that all potential
beneficiaries would be aware of the provisions
of this program. Letters will be sent to all quota
holders and producers, and there will be
magazine and newspaper ads, radio spots, and
television ads in rural and agricultural media,
and brochures will be made available. Town
hall meetings will be held in key locations. A
National Tobacco Call Center at 1-866-887-
0140 will be in place beginning on March 1, and
the Farm Service Agency web site at
www.fsa.usda.gov/tobacco will be available as a
source of information.


Tax Implications of the Tobacco Buyout

Tobacco buyout funds will be paid to owners of
quota as of October 22, 2004, and to farmers
that grew tobacco in the years 2002, 2003, and
2004. In many cases the Florida quota owner
and the farmer are the same person and would be
entitled to both payments. Both are to be paid
over a ten-year period. The payment to the
producer amounts to a total of $3 per pound and
this payment is considered to be ordinary
income. The payment for quota is considered to
be taxable as capital gains, which requires that
the recipient provide the cost basis for the quota.
Canceled checks that indicate the price paid and
amount of quota purchased would be highly
desirable. If such records are not available, the
quota owner will have to provide some
verifiable evidence of the value of quota when it
was obtained. The Farm Service Agency has
information as to when and how much quota
was transferred, but would not have any record
as to how much was paid for the quota. Quota
obtained through gift or inheritance would have
to be priced according to tax laws applicable to
gifts and inheritance. If land was purchased and
quota was obtained with the purchase, then an
examination of records of land sales, with and
without quota being included may provide an


Assessments for Tobacco Buyout


EBW










the planter, and be sure that the seed are not
injured during planting. Seed costs are a major
input in the expenses of growing peanuts, and
poor stands and replanting should be avoided if
at all possible.

EBW

Price Outlook for Peanuts

Both peanut production and consumption have
increased in recent years in the United States.
Unfortunately 2004 production has exceeded
consumption, resulting in estimates of lower
prices in 2005. Production estimates throughout
the 2005 season will influence prices.

EBW


The USDA published a rule on February 10
relating to assessments that will be used to make
buyout payments to quota holders and
producers. Domestic manufacturers and
importers of tobacco and tobacco products will
fund payments through assessments of
approximately $10 billion over the next ten
years. Those companies that are assessed are
those that are required to have a Department of
the Treasury permit to manufacture or import
tobacco products. Information on the volume of
tobacco and excise taxes paid, beginning in
October 2004 and continuing through December
2004, must be sent to the USDA's Commodity
Credit Corporation, which will then compute
each company's share of the first assessment,
which will be due by March 31, 2005.
Subsequent assessments will be adjusted
quarterly according to the market share volume,
and payments will be due at the end of each
quarter. Disbursements to quota owners and
growers, or designated financial institution will
be made annually over a ten-year period.

EBW

Lump-Sum Payments of Tobacco Buyout

The tobacco buyout legislation provided for
financial institutions to help carry out the


provisions of the buyout by allowing payments
to be assigned to them. The financial institution
would provide a lump-sum payment to the
grower and in exchange receive the annual
payments. The USDA entered into a contract
with Wachovia Corporation to conduct an
information campaign so that all potential
beneficiaries would be aware of the provisions
of this program. Letters will be sent to all quota
holders and producers, and there will be
magazine and newspaper ads, radio spots, and
television ads in rural and agricultural media,
and brochures will be made available. Town
hall meetings will be held in key locations. A
National Tobacco Call Center at 1-866-887-
0140 will be in place beginning on March 1, and
the Farm Service Agency web site at
www.fsa.usda.gov/tobacco will be available as a
source of information.


Tax Implications of the Tobacco Buyout

Tobacco buyout funds will be paid to owners of
quota as of October 22, 2004, and to farmers
that grew tobacco in the years 2002, 2003, and
2004. In many cases the Florida quota owner
and the farmer are the same person and would be
entitled to both payments. Both are to be paid
over a ten-year period. The payment to the
producer amounts to a total of $3 per pound and
this payment is considered to be ordinary
income. The payment for quota is considered to
be taxable as capital gains, which requires that
the recipient provide the cost basis for the quota.
Canceled checks that indicate the price paid and
amount of quota purchased would be highly
desirable. If such records are not available, the
quota owner will have to provide some
verifiable evidence of the value of quota when it
was obtained. The Farm Service Agency has
information as to when and how much quota
was transferred, but would not have any record
as to how much was paid for the quota. Quota
obtained through gift or inheritance would have
to be priced according to tax laws applicable to
gifts and inheritance. If land was purchased and
quota was obtained with the purchase, then an
examination of records of land sales, with and
without quota being included may provide an


Assessments for Tobacco Buyout


EBW










the planter, and be sure that the seed are not
injured during planting. Seed costs are a major
input in the expenses of growing peanuts, and
poor stands and replanting should be avoided if
at all possible.

EBW

Price Outlook for Peanuts

Both peanut production and consumption have
increased in recent years in the United States.
Unfortunately 2004 production has exceeded
consumption, resulting in estimates of lower
prices in 2005. Production estimates throughout
the 2005 season will influence prices.

EBW


The USDA published a rule on February 10
relating to assessments that will be used to make
buyout payments to quota holders and
producers. Domestic manufacturers and
importers of tobacco and tobacco products will
fund payments through assessments of
approximately $10 billion over the next ten
years. Those companies that are assessed are
those that are required to have a Department of
the Treasury permit to manufacture or import
tobacco products. Information on the volume of
tobacco and excise taxes paid, beginning in
October 2004 and continuing through December
2004, must be sent to the USDA's Commodity
Credit Corporation, which will then compute
each company's share of the first assessment,
which will be due by March 31, 2005.
Subsequent assessments will be adjusted
quarterly according to the market share volume,
and payments will be due at the end of each
quarter. Disbursements to quota owners and
growers, or designated financial institution will
be made annually over a ten-year period.

EBW

Lump-Sum Payments of Tobacco Buyout

The tobacco buyout legislation provided for
financial institutions to help carry out the


provisions of the buyout by allowing payments
to be assigned to them. The financial institution
would provide a lump-sum payment to the
grower and in exchange receive the annual
payments. The USDA entered into a contract
with Wachovia Corporation to conduct an
information campaign so that all potential
beneficiaries would be aware of the provisions
of this program. Letters will be sent to all quota
holders and producers, and there will be
magazine and newspaper ads, radio spots, and
television ads in rural and agricultural media,
and brochures will be made available. Town
hall meetings will be held in key locations. A
National Tobacco Call Center at 1-866-887-
0140 will be in place beginning on March 1, and
the Farm Service Agency web site at
www.fsa.usda.gov/tobacco will be available as a
source of information.


Tax Implications of the Tobacco Buyout

Tobacco buyout funds will be paid to owners of
quota as of October 22, 2004, and to farmers
that grew tobacco in the years 2002, 2003, and
2004. In many cases the Florida quota owner
and the farmer are the same person and would be
entitled to both payments. Both are to be paid
over a ten-year period. The payment to the
producer amounts to a total of $3 per pound and
this payment is considered to be ordinary
income. The payment for quota is considered to
be taxable as capital gains, which requires that
the recipient provide the cost basis for the quota.
Canceled checks that indicate the price paid and
amount of quota purchased would be highly
desirable. If such records are not available, the
quota owner will have to provide some
verifiable evidence of the value of quota when it
was obtained. The Farm Service Agency has
information as to when and how much quota
was transferred, but would not have any record
as to how much was paid for the quota. Quota
obtained through gift or inheritance would have
to be priced according to tax laws applicable to
gifts and inheritance. If land was purchased and
quota was obtained with the purchase, then an
examination of records of land sales, with and
without quota being included may provide an


Assessments for Tobacco Buyout


EBW










acceptable estimate of the value of the quota
when it was obtained. Keep in mind that the
value of quota varied among counties and years,
so any estimates must take these variations into
account.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Payments

The USDA has announced that the sign-up for
Tobacco Transition Payment Program will begin
March 14 and extend through June 17, 2005.
These payments will be made to quota owners as
of October 22, 2004. The payment rate will be
$7 per pound of the basic quota level. Producers
that shared in the risk of producing tobacco in
the 2002, 2003, and 2004 will be eligible to
share in payments at the rate of $3 per pound of
the basic quota level. Prior to the sign-up, all
known quota holders and/or producers will
receive a letter providing information on the
records of the basic quota levels. If there are
errors, verifiable information should be provided
at sign-up. The regulations concerning
payments will be made available in March.
Growers with interests in farms in more than one
county would need to contact the appropriate
USDA Service Centers. Florida residents that
have interests in tobacco quota in other states
would need to contact the appropriate Service
Center for the county and state. A recent USDA
fact sheet on the Tobacco Transition Payment
program is available at
http://www.fsa.usda.gov/pas/publications/facts/h
tml/ttpp05.htm and provides additional
information.

EBW

Control of Wild Radish at Burndown

Wild radish, cutleafevening primrose, and
horseweed are three commonly occurring weeds
in cotton and peanut production. One reason
that these weeds are problematic is that
glyphosate (Roundup, Touchdown, and others)
is not highly effective on these species.
Therefore, other herbicides need to be added to
the burdown program for broad-spectrum
control.


Generally, 1 pt of 2,4-D applied in February or
March will provide excellent control of these
weeds at a very low cost. Late winter
applications of 2,4-D is attractive for two
reasons: 1) greater levels of control will be
obtained if weeds are small (not blooming), and
2) this allows sufficient time for the herbicide to
dissipate from the soil prior to planting cotton.
However, the warm winter we have experienced
has allowed wild radish to grow extremely large
and begin flowering much earlier than usual.
Considering that glyphosate alone will not
provide adequate control of wild radish, other
steps should be taken.

Considering the size and growth stage of wild
radish this season, application rates of 1.5 to 2
pt/A may be required. 2,4-D applied at 2 pt/A
will likely provide 75% control of blooming
wild radish. Although the plants may not
completely die, seed production will be greatly
reduced (or eliminated) and the plants will be
weakened to the point that glyphosate applied at
planting should totally control the remaining
plants.

It must be noted that cotton is extremely
sensitive to 2,4-D. The 2,4-D label states that
planting of cotton must be delayed for 90 days
after 2,4-D application, or until the herbicide has
dissipated from the soil. It has been our
experience that delaying planting for 21 to 30
days after application is sufficient to allow
dissipation of 1 pt of 2,4-D. Therefore, a 2 pt/A
rate will likely require waiting to plant for close
to 45 to 60 days after application. The longer
you wait, the less likely cotton will be injured by
the 2,4-D. Therefore, 2,4-D should be applied
as soon as possible in order to achieve maximum
control of wild radish and the least amount of
risk of cotton injury.

JAF

Thistle Control in Pastures

The number of thistle species in Florida is
astounding and includes those such as tall
thistle, Leconte's thistle, swamp thistle, Nuttal's
thistle, Virginia thistle, and purple thistle,
among others. According to the USDA plants










acceptable estimate of the value of the quota
when it was obtained. Keep in mind that the
value of quota varied among counties and years,
so any estimates must take these variations into
account.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Payments

The USDA has announced that the sign-up for
Tobacco Transition Payment Program will begin
March 14 and extend through June 17, 2005.
These payments will be made to quota owners as
of October 22, 2004. The payment rate will be
$7 per pound of the basic quota level. Producers
that shared in the risk of producing tobacco in
the 2002, 2003, and 2004 will be eligible to
share in payments at the rate of $3 per pound of
the basic quota level. Prior to the sign-up, all
known quota holders and/or producers will
receive a letter providing information on the
records of the basic quota levels. If there are
errors, verifiable information should be provided
at sign-up. The regulations concerning
payments will be made available in March.
Growers with interests in farms in more than one
county would need to contact the appropriate
USDA Service Centers. Florida residents that
have interests in tobacco quota in other states
would need to contact the appropriate Service
Center for the county and state. A recent USDA
fact sheet on the Tobacco Transition Payment
program is available at
http://www.fsa.usda.gov/pas/publications/facts/h
tml/ttpp05.htm and provides additional
information.

EBW

Control of Wild Radish at Burndown

Wild radish, cutleafevening primrose, and
horseweed are three commonly occurring weeds
in cotton and peanut production. One reason
that these weeds are problematic is that
glyphosate (Roundup, Touchdown, and others)
is not highly effective on these species.
Therefore, other herbicides need to be added to
the burdown program for broad-spectrum
control.


Generally, 1 pt of 2,4-D applied in February or
March will provide excellent control of these
weeds at a very low cost. Late winter
applications of 2,4-D is attractive for two
reasons: 1) greater levels of control will be
obtained if weeds are small (not blooming), and
2) this allows sufficient time for the herbicide to
dissipate from the soil prior to planting cotton.
However, the warm winter we have experienced
has allowed wild radish to grow extremely large
and begin flowering much earlier than usual.
Considering that glyphosate alone will not
provide adequate control of wild radish, other
steps should be taken.

Considering the size and growth stage of wild
radish this season, application rates of 1.5 to 2
pt/A may be required. 2,4-D applied at 2 pt/A
will likely provide 75% control of blooming
wild radish. Although the plants may not
completely die, seed production will be greatly
reduced (or eliminated) and the plants will be
weakened to the point that glyphosate applied at
planting should totally control the remaining
plants.

It must be noted that cotton is extremely
sensitive to 2,4-D. The 2,4-D label states that
planting of cotton must be delayed for 90 days
after 2,4-D application, or until the herbicide has
dissipated from the soil. It has been our
experience that delaying planting for 21 to 30
days after application is sufficient to allow
dissipation of 1 pt of 2,4-D. Therefore, a 2 pt/A
rate will likely require waiting to plant for close
to 45 to 60 days after application. The longer
you wait, the less likely cotton will be injured by
the 2,4-D. Therefore, 2,4-D should be applied
as soon as possible in order to achieve maximum
control of wild radish and the least amount of
risk of cotton injury.

JAF

Thistle Control in Pastures

The number of thistle species in Florida is
astounding and includes those such as tall
thistle, Leconte's thistle, swamp thistle, Nuttal's
thistle, Virginia thistle, and purple thistle,
among others. According to the USDA plants










acceptable estimate of the value of the quota
when it was obtained. Keep in mind that the
value of quota varied among counties and years,
so any estimates must take these variations into
account.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Payments

The USDA has announced that the sign-up for
Tobacco Transition Payment Program will begin
March 14 and extend through June 17, 2005.
These payments will be made to quota owners as
of October 22, 2004. The payment rate will be
$7 per pound of the basic quota level. Producers
that shared in the risk of producing tobacco in
the 2002, 2003, and 2004 will be eligible to
share in payments at the rate of $3 per pound of
the basic quota level. Prior to the sign-up, all
known quota holders and/or producers will
receive a letter providing information on the
records of the basic quota levels. If there are
errors, verifiable information should be provided
at sign-up. The regulations concerning
payments will be made available in March.
Growers with interests in farms in more than one
county would need to contact the appropriate
USDA Service Centers. Florida residents that
have interests in tobacco quota in other states
would need to contact the appropriate Service
Center for the county and state. A recent USDA
fact sheet on the Tobacco Transition Payment
program is available at
http://www.fsa.usda.gov/pas/publications/facts/h
tml/ttpp05.htm and provides additional
information.

EBW

Control of Wild Radish at Burndown

Wild radish, cutleafevening primrose, and
horseweed are three commonly occurring weeds
in cotton and peanut production. One reason
that these weeds are problematic is that
glyphosate (Roundup, Touchdown, and others)
is not highly effective on these species.
Therefore, other herbicides need to be added to
the burdown program for broad-spectrum
control.


Generally, 1 pt of 2,4-D applied in February or
March will provide excellent control of these
weeds at a very low cost. Late winter
applications of 2,4-D is attractive for two
reasons: 1) greater levels of control will be
obtained if weeds are small (not blooming), and
2) this allows sufficient time for the herbicide to
dissipate from the soil prior to planting cotton.
However, the warm winter we have experienced
has allowed wild radish to grow extremely large
and begin flowering much earlier than usual.
Considering that glyphosate alone will not
provide adequate control of wild radish, other
steps should be taken.

Considering the size and growth stage of wild
radish this season, application rates of 1.5 to 2
pt/A may be required. 2,4-D applied at 2 pt/A
will likely provide 75% control of blooming
wild radish. Although the plants may not
completely die, seed production will be greatly
reduced (or eliminated) and the plants will be
weakened to the point that glyphosate applied at
planting should totally control the remaining
plants.

It must be noted that cotton is extremely
sensitive to 2,4-D. The 2,4-D label states that
planting of cotton must be delayed for 90 days
after 2,4-D application, or until the herbicide has
dissipated from the soil. It has been our
experience that delaying planting for 21 to 30
days after application is sufficient to allow
dissipation of 1 pt of 2,4-D. Therefore, a 2 pt/A
rate will likely require waiting to plant for close
to 45 to 60 days after application. The longer
you wait, the less likely cotton will be injured by
the 2,4-D. Therefore, 2,4-D should be applied
as soon as possible in order to achieve maximum
control of wild radish and the least amount of
risk of cotton injury.

JAF

Thistle Control in Pastures

The number of thistle species in Florida is
astounding and includes those such as tall
thistle, Leconte's thistle, swamp thistle, Nuttal's
thistle, Virginia thistle, and purple thistle,
among others. According to the USDA plants










database, purple thistle is the most widespread
thistle in Florida, being present in nearly all
counties of the state. Thankfully, all of these
thistles are biennials and not perennials.
Biennial thistles emerge and grow as a whorl of
leaves ("rosette") near the soil surface during the
first year. During the second year, the stem
bolts, or elongates, and the plant reproduces by
seed. In rare instances, biennial thistles have
been observed to germinate and flower during
the same year.

Optimum control of most biennial thistle species
is obtained by treating the plant with herbicides
prior to bolting in late fall or early spring. Once
rosettes begin to bolt, control with herbicides is
greatly reduced. Any herbicide product
containing 2,4-D and/or dicamba usually
provides excellent control of thistles when they
are in the rosette growth stage. Weedmaster at
1.0 to 2.0 quarts per acre when temperatures are
greater than 50F is a good option for thistle
control. Control of small rosettes (< 6 inches in
diameter) can be obtained using 1.0 quart per
acre of Weedmaster, but increase the rate to at
least 1.5 quarts per acre if rosettes are large.
Growing conditions should also be considered as
actively growing rosettes will be easier to
control than those that are stressed from dry
weather. Consider adding crop oil concentrate
to Weedmaster as it will enhance thistle control.
Currently, we are in the time of year where
control options for biennial thistles should be
implemented.

BAS


Cover Crops for Strip Tillage

Early February is a good time to apply nitrogen
fertilizer to cover crops along with 2,4-D to kill
winter broadleaf weeds and stimulate small grain
or ryegrass cover crops. About 30-40 lbs/A of
nitrogen will stimulate grass growth and shade
further development of weeds. Grasses without
weeds are easier to kill with materials like
Roundup 3-4 weeks ahead of planting and result
in covers that are 2-3 feet tall to strip till into.

DLW

Lime Applications to Row Crop Land

If lime has not been applied to row crop land
prior to this time of the year, apply in needed
amounts to allow it to start reacting with the soil
for crops to be planted later in the spring. Many
other nutrients have better uptake by the crop
when the pH is in the 5.8 to 6.2 range.

DLW

Nitrogen Supplies

From all indications, nitrogen may be in short
supply and cost more than in previous seasons.
High natural gas prices and competition have
resulted in higher nitrogen prices and hauling
costs are higher too. Many fertilizer suppliers
have waited for nitrogen prices to come down
before filling tanks and warehouses. It would be
a good idea to ensure that you have adequate
nitrogen supplies for your crops early this year.

DLW










database, purple thistle is the most widespread
thistle in Florida, being present in nearly all
counties of the state. Thankfully, all of these
thistles are biennials and not perennials.
Biennial thistles emerge and grow as a whorl of
leaves ("rosette") near the soil surface during the
first year. During the second year, the stem
bolts, or elongates, and the plant reproduces by
seed. In rare instances, biennial thistles have
been observed to germinate and flower during
the same year.

Optimum control of most biennial thistle species
is obtained by treating the plant with herbicides
prior to bolting in late fall or early spring. Once
rosettes begin to bolt, control with herbicides is
greatly reduced. Any herbicide product
containing 2,4-D and/or dicamba usually
provides excellent control of thistles when they
are in the rosette growth stage. Weedmaster at
1.0 to 2.0 quarts per acre when temperatures are
greater than 50F is a good option for thistle
control. Control of small rosettes (< 6 inches in
diameter) can be obtained using 1.0 quart per
acre of Weedmaster, but increase the rate to at
least 1.5 quarts per acre if rosettes are large.
Growing conditions should also be considered as
actively growing rosettes will be easier to
control than those that are stressed from dry
weather. Consider adding crop oil concentrate
to Weedmaster as it will enhance thistle control.
Currently, we are in the time of year where
control options for biennial thistles should be
implemented.

BAS


Cover Crops for Strip Tillage

Early February is a good time to apply nitrogen
fertilizer to cover crops along with 2,4-D to kill
winter broadleaf weeds and stimulate small grain
or ryegrass cover crops. About 30-40 lbs/A of
nitrogen will stimulate grass growth and shade
further development of weeds. Grasses without
weeds are easier to kill with materials like
Roundup 3-4 weeks ahead of planting and result
in covers that are 2-3 feet tall to strip till into.

DLW

Lime Applications to Row Crop Land

If lime has not been applied to row crop land
prior to this time of the year, apply in needed
amounts to allow it to start reacting with the soil
for crops to be planted later in the spring. Many
other nutrients have better uptake by the crop
when the pH is in the 5.8 to 6.2 range.

DLW

Nitrogen Supplies

From all indications, nitrogen may be in short
supply and cost more than in previous seasons.
High natural gas prices and competition have
resulted in higher nitrogen prices and hauling
costs are higher too. Many fertilizer suppliers
have waited for nitrogen prices to come down
before filling tanks and warehouses. It would be
a good idea to ensure that you have adequate
nitrogen supplies for your crops early this year.

DLW










database, purple thistle is the most widespread
thistle in Florida, being present in nearly all
counties of the state. Thankfully, all of these
thistles are biennials and not perennials.
Biennial thistles emerge and grow as a whorl of
leaves ("rosette") near the soil surface during the
first year. During the second year, the stem
bolts, or elongates, and the plant reproduces by
seed. In rare instances, biennial thistles have
been observed to germinate and flower during
the same year.

Optimum control of most biennial thistle species
is obtained by treating the plant with herbicides
prior to bolting in late fall or early spring. Once
rosettes begin to bolt, control with herbicides is
greatly reduced. Any herbicide product
containing 2,4-D and/or dicamba usually
provides excellent control of thistles when they
are in the rosette growth stage. Weedmaster at
1.0 to 2.0 quarts per acre when temperatures are
greater than 50F is a good option for thistle
control. Control of small rosettes (< 6 inches in
diameter) can be obtained using 1.0 quart per
acre of Weedmaster, but increase the rate to at
least 1.5 quarts per acre if rosettes are large.
Growing conditions should also be considered as
actively growing rosettes will be easier to
control than those that are stressed from dry
weather. Consider adding crop oil concentrate
to Weedmaster as it will enhance thistle control.
Currently, we are in the time of year where
control options for biennial thistles should be
implemented.

BAS


Cover Crops for Strip Tillage

Early February is a good time to apply nitrogen
fertilizer to cover crops along with 2,4-D to kill
winter broadleaf weeds and stimulate small grain
or ryegrass cover crops. About 30-40 lbs/A of
nitrogen will stimulate grass growth and shade
further development of weeds. Grasses without
weeds are easier to kill with materials like
Roundup 3-4 weeks ahead of planting and result
in covers that are 2-3 feet tall to strip till into.

DLW

Lime Applications to Row Crop Land

If lime has not been applied to row crop land
prior to this time of the year, apply in needed
amounts to allow it to start reacting with the soil
for crops to be planted later in the spring. Many
other nutrients have better uptake by the crop
when the pH is in the 5.8 to 6.2 range.

DLW

Nitrogen Supplies

From all indications, nitrogen may be in short
supply and cost more than in previous seasons.
High natural gas prices and competition have
resulted in higher nitrogen prices and hauling
costs are higher too. Many fertilizer suppliers
have waited for nitrogen prices to come down
before filling tanks and warehouses. It would be
a good idea to ensure that you have adequate
nitrogen supplies for your crops early this year.

DLW










Field Crop Production


The USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service recently released the following estimates of the
value of field crops produced in Florida and the United States for 2004:


Average Price Value of Production
($ per unit) (x1000 dollars)

Crop Florida United States Florida United States

Corn for grain 2.25 bu 1.95 bu 6,480 23,032,795

Wheat, all 3.40 bu 3.38 bu 2,295 7,191,798

Soybeans 5.30 bu 5.10 bu 3,063 16,098,170

Peanuts .187 lb .196 lb 68,068 834,380

Cottonseed 86 ton 105 ton 2,666 874,280

Cotton, all .432 lb .480 lb 19,699 5,299,559

Hay, all 90 ton 89.70 ton 58,500 12,197,354

Tobacco, all 1.849 lb 1.984 lb 18,120 1,752,201

Sugarcane, sugar and seed (2003) 31.90 ton 29.50 ton 544,669 998,269


EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist, Brent A. Sellers,
Extension Agronomist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist, D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.