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 Table of Contents
 Corn seed supplies
 Cotton use and export in the...
 Perennial grass followed by corn...
 Expanded peanut production
 Inoculants for peanuts
 Phase II tobacco payments
 Tobacco contracts
 Tobacco cooperative proposal
 Proper liming of soils
 Role of ammonium sulfate with glyphosate...
 December crop report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00053
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: January 2005
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00053

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Corn seed supplies
        Page 2
    Cotton use and export in the U.S.
        Page 2
    Perennial grass followed by corn and other grass crops
        Page 2
    Expanded peanut production
        Page 2
    Inoculants for peanuts
        Page 2
    Phase II tobacco payments
        Page 3
    Tobacco contracts
        Page 3
    Tobacco cooperative proposal
        Page 3
    Proper liming of soils
        Page 4
    Role of ammonium sulfate with glyphosate herbicides
        Page 4
    December crop report
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text





AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

January, 2005




IN THIS ISSUE

CORN
Corn Seed Supplies ................................................ 2

COTTON
Cotton Use and Export in the U.S. ................... .................. 2

FORAGE
Perennial Grasses Followed by Corn or Other Grass Crops ................. 2

PEANUTS
Expanded Peanut Production ..................................... .. 2
Inoculants for Peanuts .................................... .......... 2

TOBACCO
Phase II Tobacco Paym ents ........................................ 3
Tobacco Contracts ..................................... ........ 3
Tobacco Cooperative Proposal ....................................... 3

MISCELLANEOUS
Proper Liming of Soils ........................................... 4
Role of Ammonium Sulfate with Glyphosate Herbicides ................... 4
December Crop Report ............... ......................... 4





The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.









Corn Seed Supplies

Corn hybrids with the Roundup trait from all
of the companies appear to be in good
supply for the new year. However, it is
good to place orders early to ensure that you
are able to get the hybrids that you desire.
Plant diseases (rust and leaf blight) are one
of the main impediments to harvesting high
quality corn silage and grain. Severe
disease outbreak often results in corn dying
2-3 weeks ahead of maturity which affects
both yield and quality. A disease
susceptible hybrid may not be suitable for
silage if it is essentially killed 2-3 weeks
before a custom harvester gets to it.

DLW

Cotton Use and Export in the U.S.

Many of the cotton mills in the SE have
closed and moved over seas in the past 2-3
years. Cotton acreage has remained around
14-15 million acres in the U.S. for the past
10 years. In 1997 the U.S. consumed 11
million bales of cotton and exported about 6
million bales. In 2004, since the closing of
the mills, the U.S. consumes 6 million bales
of cotton and exports 12-13 million bales.
U.S. cotton is in the global markets and
being processed by mills overseas and
shipped back as finished products.
Presently, over 90% of the cotton clothes
bought in the U.S. are imported.

DLW

Perennial Grasses Followed by Corn or
Other Grass Crops

Grass sod crops are excellent for most crops
when used in rotation and higher yields are
normally expected for crops grown after
bahia or Bermudagrass. However, where


corn follows a sod crop at least 50 pounds of
additional nitrogen is needed to help
decompose the sod and extensive root
system. Florida research shows that yields
of corn can be depressed if extra nitrogen is
not used.

DLW

Expanded Peanut Production

It is expected that Florida's peanut acreage
will increase again in 2005 as current
growers expand and new growers enter
production. New buying points are opening
which will serve many of the new growers.
Prospective growers should carefully review
budgets on the cost of production to estimate
potential profits using current and projected
prices for peanuts. New growers often
produce high yields because they are
planting peanuts on land that has not been
used recently for peanuts, and therefore have
fewer disease problems. It is important for
growers to incorporate a crop rotation plan
that would prevent peanuts from being
planted on the same land no more than once
in four years. Good rotation crops for
peanuts would be non-legume plants such as
grass crops, which includes corn, as well as
bahiagrass and others. Cotton is another
good choice. The rotation crops should not
be susceptible to the peanut root-knot
nematode, white mold, the various pod-rot
organisms, and other diseases.

EBW

Inoculants for Peanuts

Being a legume, peanuts need nitrogen-
fixing bacteria to be present in the soil so
that nodules form on the roots and enable
the bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen into
a form that can be used by the peanut plant.









Corn Seed Supplies

Corn hybrids with the Roundup trait from all
of the companies appear to be in good
supply for the new year. However, it is
good to place orders early to ensure that you
are able to get the hybrids that you desire.
Plant diseases (rust and leaf blight) are one
of the main impediments to harvesting high
quality corn silage and grain. Severe
disease outbreak often results in corn dying
2-3 weeks ahead of maturity which affects
both yield and quality. A disease
susceptible hybrid may not be suitable for
silage if it is essentially killed 2-3 weeks
before a custom harvester gets to it.

DLW

Cotton Use and Export in the U.S.

Many of the cotton mills in the SE have
closed and moved over seas in the past 2-3
years. Cotton acreage has remained around
14-15 million acres in the U.S. for the past
10 years. In 1997 the U.S. consumed 11
million bales of cotton and exported about 6
million bales. In 2004, since the closing of
the mills, the U.S. consumes 6 million bales
of cotton and exports 12-13 million bales.
U.S. cotton is in the global markets and
being processed by mills overseas and
shipped back as finished products.
Presently, over 90% of the cotton clothes
bought in the U.S. are imported.

DLW

Perennial Grasses Followed by Corn or
Other Grass Crops

Grass sod crops are excellent for most crops
when used in rotation and higher yields are
normally expected for crops grown after
bahia or Bermudagrass. However, where


corn follows a sod crop at least 50 pounds of
additional nitrogen is needed to help
decompose the sod and extensive root
system. Florida research shows that yields
of corn can be depressed if extra nitrogen is
not used.

DLW

Expanded Peanut Production

It is expected that Florida's peanut acreage
will increase again in 2005 as current
growers expand and new growers enter
production. New buying points are opening
which will serve many of the new growers.
Prospective growers should carefully review
budgets on the cost of production to estimate
potential profits using current and projected
prices for peanuts. New growers often
produce high yields because they are
planting peanuts on land that has not been
used recently for peanuts, and therefore have
fewer disease problems. It is important for
growers to incorporate a crop rotation plan
that would prevent peanuts from being
planted on the same land no more than once
in four years. Good rotation crops for
peanuts would be non-legume plants such as
grass crops, which includes corn, as well as
bahiagrass and others. Cotton is another
good choice. The rotation crops should not
be susceptible to the peanut root-knot
nematode, white mold, the various pod-rot
organisms, and other diseases.

EBW

Inoculants for Peanuts

Being a legume, peanuts need nitrogen-
fixing bacteria to be present in the soil so
that nodules form on the roots and enable
the bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen into
a form that can be used by the peanut plant.









Corn Seed Supplies

Corn hybrids with the Roundup trait from all
of the companies appear to be in good
supply for the new year. However, it is
good to place orders early to ensure that you
are able to get the hybrids that you desire.
Plant diseases (rust and leaf blight) are one
of the main impediments to harvesting high
quality corn silage and grain. Severe
disease outbreak often results in corn dying
2-3 weeks ahead of maturity which affects
both yield and quality. A disease
susceptible hybrid may not be suitable for
silage if it is essentially killed 2-3 weeks
before a custom harvester gets to it.

DLW

Cotton Use and Export in the U.S.

Many of the cotton mills in the SE have
closed and moved over seas in the past 2-3
years. Cotton acreage has remained around
14-15 million acres in the U.S. for the past
10 years. In 1997 the U.S. consumed 11
million bales of cotton and exported about 6
million bales. In 2004, since the closing of
the mills, the U.S. consumes 6 million bales
of cotton and exports 12-13 million bales.
U.S. cotton is in the global markets and
being processed by mills overseas and
shipped back as finished products.
Presently, over 90% of the cotton clothes
bought in the U.S. are imported.

DLW

Perennial Grasses Followed by Corn or
Other Grass Crops

Grass sod crops are excellent for most crops
when used in rotation and higher yields are
normally expected for crops grown after
bahia or Bermudagrass. However, where


corn follows a sod crop at least 50 pounds of
additional nitrogen is needed to help
decompose the sod and extensive root
system. Florida research shows that yields
of corn can be depressed if extra nitrogen is
not used.

DLW

Expanded Peanut Production

It is expected that Florida's peanut acreage
will increase again in 2005 as current
growers expand and new growers enter
production. New buying points are opening
which will serve many of the new growers.
Prospective growers should carefully review
budgets on the cost of production to estimate
potential profits using current and projected
prices for peanuts. New growers often
produce high yields because they are
planting peanuts on land that has not been
used recently for peanuts, and therefore have
fewer disease problems. It is important for
growers to incorporate a crop rotation plan
that would prevent peanuts from being
planted on the same land no more than once
in four years. Good rotation crops for
peanuts would be non-legume plants such as
grass crops, which includes corn, as well as
bahiagrass and others. Cotton is another
good choice. The rotation crops should not
be susceptible to the peanut root-knot
nematode, white mold, the various pod-rot
organisms, and other diseases.

EBW

Inoculants for Peanuts

Being a legume, peanuts need nitrogen-
fixing bacteria to be present in the soil so
that nodules form on the roots and enable
the bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen into
a form that can be used by the peanut plant.









Corn Seed Supplies

Corn hybrids with the Roundup trait from all
of the companies appear to be in good
supply for the new year. However, it is
good to place orders early to ensure that you
are able to get the hybrids that you desire.
Plant diseases (rust and leaf blight) are one
of the main impediments to harvesting high
quality corn silage and grain. Severe
disease outbreak often results in corn dying
2-3 weeks ahead of maturity which affects
both yield and quality. A disease
susceptible hybrid may not be suitable for
silage if it is essentially killed 2-3 weeks
before a custom harvester gets to it.

DLW

Cotton Use and Export in the U.S.

Many of the cotton mills in the SE have
closed and moved over seas in the past 2-3
years. Cotton acreage has remained around
14-15 million acres in the U.S. for the past
10 years. In 1997 the U.S. consumed 11
million bales of cotton and exported about 6
million bales. In 2004, since the closing of
the mills, the U.S. consumes 6 million bales
of cotton and exports 12-13 million bales.
U.S. cotton is in the global markets and
being processed by mills overseas and
shipped back as finished products.
Presently, over 90% of the cotton clothes
bought in the U.S. are imported.

DLW

Perennial Grasses Followed by Corn or
Other Grass Crops

Grass sod crops are excellent for most crops
when used in rotation and higher yields are
normally expected for crops grown after
bahia or Bermudagrass. However, where


corn follows a sod crop at least 50 pounds of
additional nitrogen is needed to help
decompose the sod and extensive root
system. Florida research shows that yields
of corn can be depressed if extra nitrogen is
not used.

DLW

Expanded Peanut Production

It is expected that Florida's peanut acreage
will increase again in 2005 as current
growers expand and new growers enter
production. New buying points are opening
which will serve many of the new growers.
Prospective growers should carefully review
budgets on the cost of production to estimate
potential profits using current and projected
prices for peanuts. New growers often
produce high yields because they are
planting peanuts on land that has not been
used recently for peanuts, and therefore have
fewer disease problems. It is important for
growers to incorporate a crop rotation plan
that would prevent peanuts from being
planted on the same land no more than once
in four years. Good rotation crops for
peanuts would be non-legume plants such as
grass crops, which includes corn, as well as
bahiagrass and others. Cotton is another
good choice. The rotation crops should not
be susceptible to the peanut root-knot
nematode, white mold, the various pod-rot
organisms, and other diseases.

EBW

Inoculants for Peanuts

Being a legume, peanuts need nitrogen-
fixing bacteria to be present in the soil so
that nodules form on the roots and enable
the bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen into
a form that can be used by the peanut plant.









Corn Seed Supplies

Corn hybrids with the Roundup trait from all
of the companies appear to be in good
supply for the new year. However, it is
good to place orders early to ensure that you
are able to get the hybrids that you desire.
Plant diseases (rust and leaf blight) are one
of the main impediments to harvesting high
quality corn silage and grain. Severe
disease outbreak often results in corn dying
2-3 weeks ahead of maturity which affects
both yield and quality. A disease
susceptible hybrid may not be suitable for
silage if it is essentially killed 2-3 weeks
before a custom harvester gets to it.

DLW

Cotton Use and Export in the U.S.

Many of the cotton mills in the SE have
closed and moved over seas in the past 2-3
years. Cotton acreage has remained around
14-15 million acres in the U.S. for the past
10 years. In 1997 the U.S. consumed 11
million bales of cotton and exported about 6
million bales. In 2004, since the closing of
the mills, the U.S. consumes 6 million bales
of cotton and exports 12-13 million bales.
U.S. cotton is in the global markets and
being processed by mills overseas and
shipped back as finished products.
Presently, over 90% of the cotton clothes
bought in the U.S. are imported.

DLW

Perennial Grasses Followed by Corn or
Other Grass Crops

Grass sod crops are excellent for most crops
when used in rotation and higher yields are
normally expected for crops grown after
bahia or Bermudagrass. However, where


corn follows a sod crop at least 50 pounds of
additional nitrogen is needed to help
decompose the sod and extensive root
system. Florida research shows that yields
of corn can be depressed if extra nitrogen is
not used.

DLW

Expanded Peanut Production

It is expected that Florida's peanut acreage
will increase again in 2005 as current
growers expand and new growers enter
production. New buying points are opening
which will serve many of the new growers.
Prospective growers should carefully review
budgets on the cost of production to estimate
potential profits using current and projected
prices for peanuts. New growers often
produce high yields because they are
planting peanuts on land that has not been
used recently for peanuts, and therefore have
fewer disease problems. It is important for
growers to incorporate a crop rotation plan
that would prevent peanuts from being
planted on the same land no more than once
in four years. Good rotation crops for
peanuts would be non-legume plants such as
grass crops, which includes corn, as well as
bahiagrass and others. Cotton is another
good choice. The rotation crops should not
be susceptible to the peanut root-knot
nematode, white mold, the various pod-rot
organisms, and other diseases.

EBW

Inoculants for Peanuts

Being a legume, peanuts need nitrogen-
fixing bacteria to be present in the soil so
that nodules form on the roots and enable
the bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen into
a form that can be used by the peanut plant.









Use of nitrogen fertilizers to supply the
needed nutrient is considerably more
expensive than relying on bacteria. If the
bacteria are not present in the soil, they can
be added as an inoculant at planting, and are
available as a powder that can be mixed
with the seed, or as a granule or liquid that
is placed in the furrow as the seed are
planted. In general the in-furrow
applications are more suitable because
mixing the powder with the seed before
planting may not result in uniformity of
application, or damage to the seed coat may
occur in efforts to thoroughly mix the seed
with the powder inoculant. Mixing is also a
time-consuming effort. If the granule
applicator needs to be used to apply an in-
furrow insecticide, then a second set of
granule applicators would be needed to
apply the granular inoculant. In many cases,
the liquid formulation of inoculant may be
the best method of in-furrow application.
The liquid inoculant should be mixed with
enough water for uniform application in the
furrow as the seed are planted.

EBW

Phase II Tobacco Payments

A court suit developed after the tobacco
quota buyout in October when the tobacco
companies claimed that provisions of an
agreement they signed a few years ago to
contribute to a 12-year fund to pay tobacco
farmers for loss of income due to the master
settlement with the states would end if there
was a quota buyout. This fund was called
the Phase II as the master settlement was the
Phase I fund. Since the quota buyout was
enacted on October 22, they contend that
they are absolved from making the 2004
Phase II payments, which were expected to
be mailed to growers in late December. The
resulting case is being heard in North


Carolina and a decision is expected before
Christmas. It is likely that the decision will
be appealed by the loser in the case, which
means that the 2004 Phase II payments, if
there are any, would not be paid until well
into 2005 after the appeal has been heard
and a decision rendered.

EBW

Tobacco Contracts

Prices offered by the tobacco companies for
2005 production were less than expected by
farmers, resulting in a reluctance by many
growers to sign the contracts. If this
reluctance persists until the deadlines to sign
contracts expire, there may be a substantial
reduction in the amount of tobacco grown in
Florida in 2005 compared to previous years.
The tobacco quota buyout in October
resulted in the end of the federal tobacco
program, including the price support
provisions. As a result prices declined
nearer to world prices. Extensive use is
being made of budgets showing the cost of
production and expected returns in an effort
by the farmers to predict the likelihood
deriving a profit from growing tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Cooperative Proposal

The Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization
Corporation, a farmer-owned cooperative,
has proposed a buying program for tobacco.
If a farmer is interested, he would sign a
contract with the coop to deliver his tobacco
to them and at that time receive an advance
payment, which would be generally less
than average commercial contract prices.
The tobacco would be processed and stored,
and if sold at a later date for a price greater
than the advance payment, profits would be









Use of nitrogen fertilizers to supply the
needed nutrient is considerably more
expensive than relying on bacteria. If the
bacteria are not present in the soil, they can
be added as an inoculant at planting, and are
available as a powder that can be mixed
with the seed, or as a granule or liquid that
is placed in the furrow as the seed are
planted. In general the in-furrow
applications are more suitable because
mixing the powder with the seed before
planting may not result in uniformity of
application, or damage to the seed coat may
occur in efforts to thoroughly mix the seed
with the powder inoculant. Mixing is also a
time-consuming effort. If the granule
applicator needs to be used to apply an in-
furrow insecticide, then a second set of
granule applicators would be needed to
apply the granular inoculant. In many cases,
the liquid formulation of inoculant may be
the best method of in-furrow application.
The liquid inoculant should be mixed with
enough water for uniform application in the
furrow as the seed are planted.

EBW

Phase II Tobacco Payments

A court suit developed after the tobacco
quota buyout in October when the tobacco
companies claimed that provisions of an
agreement they signed a few years ago to
contribute to a 12-year fund to pay tobacco
farmers for loss of income due to the master
settlement with the states would end if there
was a quota buyout. This fund was called
the Phase II as the master settlement was the
Phase I fund. Since the quota buyout was
enacted on October 22, they contend that
they are absolved from making the 2004
Phase II payments, which were expected to
be mailed to growers in late December. The
resulting case is being heard in North


Carolina and a decision is expected before
Christmas. It is likely that the decision will
be appealed by the loser in the case, which
means that the 2004 Phase II payments, if
there are any, would not be paid until well
into 2005 after the appeal has been heard
and a decision rendered.

EBW

Tobacco Contracts

Prices offered by the tobacco companies for
2005 production were less than expected by
farmers, resulting in a reluctance by many
growers to sign the contracts. If this
reluctance persists until the deadlines to sign
contracts expire, there may be a substantial
reduction in the amount of tobacco grown in
Florida in 2005 compared to previous years.
The tobacco quota buyout in October
resulted in the end of the federal tobacco
program, including the price support
provisions. As a result prices declined
nearer to world prices. Extensive use is
being made of budgets showing the cost of
production and expected returns in an effort
by the farmers to predict the likelihood
deriving a profit from growing tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Cooperative Proposal

The Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization
Corporation, a farmer-owned cooperative,
has proposed a buying program for tobacco.
If a farmer is interested, he would sign a
contract with the coop to deliver his tobacco
to them and at that time receive an advance
payment, which would be generally less
than average commercial contract prices.
The tobacco would be processed and stored,
and if sold at a later date for a price greater
than the advance payment, profits would be









Use of nitrogen fertilizers to supply the
needed nutrient is considerably more
expensive than relying on bacteria. If the
bacteria are not present in the soil, they can
be added as an inoculant at planting, and are
available as a powder that can be mixed
with the seed, or as a granule or liquid that
is placed in the furrow as the seed are
planted. In general the in-furrow
applications are more suitable because
mixing the powder with the seed before
planting may not result in uniformity of
application, or damage to the seed coat may
occur in efforts to thoroughly mix the seed
with the powder inoculant. Mixing is also a
time-consuming effort. If the granule
applicator needs to be used to apply an in-
furrow insecticide, then a second set of
granule applicators would be needed to
apply the granular inoculant. In many cases,
the liquid formulation of inoculant may be
the best method of in-furrow application.
The liquid inoculant should be mixed with
enough water for uniform application in the
furrow as the seed are planted.

EBW

Phase II Tobacco Payments

A court suit developed after the tobacco
quota buyout in October when the tobacco
companies claimed that provisions of an
agreement they signed a few years ago to
contribute to a 12-year fund to pay tobacco
farmers for loss of income due to the master
settlement with the states would end if there
was a quota buyout. This fund was called
the Phase II as the master settlement was the
Phase I fund. Since the quota buyout was
enacted on October 22, they contend that
they are absolved from making the 2004
Phase II payments, which were expected to
be mailed to growers in late December. The
resulting case is being heard in North


Carolina and a decision is expected before
Christmas. It is likely that the decision will
be appealed by the loser in the case, which
means that the 2004 Phase II payments, if
there are any, would not be paid until well
into 2005 after the appeal has been heard
and a decision rendered.

EBW

Tobacco Contracts

Prices offered by the tobacco companies for
2005 production were less than expected by
farmers, resulting in a reluctance by many
growers to sign the contracts. If this
reluctance persists until the deadlines to sign
contracts expire, there may be a substantial
reduction in the amount of tobacco grown in
Florida in 2005 compared to previous years.
The tobacco quota buyout in October
resulted in the end of the federal tobacco
program, including the price support
provisions. As a result prices declined
nearer to world prices. Extensive use is
being made of budgets showing the cost of
production and expected returns in an effort
by the farmers to predict the likelihood
deriving a profit from growing tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Cooperative Proposal

The Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization
Corporation, a farmer-owned cooperative,
has proposed a buying program for tobacco.
If a farmer is interested, he would sign a
contract with the coop to deliver his tobacco
to them and at that time receive an advance
payment, which would be generally less
than average commercial contract prices.
The tobacco would be processed and stored,
and if sold at a later date for a price greater
than the advance payment, profits would be









distributed on a pro rata basis to the
participating growers. This proposal can be
reviewed at by
clicking on the proposal section. The
cooperative also plans to conduct auction
sales at marketing centers.

EBW

Proper Liming of Soils

This is a slow time of year for many of the
farm supply dealers and is a good time of
year to have lime applied to fields that need
it. It also allows time for the lime to react
with the soil to adjust pH for the summer
row crops. For those growers who use
minimum tillage and strip tillage, surface
applications are acceptable. We have long
term plots that have not been turned or had
lime incorporated for 28 years that are still
producing good yields of various crops. A
high calcium and phosphorus layer can
develop in the top 2-3 inches after many
years of surface applications of fertilizer and
lime.

DLW

Role of Ammonium Sulfate with
Glyphosate Herbicides

There are currently scores of glyphosate
containing herbicides on the market. These
products have different names, differing
amounts of active ingredient per gallon,
different formulations, and may or may not
need a surfactant added. However, all these
products recommend that ammonium sulfate
(AMS) be added to the spray tank. Why is
this?

Surfactants and crop oils are added to spray
mixtures in order to improve herbicide
retention and uptake by the leaf. AMS is


required for a much different reason.
Glyphosate is a weak acid herbicide that
possesses an overall negative charge. When
placed in water with high amounts of
positively charged ions like calcium or
magnesium (aka hard water), the glyphosate
rapidly binds to these ions and immediately
loses all herbicidal activity. In areas where
groundwater routinely registers high levels
of calcium (as in most of Florida), the
effectiveness of glyphosate can be greatly
reduced when mixed with hard water.
Additionally, all glyphosate formulations are
susceptible to antagonism by calcium and
magnesium.

However, adding AMS to the spray tank is
an easy and relatively inexpensive way to
remedy this problem. The AMS will
immediately begin reacting with the calcium
in the water and not allow for glyphosate
antagonism. It is important to note that the
AMS must be added to the spray mixture
before the glyphosate is added in order to
see the maximum benefit.

The amount of AMS required to reverse
calcium antagonism is totally dependent on
the amount of calcium and magnesium in
the water and these concentrations can vary
greatly with region. This is why the
glyphosate labels suggest adding between
4.5 to 17 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of
water. However, calculations have shown
that 8 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of
water should often be sufficient unless
extreme conditions occur.

JAF

December Crop Report

Cotton and sugarcane are the only
agronomic crops grown in Florida that are
estimated by the National Agricultural









distributed on a pro rata basis to the
participating growers. This proposal can be
reviewed at by
clicking on the proposal section. The
cooperative also plans to conduct auction
sales at marketing centers.

EBW

Proper Liming of Soils

This is a slow time of year for many of the
farm supply dealers and is a good time of
year to have lime applied to fields that need
it. It also allows time for the lime to react
with the soil to adjust pH for the summer
row crops. For those growers who use
minimum tillage and strip tillage, surface
applications are acceptable. We have long
term plots that have not been turned or had
lime incorporated for 28 years that are still
producing good yields of various crops. A
high calcium and phosphorus layer can
develop in the top 2-3 inches after many
years of surface applications of fertilizer and
lime.

DLW

Role of Ammonium Sulfate with
Glyphosate Herbicides

There are currently scores of glyphosate
containing herbicides on the market. These
products have different names, differing
amounts of active ingredient per gallon,
different formulations, and may or may not
need a surfactant added. However, all these
products recommend that ammonium sulfate
(AMS) be added to the spray tank. Why is
this?

Surfactants and crop oils are added to spray
mixtures in order to improve herbicide
retention and uptake by the leaf. AMS is


required for a much different reason.
Glyphosate is a weak acid herbicide that
possesses an overall negative charge. When
placed in water with high amounts of
positively charged ions like calcium or
magnesium (aka hard water), the glyphosate
rapidly binds to these ions and immediately
loses all herbicidal activity. In areas where
groundwater routinely registers high levels
of calcium (as in most of Florida), the
effectiveness of glyphosate can be greatly
reduced when mixed with hard water.
Additionally, all glyphosate formulations are
susceptible to antagonism by calcium and
magnesium.

However, adding AMS to the spray tank is
an easy and relatively inexpensive way to
remedy this problem. The AMS will
immediately begin reacting with the calcium
in the water and not allow for glyphosate
antagonism. It is important to note that the
AMS must be added to the spray mixture
before the glyphosate is added in order to
see the maximum benefit.

The amount of AMS required to reverse
calcium antagonism is totally dependent on
the amount of calcium and magnesium in
the water and these concentrations can vary
greatly with region. This is why the
glyphosate labels suggest adding between
4.5 to 17 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of
water. However, calculations have shown
that 8 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of
water should often be sufficient unless
extreme conditions occur.

JAF

December Crop Report

Cotton and sugarcane are the only
agronomic crops grown in Florida that are
estimated by the National Agricultural









distributed on a pro rata basis to the
participating growers. This proposal can be
reviewed at by
clicking on the proposal section. The
cooperative also plans to conduct auction
sales at marketing centers.

EBW

Proper Liming of Soils

This is a slow time of year for many of the
farm supply dealers and is a good time of
year to have lime applied to fields that need
it. It also allows time for the lime to react
with the soil to adjust pH for the summer
row crops. For those growers who use
minimum tillage and strip tillage, surface
applications are acceptable. We have long
term plots that have not been turned or had
lime incorporated for 28 years that are still
producing good yields of various crops. A
high calcium and phosphorus layer can
develop in the top 2-3 inches after many
years of surface applications of fertilizer and
lime.

DLW

Role of Ammonium Sulfate with
Glyphosate Herbicides

There are currently scores of glyphosate
containing herbicides on the market. These
products have different names, differing
amounts of active ingredient per gallon,
different formulations, and may or may not
need a surfactant added. However, all these
products recommend that ammonium sulfate
(AMS) be added to the spray tank. Why is
this?

Surfactants and crop oils are added to spray
mixtures in order to improve herbicide
retention and uptake by the leaf. AMS is


required for a much different reason.
Glyphosate is a weak acid herbicide that
possesses an overall negative charge. When
placed in water with high amounts of
positively charged ions like calcium or
magnesium (aka hard water), the glyphosate
rapidly binds to these ions and immediately
loses all herbicidal activity. In areas where
groundwater routinely registers high levels
of calcium (as in most of Florida), the
effectiveness of glyphosate can be greatly
reduced when mixed with hard water.
Additionally, all glyphosate formulations are
susceptible to antagonism by calcium and
magnesium.

However, adding AMS to the spray tank is
an easy and relatively inexpensive way to
remedy this problem. The AMS will
immediately begin reacting with the calcium
in the water and not allow for glyphosate
antagonism. It is important to note that the
AMS must be added to the spray mixture
before the glyphosate is added in order to
see the maximum benefit.

The amount of AMS required to reverse
calcium antagonism is totally dependent on
the amount of calcium and magnesium in
the water and these concentrations can vary
greatly with region. This is why the
glyphosate labels suggest adding between
4.5 to 17 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of
water. However, calculations have shown
that 8 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of
water should often be sufficient unless
extreme conditions occur.

JAF

December Crop Report

Cotton and sugarcane are the only
agronomic crops grown in Florida that are
estimated by the National Agricultural










Statistics Service for the December report.
Cotton yields were estimated to increase
over the November figures, which would be
even a greater record crop. The 22.8 million
bales that were estimated in December 2004
would be 25 percent above the 2003
production. Average yields are expected to
be 828 pounds per acre, which also would
be a record. The previous record was in
2003 at 730 pounds per acre. Florida cotton


yields and production are not estimated until
annual report in January. Sugarcane
production for sugar and seed was
estimated at 420,000 acres in Florida, with a
yield of 36 tons per acre. For the United
States, the estimates were for 31.6 tons per
acre on 961,400 acres.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist, G. E. MacDonald, Weed
Researcher, M. B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist, D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.