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 Table of Contents
 Cotton yields and yield potent...
 Forage testing
 Get ready to burn
 Get ready now to plant perennial...
 Overseeding warm season perennials...
 Pastures: should you spray...
 Should cover crops be used or should...
 National peanut referendum...
 Peanut yields
 Growing tobacco in 2005
 Tobacco market report
 Tobacco quota buyout
 October crop report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00051
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: November 2004
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00051

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Cotton yields and yield potential
        Page 2
    Forage testing
        Page 2
    Get ready to burn
        Page 2
    Get ready now to plant perennial peanut in February or March
        Page 3
    Overseeding warm season perennials with cool season annuals
        Page 3
    Pastures: should you spray in November?
        Page 4
    Should cover crops be used or should fields be kept clean with residual herbicides over the winter?
        Page 5
    National peanut referendum approved
        Page 5
    Peanut yields
        Page 5
    Growing tobacco in 2005
        Page 5
    Tobacco market report
        Page 6
    Tobacco quota buyout
        Page 6
    October crop report
        Page 6
        Page 7
Full Text






AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

November, 2004





IN THIS ISSUE

COTTON
Cotton Yields and Yield Potential ..................................... 2

FORAGE
F orage T testing .................................... .... ......... 2
Get Ready to Burn ............................................... 2
Get Ready Now to Plant Perennial Peanut in February or March ............. 3
Overseeding Warm Season Perennials with Cool Season Annuals ............ 3
Pastures: Should You Spray in November? .............................. 4
Should Cover Crops Be Used or Should Fields Be Kept
Clean With Residual Herbicides Over the Winter? ................. .... 5

PEANUTS
National Peanut Referendum Approved ............................... 5
Peanut Yields ................ ............................. 5

TOBACCO
Growing Tobacco in 2005 ............................... ... ..... 5
Tobacco Market Report ............................................ 6
Tobacco Quota Buyout ............................................ 6

MISCELLANEOUS
October Crop Report ............................................ 6



The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.









Cotton Yields and Yield Potential

This year has been tough for cotton growers
in the main cotton growing counties.
Hurricanes have blown cotton out of open
bolls and resulted in cotton being tangled
and hard to pick. However, the amount of
hardlock for the year is very similar to
average years, with about 30% of the bolls
being hardlocked and the cotton cannot be
picked and is knocked on the ground as the
picker passed through the field. Some fields
that are wetter have had as much as 50-60%
of the cotton hardlocked. Many growers
who have picked fields that averaged 1000
lbs/A of lint will still lose 300-500 lbs/A
from hardlock. Our research has shown
hardlock to be caused by Fusarium fungi
infecting blooms. While much of Florida
cotton has a potential of three bales or more
per acre, we end of harvesting a little over a
bale/acre each year. Fungicides applied
during bloom helps this problem but it has
not solved the entire problem. Additional
research with thrips is underway to
determine how they impact hardlock. Other
insects such as stinkbug can result in more
hardlock, but they can be controlled. With
Florida being one of the smallest cotton
growing states of the 15 states in the cotton
belt, hardlock results in a $20 million loss
each year in an average year like this and
may be more than double that in years such
as 2002.

DLW

Forage Testing

Due to the extended period of wet weather
this summer, hay harvests were delayed
allowing plants to become overly mature,
resulting in reduced nutritional value of the
hay. Much of this hay may need to be fed
with greater than normal amounts of protein


and energy supplements in order to meet the
nutritional needs of your livestock.

You may be interested in knowing the
nutritional content of your hay. The U. ofF.
IFAS Extension Service no longer tests hay,
but there are several good labs that can do
the job at a moderate cost. Consult the fact
sheet "Forage Testing" which can be found
at the web site,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA192 or pick up a
copy at the county extension office. This
fact sheet will provide information on how
to collect a sample, and where to send it, etc.
One of the popular labs is Dairy One which
has the following web site:
http://www.dairyone.com/Forage/services/F
orage/forage.htm.

Auburn University operates a forage testing
lab within their soil testing facility.
Information is available at this web site:
http://www.ag.auburn.edu/dept/ay/soiltest.ht
m.

CGC

Get Ready to Burn

Get ready now to bum bermudagrass hay
fields and pastures in order to reduce
spittlebug:
Due to the hurricanes, timely harvest was
delayed in many hay fields allowing for
build up of spittlebug and various diseases.
Spittlebug eggs and disease innoculum may
carry over the winter and affect next years
crop. Burning the hay field in early spring
at green up can reduce the amount of
spittlebug eggs and disease innoculum.

If you do not have experience with burning,
check with the local county forester or
others who have experience with or
knowledge of the proper methods to use. Be









Cotton Yields and Yield Potential

This year has been tough for cotton growers
in the main cotton growing counties.
Hurricanes have blown cotton out of open
bolls and resulted in cotton being tangled
and hard to pick. However, the amount of
hardlock for the year is very similar to
average years, with about 30% of the bolls
being hardlocked and the cotton cannot be
picked and is knocked on the ground as the
picker passed through the field. Some fields
that are wetter have had as much as 50-60%
of the cotton hardlocked. Many growers
who have picked fields that averaged 1000
lbs/A of lint will still lose 300-500 lbs/A
from hardlock. Our research has shown
hardlock to be caused by Fusarium fungi
infecting blooms. While much of Florida
cotton has a potential of three bales or more
per acre, we end of harvesting a little over a
bale/acre each year. Fungicides applied
during bloom helps this problem but it has
not solved the entire problem. Additional
research with thrips is underway to
determine how they impact hardlock. Other
insects such as stinkbug can result in more
hardlock, but they can be controlled. With
Florida being one of the smallest cotton
growing states of the 15 states in the cotton
belt, hardlock results in a $20 million loss
each year in an average year like this and
may be more than double that in years such
as 2002.

DLW

Forage Testing

Due to the extended period of wet weather
this summer, hay harvests were delayed
allowing plants to become overly mature,
resulting in reduced nutritional value of the
hay. Much of this hay may need to be fed
with greater than normal amounts of protein


and energy supplements in order to meet the
nutritional needs of your livestock.

You may be interested in knowing the
nutritional content of your hay. The U. ofF.
IFAS Extension Service no longer tests hay,
but there are several good labs that can do
the job at a moderate cost. Consult the fact
sheet "Forage Testing" which can be found
at the web site,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA192 or pick up a
copy at the county extension office. This
fact sheet will provide information on how
to collect a sample, and where to send it, etc.
One of the popular labs is Dairy One which
has the following web site:
http://www.dairyone.com/Forage/services/F
orage/forage.htm.

Auburn University operates a forage testing
lab within their soil testing facility.
Information is available at this web site:
http://www.ag.auburn.edu/dept/ay/soiltest.ht
m.

CGC

Get Ready to Burn

Get ready now to bum bermudagrass hay
fields and pastures in order to reduce
spittlebug:
Due to the hurricanes, timely harvest was
delayed in many hay fields allowing for
build up of spittlebug and various diseases.
Spittlebug eggs and disease innoculum may
carry over the winter and affect next years
crop. Burning the hay field in early spring
at green up can reduce the amount of
spittlebug eggs and disease innoculum.

If you do not have experience with burning,
check with the local county forester or
others who have experience with or
knowledge of the proper methods to use. Be









Cotton Yields and Yield Potential

This year has been tough for cotton growers
in the main cotton growing counties.
Hurricanes have blown cotton out of open
bolls and resulted in cotton being tangled
and hard to pick. However, the amount of
hardlock for the year is very similar to
average years, with about 30% of the bolls
being hardlocked and the cotton cannot be
picked and is knocked on the ground as the
picker passed through the field. Some fields
that are wetter have had as much as 50-60%
of the cotton hardlocked. Many growers
who have picked fields that averaged 1000
lbs/A of lint will still lose 300-500 lbs/A
from hardlock. Our research has shown
hardlock to be caused by Fusarium fungi
infecting blooms. While much of Florida
cotton has a potential of three bales or more
per acre, we end of harvesting a little over a
bale/acre each year. Fungicides applied
during bloom helps this problem but it has
not solved the entire problem. Additional
research with thrips is underway to
determine how they impact hardlock. Other
insects such as stinkbug can result in more
hardlock, but they can be controlled. With
Florida being one of the smallest cotton
growing states of the 15 states in the cotton
belt, hardlock results in a $20 million loss
each year in an average year like this and
may be more than double that in years such
as 2002.

DLW

Forage Testing

Due to the extended period of wet weather
this summer, hay harvests were delayed
allowing plants to become overly mature,
resulting in reduced nutritional value of the
hay. Much of this hay may need to be fed
with greater than normal amounts of protein


and energy supplements in order to meet the
nutritional needs of your livestock.

You may be interested in knowing the
nutritional content of your hay. The U. ofF.
IFAS Extension Service no longer tests hay,
but there are several good labs that can do
the job at a moderate cost. Consult the fact
sheet "Forage Testing" which can be found
at the web site,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA192 or pick up a
copy at the county extension office. This
fact sheet will provide information on how
to collect a sample, and where to send it, etc.
One of the popular labs is Dairy One which
has the following web site:
http://www.dairyone.com/Forage/services/F
orage/forage.htm.

Auburn University operates a forage testing
lab within their soil testing facility.
Information is available at this web site:
http://www.ag.auburn.edu/dept/ay/soiltest.ht
m.

CGC

Get Ready to Burn

Get ready now to bum bermudagrass hay
fields and pastures in order to reduce
spittlebug:
Due to the hurricanes, timely harvest was
delayed in many hay fields allowing for
build up of spittlebug and various diseases.
Spittlebug eggs and disease innoculum may
carry over the winter and affect next years
crop. Burning the hay field in early spring
at green up can reduce the amount of
spittlebug eggs and disease innoculum.

If you do not have experience with burning,
check with the local county forester or
others who have experience with or
knowledge of the proper methods to use. Be









prepared so that when conditions are correct
for burning you will not be delayed. Fields
should be burned just before green up. This
will catch and kill some of the early
germinating weeds as well as reduce the
spittlebug infestation. Try to burn after a
rain while the soil surface is moist and burn
with the wind. This will reduce the chances
that the fire might get too hot and damage
the forage plants.
See the publication "Insect Management in
Pastures" by Dr. Richard Sprenkel for
additional information on spittlebug. It can
be found at the following web site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IG/IGO6100.
pdf Regulations related to the use of fire
are discussed in the publication "Prescribed
burning regulations" by Dr. Allen Long. The
publication can be found at the web site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR05500.
pdf

CGC

Get Ready Now to Plant Perennial Peanut
in February or March

If you want to establish a new planting of
perennial peanut, start planning now. Check
out the revised source list for planting
material. See the fact sheet "Perennial
Peanut Source List of Planting Material
(Rhizomes) and Hay" which can be found
on EDIS, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html
(home page) or
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/AG/AG1050
O.pdf for publication.

If you want to establish the new planting on
a bahiagrass sod, you will need to spray the
sod with Roundup herbicide now (before
frost) in order to kill the bahiagrass. Apply
Roundup herbicide 3 to 6 weeks before the
first expected frost. This should allow
enough time to absorb the Roundup and kill
the plants. Yes, kill the bahiagrass. If you
don't kill the bahiagrass, it will compete


with the peanut seedlings during the spring
for soil moisture which is very critical for
establishment of the peanut.

If you want to establish on a clean tilled
seedbed, you will need to do the primary
tillage in November or December. This will
allow some time for plant material to rot
before final seedbed preparation and
planting. Be ready to plant in February and
March. Irrigate to guarantee successful
establishment.

CGC

Overseeding Warm Season Perennials
with Cool Season Annuals (thoughts for
2004)

We are going into the fall with plenty of
moisture throughout the state. The
hurricanes brought lots of rain. El Nino
promises to bring more. This could be a
successful year for cool season annual
forages. But, remember that on our sandy
soils we can dry out about as fast as we can
get wet therefore, "it is not a sure thing".

When overseeding pastures or hay fields,
wait until growth slows and remove all
excess forage by grazing or mechanical
harvest before planting. Overseeding works
best where there is plentiful soil moisture
throughout the growing season. This is more
likely to occur in northwest Florida and less
likely to occur in the southern peninsula due
to rainfall patterns. In fact overseeding is
generally not recommended in the southern
peninsula especially on bahiagrass. Site or
soil type also plays an important role in
successfully growing cool season annuals
and therefore must be carefully selected.
Clay soils, sandy soils underlain by clay,
(and moist flatwoods soils in some
locations) produce the best results. Of
course if irrigation is available, these
forages can be grown almost anywhere.









prepared so that when conditions are correct
for burning you will not be delayed. Fields
should be burned just before green up. This
will catch and kill some of the early
germinating weeds as well as reduce the
spittlebug infestation. Try to burn after a
rain while the soil surface is moist and burn
with the wind. This will reduce the chances
that the fire might get too hot and damage
the forage plants.
See the publication "Insect Management in
Pastures" by Dr. Richard Sprenkel for
additional information on spittlebug. It can
be found at the following web site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IG/IGO6100.
pdf Regulations related to the use of fire
are discussed in the publication "Prescribed
burning regulations" by Dr. Allen Long. The
publication can be found at the web site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR05500.
pdf

CGC

Get Ready Now to Plant Perennial Peanut
in February or March

If you want to establish a new planting of
perennial peanut, start planning now. Check
out the revised source list for planting
material. See the fact sheet "Perennial
Peanut Source List of Planting Material
(Rhizomes) and Hay" which can be found
on EDIS, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html
(home page) or
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/AG/AG1050
O.pdf for publication.

If you want to establish the new planting on
a bahiagrass sod, you will need to spray the
sod with Roundup herbicide now (before
frost) in order to kill the bahiagrass. Apply
Roundup herbicide 3 to 6 weeks before the
first expected frost. This should allow
enough time to absorb the Roundup and kill
the plants. Yes, kill the bahiagrass. If you
don't kill the bahiagrass, it will compete


with the peanut seedlings during the spring
for soil moisture which is very critical for
establishment of the peanut.

If you want to establish on a clean tilled
seedbed, you will need to do the primary
tillage in November or December. This will
allow some time for plant material to rot
before final seedbed preparation and
planting. Be ready to plant in February and
March. Irrigate to guarantee successful
establishment.

CGC

Overseeding Warm Season Perennials
with Cool Season Annuals (thoughts for
2004)

We are going into the fall with plenty of
moisture throughout the state. The
hurricanes brought lots of rain. El Nino
promises to bring more. This could be a
successful year for cool season annual
forages. But, remember that on our sandy
soils we can dry out about as fast as we can
get wet therefore, "it is not a sure thing".

When overseeding pastures or hay fields,
wait until growth slows and remove all
excess forage by grazing or mechanical
harvest before planting. Overseeding works
best where there is plentiful soil moisture
throughout the growing season. This is more
likely to occur in northwest Florida and less
likely to occur in the southern peninsula due
to rainfall patterns. In fact overseeding is
generally not recommended in the southern
peninsula especially on bahiagrass. Site or
soil type also plays an important role in
successfully growing cool season annuals
and therefore must be carefully selected.
Clay soils, sandy soils underlain by clay,
(and moist flatwoods soils in some
locations) produce the best results. Of
course if irrigation is available, these
forages can be grown almost anywhere.









Overseeding bahiagrass pastures: The
bahiagrass sod should be cultivated to obtain
30 to 50 percent disturbance when
overseeding. This will reduce the
bahiagrass competition with the ryegrass or
clover seedlings. Ryegrass overseeding on
bahiagrass in the southern peninsular is
successful in some years (one out of 10 ?),
but small grains are rarely if ever successful.

Overseeding bermudagrass hay fields in
northern Florida: If overseeding is done
with the intention of harvesting the crop as
hay or silage, then overseeding with small
grains and/or crimson clover may work best
as compared to ryegrass. Ryegrass has a
longer growing season and will compete
with the bermudagrass in the spring
especially if it is allowed to accumulate for
harvesting as hay or silage. This
competition may be detrimental to the
bermudagrass stand. On the other hand, if it
is grazed, then the competition may be
controlled.

Overseeding Perennial Peanut: If
overseeding for hay production or grazing,
again oats or one of the other small grains or
crimson clover would be the better choices.
I have seen crimson clover overseeded on a
small perennial peanut pasture and used for
creep grazing that was very successful.

CGC

Pastures: Should You Spray in
November?

The summer of 2004 has been very wet
across much of Florida. Rainfall came very
frequently and often in large amounts. This
led many pasture managers to delay
herbicide applications, waiting for the dryer
weather of the late summer. However,
multiple hurricanes disrupted these plans as
well. Now it is November and some
herbicides were never applied. The question


arises: Should these herbicides be applied
now, this winter, next spring, or early next
summer?

November is often a bad time to apply
pasture herbicides. This is because the
summer annual weeds have already
produced seed and are dying, but the
germination and growth of winter species is
not yet sufficient to warrant herbicide
treatment. At this point of the year it may
be better if herbicide applications are
delayed until next season.

However, we should not forget the value of
making a winter application. Winter
applications can be greatly beneficial.
Winter annual species, such as wild radish
and thistle, are most easily controlled before
the plants bolt and begin to produce flowers.
Late January or February is often the best
time to control these species. Herbicide
applications made when daytime
temperatures are >50F will work best.
Controlling these weeds when small is often
a highly effective and inexpensive way to
improve grazing areas into early summer.

Spring applications can be very difficult
throughout Florida. As the pastures
transition out of winter and weeds begin to
grow, many will want to begin spraying.
However, March and April are often very
dry and drought stressed weeds are
common. Drought stress can dramatically
decrease herbicide activity and poor weed
control will likely be observed. I often
recommend that if soils are excessively dry,
herbicides be applied in May after the
summer rains begin.









If you were unable to apply herbicides this
summer due to the weather, delaying until
next summer (unless you wish to control
winter weeds) may be the best way to gain
the maximum effectiveness from your
herbicides.


another five years. Funds collected through
this program are used to support promotion
and research activities.

EBW


Peanut Yields


JAF


Should Cover Crops Be Used or Should
Fields Be Kept Clean With Residual
Herbicides Over the Winter?

Much research has shown that soil
productivity is reduced with loss of soil
organic matter. Organic matter is built by
cover, row and forage crops. It is generally
understood that mixed crop production will
increase organic matter more than cropping
one or two crops. While it is true that cover
crops use nutrients and can tie up nitrogen
and other nutrients in the winter, it also
keeps these nutrients from leaching or being
eroded. Biological activity is enhanced with
the use of winter cover crops which includes
earthworms and other environmentally
friendly factors. It is good to have the cover
crop and weeds killed about 4 weeks ahead
of planting, but it is not generally good to
have the fields cover crop free for any
longer than that. Fields with bermudagrass
used for row crop production can be sprayed
in the late fall before frost and before the
row crops germinate to help control this
grass for the next crop year.

DLW

National Peanut Referendum Approved

At an approval rate of 87 percent, peanut
farmers in the United States voted to keep
the national peanut checkoff program for


Estimated average Florida peanut yields for
2004 were much lower in the October
USDA report than they were a month
earlier, and also much lower than for other
states. Damage from the hurricanes that hit
Florida in September are the likely reason
for the reduced estimates. The November
report may be a better reflection of yield
prospects, with the final estimate in January
probably being the most accurate.

EBW

Growing Tobacco in 2005

Since the tobacco quota buyout is now law,
many farmers need to decide if they will
grow tobacco next year. It is expected that
contracts for tobacco produced in 2005
should be available in the next couple of
months. At this time there is no information
on the prices that tobacco buyers will offer
or quantities they want for next year. In the
meantime, growers should determine the
minimum price that they would accept, and
the quantities that they would be willing to
grow. There is no information as to whether
or not there will be auction markets
available for tobacco sales next year, but
that information should also be forthcoming
in the next few weeks. Keep in mind that
there will be no price supports, or
restrictions on quantity or location where the
tobacco can be grown. It would be
advisable that growers arrange for marketing
prior to planting the crop.

EBW









If you were unable to apply herbicides this
summer due to the weather, delaying until
next summer (unless you wish to control
winter weeds) may be the best way to gain
the maximum effectiveness from your
herbicides.


another five years. Funds collected through
this program are used to support promotion
and research activities.

EBW


Peanut Yields


JAF


Should Cover Crops Be Used or Should
Fields Be Kept Clean With Residual
Herbicides Over the Winter?

Much research has shown that soil
productivity is reduced with loss of soil
organic matter. Organic matter is built by
cover, row and forage crops. It is generally
understood that mixed crop production will
increase organic matter more than cropping
one or two crops. While it is true that cover
crops use nutrients and can tie up nitrogen
and other nutrients in the winter, it also
keeps these nutrients from leaching or being
eroded. Biological activity is enhanced with
the use of winter cover crops which includes
earthworms and other environmentally
friendly factors. It is good to have the cover
crop and weeds killed about 4 weeks ahead
of planting, but it is not generally good to
have the fields cover crop free for any
longer than that. Fields with bermudagrass
used for row crop production can be sprayed
in the late fall before frost and before the
row crops germinate to help control this
grass for the next crop year.

DLW

National Peanut Referendum Approved

At an approval rate of 87 percent, peanut
farmers in the United States voted to keep
the national peanut checkoff program for


Estimated average Florida peanut yields for
2004 were much lower in the October
USDA report than they were a month
earlier, and also much lower than for other
states. Damage from the hurricanes that hit
Florida in September are the likely reason
for the reduced estimates. The November
report may be a better reflection of yield
prospects, with the final estimate in January
probably being the most accurate.

EBW

Growing Tobacco in 2005

Since the tobacco quota buyout is now law,
many farmers need to decide if they will
grow tobacco next year. It is expected that
contracts for tobacco produced in 2005
should be available in the next couple of
months. At this time there is no information
on the prices that tobacco buyers will offer
or quantities they want for next year. In the
meantime, growers should determine the
minimum price that they would accept, and
the quantities that they would be willing to
grow. There is no information as to whether
or not there will be auction markets
available for tobacco sales next year, but
that information should also be forthcoming
in the next few weeks. Keep in mind that
there will be no price supports, or
restrictions on quantity or location where the
tobacco can be grown. It would be
advisable that growers arrange for marketing
prior to planting the crop.

EBW









If you were unable to apply herbicides this
summer due to the weather, delaying until
next summer (unless you wish to control
winter weeds) may be the best way to gain
the maximum effectiveness from your
herbicides.


another five years. Funds collected through
this program are used to support promotion
and research activities.

EBW


Peanut Yields


JAF


Should Cover Crops Be Used or Should
Fields Be Kept Clean With Residual
Herbicides Over the Winter?

Much research has shown that soil
productivity is reduced with loss of soil
organic matter. Organic matter is built by
cover, row and forage crops. It is generally
understood that mixed crop production will
increase organic matter more than cropping
one or two crops. While it is true that cover
crops use nutrients and can tie up nitrogen
and other nutrients in the winter, it also
keeps these nutrients from leaching or being
eroded. Biological activity is enhanced with
the use of winter cover crops which includes
earthworms and other environmentally
friendly factors. It is good to have the cover
crop and weeds killed about 4 weeks ahead
of planting, but it is not generally good to
have the fields cover crop free for any
longer than that. Fields with bermudagrass
used for row crop production can be sprayed
in the late fall before frost and before the
row crops germinate to help control this
grass for the next crop year.

DLW

National Peanut Referendum Approved

At an approval rate of 87 percent, peanut
farmers in the United States voted to keep
the national peanut checkoff program for


Estimated average Florida peanut yields for
2004 were much lower in the October
USDA report than they were a month
earlier, and also much lower than for other
states. Damage from the hurricanes that hit
Florida in September are the likely reason
for the reduced estimates. The November
report may be a better reflection of yield
prospects, with the final estimate in January
probably being the most accurate.

EBW

Growing Tobacco in 2005

Since the tobacco quota buyout is now law,
many farmers need to decide if they will
grow tobacco next year. It is expected that
contracts for tobacco produced in 2005
should be available in the next couple of
months. At this time there is no information
on the prices that tobacco buyers will offer
or quantities they want for next year. In the
meantime, growers should determine the
minimum price that they would accept, and
the quantities that they would be willing to
grow. There is no information as to whether
or not there will be auction markets
available for tobacco sales next year, but
that information should also be forthcoming
in the next few weeks. Keep in mind that
there will be no price supports, or
restrictions on quantity or location where the
tobacco can be grown. It would be
advisable that growers arrange for marketing
prior to planting the crop.

EBW









If you were unable to apply herbicides this
summer due to the weather, delaying until
next summer (unless you wish to control
winter weeds) may be the best way to gain
the maximum effectiveness from your
herbicides.


another five years. Funds collected through
this program are used to support promotion
and research activities.

EBW


Peanut Yields


JAF


Should Cover Crops Be Used or Should
Fields Be Kept Clean With Residual
Herbicides Over the Winter?

Much research has shown that soil
productivity is reduced with loss of soil
organic matter. Organic matter is built by
cover, row and forage crops. It is generally
understood that mixed crop production will
increase organic matter more than cropping
one or two crops. While it is true that cover
crops use nutrients and can tie up nitrogen
and other nutrients in the winter, it also
keeps these nutrients from leaching or being
eroded. Biological activity is enhanced with
the use of winter cover crops which includes
earthworms and other environmentally
friendly factors. It is good to have the cover
crop and weeds killed about 4 weeks ahead
of planting, but it is not generally good to
have the fields cover crop free for any
longer than that. Fields with bermudagrass
used for row crop production can be sprayed
in the late fall before frost and before the
row crops germinate to help control this
grass for the next crop year.

DLW

National Peanut Referendum Approved

At an approval rate of 87 percent, peanut
farmers in the United States voted to keep
the national peanut checkoff program for


Estimated average Florida peanut yields for
2004 were much lower in the October
USDA report than they were a month
earlier, and also much lower than for other
states. Damage from the hurricanes that hit
Florida in September are the likely reason
for the reduced estimates. The November
report may be a better reflection of yield
prospects, with the final estimate in January
probably being the most accurate.

EBW

Growing Tobacco in 2005

Since the tobacco quota buyout is now law,
many farmers need to decide if they will
grow tobacco next year. It is expected that
contracts for tobacco produced in 2005
should be available in the next couple of
months. At this time there is no information
on the prices that tobacco buyers will offer
or quantities they want for next year. In the
meantime, growers should determine the
minimum price that they would accept, and
the quantities that they would be willing to
grow. There is no information as to whether
or not there will be auction markets
available for tobacco sales next year, but
that information should also be forthcoming
in the next few weeks. Keep in mind that
there will be no price supports, or
restrictions on quantity or location where the
tobacco can be grown. It would be
advisable that growers arrange for marketing
prior to planting the crop.

EBW









Tobacco Market Report

Flue-cured tobacco sales for 2004 are almost
complete, with about 124 million pounds
being sold at auction for an average price of
$1.7962. Over 73 percent of the tobacco
offered at auction went into the loan
program. Almost 370 million pounds were
sold under contract at an average price of
$1.8594. The two Florida contract centers
bought over 9 million pounds for $1.8490.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout

The US House of Representatives and the
Senate recently passed legislation that
would end the current tobacco quota
program. This action became law when it
was signed by the President. Under this
legislation, quota owners will receive $7 per
pound and growers $3 per pound. The 2002
basic quota would be the basis for payments,
and quota owners that also grew the tobacco
would receive both payments. Starting in
2005, the payments would be paid over a
ten-year period with funding from tobacco
companies, based on market share of sales.
The tobacco company payments will be
made quarterly to a 'Tobacco Trust Fund'
administered by the Commodity Credit
Corporation, an agency of the USDA.
Payments would then be made annually to
the eligible recipients. Reportedly there are
over 4000 recipients in Florida, as quota
owners from other states have moved here.


It is estimated that there is a total of over
400,000 recipients in all 50 states and in
several foreign countries. There will be no
controls or support prices on tobacco grown
in 2005, and there are no geographical
limitations on where tobacco could be
grown.

EBW

October Crop Report

The National Agricultural Statistics Service
of USDA reported that the estimates of
October 1 indicated that the United States
would produce record crops of corn,
soybeans, and cotton in 2004. The corn
crop is expected to be 11.6 billion bushels,
which is 15% above 2003, the previous
record year. Average yields are expected to
be 158.4 bushels per acre, which is 16.2
bushels above the 2003 yield, which was
also a previous record. The largest
producing states, Illinois and Iowa, expect
average yields of 180 bushels per acre.
Soybean production is forecast to be 3.11
billion bushels, which is 27% above 2003,
and yields are expected to be a record 42
bushels per acre. The 2004 cotton crop is
expected to be 21.5 million bales, or 18%
above 2003, and yields are expected to be a
record 782 pounds per acre. Monthly
estimates of these crops are not made in
Florida, but the following estimates of other
crops were made:









Tobacco Market Report

Flue-cured tobacco sales for 2004 are almost
complete, with about 124 million pounds
being sold at auction for an average price of
$1.7962. Over 73 percent of the tobacco
offered at auction went into the loan
program. Almost 370 million pounds were
sold under contract at an average price of
$1.8594. The two Florida contract centers
bought over 9 million pounds for $1.8490.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout

The US House of Representatives and the
Senate recently passed legislation that
would end the current tobacco quota
program. This action became law when it
was signed by the President. Under this
legislation, quota owners will receive $7 per
pound and growers $3 per pound. The 2002
basic quota would be the basis for payments,
and quota owners that also grew the tobacco
would receive both payments. Starting in
2005, the payments would be paid over a
ten-year period with funding from tobacco
companies, based on market share of sales.
The tobacco company payments will be
made quarterly to a 'Tobacco Trust Fund'
administered by the Commodity Credit
Corporation, an agency of the USDA.
Payments would then be made annually to
the eligible recipients. Reportedly there are
over 4000 recipients in Florida, as quota
owners from other states have moved here.


It is estimated that there is a total of over
400,000 recipients in all 50 states and in
several foreign countries. There will be no
controls or support prices on tobacco grown
in 2005, and there are no geographical
limitations on where tobacco could be
grown.

EBW

October Crop Report

The National Agricultural Statistics Service
of USDA reported that the estimates of
October 1 indicated that the United States
would produce record crops of corn,
soybeans, and cotton in 2004. The corn
crop is expected to be 11.6 billion bushels,
which is 15% above 2003, the previous
record year. Average yields are expected to
be 158.4 bushels per acre, which is 16.2
bushels above the 2003 yield, which was
also a previous record. The largest
producing states, Illinois and Iowa, expect
average yields of 180 bushels per acre.
Soybean production is forecast to be 3.11
billion bushels, which is 27% above 2003,
and yields are expected to be a record 42
bushels per acre. The 2004 cotton crop is
expected to be 21.5 million bales, or 18%
above 2003, and yields are expected to be a
record 782 pounds per acre. Monthly
estimates of these crops are not made in
Florida, but the following estimates of other
crops were made:









Tobacco Market Report

Flue-cured tobacco sales for 2004 are almost
complete, with about 124 million pounds
being sold at auction for an average price of
$1.7962. Over 73 percent of the tobacco
offered at auction went into the loan
program. Almost 370 million pounds were
sold under contract at an average price of
$1.8594. The two Florida contract centers
bought over 9 million pounds for $1.8490.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout

The US House of Representatives and the
Senate recently passed legislation that
would end the current tobacco quota
program. This action became law when it
was signed by the President. Under this
legislation, quota owners will receive $7 per
pound and growers $3 per pound. The 2002
basic quota would be the basis for payments,
and quota owners that also grew the tobacco
would receive both payments. Starting in
2005, the payments would be paid over a
ten-year period with funding from tobacco
companies, based on market share of sales.
The tobacco company payments will be
made quarterly to a 'Tobacco Trust Fund'
administered by the Commodity Credit
Corporation, an agency of the USDA.
Payments would then be made annually to
the eligible recipients. Reportedly there are
over 4000 recipients in Florida, as quota
owners from other states have moved here.


It is estimated that there is a total of over
400,000 recipients in all 50 states and in
several foreign countries. There will be no
controls or support prices on tobacco grown
in 2005, and there are no geographical
limitations on where tobacco could be
grown.

EBW

October Crop Report

The National Agricultural Statistics Service
of USDA reported that the estimates of
October 1 indicated that the United States
would produce record crops of corn,
soybeans, and cotton in 2004. The corn
crop is expected to be 11.6 billion bushels,
which is 15% above 2003, the previous
record year. Average yields are expected to
be 158.4 bushels per acre, which is 16.2
bushels above the 2003 yield, which was
also a previous record. The largest
producing states, Illinois and Iowa, expect
average yields of 180 bushels per acre.
Soybean production is forecast to be 3.11
billion bushels, which is 27% above 2003,
and yields are expected to be a record 42
bushels per acre. The 2004 cotton crop is
expected to be 21.5 million bales, or 18%
above 2003, and yields are expected to be a
record 782 pounds per acre. Monthly
estimates of these crops are not made in
Florida, but the following estimates of other
crops were made:

























EBW


Crop Florida United States

Harvested Yield per Harvested Yield per
Acres (x1000) Acre Acres (x1000) Acre

Peanuts 130 2300 lb 1,388 2972 lb

Tobacco, flue-cured 4 2500 lb 229 2237 lb

Sugarcane, sugar and seed 420 36 ton 961.6 31.5 ton


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist, G. E. MacDonald, Weed
Researcher, M. B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist, D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.