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 Fall forage update
 Weed shifts in peanut
 Soil samples in the Fall of the...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00050
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: September 2004
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00050

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Choosing harvest aid chemicals for cotton defoliation
        Page 2
    Fall forage update
        Page 2
    Weed shifts in peanut
        Page 2
    Soil samples in the Fall of the year
        Page 3
Full Text





AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
IFAS EXTENSION


NOTES


September 2004


IN THIS ISSUE

COTTON
Choosing Harvest Aid Chemicals for Cotton Defoliation ................... 2


FORAGE
Fall Forage U pdate ....................................... ......

PEANUTS
W eed Shifts in Peanut .................................. .....


2


2
2


MISCELLANEOUS
Soil Sample in the Fall of the Year .................................. 3


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim
Dean.









Choosing Harvest Aid Chemicals for
Cotton Defoliation

Choosing harvest aid chemicals for cotton is
right around the corer. Most growers use
both a defoliant and boll opening material in
a single application. Most applications are
made about 10 days to two weeks in
advance of harvest. Materials that work
well in one year may not do as well in
another year. Dry, cool weather results in
slower activity of defoliants. One of the
most important concerns to growers is the
cost of defoliation and the effectiveness of
the chemicals. Defoliation should occur
when 60% of the bolls are open or when
there are 4 nodes above the cracked boll.
Another method is to cut into the large bolls
at the top of the plant that you desire to
harvest. If these bolls are hard to cut
through and the fiber strings out during
cutting, it is safe to defoliate.

DLW

Fall Forage Update

The 2004 Fall Forage Update is now
available on EDIS at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266. One new rye
variety AGS 104, one new oat variety
Horizon 321, and one new ryegrass variety
have been added to the list of recommended
varieties.

CGC

Weed Shifts in Peanut

Cadre is an exceptional herbicide for
peanuts. It provides excellent control of
many commonly occurring weeds such as
cocklebur, pigweeds, wild poinsettia and
nutsedge. Not only will these weeds be


controlled, but numerous other species will
be controlled or suppressed from the foliar
and/or soil residual activity of this herbicide.
However, in fields that have received
postemergence applications of Cadre for
past few years, we are now seeing
increasing populations of weeds that Cadre
does not control. For example, species such
as eclipta, carpetweed, tropic croton, and
groundcherry, among others, are becoming
more problematic for many producers. I
believe one reason for this trend is that
Cadre is used on over 90% of the peanut
acres in Florida and other herbicides that
once controlled these weeds are being
excluded from the weed control program.

It may be useful to include other products
into your weed management plan if you find
yourself in this situation. For example,
Ultra Blazer is particularly effective on
many weed species that Cadre will not
control. Many producers have opted to not
use Ultra Blazer because it causes leaf
burning on peanut and because it does not
have the same soil activity as Cadre.
However, Ultra Blazer, when used correctly,
has not been shown to reduce peanut yield.
Additionally, the new formulation in Ultra
Blazer does not cause as much peanut injury
as Blazer did.

Basagran and Ultra Blazer are not
replacements for Cadre, but may be
complimentary. If you are struggling with
weeds that Cadre will not control, it may be
helpful to review the 2004 Weed
Management in Peanuts publication and see
if other herbicides would be useful.
Although Basagran and Ultra Blazer will not
control every weed that is missed by Cadre,
they may be able to fill in some of your
weed control gaps.

JAF









Choosing Harvest Aid Chemicals for
Cotton Defoliation

Choosing harvest aid chemicals for cotton is
right around the corer. Most growers use
both a defoliant and boll opening material in
a single application. Most applications are
made about 10 days to two weeks in
advance of harvest. Materials that work
well in one year may not do as well in
another year. Dry, cool weather results in
slower activity of defoliants. One of the
most important concerns to growers is the
cost of defoliation and the effectiveness of
the chemicals. Defoliation should occur
when 60% of the bolls are open or when
there are 4 nodes above the cracked boll.
Another method is to cut into the large bolls
at the top of the plant that you desire to
harvest. If these bolls are hard to cut
through and the fiber strings out during
cutting, it is safe to defoliate.

DLW

Fall Forage Update

The 2004 Fall Forage Update is now
available on EDIS at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266. One new rye
variety AGS 104, one new oat variety
Horizon 321, and one new ryegrass variety
have been added to the list of recommended
varieties.

CGC

Weed Shifts in Peanut

Cadre is an exceptional herbicide for
peanuts. It provides excellent control of
many commonly occurring weeds such as
cocklebur, pigweeds, wild poinsettia and
nutsedge. Not only will these weeds be


controlled, but numerous other species will
be controlled or suppressed from the foliar
and/or soil residual activity of this herbicide.
However, in fields that have received
postemergence applications of Cadre for
past few years, we are now seeing
increasing populations of weeds that Cadre
does not control. For example, species such
as eclipta, carpetweed, tropic croton, and
groundcherry, among others, are becoming
more problematic for many producers. I
believe one reason for this trend is that
Cadre is used on over 90% of the peanut
acres in Florida and other herbicides that
once controlled these weeds are being
excluded from the weed control program.

It may be useful to include other products
into your weed management plan if you find
yourself in this situation. For example,
Ultra Blazer is particularly effective on
many weed species that Cadre will not
control. Many producers have opted to not
use Ultra Blazer because it causes leaf
burning on peanut and because it does not
have the same soil activity as Cadre.
However, Ultra Blazer, when used correctly,
has not been shown to reduce peanut yield.
Additionally, the new formulation in Ultra
Blazer does not cause as much peanut injury
as Blazer did.

Basagran and Ultra Blazer are not
replacements for Cadre, but may be
complimentary. If you are struggling with
weeds that Cadre will not control, it may be
helpful to review the 2004 Weed
Management in Peanuts publication and see
if other herbicides would be useful.
Although Basagran and Ultra Blazer will not
control every weed that is missed by Cadre,
they may be able to fill in some of your
weed control gaps.

JAF









Choosing Harvest Aid Chemicals for
Cotton Defoliation

Choosing harvest aid chemicals for cotton is
right around the corer. Most growers use
both a defoliant and boll opening material in
a single application. Most applications are
made about 10 days to two weeks in
advance of harvest. Materials that work
well in one year may not do as well in
another year. Dry, cool weather results in
slower activity of defoliants. One of the
most important concerns to growers is the
cost of defoliation and the effectiveness of
the chemicals. Defoliation should occur
when 60% of the bolls are open or when
there are 4 nodes above the cracked boll.
Another method is to cut into the large bolls
at the top of the plant that you desire to
harvest. If these bolls are hard to cut
through and the fiber strings out during
cutting, it is safe to defoliate.

DLW

Fall Forage Update

The 2004 Fall Forage Update is now
available on EDIS at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266. One new rye
variety AGS 104, one new oat variety
Horizon 321, and one new ryegrass variety
have been added to the list of recommended
varieties.

CGC

Weed Shifts in Peanut

Cadre is an exceptional herbicide for
peanuts. It provides excellent control of
many commonly occurring weeds such as
cocklebur, pigweeds, wild poinsettia and
nutsedge. Not only will these weeds be


controlled, but numerous other species will
be controlled or suppressed from the foliar
and/or soil residual activity of this herbicide.
However, in fields that have received
postemergence applications of Cadre for
past few years, we are now seeing
increasing populations of weeds that Cadre
does not control. For example, species such
as eclipta, carpetweed, tropic croton, and
groundcherry, among others, are becoming
more problematic for many producers. I
believe one reason for this trend is that
Cadre is used on over 90% of the peanut
acres in Florida and other herbicides that
once controlled these weeds are being
excluded from the weed control program.

It may be useful to include other products
into your weed management plan if you find
yourself in this situation. For example,
Ultra Blazer is particularly effective on
many weed species that Cadre will not
control. Many producers have opted to not
use Ultra Blazer because it causes leaf
burning on peanut and because it does not
have the same soil activity as Cadre.
However, Ultra Blazer, when used correctly,
has not been shown to reduce peanut yield.
Additionally, the new formulation in Ultra
Blazer does not cause as much peanut injury
as Blazer did.

Basagran and Ultra Blazer are not
replacements for Cadre, but may be
complimentary. If you are struggling with
weeds that Cadre will not control, it may be
helpful to review the 2004 Weed
Management in Peanuts publication and see
if other herbicides would be useful.
Although Basagran and Ultra Blazer will not
control every weed that is missed by Cadre,
they may be able to fill in some of your
weed control gaps.

JAF










Soil Sample in the Fall of the Year

Soil sampling for fertility and nematodes
should be done after the summer crop. Plant
nutrients can be determined for the next
years' crop, and if lime is required it may be
applied and have time to react before
planting the crop the next year. Fields with
high N use will become acid more quickly
than those fields with no N or little N use.
This process of becoming more acid is due


to nitrification, which occurs when bacteria
convert ammonium to nitrites and then to
nitrates. This process results in the
production of hydrogen ions. Soil pH is a
measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
in the soil and this determines the need for
lime additions. Most crops grown in Florida
gorw best at a pH of 5.5 to 6.5.

DLW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist, G. E. MacDonald, Weed
Researcher, M. B. Adjei, Forage Agronomist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist, D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.