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 Table of Contents
 Aeschynomene
 Clover pastures
 Establishment of new pasture and...
 Establishment of new pasture and...
 Legume inoculation
 Pasture establishment
 Pasture renovation
 Spring drought
 Seeding rates for drilling vs....
 Spybean planting date
 Prowl H20: familiar product, new...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00045
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: April 2004
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00045

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Aeschynomene
        Page 2
    Clover pastures
        Page 2
    Establishment of new pasture and hay crop seedings - I
        Page 2
    Establishment of new pasture and hay crop seedings - II
        Page 3
    Legume inoculation
        Page 3
    Pasture establishment
        Page 3
    Pasture renovation
        Page 4
    Spring drought
        Page 4
    Seeding rates for drilling vs. wide row soybean
        Page 5
    Spybean planting date
        Page 5
    Prowl H20: familiar product, new formulation
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text






AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION


April, 2004


DATES TO REMEMBER
May 22 4th Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day, Moultrie, GA
May 27 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra (http://www.animal.ufl.edu)


IN THIS ISSUE

FORAGE


Aeschynomene ............ ................................ 2
Clover Pastures ............. .. ...................................... 2
Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop Seedings I ....................... 2
Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop Seedings II ....................... 3
Legume Inoculation ..................................... ............... 3
Pasture Establishment ................................................... 3
Pasture Renovation ..................................... ................ 4
Spring Drought ........ ............................................... 4

SOYBEAN

Increased Soybean Prices Bring Increased Acreage ............................. 4
Seeding Rates For Drilling Vs. Wide Row Soybean ............................ 5
Soybean Planting Date .......... ......................................... 5

MISCELLANEOUS


Prowl H20: Familiar Product, New Formulation .......
Updated Publications ..........................


. . . . . . 6


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida /, Larry Arrington,
Interim Dean.










Aeschynomene

If the summer rains come early this year it will
present an opportunity to overseed pastures with
common aeschynomene (Aeschynomene
americana). This summer annual legume is
adapted to moist flatwood soils. It should be
seeded in early June at the rate of 5 to 7 pounds
of dehulled seed per acre. Make sure that the
pasture has been grazed short before seeding. If
the summer rains start and continue, the first
crop of seedlings will continue to grow and
develop into productive plants. Often seedlings
that come up after a rain in April or May die due
to a 7 to 10 day drought. This legume is very
palatable to both cattle and deer.

It provides much needed protein in July and
August when the quality of perennial grasses
slump.
Weight gain of all classes of animals improves.
Calves that were creep grazed on aeschynomene
gained an extra 0.3 pound per day resulting in
30 to 50 pounds of additional weight at weaning.
Success with overseeding aeschynomene
depends on early June planting, appropriate
grazing management, and sustained soil
moisture through the summer.

CGC

Clover Pastures

Cattle should be removed from heavily grazed
white clover pastures for about two weeks to
allow for reseeding. After flowers have begun
to turn brown, grazing may be resumed.
Arrowleaf clover pastures should be treated
similarly. When flowering starts either remove
cattle or reduce stocking rate to allow for
adequate reseeding.

CGC

Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop
Seedings I

When seedings are made it is assumed that some
of the seed will not germinate and/or develop


into plants. Therefore, more seed are sown than
numbers of plants needed to make a complete
stand or cover. A number of factors affect
germination and seedling development.

Germination of live seed requires:

1. Permeable seed coat. Scarification has been
used to increase seed coat permeability.
2. Sufficient air. Seed sown too deeply
(especially in wet, heavy soils) may not
have enough oxygen to germinate. (Not as
much of a problem on sandy soils).
3. Favorable temperature. Usually obtained
with proper seeding date. (In south Florida
seeding of bahiagrass can be made at any
time of the year when moisture is sufficient.
Germination during the cool season will be
much slower than during the warm season.
It may be desirable to make seedings after
chances of a severe freeze are minimum. A
hard freeze may kill young bahiagrass
seedlings).
4. Sufficient moisture. Alternating
temperature and moisture levels (too low for
complete germination) can lower seed
viability and result in death.

Establishment after germination may fail
because of:

1. Drying. Seed placed in loose surface soil
may germinate after a light rain but may dry
out and die before developing sufficient
roots for establishment.
2. Freezing. Seed are especially sensitive to
freezing as the young root breaks the seed
coat, and temperatures below -3C are lethal.
Soil coverage reduces the likelihood of
injury, and once rooted, seedlings can
withstand much lower temperatures.
3. Coverage that is too light. Soil cover or
mulch protects against both drying and
freezing; without it seed establish only when
soil surface remains moist for extended
periods.
4. Coverage that is too heavy. More seed
probably is wasted in this way than any
other.










Aeschynomene

If the summer rains come early this year it will
present an opportunity to overseed pastures with
common aeschynomene (Aeschynomene
americana). This summer annual legume is
adapted to moist flatwood soils. It should be
seeded in early June at the rate of 5 to 7 pounds
of dehulled seed per acre. Make sure that the
pasture has been grazed short before seeding. If
the summer rains start and continue, the first
crop of seedlings will continue to grow and
develop into productive plants. Often seedlings
that come up after a rain in April or May die due
to a 7 to 10 day drought. This legume is very
palatable to both cattle and deer.

It provides much needed protein in July and
August when the quality of perennial grasses
slump.
Weight gain of all classes of animals improves.
Calves that were creep grazed on aeschynomene
gained an extra 0.3 pound per day resulting in
30 to 50 pounds of additional weight at weaning.
Success with overseeding aeschynomene
depends on early June planting, appropriate
grazing management, and sustained soil
moisture through the summer.

CGC

Clover Pastures

Cattle should be removed from heavily grazed
white clover pastures for about two weeks to
allow for reseeding. After flowers have begun
to turn brown, grazing may be resumed.
Arrowleaf clover pastures should be treated
similarly. When flowering starts either remove
cattle or reduce stocking rate to allow for
adequate reseeding.

CGC

Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop
Seedings I

When seedings are made it is assumed that some
of the seed will not germinate and/or develop


into plants. Therefore, more seed are sown than
numbers of plants needed to make a complete
stand or cover. A number of factors affect
germination and seedling development.

Germination of live seed requires:

1. Permeable seed coat. Scarification has been
used to increase seed coat permeability.
2. Sufficient air. Seed sown too deeply
(especially in wet, heavy soils) may not
have enough oxygen to germinate. (Not as
much of a problem on sandy soils).
3. Favorable temperature. Usually obtained
with proper seeding date. (In south Florida
seeding of bahiagrass can be made at any
time of the year when moisture is sufficient.
Germination during the cool season will be
much slower than during the warm season.
It may be desirable to make seedings after
chances of a severe freeze are minimum. A
hard freeze may kill young bahiagrass
seedlings).
4. Sufficient moisture. Alternating
temperature and moisture levels (too low for
complete germination) can lower seed
viability and result in death.

Establishment after germination may fail
because of:

1. Drying. Seed placed in loose surface soil
may germinate after a light rain but may dry
out and die before developing sufficient
roots for establishment.
2. Freezing. Seed are especially sensitive to
freezing as the young root breaks the seed
coat, and temperatures below -3C are lethal.
Soil coverage reduces the likelihood of
injury, and once rooted, seedlings can
withstand much lower temperatures.
3. Coverage that is too light. Soil cover or
mulch protects against both drying and
freezing; without it seed establish only when
soil surface remains moist for extended
periods.
4. Coverage that is too heavy. More seed
probably is wasted in this way than any
other.










Aeschynomene

If the summer rains come early this year it will
present an opportunity to overseed pastures with
common aeschynomene (Aeschynomene
americana). This summer annual legume is
adapted to moist flatwood soils. It should be
seeded in early June at the rate of 5 to 7 pounds
of dehulled seed per acre. Make sure that the
pasture has been grazed short before seeding. If
the summer rains start and continue, the first
crop of seedlings will continue to grow and
develop into productive plants. Often seedlings
that come up after a rain in April or May die due
to a 7 to 10 day drought. This legume is very
palatable to both cattle and deer.

It provides much needed protein in July and
August when the quality of perennial grasses
slump.
Weight gain of all classes of animals improves.
Calves that were creep grazed on aeschynomene
gained an extra 0.3 pound per day resulting in
30 to 50 pounds of additional weight at weaning.
Success with overseeding aeschynomene
depends on early June planting, appropriate
grazing management, and sustained soil
moisture through the summer.

CGC

Clover Pastures

Cattle should be removed from heavily grazed
white clover pastures for about two weeks to
allow for reseeding. After flowers have begun
to turn brown, grazing may be resumed.
Arrowleaf clover pastures should be treated
similarly. When flowering starts either remove
cattle or reduce stocking rate to allow for
adequate reseeding.

CGC

Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop
Seedings I

When seedings are made it is assumed that some
of the seed will not germinate and/or develop


into plants. Therefore, more seed are sown than
numbers of plants needed to make a complete
stand or cover. A number of factors affect
germination and seedling development.

Germination of live seed requires:

1. Permeable seed coat. Scarification has been
used to increase seed coat permeability.
2. Sufficient air. Seed sown too deeply
(especially in wet, heavy soils) may not
have enough oxygen to germinate. (Not as
much of a problem on sandy soils).
3. Favorable temperature. Usually obtained
with proper seeding date. (In south Florida
seeding of bahiagrass can be made at any
time of the year when moisture is sufficient.
Germination during the cool season will be
much slower than during the warm season.
It may be desirable to make seedings after
chances of a severe freeze are minimum. A
hard freeze may kill young bahiagrass
seedlings).
4. Sufficient moisture. Alternating
temperature and moisture levels (too low for
complete germination) can lower seed
viability and result in death.

Establishment after germination may fail
because of:

1. Drying. Seed placed in loose surface soil
may germinate after a light rain but may dry
out and die before developing sufficient
roots for establishment.
2. Freezing. Seed are especially sensitive to
freezing as the young root breaks the seed
coat, and temperatures below -3C are lethal.
Soil coverage reduces the likelihood of
injury, and once rooted, seedlings can
withstand much lower temperatures.
3. Coverage that is too light. Soil cover or
mulch protects against both drying and
freezing; without it seed establish only when
soil surface remains moist for extended
periods.
4. Coverage that is too heavy. More seed
probably is wasted in this way than any
other.










5. Crusted soil surface. This can prevent
emergence, especially when seed are sown
deeply on fine textured (clay) soils.

CGC

Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop
Seedings II

Growth of seedlings after establishment may
stop because of:


1. Undesirable pH. Lime should be applied
according to soil test to provide desirable
pH, plus Ca and Mg as nutrients.
2. Low fertility. A soil test should be used to
ensure adequate P, K, or other nutrients.
3. Inadequate legume inoculation.
4. Poor drainage. Water accumulation on the
surface or in the soil profile can limit
growth.
5. Drought. This is the most commonly given
reason for stand failures.
6. Competition from companion crops.
Cereals compete with forage seedlings for
water, light, and nutrients and are not "nurse
crops".
7. Competition from weeds. Weeds are similar
to companion crops, but competition may be
more severe and last longer.
8. Insects. Pests like the mole cricket can
weaken new stands of bahiagrass.
9. Diseases. Pathogens like anthracnose or
pythium can be fatal.
10. Winter-killing. Seeding too late in the fall
or seeding poorly adapted cultivars can
result in winter-kill.

CGC


Legume Inoculation


The proper strain of bacteria may be introduced
into the soil in which a legume is to be planted
by applying a commercially prepared culture of
bacteria to the legume seed. In using
commercial inoculants, the following points
should be observed:

1. Check that the packet of innoculum contains
the correct rhizobial strain for the legume to
be sown.
2. Check that the date stamp has not expired.
3. Keep packets of inoculant under
refrigeration or in a cool place until ready to
use.
4. Inoculate seed according to directions just
prior to sowing. (This includes using a
material that will stick and hold the
innoculum to the seed commonly called a
sticker.) (Under Florida conditions, increase
the rate of innoculum two to four times that
recommended by the manufacture.)
5. Do not expose inoculated seed to direct
sunlight.
6. Sow inoculated seed as soon as possible into
moist soil and cover.
7. Do not mix inoculated seed with caustic
lime or soluble fertilizers as this may kill the
bacteria.

The summer annual legumes commonly used in
Florida use the cowpeaa" type inoculant. Most
of our soils already contain this type of bacteria.
The question arises as to whether or not we
should innoculate seed of the summer annual
legumes with the nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Probably not. If the area (field) to be planted
has had any of the summer legumes in it in the
past then the bacteria will likely be in the soil.
Some producers innoculate their seed just to be
sure (insurance).


CGC


It will soon be time to plant summer forage
legumes. One of the important features of
legume plants is their symbiotic association with
nitrogen fixing bacteria. These bacteria form
nodules on the roots of the plant and fix
atmospheric nitrogen which can be used by the
plant.


Pasture Establishment

April and May are usually too dry to plant a new
pasture or hay field, especially in peninsular
Florida. But, by mid June the summer rains
usually start and the risk of drought decreases.
During the dry period of April/May, start
preparing the land for planting by plowing










5. Crusted soil surface. This can prevent
emergence, especially when seed are sown
deeply on fine textured (clay) soils.

CGC

Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop
Seedings II

Growth of seedlings after establishment may
stop because of:


1. Undesirable pH. Lime should be applied
according to soil test to provide desirable
pH, plus Ca and Mg as nutrients.
2. Low fertility. A soil test should be used to
ensure adequate P, K, or other nutrients.
3. Inadequate legume inoculation.
4. Poor drainage. Water accumulation on the
surface or in the soil profile can limit
growth.
5. Drought. This is the most commonly given
reason for stand failures.
6. Competition from companion crops.
Cereals compete with forage seedlings for
water, light, and nutrients and are not "nurse
crops".
7. Competition from weeds. Weeds are similar
to companion crops, but competition may be
more severe and last longer.
8. Insects. Pests like the mole cricket can
weaken new stands of bahiagrass.
9. Diseases. Pathogens like anthracnose or
pythium can be fatal.
10. Winter-killing. Seeding too late in the fall
or seeding poorly adapted cultivars can
result in winter-kill.

CGC


Legume Inoculation


The proper strain of bacteria may be introduced
into the soil in which a legume is to be planted
by applying a commercially prepared culture of
bacteria to the legume seed. In using
commercial inoculants, the following points
should be observed:

1. Check that the packet of innoculum contains
the correct rhizobial strain for the legume to
be sown.
2. Check that the date stamp has not expired.
3. Keep packets of inoculant under
refrigeration or in a cool place until ready to
use.
4. Inoculate seed according to directions just
prior to sowing. (This includes using a
material that will stick and hold the
innoculum to the seed commonly called a
sticker.) (Under Florida conditions, increase
the rate of innoculum two to four times that
recommended by the manufacture.)
5. Do not expose inoculated seed to direct
sunlight.
6. Sow inoculated seed as soon as possible into
moist soil and cover.
7. Do not mix inoculated seed with caustic
lime or soluble fertilizers as this may kill the
bacteria.

The summer annual legumes commonly used in
Florida use the cowpeaa" type inoculant. Most
of our soils already contain this type of bacteria.
The question arises as to whether or not we
should innoculate seed of the summer annual
legumes with the nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Probably not. If the area (field) to be planted
has had any of the summer legumes in it in the
past then the bacteria will likely be in the soil.
Some producers innoculate their seed just to be
sure (insurance).


CGC


It will soon be time to plant summer forage
legumes. One of the important features of
legume plants is their symbiotic association with
nitrogen fixing bacteria. These bacteria form
nodules on the roots of the plant and fix
atmospheric nitrogen which can be used by the
plant.


Pasture Establishment

April and May are usually too dry to plant a new
pasture or hay field, especially in peninsular
Florida. But, by mid June the summer rains
usually start and the risk of drought decreases.
During the dry period of April/May, start
preparing the land for planting by plowing










5. Crusted soil surface. This can prevent
emergence, especially when seed are sown
deeply on fine textured (clay) soils.

CGC

Establishment of New Pasture and Hay Crop
Seedings II

Growth of seedlings after establishment may
stop because of:


1. Undesirable pH. Lime should be applied
according to soil test to provide desirable
pH, plus Ca and Mg as nutrients.
2. Low fertility. A soil test should be used to
ensure adequate P, K, or other nutrients.
3. Inadequate legume inoculation.
4. Poor drainage. Water accumulation on the
surface or in the soil profile can limit
growth.
5. Drought. This is the most commonly given
reason for stand failures.
6. Competition from companion crops.
Cereals compete with forage seedlings for
water, light, and nutrients and are not "nurse
crops".
7. Competition from weeds. Weeds are similar
to companion crops, but competition may be
more severe and last longer.
8. Insects. Pests like the mole cricket can
weaken new stands of bahiagrass.
9. Diseases. Pathogens like anthracnose or
pythium can be fatal.
10. Winter-killing. Seeding too late in the fall
or seeding poorly adapted cultivars can
result in winter-kill.

CGC


Legume Inoculation


The proper strain of bacteria may be introduced
into the soil in which a legume is to be planted
by applying a commercially prepared culture of
bacteria to the legume seed. In using
commercial inoculants, the following points
should be observed:

1. Check that the packet of innoculum contains
the correct rhizobial strain for the legume to
be sown.
2. Check that the date stamp has not expired.
3. Keep packets of inoculant under
refrigeration or in a cool place until ready to
use.
4. Inoculate seed according to directions just
prior to sowing. (This includes using a
material that will stick and hold the
innoculum to the seed commonly called a
sticker.) (Under Florida conditions, increase
the rate of innoculum two to four times that
recommended by the manufacture.)
5. Do not expose inoculated seed to direct
sunlight.
6. Sow inoculated seed as soon as possible into
moist soil and cover.
7. Do not mix inoculated seed with caustic
lime or soluble fertilizers as this may kill the
bacteria.

The summer annual legumes commonly used in
Florida use the cowpeaa" type inoculant. Most
of our soils already contain this type of bacteria.
The question arises as to whether or not we
should innoculate seed of the summer annual
legumes with the nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Probably not. If the area (field) to be planted
has had any of the summer legumes in it in the
past then the bacteria will likely be in the soil.
Some producers innoculate their seed just to be
sure (insurance).


CGC


It will soon be time to plant summer forage
legumes. One of the important features of
legume plants is their symbiotic association with
nitrogen fixing bacteria. These bacteria form
nodules on the roots of the plant and fix
atmospheric nitrogen which can be used by the
plant.


Pasture Establishment

April and May are usually too dry to plant a new
pasture or hay field, especially in peninsular
Florida. But, by mid June the summer rains
usually start and the risk of drought decreases.
During the dry period of April/May, start
preparing the land for planting by plowing










and/or discing, plus dragging to smooth and
level the land. Add lime if needed before land
preparation begins. Be prepared to obtain seed
or planting material and plant when the summer
rains start. The frequent rains that occur during
June, July, and August make this period a
particularly good time for pasture establishment.
Always plant into a moist seed bed. One final
discing (harrowing) just before planting will
destroy any weeds that have germinated. If the
ground is very soft, it probably should be packed
with a land roller before planting. This will
prevent planting equipment (drills, sprig
planters) from planting the seed or sprigs to
deep. Don't forget to use a land roller or
cultipacker to pack or firm the seed bed after
planting.

CGC


Pasture Renovation


It may be desirable to renovate an existing
pasture if it has deteriorated to the point that
forage production is greatly reduced. Renovation
provides opportunities to fill in bull holes,
control weeds, incorporate lime if needed, and
establish a new improved forage.

One of the problems that producers with small
land holdings may face is "where will the cows
graze if I destroy the existing pasture". A
practice that has been used in some areas is to
plant part of the land in sorghum x sudangrass or
pearl millet. (If grazing horses, plant only pearl
millet). Roundup herbicide can be used to kill
the existing vegetation and pearl millet or
sorghum x sudangrass drilled into the killed sod.
Alternatively, a clean-tilled seedbed could be
prepared. This will in a very short time (30 to
45 days) supply a large volume of forage per
unit of land. When this area is ready to graze
the remaining land area can be prepared for
planting of the permanent pasture grass. Of
course, one of the problems with using these
productive summer annual grasses is estimating
what the forage production will be how much
and for how long.

CGC


Spring Drought

At this time of year (April-May) the chances of
not getting a rain are greater than the chances of
getting a rain. We are in a serious drought.
Many pastures have no grass left or any grass
remaining has "browned-off'. Ranchers must
decide if and how they can feed their cattle in
order to sustain them through this drought. If
feed has run out and cattle are losing weight
rapidly, a rancher may attempt to hold on
thinking that a rain will come "tomorrow". But,
remember, at this time of year(April-May) the
chances of not getting a rain are greater than the
chances of getting a rain. Also, it will take at
least two weeks or longer after a rain before
there is any significant (grazable) growth,
especially on pastures that have been grubbed to
the sand. Do not wait to long to do something
about a difficult situation.

CGC

Increased Soybean Prices Bring Increased
Acreage

There has been more interest in soybean this
year than in the past 10 years due to the current
price (above $9/bu) and the expected price at
harvest. Seed should be purchased early to
make sure that you get the better varieties.
Soybean performance trials for the deep south
can be found on the web at
www.griffin.uga.edu/swvt. Generally soybean
respond more to residual fertility than to direct
fertilization but can respond to potassium
applications on soils testing low or very low.
There are several good Roundup Ready varieties
on the market that make growing soybean much
easier than with conventional varieties 10 years
ago. Soybean may also be drilled with this
technology and still expect to get good weed
control at very little cost. However, when
planting soybeans for the first time in several
years, make sure the seed are inoculated with the
proper inoculant (Rhizobiumjaponicum) at
planting to ensure that the young soybean plants
can fix their own nitrogen for good plant growth
and yield.

DLW










and/or discing, plus dragging to smooth and
level the land. Add lime if needed before land
preparation begins. Be prepared to obtain seed
or planting material and plant when the summer
rains start. The frequent rains that occur during
June, July, and August make this period a
particularly good time for pasture establishment.
Always plant into a moist seed bed. One final
discing (harrowing) just before planting will
destroy any weeds that have germinated. If the
ground is very soft, it probably should be packed
with a land roller before planting. This will
prevent planting equipment (drills, sprig
planters) from planting the seed or sprigs to
deep. Don't forget to use a land roller or
cultipacker to pack or firm the seed bed after
planting.

CGC


Pasture Renovation


It may be desirable to renovate an existing
pasture if it has deteriorated to the point that
forage production is greatly reduced. Renovation
provides opportunities to fill in bull holes,
control weeds, incorporate lime if needed, and
establish a new improved forage.

One of the problems that producers with small
land holdings may face is "where will the cows
graze if I destroy the existing pasture". A
practice that has been used in some areas is to
plant part of the land in sorghum x sudangrass or
pearl millet. (If grazing horses, plant only pearl
millet). Roundup herbicide can be used to kill
the existing vegetation and pearl millet or
sorghum x sudangrass drilled into the killed sod.
Alternatively, a clean-tilled seedbed could be
prepared. This will in a very short time (30 to
45 days) supply a large volume of forage per
unit of land. When this area is ready to graze
the remaining land area can be prepared for
planting of the permanent pasture grass. Of
course, one of the problems with using these
productive summer annual grasses is estimating
what the forage production will be how much
and for how long.

CGC


Spring Drought

At this time of year (April-May) the chances of
not getting a rain are greater than the chances of
getting a rain. We are in a serious drought.
Many pastures have no grass left or any grass
remaining has "browned-off'. Ranchers must
decide if and how they can feed their cattle in
order to sustain them through this drought. If
feed has run out and cattle are losing weight
rapidly, a rancher may attempt to hold on
thinking that a rain will come "tomorrow". But,
remember, at this time of year(April-May) the
chances of not getting a rain are greater than the
chances of getting a rain. Also, it will take at
least two weeks or longer after a rain before
there is any significant (grazable) growth,
especially on pastures that have been grubbed to
the sand. Do not wait to long to do something
about a difficult situation.

CGC

Increased Soybean Prices Bring Increased
Acreage

There has been more interest in soybean this
year than in the past 10 years due to the current
price (above $9/bu) and the expected price at
harvest. Seed should be purchased early to
make sure that you get the better varieties.
Soybean performance trials for the deep south
can be found on the web at
www.griffin.uga.edu/swvt. Generally soybean
respond more to residual fertility than to direct
fertilization but can respond to potassium
applications on soils testing low or very low.
There are several good Roundup Ready varieties
on the market that make growing soybean much
easier than with conventional varieties 10 years
ago. Soybean may also be drilled with this
technology and still expect to get good weed
control at very little cost. However, when
planting soybeans for the first time in several
years, make sure the seed are inoculated with the
proper inoculant (Rhizobiumjaponicum) at
planting to ensure that the young soybean plants
can fix their own nitrogen for good plant growth
and yield.

DLW










Seeding Rates For Drilling Vs. Wide Row
Soybean

Soybean were grown in 36" rows by most
producers in the 80's and early 90's due to
having to get into the fields for weed control
purposes. However, with herbicide resistant
soybean, planting can be done in any manner
with good weed control results. Seeding rates
will be different for different row spacing.
Normally we suggest 7-9 seeds per foot of row
in 36" rows which amounts to about 45 lbs of
seed per acre depending on seed size. With no-
till drilled beans in 10" rows 3-4 seeds per foot
of row is required or about 65 lbs of seed per
acre. If a conventional drill is used with 7"
spacing about 2.5-3 seed are needed or about 75
lbs of seed per acre. If conditions are optimal at
planting a few less seed can be used but if
conditions are harsh at planting higher seeding
rates are needed as well as for late plantings in
July.

DLW

Soybean Planting Date

Several years of research with group V-VIII
soybean shows that the optimum planting date
for soybean is not until early May through the
second week of June. Earlier planting or later
planting than this period will result in lower
soybean yield. The long juvenile soybean that
was developed by Dr. Hinson will allow higher
yields at early and later planting. However,
even these varieties will have higher yields
planted during the recommended planting date
of May 10 to June 15. Planting a week or two
earlier is normally better than planting a week or
two later than the recommended planting period.
There are more group V, VI, and VII soybean on
the market than there are group VIII, since the
later group beans were developed for the deep
south and the acreage has been low in these
states for about 10 years. In many cases, group
V and VI soybean will do better under rainfed
conditions than later group soybean because
they mature earlier and need good soil moisture
during the months of August and early
September. Group VII and VIII soybean will
need good soil moisture through September and


early October. Group V soybean will normally
be ready to harvest by about October 7-10 while
group VIII soybean will be ready to harvest
around November 7-10. The other groups will
fall in between about 7 -10 days apart.

DLW

Prowl H20: Familiar Product, New
Formulation

Prowl 3.3EC is a familiar "yellow dye"
herbicide that has been used to control annual
grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds for
many years. Although this product is relatively
inexpensive and very effective, there are some
disadvantages to its use. The most notable is the
yellow staining of spray tanks, truck beds,
clothes, etc.

Prowl H20 is a microencapsulated formulation
of pendimethalin (the active ingredient of Prowl
3.3EC). The microencapsulation process forms
a thin polymer layer around the herbicide
molecules. These polymers will then quickly
degrade in soil leaving the active herbicide
molecules available for uptake by weeds. The
polymers also shield the herbicide molecule
from staining spray tanks, or other surfaces,
while in solution. As an added benefit,
microencapsulation will also greatly reduce
pesticide odor.

Prowl H20 is a 3.8 lb/gallon and is currently
labeled for use in Florida at a rate of 2 to 3 pt/A.
University research has shown that Prowl H20
and Prowl 3.3EC provide equal levels of weed
control. Additionally, Prowl H20 has been
shown to be less injurious than Prowl 3.3EC
when applied broadcast to 2-leaf cotton.

There will likely be a price differential between
Prowl H20 and Prowl 3.3EC. However, calls
made to chemical dealers in Northwest Florida
in March found no Prowl H20 in stock.
Therefore, availability for the 2004 growing
season will likely be limited.

JAF










Seeding Rates For Drilling Vs. Wide Row
Soybean

Soybean were grown in 36" rows by most
producers in the 80's and early 90's due to
having to get into the fields for weed control
purposes. However, with herbicide resistant
soybean, planting can be done in any manner
with good weed control results. Seeding rates
will be different for different row spacing.
Normally we suggest 7-9 seeds per foot of row
in 36" rows which amounts to about 45 lbs of
seed per acre depending on seed size. With no-
till drilled beans in 10" rows 3-4 seeds per foot
of row is required or about 65 lbs of seed per
acre. If a conventional drill is used with 7"
spacing about 2.5-3 seed are needed or about 75
lbs of seed per acre. If conditions are optimal at
planting a few less seed can be used but if
conditions are harsh at planting higher seeding
rates are needed as well as for late plantings in
July.

DLW

Soybean Planting Date

Several years of research with group V-VIII
soybean shows that the optimum planting date
for soybean is not until early May through the
second week of June. Earlier planting or later
planting than this period will result in lower
soybean yield. The long juvenile soybean that
was developed by Dr. Hinson will allow higher
yields at early and later planting. However,
even these varieties will have higher yields
planted during the recommended planting date
of May 10 to June 15. Planting a week or two
earlier is normally better than planting a week or
two later than the recommended planting period.
There are more group V, VI, and VII soybean on
the market than there are group VIII, since the
later group beans were developed for the deep
south and the acreage has been low in these
states for about 10 years. In many cases, group
V and VI soybean will do better under rainfed
conditions than later group soybean because
they mature earlier and need good soil moisture
during the months of August and early
September. Group VII and VIII soybean will
need good soil moisture through September and


early October. Group V soybean will normally
be ready to harvest by about October 7-10 while
group VIII soybean will be ready to harvest
around November 7-10. The other groups will
fall in between about 7 -10 days apart.

DLW

Prowl H20: Familiar Product, New
Formulation

Prowl 3.3EC is a familiar "yellow dye"
herbicide that has been used to control annual
grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds for
many years. Although this product is relatively
inexpensive and very effective, there are some
disadvantages to its use. The most notable is the
yellow staining of spray tanks, truck beds,
clothes, etc.

Prowl H20 is a microencapsulated formulation
of pendimethalin (the active ingredient of Prowl
3.3EC). The microencapsulation process forms
a thin polymer layer around the herbicide
molecules. These polymers will then quickly
degrade in soil leaving the active herbicide
molecules available for uptake by weeds. The
polymers also shield the herbicide molecule
from staining spray tanks, or other surfaces,
while in solution. As an added benefit,
microencapsulation will also greatly reduce
pesticide odor.

Prowl H20 is a 3.8 lb/gallon and is currently
labeled for use in Florida at a rate of 2 to 3 pt/A.
University research has shown that Prowl H20
and Prowl 3.3EC provide equal levels of weed
control. Additionally, Prowl H20 has been
shown to be less injurious than Prowl 3.3EC
when applied broadcast to 2-leaf cotton.

There will likely be a price differential between
Prowl H20 and Prowl 3.3EC. However, calls
made to chemical dealers in Northwest Florida
in March found no Prowl H20 in stock.
Therefore, availability for the 2004 growing
season will likely be limited.

JAF










Seeding Rates For Drilling Vs. Wide Row
Soybean

Soybean were grown in 36" rows by most
producers in the 80's and early 90's due to
having to get into the fields for weed control
purposes. However, with herbicide resistant
soybean, planting can be done in any manner
with good weed control results. Seeding rates
will be different for different row spacing.
Normally we suggest 7-9 seeds per foot of row
in 36" rows which amounts to about 45 lbs of
seed per acre depending on seed size. With no-
till drilled beans in 10" rows 3-4 seeds per foot
of row is required or about 65 lbs of seed per
acre. If a conventional drill is used with 7"
spacing about 2.5-3 seed are needed or about 75
lbs of seed per acre. If conditions are optimal at
planting a few less seed can be used but if
conditions are harsh at planting higher seeding
rates are needed as well as for late plantings in
July.

DLW

Soybean Planting Date

Several years of research with group V-VIII
soybean shows that the optimum planting date
for soybean is not until early May through the
second week of June. Earlier planting or later
planting than this period will result in lower
soybean yield. The long juvenile soybean that
was developed by Dr. Hinson will allow higher
yields at early and later planting. However,
even these varieties will have higher yields
planted during the recommended planting date
of May 10 to June 15. Planting a week or two
earlier is normally better than planting a week or
two later than the recommended planting period.
There are more group V, VI, and VII soybean on
the market than there are group VIII, since the
later group beans were developed for the deep
south and the acreage has been low in these
states for about 10 years. In many cases, group
V and VI soybean will do better under rainfed
conditions than later group soybean because
they mature earlier and need good soil moisture
during the months of August and early
September. Group VII and VIII soybean will
need good soil moisture through September and


early October. Group V soybean will normally
be ready to harvest by about October 7-10 while
group VIII soybean will be ready to harvest
around November 7-10. The other groups will
fall in between about 7 -10 days apart.

DLW

Prowl H20: Familiar Product, New
Formulation

Prowl 3.3EC is a familiar "yellow dye"
herbicide that has been used to control annual
grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds for
many years. Although this product is relatively
inexpensive and very effective, there are some
disadvantages to its use. The most notable is the
yellow staining of spray tanks, truck beds,
clothes, etc.

Prowl H20 is a microencapsulated formulation
of pendimethalin (the active ingredient of Prowl
3.3EC). The microencapsulation process forms
a thin polymer layer around the herbicide
molecules. These polymers will then quickly
degrade in soil leaving the active herbicide
molecules available for uptake by weeds. The
polymers also shield the herbicide molecule
from staining spray tanks, or other surfaces,
while in solution. As an added benefit,
microencapsulation will also greatly reduce
pesticide odor.

Prowl H20 is a 3.8 lb/gallon and is currently
labeled for use in Florida at a rate of 2 to 3 pt/A.
University research has shown that Prowl H20
and Prowl 3.3EC provide equal levels of weed
control. Additionally, Prowl H20 has been
shown to be less injurious than Prowl 3.3EC
when applied broadcast to 2-leaf cotton.

There will likely be a price differential between
Prowl H20 and Prowl 3.3EC. However, calls
made to chemical dealers in Northwest Florida
in March found no Prowl H20 in stock.
Therefore, availability for the 2004 growing
season will likely be limited.

JAF











Updated Publications


SS-AGR-21
Natural Area Weeds: Old World Climbing
Fern (Lygodium microphyllum)


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist, M. B. Adjei, Forage
Agronomist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist, D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.