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 Table of Contents
 Control spring weeds in hay...
 Fertilizaing pastures in hay...
 Grazing management
 Overseeding warm season legumes...
 Pasture insect pests you need to...
 Plateau herbicide: removal from...
 Warm season annual grasses and...
 Micronutrients for peanuts
 Peanut varieties
 Peanut varieties
 Fertilizing tobacco plant beds
 Pest management in plant beds
 Shortages possible for tobacco...
 Choose crop varieties carefull...
 Genetic technology and pesticide...
 Strip till and cover crops
 Updated publications
 NEW publications
 New to agronomy
 Crop values for 2003


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00044
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: March 2004
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00044

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Control spring weeds in hay fields
        Page 2
    Fertilizaing pastures in hay fields
        Page 2
    Grazing management
        Page 2
    Overseeding warm season legumes on warm season perennial grass pastures
        Page 3
    Pasture insect pests you need to know
        Page 3
    Plateau herbicide: removal from service
        Page 4
    Warm season annual grasses and pasture renovation
        Page 4
    Micronutrients for peanuts
        Page 5
    Peanut varieties
        Page 5
    Peanut varieties
        Page 5
    Fertilizing tobacco plant beds
        Page 6
    Pest management in plant beds
        Page 6
    Shortages possible for tobacco fertilizers
        Page 6
    Choose crop varieties carefully
        Page 6
    Genetic technology and pesticide use
        Page 7
    Strip till and cover crops
        Page 7
    Updated publications
        Page 7
    NEW publications
        Page 7
    New to agronomy
        Page 7
    Crop values for 2003
        Page 8
Full Text







AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION
March, 2004

DATES TO REMEMBER

Mar. 25 Beef Cattle Field Day at the North Florida Research and Education Center's
Beef Unit, Marianna
May 22 4th Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day, Moultrie, GA
May 27 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra

IN THIS ISSUE

FORAGE
Control Spring Weeds in Hay Fields ........................................... 2
Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields ................ ............................. 2
G razing M anagem ent ........................................................ .. 2
Overseeding Warm Season Legumes on Warm
Season Perennial Grass Pastures ................ ............................. 3
Pasture Insect Pests You Need to Know .................................... ...... 3
Plateau Herbicide: Removal from Service ................................... ...... 4
Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture Renovation ................................. 4

PEANUTS
M icronutrients for Peanuts ....................................................... 5
Peanut Varieties ......................................................... ...... 5

TOBACCO
Clipping Tobacco Plants .. ...... ....................................... 5
Fertilizing Tobacco Plant Beds ................. ............................ 6
Pest M anagem ent in Plant Beds ................................................... 6
Shortages Possible for Tobacco Fertilizers .......................................... 6

MISCELLANEOUS
Choose Crop Varieties Carefully .................. ............................ 6
Genetic Technology and Pesticide Use .......................................... 7
Strip Till and Cover Crops ....................................................... 7
U pdated Publications ........................................................... 7
NEW Publications ........ .. ............................... ........... 7
New to Agronomy .............. .. ....................................... 7
Crop Values for2003 ............ ....... ........................... ........... 8


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida /, Larry Arrington,
Interim Dean.










Control Spring Weeds in Hay Fields

Broadleaf weeds in the first hay crop can
sometimes be a problem. Burning at or just
before green up will control many of the spring
weed seedlings. If it is not possible to bur then
a timely application of herbicide can be used.
Banvel, 2,4-D, or the combination of the two are
available for use on grass hay fields. Banvel
(dicamba) at 0.25 lbs plus 2,4-D at 0.75 lbs per
acre usually gives better control than either
herbicide used alone. Annual weeds should be
treated soon after emergence. Perennial weeds
(such as dogfennel) should be allowed to obtain
a leaf surface large enough to allow sufficient
spray coverages (about 12"-18" tall).
Individuals using these herbicides should read
the label carefully and observe all safety
precautions. These herbicides can drift and may
cause damage to nearby vegetable, cotton and
tobacco crops. Avoid drift. If there is a
vegetable, cotton or tobacco crop growing
adjacent to the hay field, it may be wise to
simply forgo application of the herbicide. See
the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the
Sunshine Weed Management in Pastures and
Rangeland 2003", for additional information.
This publication can be found at the following
web site http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG006 or
contact your local Cooperative Extension
Service.

CGC

Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields

The six soil-supplied nutrients required by plants
in the largest quantities are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Micronutrents,
iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron,
molybdenum, and chlorine, are also essential but
are used by the plant in very small amounts.
The soil can supply the plant with most, if not
all of these nutrients, but often the supply of one
or more of the nutrients is insufficient for
optimum growth.


Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer nutrient
used on grass pastures and hay fields. It is the
nutrient that is most likely to be deficient and
therefore the one that most often results in
increased forage production. Phosphorus may
be deficient in some areas, but some Florida
soils are high in native P. Also, some pasture
grasses (such as bahiagrass) may extract
sufficient P from the subsoil, even when the P
level in the surface soil is low. Potassium may
need to be added to some pastures, but in South
Fl., bahiagrass pastures on flatwoods that
receive 50 pounds of nitrogen or less per year
have shown little if any response to potassium
fertilization. Under intensive hay or silage
production, where nutrients are removed from
the land, annual applications of P and K are
needed. Where nutrients are being removed in
harvested forage (hay) potassium may reach
critically low levels, where not only plant
growth is reduced, but plants may die. This is
usually indicated by a thinning stand in
bermudagrass hay fields. Potassium can very
quickly become deficient; also calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, and some micronutrients
may eventually become deficient after several
years of cropping. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur,
and the micronutrients are seldom a problem in
pastures where considerable recycling of
nutrients occurs. (Source: Fl. Forage Handbook-
modified).

CGC

Grazing Management

Some pastures may have been grazed very close
during the winter. Pastures with grasses such as
Floralta Limpograss (Hemarthria) or Callide
Rhodesgrass should be vacated before spring
growth starts and then allowed to accumulate at
least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is
resumed. Graze rotationally taking no more
than /2 of the top growth. During the warm
season, it is important to always leave some leaf
on the plants after grazing. This will help to
maintain a healthy productive stand. Graze
bahiagrass










Control Spring Weeds in Hay Fields

Broadleaf weeds in the first hay crop can
sometimes be a problem. Burning at or just
before green up will control many of the spring
weed seedlings. If it is not possible to bur then
a timely application of herbicide can be used.
Banvel, 2,4-D, or the combination of the two are
available for use on grass hay fields. Banvel
(dicamba) at 0.25 lbs plus 2,4-D at 0.75 lbs per
acre usually gives better control than either
herbicide used alone. Annual weeds should be
treated soon after emergence. Perennial weeds
(such as dogfennel) should be allowed to obtain
a leaf surface large enough to allow sufficient
spray coverages (about 12"-18" tall).
Individuals using these herbicides should read
the label carefully and observe all safety
precautions. These herbicides can drift and may
cause damage to nearby vegetable, cotton and
tobacco crops. Avoid drift. If there is a
vegetable, cotton or tobacco crop growing
adjacent to the hay field, it may be wise to
simply forgo application of the herbicide. See
the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the
Sunshine Weed Management in Pastures and
Rangeland 2003", for additional information.
This publication can be found at the following
web site http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG006 or
contact your local Cooperative Extension
Service.

CGC

Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields

The six soil-supplied nutrients required by plants
in the largest quantities are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Micronutrents,
iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron,
molybdenum, and chlorine, are also essential but
are used by the plant in very small amounts.
The soil can supply the plant with most, if not
all of these nutrients, but often the supply of one
or more of the nutrients is insufficient for
optimum growth.


Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer nutrient
used on grass pastures and hay fields. It is the
nutrient that is most likely to be deficient and
therefore the one that most often results in
increased forage production. Phosphorus may
be deficient in some areas, but some Florida
soils are high in native P. Also, some pasture
grasses (such as bahiagrass) may extract
sufficient P from the subsoil, even when the P
level in the surface soil is low. Potassium may
need to be added to some pastures, but in South
Fl., bahiagrass pastures on flatwoods that
receive 50 pounds of nitrogen or less per year
have shown little if any response to potassium
fertilization. Under intensive hay or silage
production, where nutrients are removed from
the land, annual applications of P and K are
needed. Where nutrients are being removed in
harvested forage (hay) potassium may reach
critically low levels, where not only plant
growth is reduced, but plants may die. This is
usually indicated by a thinning stand in
bermudagrass hay fields. Potassium can very
quickly become deficient; also calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, and some micronutrients
may eventually become deficient after several
years of cropping. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur,
and the micronutrients are seldom a problem in
pastures where considerable recycling of
nutrients occurs. (Source: Fl. Forage Handbook-
modified).

CGC

Grazing Management

Some pastures may have been grazed very close
during the winter. Pastures with grasses such as
Floralta Limpograss (Hemarthria) or Callide
Rhodesgrass should be vacated before spring
growth starts and then allowed to accumulate at
least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is
resumed. Graze rotationally taking no more
than /2 of the top growth. During the warm
season, it is important to always leave some leaf
on the plants after grazing. This will help to
maintain a healthy productive stand. Graze
bahiagrass










Control Spring Weeds in Hay Fields

Broadleaf weeds in the first hay crop can
sometimes be a problem. Burning at or just
before green up will control many of the spring
weed seedlings. If it is not possible to bur then
a timely application of herbicide can be used.
Banvel, 2,4-D, or the combination of the two are
available for use on grass hay fields. Banvel
(dicamba) at 0.25 lbs plus 2,4-D at 0.75 lbs per
acre usually gives better control than either
herbicide used alone. Annual weeds should be
treated soon after emergence. Perennial weeds
(such as dogfennel) should be allowed to obtain
a leaf surface large enough to allow sufficient
spray coverages (about 12"-18" tall).
Individuals using these herbicides should read
the label carefully and observe all safety
precautions. These herbicides can drift and may
cause damage to nearby vegetable, cotton and
tobacco crops. Avoid drift. If there is a
vegetable, cotton or tobacco crop growing
adjacent to the hay field, it may be wise to
simply forgo application of the herbicide. See
the publication SS-AGR-08, Weeds in the
Sunshine Weed Management in Pastures and
Rangeland 2003", for additional information.
This publication can be found at the following
web site http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG006 or
contact your local Cooperative Extension
Service.

CGC

Fertilizing Pastures and Hay Fields

The six soil-supplied nutrients required by plants
in the largest quantities are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca),
magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Micronutrents,
iron, copper, zinc, manganese, boron,
molybdenum, and chlorine, are also essential but
are used by the plant in very small amounts.
The soil can supply the plant with most, if not
all of these nutrients, but often the supply of one
or more of the nutrients is insufficient for
optimum growth.


Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer nutrient
used on grass pastures and hay fields. It is the
nutrient that is most likely to be deficient and
therefore the one that most often results in
increased forage production. Phosphorus may
be deficient in some areas, but some Florida
soils are high in native P. Also, some pasture
grasses (such as bahiagrass) may extract
sufficient P from the subsoil, even when the P
level in the surface soil is low. Potassium may
need to be added to some pastures, but in South
Fl., bahiagrass pastures on flatwoods that
receive 50 pounds of nitrogen or less per year
have shown little if any response to potassium
fertilization. Under intensive hay or silage
production, where nutrients are removed from
the land, annual applications of P and K are
needed. Where nutrients are being removed in
harvested forage (hay) potassium may reach
critically low levels, where not only plant
growth is reduced, but plants may die. This is
usually indicated by a thinning stand in
bermudagrass hay fields. Potassium can very
quickly become deficient; also calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, and some micronutrients
may eventually become deficient after several
years of cropping. Calcium, magnesium, sulfur,
and the micronutrients are seldom a problem in
pastures where considerable recycling of
nutrients occurs. (Source: Fl. Forage Handbook-
modified).

CGC

Grazing Management

Some pastures may have been grazed very close
during the winter. Pastures with grasses such as
Floralta Limpograss (Hemarthria) or Callide
Rhodesgrass should be vacated before spring
growth starts and then allowed to accumulate at
least 10 to 12 inches of growth before grazing is
resumed. Graze rotationally taking no more
than /2 of the top growth. During the warm
season, it is important to always leave some leaf
on the plants after grazing. This will help to
maintain a healthy productive stand. Graze
bahiagrass










pastures while other grasses are recovering from
winter stress. Bahiagrass with its more prostrate
growth habit and large accumulation of stolons
can withstand greater grazing pressure than
many other grasses.

CGC

Overseeding Warm Season Legumes on
Warm Season Perennial Grass Pastures

Planing ahead, producers may want to think
about overseeding aeschynomene americanna
(joint vetch or deer vetch) onto their pastures
this spring or early summer. This may be a good
aeschynomene year. What is a good
aeschynomene year? That is a year when we
have above average winter and spring rainfall.
This allows the aeschynomene to start early
from natural reseeding, or decreases the chances
of losing the young seedlings to drought when
planted. In most years seed that germinate
during the spring are lost due to drought and
therefore producers delay planting until the
summer rains start. This in turn delays the date
when the annual legume will be ready to graze,
thereby producing a shorter grazing season.
Aeschynomene should only be planted on moist
flatwoods. Savanna stylo, alyceclover, and
hairy indigo can be planted on flatwoods with
good drainage or on upland sands.

CGC

Pasture Insect Pests You Need to Know

The weather is warming up and the cycle of
insect pests on pasture will soon resume. We
need to watch out and protect our pastures
against major insect damage. The most common
pasture insect pests that occur in south-central
Florida are the chinch bugs, spittle bugs,
caterpillars, mole crickets and white grubs.

Mole crickets have just awakened from their
dormant winter sleep. They are feeding and
flying around bahiagrass pastures to mate.
These mature mole crickets will lay millions of
eggs in underground chambers between March


and May before they die out about the end of
June. But they will be survived by the millions
of nymphs that hatch from eggs in May and June
unless we act together to control the adults now.
The UF-IFAS, the Florida Department of
Agriculture, the Florida Cattlemen Association,
and the Florida Turfgrass Association
established a partnership in 2002 for the
commercial production of the mole cricket
biological control product, Nematac S by
Becker Underwood. This spring's nematode
product is marketed from mid-February to May.
The team also established a commercial strip-
application by Ingram Grove Services and a
network of nematode vendors throughout
Florida. Sales information on nematodes can be
obtained from your local vendor. Technical
information on proper application methods and
the custom applicator can be obtained from your
local county Extension Office.

Southern chinch bugs are most abundant in dry
years and prefer thin stands of grass. The adult
chinch bug has a black body and white wing
covers, each with a black triangle at the middle
of its outer margin. Nymphs are reddish with a
white band across their backs, and older and
larger nymphs are reddish-brown with a white
band. If you observe the appearance of black-
white-red, ant-like insects on the thatch of your
damaged bermudagrass pasture, it is most likely
chinch bugs. The chinch bug overwinters as
adults and large nymphs in thatch of infested
fields. Activity resumes in spring when
temperatures exceed 65 F. The bugs suck plant
juices from grass resulting in yellowish to
brownish patches usually beginning with the
driest part along the edges of the field. The
damage expands to new areas as the bugs
migrate. Control measures include monitoring
for the insect, close mowing (3") and spraying
the affected area plus a 5-ft buffer with
recommended chemicals.

The adult two-lined spittlebugs are black with
red eyes and legs and have two orange
transverse stripes across their wings. The
nymphs are yellow or white with a brown head
and are enveloped in a mass of white frothy
spittle that










pastures while other grasses are recovering from
winter stress. Bahiagrass with its more prostrate
growth habit and large accumulation of stolons
can withstand greater grazing pressure than
many other grasses.

CGC

Overseeding Warm Season Legumes on
Warm Season Perennial Grass Pastures

Planing ahead, producers may want to think
about overseeding aeschynomene americanna
(joint vetch or deer vetch) onto their pastures
this spring or early summer. This may be a good
aeschynomene year. What is a good
aeschynomene year? That is a year when we
have above average winter and spring rainfall.
This allows the aeschynomene to start early
from natural reseeding, or decreases the chances
of losing the young seedlings to drought when
planted. In most years seed that germinate
during the spring are lost due to drought and
therefore producers delay planting until the
summer rains start. This in turn delays the date
when the annual legume will be ready to graze,
thereby producing a shorter grazing season.
Aeschynomene should only be planted on moist
flatwoods. Savanna stylo, alyceclover, and
hairy indigo can be planted on flatwoods with
good drainage or on upland sands.

CGC

Pasture Insect Pests You Need to Know

The weather is warming up and the cycle of
insect pests on pasture will soon resume. We
need to watch out and protect our pastures
against major insect damage. The most common
pasture insect pests that occur in south-central
Florida are the chinch bugs, spittle bugs,
caterpillars, mole crickets and white grubs.

Mole crickets have just awakened from their
dormant winter sleep. They are feeding and
flying around bahiagrass pastures to mate.
These mature mole crickets will lay millions of
eggs in underground chambers between March


and May before they die out about the end of
June. But they will be survived by the millions
of nymphs that hatch from eggs in May and June
unless we act together to control the adults now.
The UF-IFAS, the Florida Department of
Agriculture, the Florida Cattlemen Association,
and the Florida Turfgrass Association
established a partnership in 2002 for the
commercial production of the mole cricket
biological control product, Nematac S by
Becker Underwood. This spring's nematode
product is marketed from mid-February to May.
The team also established a commercial strip-
application by Ingram Grove Services and a
network of nematode vendors throughout
Florida. Sales information on nematodes can be
obtained from your local vendor. Technical
information on proper application methods and
the custom applicator can be obtained from your
local county Extension Office.

Southern chinch bugs are most abundant in dry
years and prefer thin stands of grass. The adult
chinch bug has a black body and white wing
covers, each with a black triangle at the middle
of its outer margin. Nymphs are reddish with a
white band across their backs, and older and
larger nymphs are reddish-brown with a white
band. If you observe the appearance of black-
white-red, ant-like insects on the thatch of your
damaged bermudagrass pasture, it is most likely
chinch bugs. The chinch bug overwinters as
adults and large nymphs in thatch of infested
fields. Activity resumes in spring when
temperatures exceed 65 F. The bugs suck plant
juices from grass resulting in yellowish to
brownish patches usually beginning with the
driest part along the edges of the field. The
damage expands to new areas as the bugs
migrate. Control measures include monitoring
for the insect, close mowing (3") and spraying
the affected area plus a 5-ft buffer with
recommended chemicals.

The adult two-lined spittlebugs are black with
red eyes and legs and have two orange
transverse stripes across their wings. The
nymphs are yellow or white with a brown head
and are enveloped in a mass of white frothy
spittle that










they secrete for protection. The majority of the
spittle masses are not readily visible since they
are located near the soil surface at the base of
the thatch. Damage to grass is caused by adults
and nymphs piercing and sucking juices from
the plant. The insect also injects toxic salivary
substances into the plants. Infected grasses wilt
and tips turn yellow and eventually brown.
Limpograss, pangolagrass and rhodesgrass are
very susceptible especially under high humidity
conditions. Close mowing or grazing in summer
will reduce the dense thatch mat and the
spittlebug problem. Burning off the dense mat
of dry grass in late-February or early March is
an alternative control measure. The protective
spittle makes either chemical or biological
control of this pest very difficult.

Caterpillars or worms are the immature stages of
grayish-brown moths. These are migratory pests
that often move in large numbers from one area
to another in search of food. They can cause
extensive defoliation of N-fertilized foliage and
prefer N-demanding grasses such as
bermudagrass, stargrass and pangolagrass. We
will discuss the details of the problem with
armyworms and loopers and their solution in the
summer as their season approaches.

Specific information on the control of various
pasture insects can be found at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/1GO61 or obtained from
your local county Extension Office.

MBA

Plateau Herbicide: Removal from Service

Hay and forage producers in Florida have
struggled for many years to control grasses and
sedges in production areas. With the
introduction of the herbicide Plateau, producers
were given the unique ability to control many
troublesome grass and broadleaf weeds in
bermudagrass and bahiagrass with
postemergence applications. However, a
statement was released in January 2004 by
BASF (the manufacturer of Plateau) that Plateau
herbicide will no longer be sold for weed control


in forages. Although bermudagrass and
bahiagrass will remain on the product label,
Plateau will now be sold exclusively for State
use on highway rights-of-ways. Although this
decision will make farm owners ineligible for
purchase of Plateau herbicide, remaining stocks
can legally be sold to farm owners in 2004 until
local supplies are exhausted.

The removal of this highly effective herbicide
from market effectively leaves producers with
no herbicidal alternative to control grass and
sedge weeds in forage production systems. This
means the producer must again rely on proper
fertility, grazing management, and timely
mowing to control these troublesome weeds.

JAF

Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture
Renovation

The two most popular warm season annual
grasses are pearl millet and sorghum x
sudangrass. Both should be planted on sites that
have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass
will tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better
than pearl millet. Therefore, it may be the better
choice on some flatwoods sites. These grasses
should not be planted until the soil is warm. The
earliest planting date is usually mid March to
mid April.

When or where should these crops be used?
These crops can be useful in a pasture
renovation program. For instance, if you desire
to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as
Tifton-9 bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till
and plant the land to a summer annual grass or
some other crop for one or more seasons before
planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual grass
can be followed in the fall with a cool season
annual such as ryegrass or a small grain. The
Tifton-9 would then be planted in June
following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation
before each crop is planted. The multiple tillage
operations should eliminate most of the old
pasture grass and grass










they secrete for protection. The majority of the
spittle masses are not readily visible since they
are located near the soil surface at the base of
the thatch. Damage to grass is caused by adults
and nymphs piercing and sucking juices from
the plant. The insect also injects toxic salivary
substances into the plants. Infected grasses wilt
and tips turn yellow and eventually brown.
Limpograss, pangolagrass and rhodesgrass are
very susceptible especially under high humidity
conditions. Close mowing or grazing in summer
will reduce the dense thatch mat and the
spittlebug problem. Burning off the dense mat
of dry grass in late-February or early March is
an alternative control measure. The protective
spittle makes either chemical or biological
control of this pest very difficult.

Caterpillars or worms are the immature stages of
grayish-brown moths. These are migratory pests
that often move in large numbers from one area
to another in search of food. They can cause
extensive defoliation of N-fertilized foliage and
prefer N-demanding grasses such as
bermudagrass, stargrass and pangolagrass. We
will discuss the details of the problem with
armyworms and loopers and their solution in the
summer as their season approaches.

Specific information on the control of various
pasture insects can be found at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/1GO61 or obtained from
your local county Extension Office.

MBA

Plateau Herbicide: Removal from Service

Hay and forage producers in Florida have
struggled for many years to control grasses and
sedges in production areas. With the
introduction of the herbicide Plateau, producers
were given the unique ability to control many
troublesome grass and broadleaf weeds in
bermudagrass and bahiagrass with
postemergence applications. However, a
statement was released in January 2004 by
BASF (the manufacturer of Plateau) that Plateau
herbicide will no longer be sold for weed control


in forages. Although bermudagrass and
bahiagrass will remain on the product label,
Plateau will now be sold exclusively for State
use on highway rights-of-ways. Although this
decision will make farm owners ineligible for
purchase of Plateau herbicide, remaining stocks
can legally be sold to farm owners in 2004 until
local supplies are exhausted.

The removal of this highly effective herbicide
from market effectively leaves producers with
no herbicidal alternative to control grass and
sedge weeds in forage production systems. This
means the producer must again rely on proper
fertility, grazing management, and timely
mowing to control these troublesome weeds.

JAF

Warm Season Annual Grasses and Pasture
Renovation

The two most popular warm season annual
grasses are pearl millet and sorghum x
sudangrass. Both should be planted on sites that
have good drainage, but sorghum x sudangrass
will tolerate wet, saturated soil conditions better
than pearl millet. Therefore, it may be the better
choice on some flatwoods sites. These grasses
should not be planted until the soil is warm. The
earliest planting date is usually mid March to
mid April.

When or where should these crops be used?
These crops can be useful in a pasture
renovation program. For instance, if you desire
to convert an old rundown bahiagrass pasture to
an improved more productive grass such as
Tifton-9 bahiagrass, it might be desirable to till
and plant the land to a summer annual grass or
some other crop for one or more seasons before
planting the Tifton-9. The summer annual grass
can be followed in the fall with a cool season
annual such as ryegrass or a small grain. The
Tifton-9 would then be planted in June
following the ryegrass. This process would
involve soil tillage and seedbed preparation
before each crop is planted. The multiple tillage
operations should eliminate most of the old
pasture grass and grass










seed. This process involves considerable
expense; therefore, the producer must make
good use of the forage produced from the
annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during
hot weather and may be ready to graze in 35 to
40 days after planting. They are very productive
if fertilized properly and can provide high
quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals
such as developing heifers or stockers that
require a higher quality forage than that required
by mature animals. Also, be prepared to graze
rotationally. Remember, do not graze sorghum
x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller.
This is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning
problem that can occur in very young plants.
Prussic acid is not a problem in pearl millet.

One complaint about summer annuals is that
they can produce too much growth and will "get
away from you." They do require a high
stocking rate. When excess growth occurs,
move young animals to a fresh pasture and let
the mature cow herd clean up behind them.
Stems may need to be mowed after grazing.

CGC

Micronutrients for Peanuts

Although there are a number of micronutrients
that are essential for peanut growth, most are
present in many soils or in fertilizers or other
chemicals applied to peanuts. There are two
possible exceptions, boron and manganese.
Boron easily leaches from Florida's sandy soils,
and therefore needs to be included in the peanut
fertilization program. Boron, at the rate of 0.5 to
0.75 pounds of elemental B, should be applied
for peanuts grown on sandy soils. It can be
included in the pre-plant fertilizer, but it is more
often applied in a foliar spray before blooming
and pegging is active. Boron prevents yield
loss, but is also needed to insure high quality
peanuts. A common boron deficiency is a
condition called "hollow-heart" which is a lack
of complete filling of the inside of the kernels,
and results in grade reductions. Toxicity to
boron can occur if


excessive rates are applied. Manganese is more
common on wetter soils that have been drained
and limed, but is often found on deep sands
when liming raises the soil pH to about 6.3 or
higher. Yellowing between the lateral veins of
the leaves is the most common symptom of a
manganese deficiency, but may become less
noticeable as the plant grows. There have been
few indications that yields are reduced by the
mild manganese deficiencies generally seen in
Florida. Foliar sprays of manganese sulfate or
other soluble manganese compounds can correct
the deficiency.

EBW

Peanut Varieties

Results of the 2003 peanut variety tests in
Florida show the importance of selecting a
variety based on expected disease problems. At
Marianna where diseases such as tomato spotted
wilt virus are common, C-99R, AP-3, Ga 01R,
Hull, and DP-1 had the lowest levels of disease
and also had the highest yields of the runner
varieties. VC2 and Gregory were the better
yielding of the virginia-type varieties, and also
had the lowest levels of disease incidence. At
the Pine Acres location tomato spotted wilt virus
and other diseases were not as severe as at
Marianna and consequently yields were higher
and some of the varieties with less disease
resistance performed very well. However the
disease-resistant varieties also had good yields.
At Pine Acres, Ga 01RCarver, C-99R,
ANorden, Georgia Green, AT 201, and DP-1
were the better-yielding runner varieties, while
NC 7, VC 2, NC V11, and Gregory led the
virginia-type test.

EBW

Clipping Tobacco Plants

The advantages of clipping tobacco plants are
mostly increased efficiency in pulling plants,
easier transplanting, as well as better quality
plants. By clipping, portions of the leaves of
the larger plants are removed which allows the










seed. This process involves considerable
expense; therefore, the producer must make
good use of the forage produced from the
annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during
hot weather and may be ready to graze in 35 to
40 days after planting. They are very productive
if fertilized properly and can provide high
quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals
such as developing heifers or stockers that
require a higher quality forage than that required
by mature animals. Also, be prepared to graze
rotationally. Remember, do not graze sorghum
x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller.
This is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning
problem that can occur in very young plants.
Prussic acid is not a problem in pearl millet.

One complaint about summer annuals is that
they can produce too much growth and will "get
away from you." They do require a high
stocking rate. When excess growth occurs,
move young animals to a fresh pasture and let
the mature cow herd clean up behind them.
Stems may need to be mowed after grazing.

CGC

Micronutrients for Peanuts

Although there are a number of micronutrients
that are essential for peanut growth, most are
present in many soils or in fertilizers or other
chemicals applied to peanuts. There are two
possible exceptions, boron and manganese.
Boron easily leaches from Florida's sandy soils,
and therefore needs to be included in the peanut
fertilization program. Boron, at the rate of 0.5 to
0.75 pounds of elemental B, should be applied
for peanuts grown on sandy soils. It can be
included in the pre-plant fertilizer, but it is more
often applied in a foliar spray before blooming
and pegging is active. Boron prevents yield
loss, but is also needed to insure high quality
peanuts. A common boron deficiency is a
condition called "hollow-heart" which is a lack
of complete filling of the inside of the kernels,
and results in grade reductions. Toxicity to
boron can occur if


excessive rates are applied. Manganese is more
common on wetter soils that have been drained
and limed, but is often found on deep sands
when liming raises the soil pH to about 6.3 or
higher. Yellowing between the lateral veins of
the leaves is the most common symptom of a
manganese deficiency, but may become less
noticeable as the plant grows. There have been
few indications that yields are reduced by the
mild manganese deficiencies generally seen in
Florida. Foliar sprays of manganese sulfate or
other soluble manganese compounds can correct
the deficiency.

EBW

Peanut Varieties

Results of the 2003 peanut variety tests in
Florida show the importance of selecting a
variety based on expected disease problems. At
Marianna where diseases such as tomato spotted
wilt virus are common, C-99R, AP-3, Ga 01R,
Hull, and DP-1 had the lowest levels of disease
and also had the highest yields of the runner
varieties. VC2 and Gregory were the better
yielding of the virginia-type varieties, and also
had the lowest levels of disease incidence. At
the Pine Acres location tomato spotted wilt virus
and other diseases were not as severe as at
Marianna and consequently yields were higher
and some of the varieties with less disease
resistance performed very well. However the
disease-resistant varieties also had good yields.
At Pine Acres, Ga 01RCarver, C-99R,
ANorden, Georgia Green, AT 201, and DP-1
were the better-yielding runner varieties, while
NC 7, VC 2, NC V11, and Gregory led the
virginia-type test.

EBW

Clipping Tobacco Plants

The advantages of clipping tobacco plants are
mostly increased efficiency in pulling plants,
easier transplanting, as well as better quality
plants. By clipping, portions of the leaves of
the larger plants are removed which allows the










seed. This process involves considerable
expense; therefore, the producer must make
good use of the forage produced from the
annuals.

The summer annuals will grow rapidly during
hot weather and may be ready to graze in 35 to
40 days after planting. They are very productive
if fertilized properly and can provide high
quality grazing. The most efficient use of these
pastures can be had by grazing young animals
such as developing heifers or stockers that
require a higher quality forage than that required
by mature animals. Also, be prepared to graze
rotationally. Remember, do not graze sorghum
x sudangrass until it is 24 inches tall or taller.
This is due to the prussic acid (HCN) poisoning
problem that can occur in very young plants.
Prussic acid is not a problem in pearl millet.

One complaint about summer annuals is that
they can produce too much growth and will "get
away from you." They do require a high
stocking rate. When excess growth occurs,
move young animals to a fresh pasture and let
the mature cow herd clean up behind them.
Stems may need to be mowed after grazing.

CGC

Micronutrients for Peanuts

Although there are a number of micronutrients
that are essential for peanut growth, most are
present in many soils or in fertilizers or other
chemicals applied to peanuts. There are two
possible exceptions, boron and manganese.
Boron easily leaches from Florida's sandy soils,
and therefore needs to be included in the peanut
fertilization program. Boron, at the rate of 0.5 to
0.75 pounds of elemental B, should be applied
for peanuts grown on sandy soils. It can be
included in the pre-plant fertilizer, but it is more
often applied in a foliar spray before blooming
and pegging is active. Boron prevents yield
loss, but is also needed to insure high quality
peanuts. A common boron deficiency is a
condition called "hollow-heart" which is a lack
of complete filling of the inside of the kernels,
and results in grade reductions. Toxicity to
boron can occur if


excessive rates are applied. Manganese is more
common on wetter soils that have been drained
and limed, but is often found on deep sands
when liming raises the soil pH to about 6.3 or
higher. Yellowing between the lateral veins of
the leaves is the most common symptom of a
manganese deficiency, but may become less
noticeable as the plant grows. There have been
few indications that yields are reduced by the
mild manganese deficiencies generally seen in
Florida. Foliar sprays of manganese sulfate or
other soluble manganese compounds can correct
the deficiency.

EBW

Peanut Varieties

Results of the 2003 peanut variety tests in
Florida show the importance of selecting a
variety based on expected disease problems. At
Marianna where diseases such as tomato spotted
wilt virus are common, C-99R, AP-3, Ga 01R,
Hull, and DP-1 had the lowest levels of disease
and also had the highest yields of the runner
varieties. VC2 and Gregory were the better
yielding of the virginia-type varieties, and also
had the lowest levels of disease incidence. At
the Pine Acres location tomato spotted wilt virus
and other diseases were not as severe as at
Marianna and consequently yields were higher
and some of the varieties with less disease
resistance performed very well. However the
disease-resistant varieties also had good yields.
At Pine Acres, Ga 01RCarver, C-99R,
ANorden, Georgia Green, AT 201, and DP-1
were the better-yielding runner varieties, while
NC 7, VC 2, NC V11, and Gregory led the
virginia-type test.

EBW

Clipping Tobacco Plants

The advantages of clipping tobacco plants are
mostly increased efficiency in pulling plants,
easier transplanting, as well as better quality
plants. By clipping, portions of the leaves of
the larger plants are removed which allows the










smaller plants to catch up in size and result in
more uniform plants, and most plants can then
be pulled at the same time. Much less labor is
required than would be for plants that are not
clipped. Clipping should begin when the plants
are 3 to 5 inches in height, using a mower with
sharp blades to cut the plants just above the bud
of the largest plants. Normally clipping is
needed about every 5 days, depending on
growth.

EBW

Fertilizing Tobacco Plant Beds

The need for top dressing tobacco plant beds
depends on the initial fertilization, the extent of
rainfall or irrigation, and the soil type. If the
plants turn yellow and grow slowly, and there
are no disease or other problems, additional
fertilizer may be needed. Nitrogen and sulfur
are generally the most likely nutrients that need
to be added, but magnesium may at times be
deficient. If only nitrogen is needed, 3 to 5
pounds of nitrate of soda per 100 square yards of
bed should restore the green color and faster
growth. Sulfur and magnesium deficiencies can
be corrected with 3 to 5 pounds of magnesium
sulfate or Epsom salts per 100 square yards of
bed area. The fertilizer should be applied when
the plants are dry, with irrigation following
immediately to move the nutrients into the soil.

EBW

Pest Management in Plant Beds

Although there have been no reports of blue
mold so far this year, be sure to inspect the beds
frequently for signs of this disease. Blue mold is
more likely after rain or irrigation and when the
plants are succulent. The first symptoms are
large yellow spots on the leaves, soon followed
by a bluish mold growth on the underside of the
leaves. Blue mold can spread rapidly and kill or
severely damage plants. A preventative
application of Dithane or other carbamate
fungicide should be made if conditions are
favorable for the disease or if it has been
reported in the area. These fungicides may also
reduce


problems with other diseases such as damping-
off and target spot. Even if there are no disease
symptoms present, an application of a fungicide
a few days before transplanting will help insure
disease-free plants. Insect pests, such as
vegetable weevil larvae, cutworms, aphids,
budworms, and even horn worms can attack
plants in the bed. Orthene will generally control
most of these insects pests. It is a good idea to
make preventative applications of Orthene a few
days prior to transplanting to insure insect-free
transplants.

EBW

Shortages Possible for Tobacco Fertilizers

There are various nitrate fertilizers, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), and potassium nitrate (13-0-44) that
have been popular products for tobacco
producers. The all-nitrate composition provides
a source of nitrogen that is readily usable by the
tobacco plant and is especially useful in
replacing leached nitrogen, and potassium in the
case of 15-0-14 and 13-0-44. Much of the
world's supply of these fertilizers are from
natural deposits in Chile. Unfortunately an
earthquake in the mining area has caused some
disruption in production of the fertilizers, which
has resulted in limited supplies. These shortages
may continue, which means tobacco farmers
should plan on replacements. Calcium nitrate is
another all-nitrate source of nitrogen, and
needed potassium could be obtained from sulfate
of potash or sulfate of potash-magnesia. It is
possible that fertilizer companies may formulate
mixtures that will meet the needs of growers.

EBW

Choose Crop Varieties Carefully

Many of the top corn and cotton varieties are
transgenic and are valued for ease of controlling
many troublesome weeds. However, many of the
best varieties are in short supply and should be
ordered well ahead of time to insure their
availability. There is normally as much as 25%










smaller plants to catch up in size and result in
more uniform plants, and most plants can then
be pulled at the same time. Much less labor is
required than would be for plants that are not
clipped. Clipping should begin when the plants
are 3 to 5 inches in height, using a mower with
sharp blades to cut the plants just above the bud
of the largest plants. Normally clipping is
needed about every 5 days, depending on
growth.

EBW

Fertilizing Tobacco Plant Beds

The need for top dressing tobacco plant beds
depends on the initial fertilization, the extent of
rainfall or irrigation, and the soil type. If the
plants turn yellow and grow slowly, and there
are no disease or other problems, additional
fertilizer may be needed. Nitrogen and sulfur
are generally the most likely nutrients that need
to be added, but magnesium may at times be
deficient. If only nitrogen is needed, 3 to 5
pounds of nitrate of soda per 100 square yards of
bed should restore the green color and faster
growth. Sulfur and magnesium deficiencies can
be corrected with 3 to 5 pounds of magnesium
sulfate or Epsom salts per 100 square yards of
bed area. The fertilizer should be applied when
the plants are dry, with irrigation following
immediately to move the nutrients into the soil.

EBW

Pest Management in Plant Beds

Although there have been no reports of blue
mold so far this year, be sure to inspect the beds
frequently for signs of this disease. Blue mold is
more likely after rain or irrigation and when the
plants are succulent. The first symptoms are
large yellow spots on the leaves, soon followed
by a bluish mold growth on the underside of the
leaves. Blue mold can spread rapidly and kill or
severely damage plants. A preventative
application of Dithane or other carbamate
fungicide should be made if conditions are
favorable for the disease or if it has been
reported in the area. These fungicides may also
reduce


problems with other diseases such as damping-
off and target spot. Even if there are no disease
symptoms present, an application of a fungicide
a few days before transplanting will help insure
disease-free plants. Insect pests, such as
vegetable weevil larvae, cutworms, aphids,
budworms, and even horn worms can attack
plants in the bed. Orthene will generally control
most of these insects pests. It is a good idea to
make preventative applications of Orthene a few
days prior to transplanting to insure insect-free
transplants.

EBW

Shortages Possible for Tobacco Fertilizers

There are various nitrate fertilizers, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), and potassium nitrate (13-0-44) that
have been popular products for tobacco
producers. The all-nitrate composition provides
a source of nitrogen that is readily usable by the
tobacco plant and is especially useful in
replacing leached nitrogen, and potassium in the
case of 15-0-14 and 13-0-44. Much of the
world's supply of these fertilizers are from
natural deposits in Chile. Unfortunately an
earthquake in the mining area has caused some
disruption in production of the fertilizers, which
has resulted in limited supplies. These shortages
may continue, which means tobacco farmers
should plan on replacements. Calcium nitrate is
another all-nitrate source of nitrogen, and
needed potassium could be obtained from sulfate
of potash or sulfate of potash-magnesia. It is
possible that fertilizer companies may formulate
mixtures that will meet the needs of growers.

EBW

Choose Crop Varieties Carefully

Many of the top corn and cotton varieties are
transgenic and are valued for ease of controlling
many troublesome weeds. However, many of the
best varieties are in short supply and should be
ordered well ahead of time to insure their
availability. There is normally as much as 25%










smaller plants to catch up in size and result in
more uniform plants, and most plants can then
be pulled at the same time. Much less labor is
required than would be for plants that are not
clipped. Clipping should begin when the plants
are 3 to 5 inches in height, using a mower with
sharp blades to cut the plants just above the bud
of the largest plants. Normally clipping is
needed about every 5 days, depending on
growth.

EBW

Fertilizing Tobacco Plant Beds

The need for top dressing tobacco plant beds
depends on the initial fertilization, the extent of
rainfall or irrigation, and the soil type. If the
plants turn yellow and grow slowly, and there
are no disease or other problems, additional
fertilizer may be needed. Nitrogen and sulfur
are generally the most likely nutrients that need
to be added, but magnesium may at times be
deficient. If only nitrogen is needed, 3 to 5
pounds of nitrate of soda per 100 square yards of
bed should restore the green color and faster
growth. Sulfur and magnesium deficiencies can
be corrected with 3 to 5 pounds of magnesium
sulfate or Epsom salts per 100 square yards of
bed area. The fertilizer should be applied when
the plants are dry, with irrigation following
immediately to move the nutrients into the soil.

EBW

Pest Management in Plant Beds

Although there have been no reports of blue
mold so far this year, be sure to inspect the beds
frequently for signs of this disease. Blue mold is
more likely after rain or irrigation and when the
plants are succulent. The first symptoms are
large yellow spots on the leaves, soon followed
by a bluish mold growth on the underside of the
leaves. Blue mold can spread rapidly and kill or
severely damage plants. A preventative
application of Dithane or other carbamate
fungicide should be made if conditions are
favorable for the disease or if it has been
reported in the area. These fungicides may also
reduce


problems with other diseases such as damping-
off and target spot. Even if there are no disease
symptoms present, an application of a fungicide
a few days before transplanting will help insure
disease-free plants. Insect pests, such as
vegetable weevil larvae, cutworms, aphids,
budworms, and even horn worms can attack
plants in the bed. Orthene will generally control
most of these insects pests. It is a good idea to
make preventative applications of Orthene a few
days prior to transplanting to insure insect-free
transplants.

EBW

Shortages Possible for Tobacco Fertilizers

There are various nitrate fertilizers, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), and potassium nitrate (13-0-44) that
have been popular products for tobacco
producers. The all-nitrate composition provides
a source of nitrogen that is readily usable by the
tobacco plant and is especially useful in
replacing leached nitrogen, and potassium in the
case of 15-0-14 and 13-0-44. Much of the
world's supply of these fertilizers are from
natural deposits in Chile. Unfortunately an
earthquake in the mining area has caused some
disruption in production of the fertilizers, which
has resulted in limited supplies. These shortages
may continue, which means tobacco farmers
should plan on replacements. Calcium nitrate is
another all-nitrate source of nitrogen, and
needed potassium could be obtained from sulfate
of potash or sulfate of potash-magnesia. It is
possible that fertilizer companies may formulate
mixtures that will meet the needs of growers.

EBW

Choose Crop Varieties Carefully

Many of the top corn and cotton varieties are
transgenic and are valued for ease of controlling
many troublesome weeds. However, many of the
best varieties are in short supply and should be
ordered well ahead of time to insure their
availability. There is normally as much as 25%










smaller plants to catch up in size and result in
more uniform plants, and most plants can then
be pulled at the same time. Much less labor is
required than would be for plants that are not
clipped. Clipping should begin when the plants
are 3 to 5 inches in height, using a mower with
sharp blades to cut the plants just above the bud
of the largest plants. Normally clipping is
needed about every 5 days, depending on
growth.

EBW

Fertilizing Tobacco Plant Beds

The need for top dressing tobacco plant beds
depends on the initial fertilization, the extent of
rainfall or irrigation, and the soil type. If the
plants turn yellow and grow slowly, and there
are no disease or other problems, additional
fertilizer may be needed. Nitrogen and sulfur
are generally the most likely nutrients that need
to be added, but magnesium may at times be
deficient. If only nitrogen is needed, 3 to 5
pounds of nitrate of soda per 100 square yards of
bed should restore the green color and faster
growth. Sulfur and magnesium deficiencies can
be corrected with 3 to 5 pounds of magnesium
sulfate or Epsom salts per 100 square yards of
bed area. The fertilizer should be applied when
the plants are dry, with irrigation following
immediately to move the nutrients into the soil.

EBW

Pest Management in Plant Beds

Although there have been no reports of blue
mold so far this year, be sure to inspect the beds
frequently for signs of this disease. Blue mold is
more likely after rain or irrigation and when the
plants are succulent. The first symptoms are
large yellow spots on the leaves, soon followed
by a bluish mold growth on the underside of the
leaves. Blue mold can spread rapidly and kill or
severely damage plants. A preventative
application of Dithane or other carbamate
fungicide should be made if conditions are
favorable for the disease or if it has been
reported in the area. These fungicides may also
reduce


problems with other diseases such as damping-
off and target spot. Even if there are no disease
symptoms present, an application of a fungicide
a few days before transplanting will help insure
disease-free plants. Insect pests, such as
vegetable weevil larvae, cutworms, aphids,
budworms, and even horn worms can attack
plants in the bed. Orthene will generally control
most of these insects pests. It is a good idea to
make preventative applications of Orthene a few
days prior to transplanting to insure insect-free
transplants.

EBW

Shortages Possible for Tobacco Fertilizers

There are various nitrate fertilizers, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), and potassium nitrate (13-0-44) that
have been popular products for tobacco
producers. The all-nitrate composition provides
a source of nitrogen that is readily usable by the
tobacco plant and is especially useful in
replacing leached nitrogen, and potassium in the
case of 15-0-14 and 13-0-44. Much of the
world's supply of these fertilizers are from
natural deposits in Chile. Unfortunately an
earthquake in the mining area has caused some
disruption in production of the fertilizers, which
has resulted in limited supplies. These shortages
may continue, which means tobacco farmers
should plan on replacements. Calcium nitrate is
another all-nitrate source of nitrogen, and
needed potassium could be obtained from sulfate
of potash or sulfate of potash-magnesia. It is
possible that fertilizer companies may formulate
mixtures that will meet the needs of growers.

EBW

Choose Crop Varieties Carefully

Many of the top corn and cotton varieties are
transgenic and are valued for ease of controlling
many troublesome weeds. However, many of the
best varieties are in short supply and should be
ordered well ahead of time to insure their
availability. There is normally as much as 25%










difference in yield of the top versus the lower
yielding varieties. You have only one chance to
make the right decision on variety and other
management strategies can never cover for a low
yielding variety. Study variety trial results
carefully from several locations and don't settle
for a low yielding variety even if it has the
transgenic characteristic that you desire.

DLW

Genetic Technology and Pesticide Use

Use of genetic technology has reduced the
amount of crop protectants applied to crops by
about 15% in the U.S. over the past 5-7 years.
2003 was the first year in modem agriculture
that more money was spent on seed technology
than on crop protectants. This trend will
continue as more genetic technology is
developed and companies develop materials that
can be used as seed treatments to deliver more of
a total production package on as well as in the
seed.

DLW

Strip Till and Cover Crops

Strip tillage can be used successfully with any
cover crop or fallow if managed properly. Many
of Florida soils with a clay base in the top 6-8
inches may contain 30-60 lbs/A of nitrate
nitrogen (N) in the root zone. This is especially
true where legume cover crops or a legume crop,
or a high N requiring crop like corn was grown.
A small grain cover crop often requires 40 lbs
N/A to get to the boot stage and may utilize
most of the residual N in the soil through the
winter months. Fallow or winter weeds may
have little influence on soil N while legumes
will supply 30-60 lbs N/A after the crop is
killed. The release of N from the killed legume
cover crop is rapid and normally occurs in 30
days. If 30-40 lbs N/A is applied to the small
grain cover, N rates similar to fallow may be
used on the following crop. All cover crops and
winter weeds should be killed 3-4 weeks prior to
planting to reduce soil insects,


prevent soil drying, and to make planting easier
by causing brittle stems and plant material.

DLW


Updated Publications

SS-AGR-83
Production of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton


NEW Publications


SS-AGR-200
Field Corn Production Problems: A
Diagnostic Guide
SS-AGR-211
Creep Grazing for Suckling Calves: A
Pasture Management Practice

New to Agronomy

We are very pleased to announce that two new
faculty members have recently joined the
Agronomy Department:

BARRY L. TILLMAN was appointed to the
position of Assistant Professor Peanut
Breeding and Genetics. He is stationed at the
North Florida Research and Education Center in
Marianna, Florida. Dr. Tillman received the
M.S and Ph.D. degrees from Louisiana State
University. After completing the Ph.D., he
spent two years as a research scientist in the
USDA/Texas A&M University rice breeding
program in Beaumont, Texas. He has spent the
past six years breeding hybrid rice for RiceTec,
Inc. in Alvin, Texas where he developed several
rice hybrids that are being marketed in the
southern rice belt. Dr. Tillman joined the
University of Florida in February 2004. His
research (80%) and extension (20%) efforts will
focus on peanut breeding, genetics, and cultivar
evaluation.










difference in yield of the top versus the lower
yielding varieties. You have only one chance to
make the right decision on variety and other
management strategies can never cover for a low
yielding variety. Study variety trial results
carefully from several locations and don't settle
for a low yielding variety even if it has the
transgenic characteristic that you desire.

DLW

Genetic Technology and Pesticide Use

Use of genetic technology has reduced the
amount of crop protectants applied to crops by
about 15% in the U.S. over the past 5-7 years.
2003 was the first year in modem agriculture
that more money was spent on seed technology
than on crop protectants. This trend will
continue as more genetic technology is
developed and companies develop materials that
can be used as seed treatments to deliver more of
a total production package on as well as in the
seed.

DLW

Strip Till and Cover Crops

Strip tillage can be used successfully with any
cover crop or fallow if managed properly. Many
of Florida soils with a clay base in the top 6-8
inches may contain 30-60 lbs/A of nitrate
nitrogen (N) in the root zone. This is especially
true where legume cover crops or a legume crop,
or a high N requiring crop like corn was grown.
A small grain cover crop often requires 40 lbs
N/A to get to the boot stage and may utilize
most of the residual N in the soil through the
winter months. Fallow or winter weeds may
have little influence on soil N while legumes
will supply 30-60 lbs N/A after the crop is
killed. The release of N from the killed legume
cover crop is rapid and normally occurs in 30
days. If 30-40 lbs N/A is applied to the small
grain cover, N rates similar to fallow may be
used on the following crop. All cover crops and
winter weeds should be killed 3-4 weeks prior to
planting to reduce soil insects,


prevent soil drying, and to make planting easier
by causing brittle stems and plant material.

DLW


Updated Publications

SS-AGR-83
Production of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton


NEW Publications


SS-AGR-200
Field Corn Production Problems: A
Diagnostic Guide
SS-AGR-211
Creep Grazing for Suckling Calves: A
Pasture Management Practice

New to Agronomy

We are very pleased to announce that two new
faculty members have recently joined the
Agronomy Department:

BARRY L. TILLMAN was appointed to the
position of Assistant Professor Peanut
Breeding and Genetics. He is stationed at the
North Florida Research and Education Center in
Marianna, Florida. Dr. Tillman received the
M.S and Ph.D. degrees from Louisiana State
University. After completing the Ph.D., he
spent two years as a research scientist in the
USDA/Texas A&M University rice breeding
program in Beaumont, Texas. He has spent the
past six years breeding hybrid rice for RiceTec,
Inc. in Alvin, Texas where he developed several
rice hybrids that are being marketed in the
southern rice belt. Dr. Tillman joined the
University of Florida in February 2004. His
research (80%) and extension (20%) efforts will
focus on peanut breeding, genetics, and cultivar
evaluation.










difference in yield of the top versus the lower
yielding varieties. You have only one chance to
make the right decision on variety and other
management strategies can never cover for a low
yielding variety. Study variety trial results
carefully from several locations and don't settle
for a low yielding variety even if it has the
transgenic characteristic that you desire.

DLW

Genetic Technology and Pesticide Use

Use of genetic technology has reduced the
amount of crop protectants applied to crops by
about 15% in the U.S. over the past 5-7 years.
2003 was the first year in modem agriculture
that more money was spent on seed technology
than on crop protectants. This trend will
continue as more genetic technology is
developed and companies develop materials that
can be used as seed treatments to deliver more of
a total production package on as well as in the
seed.

DLW

Strip Till and Cover Crops

Strip tillage can be used successfully with any
cover crop or fallow if managed properly. Many
of Florida soils with a clay base in the top 6-8
inches may contain 30-60 lbs/A of nitrate
nitrogen (N) in the root zone. This is especially
true where legume cover crops or a legume crop,
or a high N requiring crop like corn was grown.
A small grain cover crop often requires 40 lbs
N/A to get to the boot stage and may utilize
most of the residual N in the soil through the
winter months. Fallow or winter weeds may
have little influence on soil N while legumes
will supply 30-60 lbs N/A after the crop is
killed. The release of N from the killed legume
cover crop is rapid and normally occurs in 30
days. If 30-40 lbs N/A is applied to the small
grain cover, N rates similar to fallow may be
used on the following crop. All cover crops and
winter weeds should be killed 3-4 weeks prior to
planting to reduce soil insects,


prevent soil drying, and to make planting easier
by causing brittle stems and plant material.

DLW


Updated Publications

SS-AGR-83
Production of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton


NEW Publications


SS-AGR-200
Field Corn Production Problems: A
Diagnostic Guide
SS-AGR-211
Creep Grazing for Suckling Calves: A
Pasture Management Practice

New to Agronomy

We are very pleased to announce that two new
faculty members have recently joined the
Agronomy Department:

BARRY L. TILLMAN was appointed to the
position of Assistant Professor Peanut
Breeding and Genetics. He is stationed at the
North Florida Research and Education Center in
Marianna, Florida. Dr. Tillman received the
M.S and Ph.D. degrees from Louisiana State
University. After completing the Ph.D., he
spent two years as a research scientist in the
USDA/Texas A&M University rice breeding
program in Beaumont, Texas. He has spent the
past six years breeding hybrid rice for RiceTec,
Inc. in Alvin, Texas where he developed several
rice hybrids that are being marketed in the
southern rice belt. Dr. Tillman joined the
University of Florida in February 2004. His
research (80%) and extension (20%) efforts will
focus on peanut breeding, genetics, and cultivar
evaluation.










difference in yield of the top versus the lower
yielding varieties. You have only one chance to
make the right decision on variety and other
management strategies can never cover for a low
yielding variety. Study variety trial results
carefully from several locations and don't settle
for a low yielding variety even if it has the
transgenic characteristic that you desire.

DLW

Genetic Technology and Pesticide Use

Use of genetic technology has reduced the
amount of crop protectants applied to crops by
about 15% in the U.S. over the past 5-7 years.
2003 was the first year in modem agriculture
that more money was spent on seed technology
than on crop protectants. This trend will
continue as more genetic technology is
developed and companies develop materials that
can be used as seed treatments to deliver more of
a total production package on as well as in the
seed.

DLW

Strip Till and Cover Crops

Strip tillage can be used successfully with any
cover crop or fallow if managed properly. Many
of Florida soils with a clay base in the top 6-8
inches may contain 30-60 lbs/A of nitrate
nitrogen (N) in the root zone. This is especially
true where legume cover crops or a legume crop,
or a high N requiring crop like corn was grown.
A small grain cover crop often requires 40 lbs
N/A to get to the boot stage and may utilize
most of the residual N in the soil through the
winter months. Fallow or winter weeds may
have little influence on soil N while legumes
will supply 30-60 lbs N/A after the crop is
killed. The release of N from the killed legume
cover crop is rapid and normally occurs in 30
days. If 30-40 lbs N/A is applied to the small
grain cover, N rates similar to fallow may be
used on the following crop. All cover crops and
winter weeds should be killed 3-4 weeks prior to
planting to reduce soil insects,


prevent soil drying, and to make planting easier
by causing brittle stems and plant material.

DLW


Updated Publications

SS-AGR-83
Production of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton


NEW Publications


SS-AGR-200
Field Corn Production Problems: A
Diagnostic Guide
SS-AGR-211
Creep Grazing for Suckling Calves: A
Pasture Management Practice

New to Agronomy

We are very pleased to announce that two new
faculty members have recently joined the
Agronomy Department:

BARRY L. TILLMAN was appointed to the
position of Assistant Professor Peanut
Breeding and Genetics. He is stationed at the
North Florida Research and Education Center in
Marianna, Florida. Dr. Tillman received the
M.S and Ph.D. degrees from Louisiana State
University. After completing the Ph.D., he
spent two years as a research scientist in the
USDA/Texas A&M University rice breeding
program in Beaumont, Texas. He has spent the
past six years breeding hybrid rice for RiceTec,
Inc. in Alvin, Texas where he developed several
rice hybrids that are being marketed in the
southern rice belt. Dr. Tillman joined the
University of Florida in February 2004. His
research (80%) and extension (20%) efforts will
focus on peanut breeding, genetics, and cultivar
evaluation.










difference in yield of the top versus the lower
yielding varieties. You have only one chance to
make the right decision on variety and other
management strategies can never cover for a low
yielding variety. Study variety trial results
carefully from several locations and don't settle
for a low yielding variety even if it has the
transgenic characteristic that you desire.

DLW

Genetic Technology and Pesticide Use

Use of genetic technology has reduced the
amount of crop protectants applied to crops by
about 15% in the U.S. over the past 5-7 years.
2003 was the first year in modem agriculture
that more money was spent on seed technology
than on crop protectants. This trend will
continue as more genetic technology is
developed and companies develop materials that
can be used as seed treatments to deliver more of
a total production package on as well as in the
seed.

DLW

Strip Till and Cover Crops

Strip tillage can be used successfully with any
cover crop or fallow if managed properly. Many
of Florida soils with a clay base in the top 6-8
inches may contain 30-60 lbs/A of nitrate
nitrogen (N) in the root zone. This is especially
true where legume cover crops or a legume crop,
or a high N requiring crop like corn was grown.
A small grain cover crop often requires 40 lbs
N/A to get to the boot stage and may utilize
most of the residual N in the soil through the
winter months. Fallow or winter weeds may
have little influence on soil N while legumes
will supply 30-60 lbs N/A after the crop is
killed. The release of N from the killed legume
cover crop is rapid and normally occurs in 30
days. If 30-40 lbs N/A is applied to the small
grain cover, N rates similar to fallow may be
used on the following crop. All cover crops and
winter weeds should be killed 3-4 weeks prior to
planting to reduce soil insects,


prevent soil drying, and to make planting easier
by causing brittle stems and plant material.

DLW


Updated Publications

SS-AGR-83
Production of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton


NEW Publications


SS-AGR-200
Field Corn Production Problems: A
Diagnostic Guide
SS-AGR-211
Creep Grazing for Suckling Calves: A
Pasture Management Practice

New to Agronomy

We are very pleased to announce that two new
faculty members have recently joined the
Agronomy Department:

BARRY L. TILLMAN was appointed to the
position of Assistant Professor Peanut
Breeding and Genetics. He is stationed at the
North Florida Research and Education Center in
Marianna, Florida. Dr. Tillman received the
M.S and Ph.D. degrees from Louisiana State
University. After completing the Ph.D., he
spent two years as a research scientist in the
USDA/Texas A&M University rice breeding
program in Beaumont, Texas. He has spent the
past six years breeding hybrid rice for RiceTec,
Inc. in Alvin, Texas where he developed several
rice hybrids that are being marketed in the
southern rice belt. Dr. Tillman joined the
University of Florida in February 2004. His
research (80%) and extension (20%) efforts will
focus on peanut breeding, genetics, and cultivar
evaluation.










JASON FERRELL was recently appointed to
the position of Assistant Professor Weed
Science. He will be stationed in Gainesville
with extension (70%) and research (30%)
responsibilities in peanuts, cotton, forages, and
highway rights-of-ways. Jay will focus primary
efforts in north and west Florida but will also
contribute to other state-wide needs. Dr. Ferrell
received the M.S. degree from the University of
Kentucky and the Ph.D. from the University of
Georgia. Dr. Ferrell joined the University of
Florida in February, 2004.

We are certainly pleased to welcome Barry and
Jason to our Department.


In addition, we are pleased that two additional
weed science faculty positions were recently
released. We will soon begin searches for an
Assistant Professor Invasive Plants Specialist
(60% extension, 40% research), located at the
Range Cattle Research and Education Center in
Ona, and an Assistant Professor Aquatic Weed
Specialist (70% extension, 30% teaching)
located at the Ft. Lauderdale Research and
Education Center. These positions will further
strengthen the state-wide weed science programs
of the Department.

JMB


Crop Values for 2003


The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the USDA reported the following values for the
production of agronomic crops in 2001-2003. The value of production does not include certain
government payments.


Value of Production (x Imillion dollars)

Florida United States

Crop 2001 2002 2003 2001 2002 2003

Corn, grain 5.1 8.5 8.2 18,888.4 20,974.7 24,803.6

Wheat, all .8 .7 1.4 5,440.2 5,679.4 7,954.9

Soybeans 1.1 1.6 2.5 12,605.7 15,214.6 17,465.4

Peanuts 53.8 35.2 63.5 1,000.5 599.6 779.2

Cottonseed 3.8 2.6 4.4 667.3 616.4 784.2

Cotton 22.4 20.3 40.9 3121.8 3,777.1 5,345.2

Hay, all 72.6 76.0 57.4 12,597.3 12,450.2 12,331.0

Tobacco, all 21.9 22.5 20.4 1,939.8 1,702.9 1,635.2

Sugarcane, seed and sugar 495.2 536.6 1,003.0 1,007.1

EBW




The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; J.A. Ferrell, Extension Agronomist, M. B. Adjei, Forage
Agronomist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist, D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.