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 Table of Contents
 Corn disease and silage produc...
 Corn hybrids
 Corn varieties
 Seed traits vs. crop protectan...
 Bermudagrass establishment
 Best management practices...
 Cool season forages
 Dairy producers - when to harvest...
 Grazing management of perennial...
 Hay producers
 Inoculating peanut seed
 Peanut varieties for the green...
 Planting dates for green market...
 Tobacco barn testing
 Tobacco plant bed management
 Tobacco program continuation
 2004 North Florida Beef Cattle...
 Annual report of field crop statistics...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00043
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: February 2004
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00043

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Corn disease and silage production
        Page 2
    Corn hybrids
        Page 2
    Corn varieties
        Page 2
    Seed traits vs. crop protectants
        Page 2
    Bermudagrass establishment
        Page 2
    Best management practices for pastures
        Page 3
    Cool season forages
        Page 3
    Dairy producers - when to harvest small grains for forage
        Page 4
    Grazing management of perennial grasses in late Winter
        Page 4
    Hay producers
        Page 4
    Inoculating peanut seed
        Page 5
    Peanut varieties for the green market
        Page 5
    Planting dates for green market peanuts
        Page 5
    Tobacco barn testing
        Page 6
    Tobacco plant bed management
        Page 6
    Tobacco program continuation
        Page 6
    2004 North Florida Beef Cattle Field Day, March 25
        Page 6
    Annual report of field crop statistics fo 2003
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text







AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

February, 2004

DATES TO REMEMBER

Feb. 24 Winter Forage Program Field Day & Tour, Range Cattle REC, Ona
Feb. 24-25 FL Weed Science Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Pierce
Mar. 25 Beef Cattle Field Day at the North Florida Research and Education Center's
Beef Unit, Marianna
May 22 4th Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day, Moultrie, GA
May 27 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra

IN THIS ISSUE

CORN AND COTTON
Corn Disease and Silage Production ........................................... 2
Corn Hybrids ..................... .................................. ........ 2
Cotton Varieties ................. ...................................... 2
Seed Traits vs. Crop Protectants ............................................. 2

FORAGE
Bermudagrass Establishment ............................. ... ................ 2
Best Management Practices for Pastures ............... .......... ..... ...... .. 3
Cool Season Forages ........................................................ 3
Dairy Producers When to Harvest Small Grains for Forage ............................ 4
Grazing Management of Perennial Grasses in Late Winter .............................. 4
Hay Producers .......... ....... ................................ ........... 4

PEANUT
Inoculating Peanut Seed ............ ......................................... 5
Peanut Varieties for the Green Market ................ ........................... 5
Planting Dates for Green Market Peanuts .................................... ..... 5

TOBACCO
Tobacco Barn Testing .......................................................... 6
Tobacco Plant Bed Management .............................................. 6
Tobacco Program Continuation ................................................... 6

MISCELLANEOUS
2004 North Florida Beef Cattle Field Day, March 25 ................................. 6
Annual Report of Field Crop Statistics for 2003 ...................................... 7
Publications .......................................... ........... 8


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor
Waddill, Director.










Corn Disease and Silage Production

Silage producers have had a high rate of
southern corn leaf blight and rust disease for the
last few years resulting in low quality silage and
making scheduling of cutting difficult. Choose
varieties that have the best disease resistance
packages and plant early. Diseases usually build
up throughout the season and later planted corn
normally has more disease than early planted
corn. Corn planted in late February and the first
half of March normally has less disease than
corn planted in late March and April. When
planting early, use starter fertilizer to get the
crop off to a faster start. Starter fertilizer will
help the crop to mature a week or so earlier than
corn without starter and thereby avoids some of
the consequences of disease as well. Avoid
planting a second crop of corn on the same land
in the same year. Disease will normally take out
the second crop early because there are no
hybrids with disease packages good enough to
withstand the high level of inoculum along with
the high temperature and humidity encountered
from June and July plantings.

DLW

Corn Hybrids

Top choices of corn hybrids should be made
early. Some of the best corn hybrids are often in
short supply since dealers don't make money on
unsold inventory and do not order large supplies
of any hybrid without a pretty good idea that it
will be sold. Seed of the better yielding
Roundup and Roundup/Bt hybrids have been
hard for many growers to get in the past year or
two due to not making orders early enough for
dealers to get them.

DLW

Cotton Varieties

Growers like to see conventional cotton varieties
out in the market for planting. However,
according to statistics compiled by the cotton
industry, Florida is the first state to have 100%


of the acreage grown to transgenics. All of the
seed companies breed conventional varieties to
put genetic traits into. Most of the cotton seed
companies have about half of their varieties that
are conventional, but about 93% of the sales in
2003 were transgenic varieties. The top 5 cotton
varieties sold in the U.S. in 2003 were
Bt/Roundup Ready varieties. After a good
variety is developed by traditional breeding
methods, about 4 years are required to put
desired genetic traits into that variety and get it
to the market. Because of the move to transgenic
varieties, fewer conventional varieties will
probably be offered in the future since sales are
low and it is difficult for seed companies to keep
up with one variety without traits especially
when there are transgenic varieties, with Bt and
Roundup alone and with the combination of Bt
and Roundup Ready and now stacked Bt genes.

DLW

Seed Traits vs. Crop Protectants

Crop protectant chemical sales have decreased
by about 15% in the last 5 years due to the fact
that more traits are going into seeds (Bt and
Roundup Ready as well as others) thereby
reducing the need for chemicals. More money
was spent in 2003 by growers on seed than for
crop protectant chemicals, which is a first during
the modem age of agriculture. This trend will
continue as more traits are incorporated into the
seed. Most of the major chemical companies
have aligned with seed companies to develop
traits that will use chemicals from their company
as well as seed.

DLW

Bermudagrass Establishment

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be established
from vegetative plant parts. Dug sprigs,
consisting of underground rhizomes, plant
crowns and stolons can be planted from mid-
February through July. Sprigging bermudagrass
in mid to late winter before it starts growing
(before breaking dormancy) is encouraged.










Corn Disease and Silage Production

Silage producers have had a high rate of
southern corn leaf blight and rust disease for the
last few years resulting in low quality silage and
making scheduling of cutting difficult. Choose
varieties that have the best disease resistance
packages and plant early. Diseases usually build
up throughout the season and later planted corn
normally has more disease than early planted
corn. Corn planted in late February and the first
half of March normally has less disease than
corn planted in late March and April. When
planting early, use starter fertilizer to get the
crop off to a faster start. Starter fertilizer will
help the crop to mature a week or so earlier than
corn without starter and thereby avoids some of
the consequences of disease as well. Avoid
planting a second crop of corn on the same land
in the same year. Disease will normally take out
the second crop early because there are no
hybrids with disease packages good enough to
withstand the high level of inoculum along with
the high temperature and humidity encountered
from June and July plantings.

DLW

Corn Hybrids

Top choices of corn hybrids should be made
early. Some of the best corn hybrids are often in
short supply since dealers don't make money on
unsold inventory and do not order large supplies
of any hybrid without a pretty good idea that it
will be sold. Seed of the better yielding
Roundup and Roundup/Bt hybrids have been
hard for many growers to get in the past year or
two due to not making orders early enough for
dealers to get them.

DLW

Cotton Varieties

Growers like to see conventional cotton varieties
out in the market for planting. However,
according to statistics compiled by the cotton
industry, Florida is the first state to have 100%


of the acreage grown to transgenics. All of the
seed companies breed conventional varieties to
put genetic traits into. Most of the cotton seed
companies have about half of their varieties that
are conventional, but about 93% of the sales in
2003 were transgenic varieties. The top 5 cotton
varieties sold in the U.S. in 2003 were
Bt/Roundup Ready varieties. After a good
variety is developed by traditional breeding
methods, about 4 years are required to put
desired genetic traits into that variety and get it
to the market. Because of the move to transgenic
varieties, fewer conventional varieties will
probably be offered in the future since sales are
low and it is difficult for seed companies to keep
up with one variety without traits especially
when there are transgenic varieties, with Bt and
Roundup alone and with the combination of Bt
and Roundup Ready and now stacked Bt genes.

DLW

Seed Traits vs. Crop Protectants

Crop protectant chemical sales have decreased
by about 15% in the last 5 years due to the fact
that more traits are going into seeds (Bt and
Roundup Ready as well as others) thereby
reducing the need for chemicals. More money
was spent in 2003 by growers on seed than for
crop protectant chemicals, which is a first during
the modem age of agriculture. This trend will
continue as more traits are incorporated into the
seed. Most of the major chemical companies
have aligned with seed companies to develop
traits that will use chemicals from their company
as well as seed.

DLW

Bermudagrass Establishment

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be established
from vegetative plant parts. Dug sprigs,
consisting of underground rhizomes, plant
crowns and stolons can be planted from mid-
February through July. Sprigging bermudagrass
in mid to late winter before it starts growing
(before breaking dormancy) is encouraged.










Corn Disease and Silage Production

Silage producers have had a high rate of
southern corn leaf blight and rust disease for the
last few years resulting in low quality silage and
making scheduling of cutting difficult. Choose
varieties that have the best disease resistance
packages and plant early. Diseases usually build
up throughout the season and later planted corn
normally has more disease than early planted
corn. Corn planted in late February and the first
half of March normally has less disease than
corn planted in late March and April. When
planting early, use starter fertilizer to get the
crop off to a faster start. Starter fertilizer will
help the crop to mature a week or so earlier than
corn without starter and thereby avoids some of
the consequences of disease as well. Avoid
planting a second crop of corn on the same land
in the same year. Disease will normally take out
the second crop early because there are no
hybrids with disease packages good enough to
withstand the high level of inoculum along with
the high temperature and humidity encountered
from June and July plantings.

DLW

Corn Hybrids

Top choices of corn hybrids should be made
early. Some of the best corn hybrids are often in
short supply since dealers don't make money on
unsold inventory and do not order large supplies
of any hybrid without a pretty good idea that it
will be sold. Seed of the better yielding
Roundup and Roundup/Bt hybrids have been
hard for many growers to get in the past year or
two due to not making orders early enough for
dealers to get them.

DLW

Cotton Varieties

Growers like to see conventional cotton varieties
out in the market for planting. However,
according to statistics compiled by the cotton
industry, Florida is the first state to have 100%


of the acreage grown to transgenics. All of the
seed companies breed conventional varieties to
put genetic traits into. Most of the cotton seed
companies have about half of their varieties that
are conventional, but about 93% of the sales in
2003 were transgenic varieties. The top 5 cotton
varieties sold in the U.S. in 2003 were
Bt/Roundup Ready varieties. After a good
variety is developed by traditional breeding
methods, about 4 years are required to put
desired genetic traits into that variety and get it
to the market. Because of the move to transgenic
varieties, fewer conventional varieties will
probably be offered in the future since sales are
low and it is difficult for seed companies to keep
up with one variety without traits especially
when there are transgenic varieties, with Bt and
Roundup alone and with the combination of Bt
and Roundup Ready and now stacked Bt genes.

DLW

Seed Traits vs. Crop Protectants

Crop protectant chemical sales have decreased
by about 15% in the last 5 years due to the fact
that more traits are going into seeds (Bt and
Roundup Ready as well as others) thereby
reducing the need for chemicals. More money
was spent in 2003 by growers on seed than for
crop protectant chemicals, which is a first during
the modem age of agriculture. This trend will
continue as more traits are incorporated into the
seed. Most of the major chemical companies
have aligned with seed companies to develop
traits that will use chemicals from their company
as well as seed.

DLW

Bermudagrass Establishment

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be established
from vegetative plant parts. Dug sprigs,
consisting of underground rhizomes, plant
crowns and stolons can be planted from mid-
February through July. Sprigging bermudagrass
in mid to late winter before it starts growing
(before breaking dormancy) is encouraged.










Corn Disease and Silage Production

Silage producers have had a high rate of
southern corn leaf blight and rust disease for the
last few years resulting in low quality silage and
making scheduling of cutting difficult. Choose
varieties that have the best disease resistance
packages and plant early. Diseases usually build
up throughout the season and later planted corn
normally has more disease than early planted
corn. Corn planted in late February and the first
half of March normally has less disease than
corn planted in late March and April. When
planting early, use starter fertilizer to get the
crop off to a faster start. Starter fertilizer will
help the crop to mature a week or so earlier than
corn without starter and thereby avoids some of
the consequences of disease as well. Avoid
planting a second crop of corn on the same land
in the same year. Disease will normally take out
the second crop early because there are no
hybrids with disease packages good enough to
withstand the high level of inoculum along with
the high temperature and humidity encountered
from June and July plantings.

DLW

Corn Hybrids

Top choices of corn hybrids should be made
early. Some of the best corn hybrids are often in
short supply since dealers don't make money on
unsold inventory and do not order large supplies
of any hybrid without a pretty good idea that it
will be sold. Seed of the better yielding
Roundup and Roundup/Bt hybrids have been
hard for many growers to get in the past year or
two due to not making orders early enough for
dealers to get them.

DLW

Cotton Varieties

Growers like to see conventional cotton varieties
out in the market for planting. However,
according to statistics compiled by the cotton
industry, Florida is the first state to have 100%


of the acreage grown to transgenics. All of the
seed companies breed conventional varieties to
put genetic traits into. Most of the cotton seed
companies have about half of their varieties that
are conventional, but about 93% of the sales in
2003 were transgenic varieties. The top 5 cotton
varieties sold in the U.S. in 2003 were
Bt/Roundup Ready varieties. After a good
variety is developed by traditional breeding
methods, about 4 years are required to put
desired genetic traits into that variety and get it
to the market. Because of the move to transgenic
varieties, fewer conventional varieties will
probably be offered in the future since sales are
low and it is difficult for seed companies to keep
up with one variety without traits especially
when there are transgenic varieties, with Bt and
Roundup alone and with the combination of Bt
and Roundup Ready and now stacked Bt genes.

DLW

Seed Traits vs. Crop Protectants

Crop protectant chemical sales have decreased
by about 15% in the last 5 years due to the fact
that more traits are going into seeds (Bt and
Roundup Ready as well as others) thereby
reducing the need for chemicals. More money
was spent in 2003 by growers on seed than for
crop protectant chemicals, which is a first during
the modem age of agriculture. This trend will
continue as more traits are incorporated into the
seed. Most of the major chemical companies
have aligned with seed companies to develop
traits that will use chemicals from their company
as well as seed.

DLW

Bermudagrass Establishment

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be established
from vegetative plant parts. Dug sprigs,
consisting of underground rhizomes, plant
crowns and stolons can be planted from mid-
February through July. Sprigging bermudagrass
in mid to late winter before it starts growing
(before breaking dormancy) is encouraged.










Corn Disease and Silage Production

Silage producers have had a high rate of
southern corn leaf blight and rust disease for the
last few years resulting in low quality silage and
making scheduling of cutting difficult. Choose
varieties that have the best disease resistance
packages and plant early. Diseases usually build
up throughout the season and later planted corn
normally has more disease than early planted
corn. Corn planted in late February and the first
half of March normally has less disease than
corn planted in late March and April. When
planting early, use starter fertilizer to get the
crop off to a faster start. Starter fertilizer will
help the crop to mature a week or so earlier than
corn without starter and thereby avoids some of
the consequences of disease as well. Avoid
planting a second crop of corn on the same land
in the same year. Disease will normally take out
the second crop early because there are no
hybrids with disease packages good enough to
withstand the high level of inoculum along with
the high temperature and humidity encountered
from June and July plantings.

DLW

Corn Hybrids

Top choices of corn hybrids should be made
early. Some of the best corn hybrids are often in
short supply since dealers don't make money on
unsold inventory and do not order large supplies
of any hybrid without a pretty good idea that it
will be sold. Seed of the better yielding
Roundup and Roundup/Bt hybrids have been
hard for many growers to get in the past year or
two due to not making orders early enough for
dealers to get them.

DLW

Cotton Varieties

Growers like to see conventional cotton varieties
out in the market for planting. However,
according to statistics compiled by the cotton
industry, Florida is the first state to have 100%


of the acreage grown to transgenics. All of the
seed companies breed conventional varieties to
put genetic traits into. Most of the cotton seed
companies have about half of their varieties that
are conventional, but about 93% of the sales in
2003 were transgenic varieties. The top 5 cotton
varieties sold in the U.S. in 2003 were
Bt/Roundup Ready varieties. After a good
variety is developed by traditional breeding
methods, about 4 years are required to put
desired genetic traits into that variety and get it
to the market. Because of the move to transgenic
varieties, fewer conventional varieties will
probably be offered in the future since sales are
low and it is difficult for seed companies to keep
up with one variety without traits especially
when there are transgenic varieties, with Bt and
Roundup alone and with the combination of Bt
and Roundup Ready and now stacked Bt genes.

DLW

Seed Traits vs. Crop Protectants

Crop protectant chemical sales have decreased
by about 15% in the last 5 years due to the fact
that more traits are going into seeds (Bt and
Roundup Ready as well as others) thereby
reducing the need for chemicals. More money
was spent in 2003 by growers on seed than for
crop protectant chemicals, which is a first during
the modem age of agriculture. This trend will
continue as more traits are incorporated into the
seed. Most of the major chemical companies
have aligned with seed companies to develop
traits that will use chemicals from their company
as well as seed.

DLW

Bermudagrass Establishment

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be established
from vegetative plant parts. Dug sprigs,
consisting of underground rhizomes, plant
crowns and stolons can be planted from mid-
February through July. Sprigging bermudagrass
in mid to late winter before it starts growing
(before breaking dormancy) is encouraged.










Sprigs dug in early spring after the plants have
broken dormancy have lower levels of energy
reserves. Energy reserves are needed to initiate
and develop new shoots (sprouts). Also, soil
moisture is usually more favorable in late winter
as compared to spring (April-May). In the
spring, when top growth reaches four to six
inches, digging and planting of sprigs should be
delayed until after the first hay harvest or
harvest of tops for planting. Tops (green stems)
can be planted in June and July. The grass
should be overly mature with six weeks or more
of growth when the tops are harvested for
planting. (-source Florida Forage Handbook)


CGC


Best Management Practices for Pastures

"On bahiagrass pastures nitrogen is applied in
relation to intensity of use, but generally 50 to
60 pounds of nitrogen/acre should be applied in
late winter. This time correlates with a period of
low to moderate rainfall and nitrogen fertilizer is
least likely to be washed into surface waters. It
is also the time ranches are most in need of
forage. Other perennial grasses may need
nitrogen in late winter and at other times
throughout the year based on IFAS
recommendations."

"Timing of Nutrient Application: To avoid
nutrient losses through runoff, apply fertilizers
during times with the least potential for leaching
or surface runoff Refer to the water budget
(provided by NRCS) for your county to
determine the times when the lowest potential
for nutrient losses from rainfall occur. Time
nutrient applications so that they coincide as
closely as possible with periods of plant growth
and nutrient uptake."

"Optimize Nutrient Uptake: Maintain proper soil
pH for optimum utilization of applied nutrients,
while preventing toxic effects from other
accumulated elements, such as copper. The pH
recommendations are published in Univ. of
Florida, IFAS Fact Sheet # SL-129."


"Prevent Nutrient Movement Off-Site: Include
erosion control practices to minimize soil loss
and runoff that can carry dissolved and soil-
borne nutrients to surface waters. Filter strips
along streams are very effective in reducing the
levels of suspended solids and nutrients.
Try to prevent spreading fertilizers in ditches as
this is a means of movement off-site. Also, plan
fertilizer loading sites away from ditches and
canals where spills can contaminate the water."
[Source: Water Quality Best Management
Practices for Cow/Calf Operations in Florida;
June 1999.]

CGC

Cool Season Forages

Nitrogen The cool season grasses need
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply
an additional 50 to 65 lb/A of N after the first or
second grazing period. Two hundred pounds of
ammonium nitrate contains approximately 67 lb
of N. Ammonium sulphate is 21% nitrogen and
24% sulphur. Three hundred pounds per acre
would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply the N
after a grazing cycle when the grass has been
grazed down and apply later in the day when the
dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and
rotational grazing (stocking) provides the
opportunity to prevent overgrazing. Allow
pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then graze.
When the cool season forages have been grazed
down to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals
should be moved to a new pasture. Overgrazing
slows the rate of recovery and reduces future
growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions
needed for rotational grazing. Rotational
grazing (stocking) promotes uniform grazing
and maximum use of the forage.

CGC










Sprigs dug in early spring after the plants have
broken dormancy have lower levels of energy
reserves. Energy reserves are needed to initiate
and develop new shoots (sprouts). Also, soil
moisture is usually more favorable in late winter
as compared to spring (April-May). In the
spring, when top growth reaches four to six
inches, digging and planting of sprigs should be
delayed until after the first hay harvest or
harvest of tops for planting. Tops (green stems)
can be planted in June and July. The grass
should be overly mature with six weeks or more
of growth when the tops are harvested for
planting. (-source Florida Forage Handbook)


CGC


Best Management Practices for Pastures

"On bahiagrass pastures nitrogen is applied in
relation to intensity of use, but generally 50 to
60 pounds of nitrogen/acre should be applied in
late winter. This time correlates with a period of
low to moderate rainfall and nitrogen fertilizer is
least likely to be washed into surface waters. It
is also the time ranches are most in need of
forage. Other perennial grasses may need
nitrogen in late winter and at other times
throughout the year based on IFAS
recommendations."

"Timing of Nutrient Application: To avoid
nutrient losses through runoff, apply fertilizers
during times with the least potential for leaching
or surface runoff Refer to the water budget
(provided by NRCS) for your county to
determine the times when the lowest potential
for nutrient losses from rainfall occur. Time
nutrient applications so that they coincide as
closely as possible with periods of plant growth
and nutrient uptake."

"Optimize Nutrient Uptake: Maintain proper soil
pH for optimum utilization of applied nutrients,
while preventing toxic effects from other
accumulated elements, such as copper. The pH
recommendations are published in Univ. of
Florida, IFAS Fact Sheet # SL-129."


"Prevent Nutrient Movement Off-Site: Include
erosion control practices to minimize soil loss
and runoff that can carry dissolved and soil-
borne nutrients to surface waters. Filter strips
along streams are very effective in reducing the
levels of suspended solids and nutrients.
Try to prevent spreading fertilizers in ditches as
this is a means of movement off-site. Also, plan
fertilizer loading sites away from ditches and
canals where spills can contaminate the water."
[Source: Water Quality Best Management
Practices for Cow/Calf Operations in Florida;
June 1999.]

CGC

Cool Season Forages

Nitrogen The cool season grasses need
nitrogen for sustained vigorous growth. Apply
an additional 50 to 65 lb/A of N after the first or
second grazing period. Two hundred pounds of
ammonium nitrate contains approximately 67 lb
of N. Ammonium sulphate is 21% nitrogen and
24% sulphur. Three hundred pounds per acre
would apply 63 lb of N. If possible, apply the N
after a grazing cycle when the grass has been
grazed down and apply later in the day when the
dew has dried.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and
rotational grazing (stocking) provides the
opportunity to prevent overgrazing. Allow
pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then graze.
When the cool season forages have been grazed
down to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals
should be moved to a new pasture. Overgrazing
slows the rate of recovery and reduces future
growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with
electric fencing can provide the subdivisions
needed for rotational grazing. Rotational
grazing (stocking) promotes uniform grazing
and maximum use of the forage.

CGC










Dairy Producers When to Harvest Small
Grains for Forage

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye,
triticale) generally decreases as they mature
from the boot to the dough stage. Lignification
of the stem tissue (the stem becomes more
woody) appears to be the main reason for
reduced digestibility of the forage. If the forage
is to be fed to high-producing dairy cows, it is
suggested that the small grain crop be harvested
at the boot-stage when it will have a feed value
close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce
the most digestible nutrients and protein per
acre, it is recommended that the crop be
harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top
quality forage.

CGC

Grazing Management of Perennial Grasses in
Late Winter

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses
need extra attention in late winter and early
spring. When warm weather arrives, these
grasses need time to grow new roots and rebuild
energy reserves in the crown and roots.
Allowing the plants to rebuild and attain a
healthy condition permits them to better
withstand any stress that might come along
during the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been
grazed down to the ground by mid February or
earlier. Although bahiagrass can withstand a
certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the
grass starts to regrow, cattle should be removed
from these pastures and kept off until the grass
has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are
susceptible to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta
cultivar. Therefore, cattle should be removed
from these pastures once they are grazed down
during the winter. Cattle should not be put back
in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then


rotational grazing can be started with cattle
being removed when the grass has been grazed
to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and
the other digitgrasses should also be allowed to
regrow to a height of 10 to 12". Rotational
grazing can then be started with cattle being
removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass
has been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6". In
mid-summer, these pastures need a minimum of
one week and preferably three weeks rest
between grazing periods. Three to four weeks of
rest between grazing periods is needed before
and after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to
14" and then graze back to a 5" stubble before
rotating cattle. If grazing is needed before the
desired height is reached, follow the old rule of
thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture
size and cattle numbers adjusted so that a
pasture can be grazed off in one week or less.

CGC

Hay Producers

Bur frosted bermudagrass stubble to reduce
spittlebug infestation, certain fungal diseases,
remove trash, and kill early germinating winter
weeds. Burning also seems to allow the sun to
warm the ground and stimulate growth. Do not
bum to soon. Wait until a few green shoots are
present, indicating that the bermudagrass is
breaking "dormancy". If a hard freeze follows
shortly after growth is stimulated, the stand
could be damaged. This is especially true for a
non-cold tolerant bermuda such as Coastcross -
1. Coastal and other bermudagrasses that have
rhizomes have greater cold tolerance and will
likely survive a hard freeze.

Study soil tests and consider last years growth.
Are there areas in the field where growth
appeared to be reduced or where the stand is
thinning? Bermudagrass uses a lot of potassium










Dairy Producers When to Harvest Small
Grains for Forage

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye,
triticale) generally decreases as they mature
from the boot to the dough stage. Lignification
of the stem tissue (the stem becomes more
woody) appears to be the main reason for
reduced digestibility of the forage. If the forage
is to be fed to high-producing dairy cows, it is
suggested that the small grain crop be harvested
at the boot-stage when it will have a feed value
close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce
the most digestible nutrients and protein per
acre, it is recommended that the crop be
harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top
quality forage.

CGC

Grazing Management of Perennial Grasses in
Late Winter

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses
need extra attention in late winter and early
spring. When warm weather arrives, these
grasses need time to grow new roots and rebuild
energy reserves in the crown and roots.
Allowing the plants to rebuild and attain a
healthy condition permits them to better
withstand any stress that might come along
during the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been
grazed down to the ground by mid February or
earlier. Although bahiagrass can withstand a
certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the
grass starts to regrow, cattle should be removed
from these pastures and kept off until the grass
has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are
susceptible to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta
cultivar. Therefore, cattle should be removed
from these pastures once they are grazed down
during the winter. Cattle should not be put back
in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then


rotational grazing can be started with cattle
being removed when the grass has been grazed
to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and
the other digitgrasses should also be allowed to
regrow to a height of 10 to 12". Rotational
grazing can then be started with cattle being
removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass
has been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6". In
mid-summer, these pastures need a minimum of
one week and preferably three weeks rest
between grazing periods. Three to four weeks of
rest between grazing periods is needed before
and after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to
14" and then graze back to a 5" stubble before
rotating cattle. If grazing is needed before the
desired height is reached, follow the old rule of
thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture
size and cattle numbers adjusted so that a
pasture can be grazed off in one week or less.

CGC

Hay Producers

Bur frosted bermudagrass stubble to reduce
spittlebug infestation, certain fungal diseases,
remove trash, and kill early germinating winter
weeds. Burning also seems to allow the sun to
warm the ground and stimulate growth. Do not
bum to soon. Wait until a few green shoots are
present, indicating that the bermudagrass is
breaking "dormancy". If a hard freeze follows
shortly after growth is stimulated, the stand
could be damaged. This is especially true for a
non-cold tolerant bermuda such as Coastcross -
1. Coastal and other bermudagrasses that have
rhizomes have greater cold tolerance and will
likely survive a hard freeze.

Study soil tests and consider last years growth.
Are there areas in the field where growth
appeared to be reduced or where the stand is
thinning? Bermudagrass uses a lot of potassium










Dairy Producers When to Harvest Small
Grains for Forage

Forage quality of small grains (oats, wheat, rye,
triticale) generally decreases as they mature
from the boot to the dough stage. Lignification
of the stem tissue (the stem becomes more
woody) appears to be the main reason for
reduced digestibility of the forage. If the forage
is to be fed to high-producing dairy cows, it is
suggested that the small grain crop be harvested
at the boot-stage when it will have a feed value
close to that of top quality alfalfa. Since small
grain crops harvested at the dough stage produce
the most digestible nutrients and protein per
acre, it is recommended that the crop be
harvested at the dough stage if the forage is
intended for animals that do not require top
quality forage.

CGC

Grazing Management of Perennial Grasses in
Late Winter

Most of our improved perennial pasture grasses
need extra attention in late winter and early
spring. When warm weather arrives, these
grasses need time to grow new roots and rebuild
energy reserves in the crown and roots.
Allowing the plants to rebuild and attain a
healthy condition permits them to better
withstand any stress that might come along
during the remainder of the growing season.

In some pastures, the grass will have been
grazed down to the ground by mid February or
earlier. Although bahiagrass can withstand a
certain amount of overgrazing, other grasses
cannot. When warm weather arrives and the
grass starts to regrow, cattle should be removed
from these pastures and kept off until the grass
has fully recovered.

Floralta and Bigalta Limpograss (hemarthria) are
susceptible to overgrazing, especially the Bigalta
cultivar. Therefore, cattle should be removed
from these pastures once they are grazed down
during the winter. Cattle should not be put back
in until the regrowth is 14 to 16" tall. Then


rotational grazing can be started with cattle
being removed when the grass has been grazed
to an 8" stubble height.

If grazed close during the winter, Pangola and
the other digitgrasses should also be allowed to
regrow to a height of 10 to 12". Rotational
grazing can then be started with cattle being
removed from a pasture (rotated) when the grass
has been grazed down to a height of 4 to 6". In
mid-summer, these pastures need a minimum of
one week and preferably three weeks rest
between grazing periods. Three to four weeks of
rest between grazing periods is needed before
and after mid-summer.

Allow stargrass to regrow to a height of 10 to
14" and then graze back to a 5" stubble before
rotating cattle. If grazing is needed before the
desired height is reached, follow the old rule of
thumb "take half, leave half."

In general, it is always desirable to have pasture
size and cattle numbers adjusted so that a
pasture can be grazed off in one week or less.

CGC

Hay Producers

Bur frosted bermudagrass stubble to reduce
spittlebug infestation, certain fungal diseases,
remove trash, and kill early germinating winter
weeds. Burning also seems to allow the sun to
warm the ground and stimulate growth. Do not
bum to soon. Wait until a few green shoots are
present, indicating that the bermudagrass is
breaking "dormancy". If a hard freeze follows
shortly after growth is stimulated, the stand
could be damaged. This is especially true for a
non-cold tolerant bermuda such as Coastcross -
1. Coastal and other bermudagrasses that have
rhizomes have greater cold tolerance and will
likely survive a hard freeze.

Study soil tests and consider last years growth.
Are there areas in the field where growth
appeared to be reduced or where the stand is
thinning? Bermudagrass uses a lot of potassium










and over time there may be excessive
"drawdown" of the potassium in the soil profile
if only minimal amounts have been applied.
Thinning of the stand is a common symptom of
insufficient potassium.

Fertilize the new growth with 80 pounds of N
per acre and the soil test recommended amounts
of potassium and phosphorus.

Be prepared to control winter weeds in the first
growth period if needed. Burning will kill many
of the weed seedlings, but a herbicide may be
needed to kill weeds that escape the fire or that
germinate later. Try to kill these weeds early so
that they will have enough time to dry and
disintegrate before the first harvest is taken.

CGC

Inoculating Peanut Seed

Being a legume, peanuts require that nitrogen-
fixing bacteria infect the roots for efficient and
economical growth. These bacteria are present
in soils that have been used to grow peanuts, or
where beggarweed, alyceclover, hairy indigo,
and certain other legume weeds are growing.
There have been relatively few inoculation
failures in Florida peanuts, with most of them
occurring where new land was cleared of trees
and vegetation that did not include the common
legumes, or on old bahiagrass pastures that did
not include any legume growth. If it is unlikely
that natural bacterial infection will occur, an
inoculant containing the cowpea or peanut strain
of nitrogen-fixing bacteria can be added to the
seed or seed furrow at planting. These
inoculants can be purchased at many seed or
farm supply stores, but because of limited sales,
they may not be kept in stock. The material can
be ordered, but the dealer should be notified of
the need well in advance of planting.

EBW

Peanut Varieties for the Green Market

The selection of a variety to plant for sale on the
green market depends on a number of factors.
First would be the needs of the customer, as


there are demands for large peanuts, for peanuts
at a certain time, and whether or not the peanuts
will be sold before or after boiling. Much of the
green market trade is with valencia peanut
varieties. These varieties generally have good
flavor, often three or four kernels per pod, and
are early maturing. Growers also like the early
maturity characteristic because the peanuts can
often be harvested in 90 days or less after
planting if there are good growing conditions.
Valencia varieties that have been popular
include New Mexico Valencia A, New Mexico
Valencia C, McRan, Georgia Red, and Georgia
Valencia. New Mexico Valencia C 101A and
Genetex are new varieties and have performed
well in tests. Some customers want the larger
peanuts for boiling. Gregory is a large-seeded
peanut that appears to be well-suited for boiling,
but requires three to four weeks longer to mature
than the valencia types. Most runner varieties
have about the same maturity as Gregory, but
have a smaller kernel.

EBW

Planting Dates for Green Market Peanuts

There are probably about 10,000 acres of Florida
peanuts grown and harvested each year for sale
or use as boiling peanuts. They are grown in
most areas of the state. Green market peanuts
are not dried prior to use as are those used for
peanut butter, candy, or roasting. Since these
peanuts must be processed, and generally
consumed, within a few days of harvest, they are
planted at times that allow harvest during
opportune market windows. Since supplies are
limited from late fall through the spring months,
southern Florida growers plant peanuts for
harvest during this period. Prices are naturally
higher during period, but the risk of cold
weather or frost during the growing period is
also greater. Even if frost is not a problem, cold
weather may slow the growth of peanuts enough
that the targeted marketing windows are missed.
In the absence of research information, it is
suggested that peanuts be planted so that they
would be expected to be harvested before the
average date of the first fall or winter freeze, and
planted after the last freeze of the winter. The
grower should also study weather records from










and over time there may be excessive
"drawdown" of the potassium in the soil profile
if only minimal amounts have been applied.
Thinning of the stand is a common symptom of
insufficient potassium.

Fertilize the new growth with 80 pounds of N
per acre and the soil test recommended amounts
of potassium and phosphorus.

Be prepared to control winter weeds in the first
growth period if needed. Burning will kill many
of the weed seedlings, but a herbicide may be
needed to kill weeds that escape the fire or that
germinate later. Try to kill these weeds early so
that they will have enough time to dry and
disintegrate before the first harvest is taken.

CGC

Inoculating Peanut Seed

Being a legume, peanuts require that nitrogen-
fixing bacteria infect the roots for efficient and
economical growth. These bacteria are present
in soils that have been used to grow peanuts, or
where beggarweed, alyceclover, hairy indigo,
and certain other legume weeds are growing.
There have been relatively few inoculation
failures in Florida peanuts, with most of them
occurring where new land was cleared of trees
and vegetation that did not include the common
legumes, or on old bahiagrass pastures that did
not include any legume growth. If it is unlikely
that natural bacterial infection will occur, an
inoculant containing the cowpea or peanut strain
of nitrogen-fixing bacteria can be added to the
seed or seed furrow at planting. These
inoculants can be purchased at many seed or
farm supply stores, but because of limited sales,
they may not be kept in stock. The material can
be ordered, but the dealer should be notified of
the need well in advance of planting.

EBW

Peanut Varieties for the Green Market

The selection of a variety to plant for sale on the
green market depends on a number of factors.
First would be the needs of the customer, as


there are demands for large peanuts, for peanuts
at a certain time, and whether or not the peanuts
will be sold before or after boiling. Much of the
green market trade is with valencia peanut
varieties. These varieties generally have good
flavor, often three or four kernels per pod, and
are early maturing. Growers also like the early
maturity characteristic because the peanuts can
often be harvested in 90 days or less after
planting if there are good growing conditions.
Valencia varieties that have been popular
include New Mexico Valencia A, New Mexico
Valencia C, McRan, Georgia Red, and Georgia
Valencia. New Mexico Valencia C 101A and
Genetex are new varieties and have performed
well in tests. Some customers want the larger
peanuts for boiling. Gregory is a large-seeded
peanut that appears to be well-suited for boiling,
but requires three to four weeks longer to mature
than the valencia types. Most runner varieties
have about the same maturity as Gregory, but
have a smaller kernel.

EBW

Planting Dates for Green Market Peanuts

There are probably about 10,000 acres of Florida
peanuts grown and harvested each year for sale
or use as boiling peanuts. They are grown in
most areas of the state. Green market peanuts
are not dried prior to use as are those used for
peanut butter, candy, or roasting. Since these
peanuts must be processed, and generally
consumed, within a few days of harvest, they are
planted at times that allow harvest during
opportune market windows. Since supplies are
limited from late fall through the spring months,
southern Florida growers plant peanuts for
harvest during this period. Prices are naturally
higher during period, but the risk of cold
weather or frost during the growing period is
also greater. Even if frost is not a problem, cold
weather may slow the growth of peanuts enough
that the targeted marketing windows are missed.
In the absence of research information, it is
suggested that peanuts be planted so that they
would be expected to be harvested before the
average date of the first fall or winter freeze, and
planted after the last freeze of the winter. The
grower should also study weather records from










and over time there may be excessive
"drawdown" of the potassium in the soil profile
if only minimal amounts have been applied.
Thinning of the stand is a common symptom of
insufficient potassium.

Fertilize the new growth with 80 pounds of N
per acre and the soil test recommended amounts
of potassium and phosphorus.

Be prepared to control winter weeds in the first
growth period if needed. Burning will kill many
of the weed seedlings, but a herbicide may be
needed to kill weeds that escape the fire or that
germinate later. Try to kill these weeds early so
that they will have enough time to dry and
disintegrate before the first harvest is taken.

CGC

Inoculating Peanut Seed

Being a legume, peanuts require that nitrogen-
fixing bacteria infect the roots for efficient and
economical growth. These bacteria are present
in soils that have been used to grow peanuts, or
where beggarweed, alyceclover, hairy indigo,
and certain other legume weeds are growing.
There have been relatively few inoculation
failures in Florida peanuts, with most of them
occurring where new land was cleared of trees
and vegetation that did not include the common
legumes, or on old bahiagrass pastures that did
not include any legume growth. If it is unlikely
that natural bacterial infection will occur, an
inoculant containing the cowpea or peanut strain
of nitrogen-fixing bacteria can be added to the
seed or seed furrow at planting. These
inoculants can be purchased at many seed or
farm supply stores, but because of limited sales,
they may not be kept in stock. The material can
be ordered, but the dealer should be notified of
the need well in advance of planting.

EBW

Peanut Varieties for the Green Market

The selection of a variety to plant for sale on the
green market depends on a number of factors.
First would be the needs of the customer, as


there are demands for large peanuts, for peanuts
at a certain time, and whether or not the peanuts
will be sold before or after boiling. Much of the
green market trade is with valencia peanut
varieties. These varieties generally have good
flavor, often three or four kernels per pod, and
are early maturing. Growers also like the early
maturity characteristic because the peanuts can
often be harvested in 90 days or less after
planting if there are good growing conditions.
Valencia varieties that have been popular
include New Mexico Valencia A, New Mexico
Valencia C, McRan, Georgia Red, and Georgia
Valencia. New Mexico Valencia C 101A and
Genetex are new varieties and have performed
well in tests. Some customers want the larger
peanuts for boiling. Gregory is a large-seeded
peanut that appears to be well-suited for boiling,
but requires three to four weeks longer to mature
than the valencia types. Most runner varieties
have about the same maturity as Gregory, but
have a smaller kernel.

EBW

Planting Dates for Green Market Peanuts

There are probably about 10,000 acres of Florida
peanuts grown and harvested each year for sale
or use as boiling peanuts. They are grown in
most areas of the state. Green market peanuts
are not dried prior to use as are those used for
peanut butter, candy, or roasting. Since these
peanuts must be processed, and generally
consumed, within a few days of harvest, they are
planted at times that allow harvest during
opportune market windows. Since supplies are
limited from late fall through the spring months,
southern Florida growers plant peanuts for
harvest during this period. Prices are naturally
higher during period, but the risk of cold
weather or frost during the growing period is
also greater. Even if frost is not a problem, cold
weather may slow the growth of peanuts enough
that the targeted marketing windows are missed.
In the absence of research information, it is
suggested that peanuts be planted so that they
would be expected to be harvested before the
average date of the first fall or winter freeze, and
planted after the last freeze of the winter. The
grower should also study weather records from










the area of planned production to learn of the
expected weather patterns. If the daily
minimum temperatures are frequently in the 30's
to low 50's, growth and development may be
slow even if the daily highs are in the 70's and
80's. Naturally the prospects for price will
dictate the amount of risk that a grower will
accept.

EBW

Tobacco Barn Testing

Two pieces of equipment are available for
testing tobacco barns. One is an instrument that
can be used to measure the composition of the
combustion gases and thereby provide an
indication of adjustments that could be made to
improve the efficiency of the burner. With
heating fuel being a major cost of producing
tobacco it is important to use the fuel (LP or
diesel) as efficiently as possible. The other
instrument measures the carbon dioxide level in
barn in an effort to determine if there may be a
crack or leak in the heat exchanger. While CO2
is not of concern, it is a result of combustion and
therefore may indicate ifNOx gases are also
entering the curing chamber where they would
react with the tobacco and form nitrosamines.
The nitrosamines are undesirable compounds in
the tobacco. Both instruments are available to
county agents for them to check individual
barns.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Management

There may be a number of management
practices that will be needed in February to help
insure an adequate number of healthy plants
being available for transplanting tobacco in
March. If needed, irrigate to keep plants
growing, but do not irrigate more than needed
because many diseases, such as blue mold and
damping-off, can become a greater problem
under wet conditions than they would be the
case under drier conditions. Inspect the beds
frequently for the presence of disease and apply
appropriate fungicides if needed. Also inspect
for insect pests, such as cutworms, vegetable


weevil larva, and aphids. Apply insecticides as
needed for control. If the plants are growing
slowly, and have a yellow color, it may be
advisable to apply a nitrogen fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), or other suitable material. Do not
apply excessive rates as the plants may become
succulent and blue mold may be more severe.
Usually 3-5 pounds of nitrate of soda per 100
square yards of bed will be adequate. If sulfur
or magnesium appear to be deficient, a
magnesium sulfate fertilizer can be applied. If
outside temperatures get into the 80's for two or
three consecutive days, the plants may suffer
from heat damage, which is usually yellowing
and slow growth. Remove the plastic covers if
heat damage develops, or if conditions are
favorable for development. Clipping may be
started in February if plant growth is rapid.

EBW

Tobacco Program Continuation

Flue-cured tobacco farmers voted in January to
continue the current federal program. This vote
is required at three-year intervals and farmers
can vote to either continue or discontinue the
quota and price support program which is
administered by the federal government.
Approximately 93 percent of the votes were in
favor of continuing the program. Depending on
the wording, legislation for a buyout of quota
could eliminate the program. It is expected that
there will be further attempts in the current
session to enact congressional legislation that
would provide for a buyout of quota. Previous
attempts at legislation have not make it past
committee hearings.

EBW

2004 North Florida Beef Cattle Field Day,
March 25

"Mark your calendars and plan to attend the
second annual Beef Cattle Field Day at the
North Florida Research and Education Center's
Beef Unit, Marianna, on Thursday, March 25.
The program will get underway at 8:00 AM










the area of planned production to learn of the
expected weather patterns. If the daily
minimum temperatures are frequently in the 30's
to low 50's, growth and development may be
slow even if the daily highs are in the 70's and
80's. Naturally the prospects for price will
dictate the amount of risk that a grower will
accept.

EBW

Tobacco Barn Testing

Two pieces of equipment are available for
testing tobacco barns. One is an instrument that
can be used to measure the composition of the
combustion gases and thereby provide an
indication of adjustments that could be made to
improve the efficiency of the burner. With
heating fuel being a major cost of producing
tobacco it is important to use the fuel (LP or
diesel) as efficiently as possible. The other
instrument measures the carbon dioxide level in
barn in an effort to determine if there may be a
crack or leak in the heat exchanger. While CO2
is not of concern, it is a result of combustion and
therefore may indicate ifNOx gases are also
entering the curing chamber where they would
react with the tobacco and form nitrosamines.
The nitrosamines are undesirable compounds in
the tobacco. Both instruments are available to
county agents for them to check individual
barns.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Management

There may be a number of management
practices that will be needed in February to help
insure an adequate number of healthy plants
being available for transplanting tobacco in
March. If needed, irrigate to keep plants
growing, but do not irrigate more than needed
because many diseases, such as blue mold and
damping-off, can become a greater problem
under wet conditions than they would be the
case under drier conditions. Inspect the beds
frequently for the presence of disease and apply
appropriate fungicides if needed. Also inspect
for insect pests, such as cutworms, vegetable


weevil larva, and aphids. Apply insecticides as
needed for control. If the plants are growing
slowly, and have a yellow color, it may be
advisable to apply a nitrogen fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), or other suitable material. Do not
apply excessive rates as the plants may become
succulent and blue mold may be more severe.
Usually 3-5 pounds of nitrate of soda per 100
square yards of bed will be adequate. If sulfur
or magnesium appear to be deficient, a
magnesium sulfate fertilizer can be applied. If
outside temperatures get into the 80's for two or
three consecutive days, the plants may suffer
from heat damage, which is usually yellowing
and slow growth. Remove the plastic covers if
heat damage develops, or if conditions are
favorable for development. Clipping may be
started in February if plant growth is rapid.

EBW

Tobacco Program Continuation

Flue-cured tobacco farmers voted in January to
continue the current federal program. This vote
is required at three-year intervals and farmers
can vote to either continue or discontinue the
quota and price support program which is
administered by the federal government.
Approximately 93 percent of the votes were in
favor of continuing the program. Depending on
the wording, legislation for a buyout of quota
could eliminate the program. It is expected that
there will be further attempts in the current
session to enact congressional legislation that
would provide for a buyout of quota. Previous
attempts at legislation have not make it past
committee hearings.

EBW

2004 North Florida Beef Cattle Field Day,
March 25

"Mark your calendars and plan to attend the
second annual Beef Cattle Field Day at the
North Florida Research and Education Center's
Beef Unit, Marianna, on Thursday, March 25.
The program will get underway at 8:00 AM










the area of planned production to learn of the
expected weather patterns. If the daily
minimum temperatures are frequently in the 30's
to low 50's, growth and development may be
slow even if the daily highs are in the 70's and
80's. Naturally the prospects for price will
dictate the amount of risk that a grower will
accept.

EBW

Tobacco Barn Testing

Two pieces of equipment are available for
testing tobacco barns. One is an instrument that
can be used to measure the composition of the
combustion gases and thereby provide an
indication of adjustments that could be made to
improve the efficiency of the burner. With
heating fuel being a major cost of producing
tobacco it is important to use the fuel (LP or
diesel) as efficiently as possible. The other
instrument measures the carbon dioxide level in
barn in an effort to determine if there may be a
crack or leak in the heat exchanger. While CO2
is not of concern, it is a result of combustion and
therefore may indicate ifNOx gases are also
entering the curing chamber where they would
react with the tobacco and form nitrosamines.
The nitrosamines are undesirable compounds in
the tobacco. Both instruments are available to
county agents for them to check individual
barns.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Management

There may be a number of management
practices that will be needed in February to help
insure an adequate number of healthy plants
being available for transplanting tobacco in
March. If needed, irrigate to keep plants
growing, but do not irrigate more than needed
because many diseases, such as blue mold and
damping-off, can become a greater problem
under wet conditions than they would be the
case under drier conditions. Inspect the beds
frequently for the presence of disease and apply
appropriate fungicides if needed. Also inspect
for insect pests, such as cutworms, vegetable


weevil larva, and aphids. Apply insecticides as
needed for control. If the plants are growing
slowly, and have a yellow color, it may be
advisable to apply a nitrogen fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), or other suitable material. Do not
apply excessive rates as the plants may become
succulent and blue mold may be more severe.
Usually 3-5 pounds of nitrate of soda per 100
square yards of bed will be adequate. If sulfur
or magnesium appear to be deficient, a
magnesium sulfate fertilizer can be applied. If
outside temperatures get into the 80's for two or
three consecutive days, the plants may suffer
from heat damage, which is usually yellowing
and slow growth. Remove the plastic covers if
heat damage develops, or if conditions are
favorable for development. Clipping may be
started in February if plant growth is rapid.

EBW

Tobacco Program Continuation

Flue-cured tobacco farmers voted in January to
continue the current federal program. This vote
is required at three-year intervals and farmers
can vote to either continue or discontinue the
quota and price support program which is
administered by the federal government.
Approximately 93 percent of the votes were in
favor of continuing the program. Depending on
the wording, legislation for a buyout of quota
could eliminate the program. It is expected that
there will be further attempts in the current
session to enact congressional legislation that
would provide for a buyout of quota. Previous
attempts at legislation have not make it past
committee hearings.

EBW

2004 North Florida Beef Cattle Field Day,
March 25

"Mark your calendars and plan to attend the
second annual Beef Cattle Field Day at the
North Florida Research and Education Center's
Beef Unit, Marianna, on Thursday, March 25.
The program will get underway at 8:00 AM










the area of planned production to learn of the
expected weather patterns. If the daily
minimum temperatures are frequently in the 30's
to low 50's, growth and development may be
slow even if the daily highs are in the 70's and
80's. Naturally the prospects for price will
dictate the amount of risk that a grower will
accept.

EBW

Tobacco Barn Testing

Two pieces of equipment are available for
testing tobacco barns. One is an instrument that
can be used to measure the composition of the
combustion gases and thereby provide an
indication of adjustments that could be made to
improve the efficiency of the burner. With
heating fuel being a major cost of producing
tobacco it is important to use the fuel (LP or
diesel) as efficiently as possible. The other
instrument measures the carbon dioxide level in
barn in an effort to determine if there may be a
crack or leak in the heat exchanger. While CO2
is not of concern, it is a result of combustion and
therefore may indicate ifNOx gases are also
entering the curing chamber where they would
react with the tobacco and form nitrosamines.
The nitrosamines are undesirable compounds in
the tobacco. Both instruments are available to
county agents for them to check individual
barns.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Management

There may be a number of management
practices that will be needed in February to help
insure an adequate number of healthy plants
being available for transplanting tobacco in
March. If needed, irrigate to keep plants
growing, but do not irrigate more than needed
because many diseases, such as blue mold and
damping-off, can become a greater problem
under wet conditions than they would be the
case under drier conditions. Inspect the beds
frequently for the presence of disease and apply
appropriate fungicides if needed. Also inspect
for insect pests, such as cutworms, vegetable


weevil larva, and aphids. Apply insecticides as
needed for control. If the plants are growing
slowly, and have a yellow color, it may be
advisable to apply a nitrogen fertilizer, such as
nitrate of soda (16-0-0), nitrate of soda-potash
(15-0-14), or other suitable material. Do not
apply excessive rates as the plants may become
succulent and blue mold may be more severe.
Usually 3-5 pounds of nitrate of soda per 100
square yards of bed will be adequate. If sulfur
or magnesium appear to be deficient, a
magnesium sulfate fertilizer can be applied. If
outside temperatures get into the 80's for two or
three consecutive days, the plants may suffer
from heat damage, which is usually yellowing
and slow growth. Remove the plastic covers if
heat damage develops, or if conditions are
favorable for development. Clipping may be
started in February if plant growth is rapid.

EBW

Tobacco Program Continuation

Flue-cured tobacco farmers voted in January to
continue the current federal program. This vote
is required at three-year intervals and farmers
can vote to either continue or discontinue the
quota and price support program which is
administered by the federal government.
Approximately 93 percent of the votes were in
favor of continuing the program. Depending on
the wording, legislation for a buyout of quota
could eliminate the program. It is expected that
there will be further attempts in the current
session to enact congressional legislation that
would provide for a buyout of quota. Previous
attempts at legislation have not make it past
committee hearings.

EBW

2004 North Florida Beef Cattle Field Day,
March 25

"Mark your calendars and plan to attend the
second annual Beef Cattle Field Day at the
North Florida Research and Education Center's
Beef Unit, Marianna, on Thursday, March 25.
The program will get underway at 8:00 AM










(CT) and will end at 3:00 PM. Lunch and
refreshments will be provided.

The field day will include demonstrations along
with field tours of ongoing research. Topics
covered will include: an update on various cattle
reproduction technologies, the integration of
cattle grazing into a crop rotation scheme, an
update on cool season forages, supplemental


feeding of beef cattle, animal identification
demonstration, and factors affecting cow
productivity.

The NFREC Beef Unit is located one mile west
of Greenwood, Florida on state highway 162.
For additional information call (850) 482-9904.
A small registration fee ($5) will be charged to
help defray the cost of lunch and refreshments."


CGC


Annual Report of Field Crop Statistics for 2003


The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service reported the following estimates of field crop
production in 2003.

Crop Florida Acreage Florida Yield United States Yield

Corn, all purposes 75,000

Corn, grain 39,000 82 bu/A 142.2 bu/A

Corn, silage 28,000 19 ton/A 16.2 ton/A

Wheat, all purposes 20,000

Wheat, grain 12,000 41 bu/A 44.2 bu/A

Hay, all 255,000 2.50 ton/A 2.48 ton/A

Peanuts, planted 125,000

Peanuts, harvested 115,000 3000 lb/A 3159 lb/A

Soybeans, planted 13,000

Soybeans, harvested 12,000 30 bu/A 33.4 bu/A

Cotton, planted 94,000

Cotton, harvested 92,000 678 lb/A 725 lb/A

Tobacco, all 4,400 2500 lb/A 1997 lb/A

Tobacco, flue-cured 4,400 2500 lb/A 2000 lb/A

Sugarcane, seed and sugar 441,000 39.5 ton/A 34.5 ton/A


EBW










Publications


Updated Publications
SS-AGR-29 ................ ....................... Tobacco Varieties for 2004

NEW Publications
SS-AGR-85 ..................................... Field Corn Production Guide


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the
exclusion of similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A.
Mossler, Pest Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist.