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 Table of Contents
 Bermudagrass establishment
 Cool season forages
 Grass tetany in cattle
 Liming pastures
 Sources of hay
 Use of anhydrous ammonia
 New peanut growers
 Soil sampling for peanut field...
 Applying fumigants for nematode...
 Contamination of tobacco plant...
 Tobacco quota for 2004


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00042
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: January 2004
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00042

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Bermudagrass establishment
        Page 2
    Cool season forages
        Page 2
    Grass tetany in cattle
        Page 2
    Liming pastures
        Page 3
    Sources of hay
        Page 3
    Use of anhydrous ammonia
        Page 3
    New peanut growers
        Page 3
    Soil sampling for peanut fields
        Page 4
    Applying fumigants for nematode control in tobacco
        Page 4
    Contamination of tobacco plant beds
        Page 4
    Tobacco quota for 2004
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

January, 2004

DATES TO REMEMBER

Jan. 27 Agronomic Crops In-Service Training Quincy AREC
Feb. 24-25 FL Weed Science Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Pierce
May 22 4th Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day, Moultrie, GA
May 27 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra



IN THIS ISSUE

FORAGE
Bermudagrass Establishment ..................................... 2
C ool Season Forages ...................................... ......... 2
G rass Tetany in C attle .................................... .......... 2
L im ing Pastures .................................... ... ......... 3
Sources of H ay ....... .... ....................... .......... 3
Use of Anhydrous Ammonia ..................................... .. 3

PEANUTS
New Peanut Growers ............................................... 3
Soil Sampling for Peanut Fields ...................................... 4

TOBACCO
Applying Fumigants for Nematode Control in Tobacco .................. 4
Contamination of Tobacco Plant Beds ................................. 4
Tobacco Quota for 2004 ................................ .... ..... 5







The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor
Waddill, Director.










Bermudagrass Establishment

Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be
established by planting dug sprigs from mid
January through March. This is especially true
for those that produce lots of rhizomes. The
stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very
few rhizomes can be planted in the summer from
tops. All of the bermudagrasses can be
established by planting tops in the summer, but
there may be some advantages for planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season.
Earlier planting may result in more complete
coverage and more forage production during the
establishment year. Since this is a cooler time of
the year, heat damage ("scalding") is avoided.
There is usually less weed competition in the
spring as compared to summer plantings. On the
other hand, failure may result from a spring
drought (April-May). This is especially true for
peninsular Florida.

CGC

Cool Season Forages

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season
legumes, and mixtures of these forages may
need extra attention in February.

Nitrogen The cool season grasses will need
additional nitrogen for sustained vigorous
growth. Apply an additional 50 to 65 lb./A of
N. Two hundred lb. of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb. of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur.
Three hundred pounds per acre would apply 63
lb. of N. If possible, apply the N after a grazing
cycle when the grass has been grazed down and
apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

On flatwoods soil where ryegrass is commonly
grown, nitrogen can be lost through the process
of denitrification. This is the process, where
under flooded conditions, certain bacteria
convert nitrate to nitrogen gas and the nitrogen
goes out of the soil into the air. Plants will turn
a light yellow in color which is an indicator of
nitrogen deficiency. This usually occurs as
yellow spots in the pasture that have poor


growth. These spots will occur in depressions or
swells where water accumulates and stands or
where the soil stays completely saturated for
several days.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and
rotational grazing (stocking) provide the
opportunity to prevent overgrazing. Allow
pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then graze.
When the cool season forages have been grazed
down to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals
should be moved to a new pasture. Overgrazing
slows the rate of recovery and reduces future
growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with an
electric fence can provide the subdivisions
needed for rotational grazing. Rotational
grazing (stocking) promotes uniform grazing
and maximum use of the forage. If acreage is
limited or growth reduced, use the practice of
"Limit Grazing". Limit grazing is the practice
of moving the cattle in and out of the cool
season pasture each day. Allowing them to
graze for two hours or less will conserve forage,
yet permit the animals to obtain some protein
and energy to supplement their diet.

CGC

Grass Tetany in Cattle

Grass tetany, sometimes called grass staggers or
hypomagnesemia, can be a serious problem in
Florida with cattle grazing small grain or
ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of
the disease is unknown, although it is always
associated with an imbalance in the mineral
components of blood serum, especially reduced
magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is
more severe when cattle are grazing young
forage, particularly the first flush of growth
during December and January. Once the forage
becomes more mature, the likelihood of
problems occurring is reduced. The disease is
apt to appear under conditions of nutritional
stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality
pasture may cause such a nutritional stress.

Feed mineral supplements that contain
magnesium. Commercial mineral mixtures










Bermudagrass Establishment

Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be
established by planting dug sprigs from mid
January through March. This is especially true
for those that produce lots of rhizomes. The
stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very
few rhizomes can be planted in the summer from
tops. All of the bermudagrasses can be
established by planting tops in the summer, but
there may be some advantages for planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season.
Earlier planting may result in more complete
coverage and more forage production during the
establishment year. Since this is a cooler time of
the year, heat damage ("scalding") is avoided.
There is usually less weed competition in the
spring as compared to summer plantings. On the
other hand, failure may result from a spring
drought (April-May). This is especially true for
peninsular Florida.

CGC

Cool Season Forages

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season
legumes, and mixtures of these forages may
need extra attention in February.

Nitrogen The cool season grasses will need
additional nitrogen for sustained vigorous
growth. Apply an additional 50 to 65 lb./A of
N. Two hundred lb. of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb. of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur.
Three hundred pounds per acre would apply 63
lb. of N. If possible, apply the N after a grazing
cycle when the grass has been grazed down and
apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

On flatwoods soil where ryegrass is commonly
grown, nitrogen can be lost through the process
of denitrification. This is the process, where
under flooded conditions, certain bacteria
convert nitrate to nitrogen gas and the nitrogen
goes out of the soil into the air. Plants will turn
a light yellow in color which is an indicator of
nitrogen deficiency. This usually occurs as
yellow spots in the pasture that have poor


growth. These spots will occur in depressions or
swells where water accumulates and stands or
where the soil stays completely saturated for
several days.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and
rotational grazing (stocking) provide the
opportunity to prevent overgrazing. Allow
pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then graze.
When the cool season forages have been grazed
down to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals
should be moved to a new pasture. Overgrazing
slows the rate of recovery and reduces future
growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with an
electric fence can provide the subdivisions
needed for rotational grazing. Rotational
grazing (stocking) promotes uniform grazing
and maximum use of the forage. If acreage is
limited or growth reduced, use the practice of
"Limit Grazing". Limit grazing is the practice
of moving the cattle in and out of the cool
season pasture each day. Allowing them to
graze for two hours or less will conserve forage,
yet permit the animals to obtain some protein
and energy to supplement their diet.

CGC

Grass Tetany in Cattle

Grass tetany, sometimes called grass staggers or
hypomagnesemia, can be a serious problem in
Florida with cattle grazing small grain or
ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of
the disease is unknown, although it is always
associated with an imbalance in the mineral
components of blood serum, especially reduced
magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is
more severe when cattle are grazing young
forage, particularly the first flush of growth
during December and January. Once the forage
becomes more mature, the likelihood of
problems occurring is reduced. The disease is
apt to appear under conditions of nutritional
stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality
pasture may cause such a nutritional stress.

Feed mineral supplements that contain
magnesium. Commercial mineral mixtures










Bermudagrass Establishment

Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can be
established by planting dug sprigs from mid
January through March. This is especially true
for those that produce lots of rhizomes. The
stargrasses which do not produce rhizomes and
Coastcross-1 bermudagrass which produces very
few rhizomes can be planted in the summer from
tops. All of the bermudagrasses can be
established by planting tops in the summer, but
there may be some advantages for planting dug
sprigs at the beginning of the growing season.
Earlier planting may result in more complete
coverage and more forage production during the
establishment year. Since this is a cooler time of
the year, heat damage ("scalding") is avoided.
There is usually less weed competition in the
spring as compared to summer plantings. On the
other hand, failure may result from a spring
drought (April-May). This is especially true for
peninsular Florida.

CGC

Cool Season Forages

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-season
legumes, and mixtures of these forages may
need extra attention in February.

Nitrogen The cool season grasses will need
additional nitrogen for sustained vigorous
growth. Apply an additional 50 to 65 lb./A of
N. Two hundred lb. of ammonium nitrate
contains approximately 67 lb. of N. Ammonium
sulphate is 21% nitrogen and 24% sulphur.
Three hundred pounds per acre would apply 63
lb. of N. If possible, apply the N after a grazing
cycle when the grass has been grazed down and
apply later in the day when the dew has dried.

On flatwoods soil where ryegrass is commonly
grown, nitrogen can be lost through the process
of denitrification. This is the process, where
under flooded conditions, certain bacteria
convert nitrate to nitrogen gas and the nitrogen
goes out of the soil into the air. Plants will turn
a light yellow in color which is an indicator of
nitrogen deficiency. This usually occurs as
yellow spots in the pasture that have poor


growth. These spots will occur in depressions or
swells where water accumulates and stands or
where the soil stays completely saturated for
several days.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and
rotational grazing (stocking) provide the
opportunity to prevent overgrazing. Allow
pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then graze.
When the cool season forages have been grazed
down to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the animals
should be moved to a new pasture. Overgrazing
slows the rate of recovery and reduces future
growth. Cross fencing of a large pasture with an
electric fence can provide the subdivisions
needed for rotational grazing. Rotational
grazing (stocking) promotes uniform grazing
and maximum use of the forage. If acreage is
limited or growth reduced, use the practice of
"Limit Grazing". Limit grazing is the practice
of moving the cattle in and out of the cool
season pasture each day. Allowing them to
graze for two hours or less will conserve forage,
yet permit the animals to obtain some protein
and energy to supplement their diet.

CGC

Grass Tetany in Cattle

Grass tetany, sometimes called grass staggers or
hypomagnesemia, can be a serious problem in
Florida with cattle grazing small grain or
ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of
the disease is unknown, although it is always
associated with an imbalance in the mineral
components of blood serum, especially reduced
magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is
more severe when cattle are grazing young
forage, particularly the first flush of growth
during December and January. Once the forage
becomes more mature, the likelihood of
problems occurring is reduced. The disease is
apt to appear under conditions of nutritional
stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality
pasture may cause such a nutritional stress.

Feed mineral supplements that contain
magnesium. Commercial mineral mixtures










containing 10-15% magnesium are available for
feeding during periods of increased grass tetany
probability. Cattle need to consume 6-12
ounces/head/day of this mineral.

CGC

Liming Pastures

January and February may be an opportune time
to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates that lime
is needed. This is especially true for those areas
that are to be renovated and replanted in the
spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated.
Lime should be incorporated into the soil
whenever possible since lime reacts with the soil
with which it contacts. Surface applied lime
neutralizes the soil acidity of the surface soil,
but has little immediate effect on the soil pH
below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Tropical
grasses in general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5. The
cool season legumes and grasses do require a
higher pH and where these are grown, liming
may be needed more frequently than is required
on our permanent grass pastures. Also,
bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more
frequent liming. Do not apply lime to pastures
unless it is needed as indicated by soil testing.
To do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that has a
high pH. The high pH at the soil surface may
bring about volatilization of ammonia when
ammonium fertilizers, such as urea-ammonium
nitrate solutions, come in contact with it.
Therefore, do not put out lime and nitrogen at
the same time. For late winter- spring
applications, apply the nitrogen first and allow
enough time for a rain to move it into the soil
before applying the lime.

CGC

Sources of Hay

The Florida Department of Agriculture and


Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for sale
are listed by county. You may obtain this
information by going to DACS' Internet web
site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go directly to
the hay directory at
http ://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flahay.h
tm

CGC

Use of Anhydrous Ammonia

Some hay producers and others like to use
anhydrous ammonia as a source of nitrogen
fertilizer. It is usually the least expensive form
of nitrogen. Since it is a gas, special equipment
is needed for application. Also, the gas may be
lost to the atmosphere if not properly applied.
For a complete discussion of the use of
anhydrous ammonia, see the fact sheet SL178
"Anhydrous Ammonia as a Nitrogen Source for
Florida Agricultural Crops" by G. Kidder. This
fact sheet can be found at the internet site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SS314.

CGC

New Peanut Growers

There may be interest in expanding peanuts
production in 2004 to new farms and new
growers since the quota program has ended and
anyone can now grow the crop. Although prices
are less than they were before the quota program
ended, profits from growing the crop are
possible if good yields are produced and
production costs are reasonable. Before
deciding whether or not to grow peanuts,
marketing opportunities and plans should be
determined, and budgets developed showing
expected costs and returns. Land suitability and
location must be considered. Equipment needs
and sources should be determined. Consider
other crops that will be grown, and be sure that
needed crop rotations can be followed. Review
the production practices that will likely be
needed and become familiar with potential pest
and other problems that may be encountered.


EBW










containing 10-15% magnesium are available for
feeding during periods of increased grass tetany
probability. Cattle need to consume 6-12
ounces/head/day of this mineral.

CGC

Liming Pastures

January and February may be an opportune time
to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates that lime
is needed. This is especially true for those areas
that are to be renovated and replanted in the
spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated.
Lime should be incorporated into the soil
whenever possible since lime reacts with the soil
with which it contacts. Surface applied lime
neutralizes the soil acidity of the surface soil,
but has little immediate effect on the soil pH
below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Tropical
grasses in general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5. The
cool season legumes and grasses do require a
higher pH and where these are grown, liming
may be needed more frequently than is required
on our permanent grass pastures. Also,
bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more
frequent liming. Do not apply lime to pastures
unless it is needed as indicated by soil testing.
To do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that has a
high pH. The high pH at the soil surface may
bring about volatilization of ammonia when
ammonium fertilizers, such as urea-ammonium
nitrate solutions, come in contact with it.
Therefore, do not put out lime and nitrogen at
the same time. For late winter- spring
applications, apply the nitrogen first and allow
enough time for a rain to move it into the soil
before applying the lime.

CGC

Sources of Hay

The Florida Department of Agriculture and


Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for sale
are listed by county. You may obtain this
information by going to DACS' Internet web
site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go directly to
the hay directory at
http ://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flahay.h
tm

CGC

Use of Anhydrous Ammonia

Some hay producers and others like to use
anhydrous ammonia as a source of nitrogen
fertilizer. It is usually the least expensive form
of nitrogen. Since it is a gas, special equipment
is needed for application. Also, the gas may be
lost to the atmosphere if not properly applied.
For a complete discussion of the use of
anhydrous ammonia, see the fact sheet SL178
"Anhydrous Ammonia as a Nitrogen Source for
Florida Agricultural Crops" by G. Kidder. This
fact sheet can be found at the internet site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SS314.

CGC

New Peanut Growers

There may be interest in expanding peanuts
production in 2004 to new farms and new
growers since the quota program has ended and
anyone can now grow the crop. Although prices
are less than they were before the quota program
ended, profits from growing the crop are
possible if good yields are produced and
production costs are reasonable. Before
deciding whether or not to grow peanuts,
marketing opportunities and plans should be
determined, and budgets developed showing
expected costs and returns. Land suitability and
location must be considered. Equipment needs
and sources should be determined. Consider
other crops that will be grown, and be sure that
needed crop rotations can be followed. Review
the production practices that will likely be
needed and become familiar with potential pest
and other problems that may be encountered.


EBW










containing 10-15% magnesium are available for
feeding during periods of increased grass tetany
probability. Cattle need to consume 6-12
ounces/head/day of this mineral.

CGC

Liming Pastures

January and February may be an opportune time
to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates that lime
is needed. This is especially true for those areas
that are to be renovated and replanted in the
spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated.
Lime should be incorporated into the soil
whenever possible since lime reacts with the soil
with which it contacts. Surface applied lime
neutralizes the soil acidity of the surface soil,
but has little immediate effect on the soil pH
below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Tropical
grasses in general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5. The
cool season legumes and grasses do require a
higher pH and where these are grown, liming
may be needed more frequently than is required
on our permanent grass pastures. Also,
bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more
frequent liming. Do not apply lime to pastures
unless it is needed as indicated by soil testing.
To do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that has a
high pH. The high pH at the soil surface may
bring about volatilization of ammonia when
ammonium fertilizers, such as urea-ammonium
nitrate solutions, come in contact with it.
Therefore, do not put out lime and nitrogen at
the same time. For late winter- spring
applications, apply the nitrogen first and allow
enough time for a rain to move it into the soil
before applying the lime.

CGC

Sources of Hay

The Florida Department of Agriculture and


Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for sale
are listed by county. You may obtain this
information by going to DACS' Internet web
site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go directly to
the hay directory at
http ://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flahay.h
tm

CGC

Use of Anhydrous Ammonia

Some hay producers and others like to use
anhydrous ammonia as a source of nitrogen
fertilizer. It is usually the least expensive form
of nitrogen. Since it is a gas, special equipment
is needed for application. Also, the gas may be
lost to the atmosphere if not properly applied.
For a complete discussion of the use of
anhydrous ammonia, see the fact sheet SL178
"Anhydrous Ammonia as a Nitrogen Source for
Florida Agricultural Crops" by G. Kidder. This
fact sheet can be found at the internet site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SS314.

CGC

New Peanut Growers

There may be interest in expanding peanuts
production in 2004 to new farms and new
growers since the quota program has ended and
anyone can now grow the crop. Although prices
are less than they were before the quota program
ended, profits from growing the crop are
possible if good yields are produced and
production costs are reasonable. Before
deciding whether or not to grow peanuts,
marketing opportunities and plans should be
determined, and budgets developed showing
expected costs and returns. Land suitability and
location must be considered. Equipment needs
and sources should be determined. Consider
other crops that will be grown, and be sure that
needed crop rotations can be followed. Review
the production practices that will likely be
needed and become familiar with potential pest
and other problems that may be encountered.


EBW










containing 10-15% magnesium are available for
feeding during periods of increased grass tetany
probability. Cattle need to consume 6-12
ounces/head/day of this mineral.

CGC

Liming Pastures

January and February may be an opportune time
to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates that lime
is needed. This is especially true for those areas
that are to be renovated and replanted in the
spring or summer since it provides an
opportunity for the lime to be incorporated.
Lime should be incorporated into the soil
whenever possible since lime reacts with the soil
with which it contacts. Surface applied lime
neutralizes the soil acidity of the surface soil,
but has little immediate effect on the soil pH
below the top inch or so. Most pastures
probably do not need to be limed. Tropical
grasses in general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5. The
cool season legumes and grasses do require a
higher pH and where these are grown, liming
may be needed more frequently than is required
on our permanent grass pastures. Also,
bermudagrass hay fields where high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer are applied may require more
frequent liming. Do not apply lime to pastures
unless it is needed as indicated by soil testing.
To do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that has a
high pH. The high pH at the soil surface may
bring about volatilization of ammonia when
ammonium fertilizers, such as urea-ammonium
nitrate solutions, come in contact with it.
Therefore, do not put out lime and nitrogen at
the same time. For late winter- spring
applications, apply the nitrogen first and allow
enough time for a rain to move it into the soil
before applying the lime.

CGC

Sources of Hay

The Florida Department of Agriculture and


Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for sale
are listed by county. You may obtain this
information by going to DACS' Internet web
site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go directly to
the hay directory at
http ://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flahay.h
tm

CGC

Use of Anhydrous Ammonia

Some hay producers and others like to use
anhydrous ammonia as a source of nitrogen
fertilizer. It is usually the least expensive form
of nitrogen. Since it is a gas, special equipment
is needed for application. Also, the gas may be
lost to the atmosphere if not properly applied.
For a complete discussion of the use of
anhydrous ammonia, see the fact sheet SL178
"Anhydrous Ammonia as a Nitrogen Source for
Florida Agricultural Crops" by G. Kidder. This
fact sheet can be found at the internet site
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SS314.

CGC

New Peanut Growers

There may be interest in expanding peanuts
production in 2004 to new farms and new
growers since the quota program has ended and
anyone can now grow the crop. Although prices
are less than they were before the quota program
ended, profits from growing the crop are
possible if good yields are produced and
production costs are reasonable. Before
deciding whether or not to grow peanuts,
marketing opportunities and plans should be
determined, and budgets developed showing
expected costs and returns. Land suitability and
location must be considered. Equipment needs
and sources should be determined. Consider
other crops that will be grown, and be sure that
needed crop rotations can be followed. Review
the production practices that will likely be
needed and become familiar with potential pest
and other problems that may be encountered.


EBW










Soil Sampling for Peanut Fields

Soil samples should be taken during the winter
to determine lime and fertilizer needs for
peanuts. This is especially true for new or
rented land where the liming or soil sampling
history may not be known. Also fields that have
grown crops fertilized with high rates of acid-
forming nitrogen fertilizers should be sampled
more frequently than more moderately fertilized
fields. The target soil pH for peanuts is 6.0,
with lime recommendations generally being
made when the soil pH drops below 5.8. While
peanuts can grow at lower soil pH levels,
nodules formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria are
much more active at the proper pH and results in
healthier plants. Calcium supplied by the lime
enhances pod and kernel development and
reduces pod rot. Also the chance for zinc
toxicity is reduced by needed liming. Over
liming is rarely a problem in Florida, but
manganese deficiency symptoms may develop
on some soils when the pH is above about 6.2 or
6.3.

EBW

Applying Fumigants for Nematode Control in
Tobacco

Most Florida tobacco farmers apply Telone II
for nematode control, and this is the last and
perhaps the most important procedure to protect
the crop from nematodes until the final harvest
which will perhaps be in August. Proper crop
rotation and resistant varieties are also important
components of the nematode control program
and will complement the chemical control
program. Telone II may be applied in the row or
broadcast, and more growers are selecting the
broadcast method as they use mechanical
harvesters and high-boy sprayers, thus
eliminating the need for spray or harvest
middles. Broadcasting the fumigant helps insure
against the mixing of untreated soil with that in
the treated row, which can occur with row
fumigation when there is a subsequent
movement of soil by cultivation or other
operations. There are reports of herbicides
being broadcast incorporated after row
fumigation, and is a practice that should be


discouraged because of the mixing of untreated
soil with the treated soil. Only about a foot wide
area will be treated with row fumigation and
since rows are usually about four feet apart, the
remaining three feet between rows is not treated
and soil will be mixed with the treated portion
during the broadcast incorporation of the
herbicide. If row fumigation is used, let that
operation be the last one before transplanting.
The herbicide should be broadcast incorporated
prior to row fumigation. It is important to
properly apply the fumigant, whether in the row
or broadcast. The soil should be firm and moist,
but not wet, in order for the fumigant to move
freely from the injection point. The fumigant
should be injected to a depth of about 12-14
inches. However be sure to firm the soil above
the injection point to eliminate the "chimney
effect" when fumigating or else there will be
little lateral movement of the chemical as much
of it will escape up the "chimney" caused by the
shank of the injector. Some broadcast
applicators compact the soil just above the
injector, but if not be sure to firm or pack the
soil surface during or after fumigation. A light
irrigation immediately after fumigation will help
seal the chemical in the soil.

EBW

Contamination of Tobacco Plant Beds

Fumigants used to treat tobacco plant beds are
generally very effective in control of weeds,
diseases, and nematodes that are present in the
soil at the time of fumigation. However the
fumigants do not provide any residual control of
pests that may enter the beds after treatment.
While weed seed may blow onto the treated beds
when the covers are removed, the most common
means of infesting the treated soil is through
introducing soil from untreated areas. Water
washing across the beds during heavy rains can
bring in weed seed as well as diseases such as
black shank to the beds. To prevent such
contamination, ditches around the beds would be
helpful in keeping the water and untreated soil
away from the beds. Untreated soil can also get
onto the beds from workers' shoes or other
means when covers are being removed from the
beds for spraying, clipping, or fertilizing. Care










Soil Sampling for Peanut Fields

Soil samples should be taken during the winter
to determine lime and fertilizer needs for
peanuts. This is especially true for new or
rented land where the liming or soil sampling
history may not be known. Also fields that have
grown crops fertilized with high rates of acid-
forming nitrogen fertilizers should be sampled
more frequently than more moderately fertilized
fields. The target soil pH for peanuts is 6.0,
with lime recommendations generally being
made when the soil pH drops below 5.8. While
peanuts can grow at lower soil pH levels,
nodules formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria are
much more active at the proper pH and results in
healthier plants. Calcium supplied by the lime
enhances pod and kernel development and
reduces pod rot. Also the chance for zinc
toxicity is reduced by needed liming. Over
liming is rarely a problem in Florida, but
manganese deficiency symptoms may develop
on some soils when the pH is above about 6.2 or
6.3.

EBW

Applying Fumigants for Nematode Control in
Tobacco

Most Florida tobacco farmers apply Telone II
for nematode control, and this is the last and
perhaps the most important procedure to protect
the crop from nematodes until the final harvest
which will perhaps be in August. Proper crop
rotation and resistant varieties are also important
components of the nematode control program
and will complement the chemical control
program. Telone II may be applied in the row or
broadcast, and more growers are selecting the
broadcast method as they use mechanical
harvesters and high-boy sprayers, thus
eliminating the need for spray or harvest
middles. Broadcasting the fumigant helps insure
against the mixing of untreated soil with that in
the treated row, which can occur with row
fumigation when there is a subsequent
movement of soil by cultivation or other
operations. There are reports of herbicides
being broadcast incorporated after row
fumigation, and is a practice that should be


discouraged because of the mixing of untreated
soil with the treated soil. Only about a foot wide
area will be treated with row fumigation and
since rows are usually about four feet apart, the
remaining three feet between rows is not treated
and soil will be mixed with the treated portion
during the broadcast incorporation of the
herbicide. If row fumigation is used, let that
operation be the last one before transplanting.
The herbicide should be broadcast incorporated
prior to row fumigation. It is important to
properly apply the fumigant, whether in the row
or broadcast. The soil should be firm and moist,
but not wet, in order for the fumigant to move
freely from the injection point. The fumigant
should be injected to a depth of about 12-14
inches. However be sure to firm the soil above
the injection point to eliminate the "chimney
effect" when fumigating or else there will be
little lateral movement of the chemical as much
of it will escape up the "chimney" caused by the
shank of the injector. Some broadcast
applicators compact the soil just above the
injector, but if not be sure to firm or pack the
soil surface during or after fumigation. A light
irrigation immediately after fumigation will help
seal the chemical in the soil.

EBW

Contamination of Tobacco Plant Beds

Fumigants used to treat tobacco plant beds are
generally very effective in control of weeds,
diseases, and nematodes that are present in the
soil at the time of fumigation. However the
fumigants do not provide any residual control of
pests that may enter the beds after treatment.
While weed seed may blow onto the treated beds
when the covers are removed, the most common
means of infesting the treated soil is through
introducing soil from untreated areas. Water
washing across the beds during heavy rains can
bring in weed seed as well as diseases such as
black shank to the beds. To prevent such
contamination, ditches around the beds would be
helpful in keeping the water and untreated soil
away from the beds. Untreated soil can also get
onto the beds from workers' shoes or other
means when covers are being removed from the
beds for spraying, clipping, or fertilizing. Care










Soil Sampling for Peanut Fields

Soil samples should be taken during the winter
to determine lime and fertilizer needs for
peanuts. This is especially true for new or
rented land where the liming or soil sampling
history may not be known. Also fields that have
grown crops fertilized with high rates of acid-
forming nitrogen fertilizers should be sampled
more frequently than more moderately fertilized
fields. The target soil pH for peanuts is 6.0,
with lime recommendations generally being
made when the soil pH drops below 5.8. While
peanuts can grow at lower soil pH levels,
nodules formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria are
much more active at the proper pH and results in
healthier plants. Calcium supplied by the lime
enhances pod and kernel development and
reduces pod rot. Also the chance for zinc
toxicity is reduced by needed liming. Over
liming is rarely a problem in Florida, but
manganese deficiency symptoms may develop
on some soils when the pH is above about 6.2 or
6.3.

EBW

Applying Fumigants for Nematode Control in
Tobacco

Most Florida tobacco farmers apply Telone II
for nematode control, and this is the last and
perhaps the most important procedure to protect
the crop from nematodes until the final harvest
which will perhaps be in August. Proper crop
rotation and resistant varieties are also important
components of the nematode control program
and will complement the chemical control
program. Telone II may be applied in the row or
broadcast, and more growers are selecting the
broadcast method as they use mechanical
harvesters and high-boy sprayers, thus
eliminating the need for spray or harvest
middles. Broadcasting the fumigant helps insure
against the mixing of untreated soil with that in
the treated row, which can occur with row
fumigation when there is a subsequent
movement of soil by cultivation or other
operations. There are reports of herbicides
being broadcast incorporated after row
fumigation, and is a practice that should be


discouraged because of the mixing of untreated
soil with the treated soil. Only about a foot wide
area will be treated with row fumigation and
since rows are usually about four feet apart, the
remaining three feet between rows is not treated
and soil will be mixed with the treated portion
during the broadcast incorporation of the
herbicide. If row fumigation is used, let that
operation be the last one before transplanting.
The herbicide should be broadcast incorporated
prior to row fumigation. It is important to
properly apply the fumigant, whether in the row
or broadcast. The soil should be firm and moist,
but not wet, in order for the fumigant to move
freely from the injection point. The fumigant
should be injected to a depth of about 12-14
inches. However be sure to firm the soil above
the injection point to eliminate the "chimney
effect" when fumigating or else there will be
little lateral movement of the chemical as much
of it will escape up the "chimney" caused by the
shank of the injector. Some broadcast
applicators compact the soil just above the
injector, but if not be sure to firm or pack the
soil surface during or after fumigation. A light
irrigation immediately after fumigation will help
seal the chemical in the soil.

EBW

Contamination of Tobacco Plant Beds

Fumigants used to treat tobacco plant beds are
generally very effective in control of weeds,
diseases, and nematodes that are present in the
soil at the time of fumigation. However the
fumigants do not provide any residual control of
pests that may enter the beds after treatment.
While weed seed may blow onto the treated beds
when the covers are removed, the most common
means of infesting the treated soil is through
introducing soil from untreated areas. Water
washing across the beds during heavy rains can
bring in weed seed as well as diseases such as
black shank to the beds. To prevent such
contamination, ditches around the beds would be
helpful in keeping the water and untreated soil
away from the beds. Untreated soil can also get
onto the beds from workers' shoes or other
means when covers are being removed from the
beds for spraying, clipping, or fertilizing. Care










should be taken to prevent this method of
contamination. A likely method of
contamination is from soil that comes off tractor
tires or equipment during clipping. For example
if a tractor that had been used to prepare for
transplanting in a field that is contaminated with
black shank is then used during clipping, soil
could then drop onto the plant bed. If the plants
are to be transplanted in the same black shank
infested field, then there would be no problem.
But if the plants are of a black shank susceptible
variety and are to be transplanted in a black
shank free field, then the small amount of soil
that dropped off the tires onto the bed could be
the source of a disease outbreak and
considerable losses. To reduce the chance of
such contamination, tractors and other
equipment should have any soil adhering to
them removed before clipping the beds. Plant
producers that expect to sell plants to other
growers, should routinely take precautions to
prevent the spread of black shank to
unsuspecting customers. Black


shank spread by the soil from plant beds might
not be evident until several weeks after
transplanting and might not affect many plants,
but the introduction of the disease to a new farm
increases future problems for the farmer.

EBW

Tobacco Quota for 2004

The basic flue-cured tobacco quota for 2004 was
reduced by about 11 percent from the 2003
level. The effective quota, which takes into
account any under or over marketing in 2003 for
individual farms, may be more or less than the
basic quota. The reduction was expected to be
greater, but last minute sales of loan stocks
provided relief. The average support price for
2004 will be $1.69 per pound (up 2.7 cents from
2003), and the no-net-cost payment will be
doubled to 10 cents per pound, with the grower
paying half and the buyer the other half. The
no-net-cost payment is deducted at the time of
the sale and the funds are used to insure that
loan losses are not paid by the government.
Farmers vote every three years on the
continuation of the program, and such a vote is
now underway.


EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the
exclusion of similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A.
Mossler, Pest Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist.