<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Table of Contents
 Crimson clover (for Northern...
 Forage testing
 Get ready to burn bermudagrass...
 Get ready to plant perennial peanut...
 Overseeding warm season perennials...
 Keep crop rotations in mind for...
 Peanut crop report
 Peanut pod blaster
 Planning for tobacco plants in...
 Tobacco market update
 Tobacco quota buyout developme...
 Nitrogen use and lime needs
 Yield responses to deep tillag...
 Publications
 October crop report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00040
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: November 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00040

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Crimson clover (for Northern Florida)
        Page 2
    Forage testing
        Page 2
    Get ready to burn bermudagrass hay fields and pastures in order to reduce spittlebug
        Page 2
    Get ready to plant perennial peanut in February or March
        Page 2
    Overseeding warm season perennials with cold season annuals
        Page 3
    Keep crop rotations in mind for peanuts
        Page 3
    Peanut crop report
        Page 3
    Peanut pod blaster
        Page 4
    Planning for tobacco plants in 2004
        Page 4
    Tobacco market update
        Page 4
    Tobacco quota buyout developments
        Page 4
    Nitrogen use and lime needs
        Page 5
    Yield responses to deep tillage
        Page 5
    Publications
        Page 5
    October crop report
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text







AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

November, 2003

DATES TO REMEMBER

Feb. 24-25, 2004 FL Weed Science Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Pierce
May 27, 2004 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra


IN THIS ISSUE

FORAGE
Crimson Clover (for Northern Florida) ...................
Forage Testing ..................................
Get Ready to Burn Bermudagrass Hay Fields and Pastures
in Order to Reduce Spittlebug .......................
Get Ready to Plant Perennial Peanut in February or March .....
Overseeding Warm Season Perennials with Cool Season Annuals


PEANUTS
Keep Crop Rotations in Mind for Peanuts
Peanut Crop Report .................
Peanut Pod Blaster ..................

TOBACCO
Planning for Tobacco Plants in 2004 ....
Tobacco Market Update ..............
Tobacco Quota Buyout Developments

MISCELLANEOUS
Nitrogen Use and Lime Needs .........
Yield Responses to Deep Tillage .......
Publications .......................
October Crop Report ................


. . . 2
............2

. . . 2
. . . 2


. . . . . . . . 4


. . . . . . . . 5


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor
Waddill, Director.










Crimson Clover (for Northern Florida)

Crimson clover is one of the most reliable cool
season annual clovers that we can plant in north
and northwest Florida. It is usually grazed but
can be mechanically harvested.

"Mechanical Harvesting: Mixtures of crimson
clover and winter annual grasses can make
excellent quality hay or silage. Early spring
growth of crimson clover often contains more
than 20% crude protein and can be as high as
80% digestible. Even at full bloom the forage
may contain 12 to 14% crude protein and 60 to
65% digestible nutrients on a dry matter basis.
Crimson clover alone often produces 1 to 2 tons
of dry matter per acre, while mixtures with
winter annual grasses usually yield considerably
higher.

Unfortunately, spring weather conditions in the
Southeast often make hay harvest at the correct
time difficult. In addition, crimson clover forage
dries slowly, prolonging the period of
vulnerability to rain damage. Consequently,
forage of winter annals, including crimson
clover, is most frequently harvested by grazing
or as silage.

Winter annual mixtures containing crimson
clover planted on a prepared seedbed in early
autumn can often be grazed until early to mid-
March and still produce a hay or silage harvest.
Harvest should be made at the early bloom stage
of the clover. Regrowth from crimson clover
after mechanical harvesting is usually poor, so
only one harvest can be expected to contain
significant quantities of clover." Source: Ball,
D. M., and G. D. Lakefield, 2000. Crimson
Clover Circular 00-1. Oregon Clover
Commission, Salem, Oregon.

CGC

Forage Testing

You may be interested in knowing the
nutritional content of your hay. The U. of F.
IFAS Extension Service no longer tests hay, but
there are several good labs that can do the job at
a moderate cost. Consult the fact sheet "Forage


Testing" which can be found at the web site,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA192 or pick up a copy
at the county extension office. This fact sheet
will provide information on how to collect a
sample, and where to send it, etc. One of the
popular labs is Dairy One which has the
following web site:
http://www.dairvone.com/Forage/services/Forag
e/forage.htm.

Auburn University operates a forage testing lab
within their soil testing facility. Information is
available at this web site:
http://www.ag.aubum.edu/dept/ay/soiltest.htm.

CGC

Get Ready to Burn Bermudagrass Hay Fields
and Pastures in Order to Reduce Spittlebug

If you do not have experience with burning, you
will need to check with the local county forester
or perhaps others to determine what permits are
needed and how they are acquired. Will you
need a "certified burner" license, etc. Be
prepared so that when conditions are correct for
burning you will not be delayed. Fields should
be burned just before green up. This will catch
and kill some of the early germinating weeds as
well as reduce the spittlebug infestation. Try to
bum after a rain while the soil surface is moist
and bum with the wind. This will reduce the
chances that the fire might get too hot and
damage the forage plants.

CGC

Get Ready to Plant Perennial Peanut in
February or March

If you intend to plant perennial peanut no-til into
a bahiagrass sod, then you will need to kill the
bahiagrass before frost. Apply Roundup
herbicide 3 to 6 weeks before the first expected
frost. This should allow enough time to absorb
the Roundup and kill the plants.










Crimson Clover (for Northern Florida)

Crimson clover is one of the most reliable cool
season annual clovers that we can plant in north
and northwest Florida. It is usually grazed but
can be mechanically harvested.

"Mechanical Harvesting: Mixtures of crimson
clover and winter annual grasses can make
excellent quality hay or silage. Early spring
growth of crimson clover often contains more
than 20% crude protein and can be as high as
80% digestible. Even at full bloom the forage
may contain 12 to 14% crude protein and 60 to
65% digestible nutrients on a dry matter basis.
Crimson clover alone often produces 1 to 2 tons
of dry matter per acre, while mixtures with
winter annual grasses usually yield considerably
higher.

Unfortunately, spring weather conditions in the
Southeast often make hay harvest at the correct
time difficult. In addition, crimson clover forage
dries slowly, prolonging the period of
vulnerability to rain damage. Consequently,
forage of winter annals, including crimson
clover, is most frequently harvested by grazing
or as silage.

Winter annual mixtures containing crimson
clover planted on a prepared seedbed in early
autumn can often be grazed until early to mid-
March and still produce a hay or silage harvest.
Harvest should be made at the early bloom stage
of the clover. Regrowth from crimson clover
after mechanical harvesting is usually poor, so
only one harvest can be expected to contain
significant quantities of clover." Source: Ball,
D. M., and G. D. Lakefield, 2000. Crimson
Clover Circular 00-1. Oregon Clover
Commission, Salem, Oregon.

CGC

Forage Testing

You may be interested in knowing the
nutritional content of your hay. The U. of F.
IFAS Extension Service no longer tests hay, but
there are several good labs that can do the job at
a moderate cost. Consult the fact sheet "Forage


Testing" which can be found at the web site,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA192 or pick up a copy
at the county extension office. This fact sheet
will provide information on how to collect a
sample, and where to send it, etc. One of the
popular labs is Dairy One which has the
following web site:
http://www.dairvone.com/Forage/services/Forag
e/forage.htm.

Auburn University operates a forage testing lab
within their soil testing facility. Information is
available at this web site:
http://www.ag.aubum.edu/dept/ay/soiltest.htm.

CGC

Get Ready to Burn Bermudagrass Hay Fields
and Pastures in Order to Reduce Spittlebug

If you do not have experience with burning, you
will need to check with the local county forester
or perhaps others to determine what permits are
needed and how they are acquired. Will you
need a "certified burner" license, etc. Be
prepared so that when conditions are correct for
burning you will not be delayed. Fields should
be burned just before green up. This will catch
and kill some of the early germinating weeds as
well as reduce the spittlebug infestation. Try to
bum after a rain while the soil surface is moist
and bum with the wind. This will reduce the
chances that the fire might get too hot and
damage the forage plants.

CGC

Get Ready to Plant Perennial Peanut in
February or March

If you intend to plant perennial peanut no-til into
a bahiagrass sod, then you will need to kill the
bahiagrass before frost. Apply Roundup
herbicide 3 to 6 weeks before the first expected
frost. This should allow enough time to absorb
the Roundup and kill the plants.










Crimson Clover (for Northern Florida)

Crimson clover is one of the most reliable cool
season annual clovers that we can plant in north
and northwest Florida. It is usually grazed but
can be mechanically harvested.

"Mechanical Harvesting: Mixtures of crimson
clover and winter annual grasses can make
excellent quality hay or silage. Early spring
growth of crimson clover often contains more
than 20% crude protein and can be as high as
80% digestible. Even at full bloom the forage
may contain 12 to 14% crude protein and 60 to
65% digestible nutrients on a dry matter basis.
Crimson clover alone often produces 1 to 2 tons
of dry matter per acre, while mixtures with
winter annual grasses usually yield considerably
higher.

Unfortunately, spring weather conditions in the
Southeast often make hay harvest at the correct
time difficult. In addition, crimson clover forage
dries slowly, prolonging the period of
vulnerability to rain damage. Consequently,
forage of winter annals, including crimson
clover, is most frequently harvested by grazing
or as silage.

Winter annual mixtures containing crimson
clover planted on a prepared seedbed in early
autumn can often be grazed until early to mid-
March and still produce a hay or silage harvest.
Harvest should be made at the early bloom stage
of the clover. Regrowth from crimson clover
after mechanical harvesting is usually poor, so
only one harvest can be expected to contain
significant quantities of clover." Source: Ball,
D. M., and G. D. Lakefield, 2000. Crimson
Clover Circular 00-1. Oregon Clover
Commission, Salem, Oregon.

CGC

Forage Testing

You may be interested in knowing the
nutritional content of your hay. The U. of F.
IFAS Extension Service no longer tests hay, but
there are several good labs that can do the job at
a moderate cost. Consult the fact sheet "Forage


Testing" which can be found at the web site,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA192 or pick up a copy
at the county extension office. This fact sheet
will provide information on how to collect a
sample, and where to send it, etc. One of the
popular labs is Dairy One which has the
following web site:
http://www.dairvone.com/Forage/services/Forag
e/forage.htm.

Auburn University operates a forage testing lab
within their soil testing facility. Information is
available at this web site:
http://www.ag.aubum.edu/dept/ay/soiltest.htm.

CGC

Get Ready to Burn Bermudagrass Hay Fields
and Pastures in Order to Reduce Spittlebug

If you do not have experience with burning, you
will need to check with the local county forester
or perhaps others to determine what permits are
needed and how they are acquired. Will you
need a "certified burner" license, etc. Be
prepared so that when conditions are correct for
burning you will not be delayed. Fields should
be burned just before green up. This will catch
and kill some of the early germinating weeds as
well as reduce the spittlebug infestation. Try to
bum after a rain while the soil surface is moist
and bum with the wind. This will reduce the
chances that the fire might get too hot and
damage the forage plants.

CGC

Get Ready to Plant Perennial Peanut in
February or March

If you intend to plant perennial peanut no-til into
a bahiagrass sod, then you will need to kill the
bahiagrass before frost. Apply Roundup
herbicide 3 to 6 weeks before the first expected
frost. This should allow enough time to absorb
the Roundup and kill the plants.










Crimson Clover (for Northern Florida)

Crimson clover is one of the most reliable cool
season annual clovers that we can plant in north
and northwest Florida. It is usually grazed but
can be mechanically harvested.

"Mechanical Harvesting: Mixtures of crimson
clover and winter annual grasses can make
excellent quality hay or silage. Early spring
growth of crimson clover often contains more
than 20% crude protein and can be as high as
80% digestible. Even at full bloom the forage
may contain 12 to 14% crude protein and 60 to
65% digestible nutrients on a dry matter basis.
Crimson clover alone often produces 1 to 2 tons
of dry matter per acre, while mixtures with
winter annual grasses usually yield considerably
higher.

Unfortunately, spring weather conditions in the
Southeast often make hay harvest at the correct
time difficult. In addition, crimson clover forage
dries slowly, prolonging the period of
vulnerability to rain damage. Consequently,
forage of winter annals, including crimson
clover, is most frequently harvested by grazing
or as silage.

Winter annual mixtures containing crimson
clover planted on a prepared seedbed in early
autumn can often be grazed until early to mid-
March and still produce a hay or silage harvest.
Harvest should be made at the early bloom stage
of the clover. Regrowth from crimson clover
after mechanical harvesting is usually poor, so
only one harvest can be expected to contain
significant quantities of clover." Source: Ball,
D. M., and G. D. Lakefield, 2000. Crimson
Clover Circular 00-1. Oregon Clover
Commission, Salem, Oregon.

CGC

Forage Testing

You may be interested in knowing the
nutritional content of your hay. The U. of F.
IFAS Extension Service no longer tests hay, but
there are several good labs that can do the job at
a moderate cost. Consult the fact sheet "Forage


Testing" which can be found at the web site,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA192 or pick up a copy
at the county extension office. This fact sheet
will provide information on how to collect a
sample, and where to send it, etc. One of the
popular labs is Dairy One which has the
following web site:
http://www.dairvone.com/Forage/services/Forag
e/forage.htm.

Auburn University operates a forage testing lab
within their soil testing facility. Information is
available at this web site:
http://www.ag.aubum.edu/dept/ay/soiltest.htm.

CGC

Get Ready to Burn Bermudagrass Hay Fields
and Pastures in Order to Reduce Spittlebug

If you do not have experience with burning, you
will need to check with the local county forester
or perhaps others to determine what permits are
needed and how they are acquired. Will you
need a "certified burner" license, etc. Be
prepared so that when conditions are correct for
burning you will not be delayed. Fields should
be burned just before green up. This will catch
and kill some of the early germinating weeds as
well as reduce the spittlebug infestation. Try to
bum after a rain while the soil surface is moist
and bum with the wind. This will reduce the
chances that the fire might get too hot and
damage the forage plants.

CGC

Get Ready to Plant Perennial Peanut in
February or March

If you intend to plant perennial peanut no-til into
a bahiagrass sod, then you will need to kill the
bahiagrass before frost. Apply Roundup
herbicide 3 to 6 weeks before the first expected
frost. This should allow enough time to absorb
the Roundup and kill the plants.










If you intend to prepare a clean-tilled seedbed,
then plan to do the initial tillage in December.
This will allow some time for plant material to
rot before final seedbed preparation and
planting.

CGC

Overseeding Warm Season Perennials with
Cool Season Annuals

When overseeding pastures or hay fields, wait
until growth slows and remove all excess forage
by grazing or mechanical harvest before
planting. Overseeding works best where there is
plentiful soil moisture throughout the growing
season. This is more likely to occur in northwest
Fl. and less likely to occur in southern
peninsular Fl. due to rainfall patterns. In fact
overseeding is generally not recommended in
southern peninsular Fl. especially on bahiagrass.
Site or soil type also plays an important role in
successfully growing cool season annuals:
Soils and sites must be carefully selected. Clay
soils, sandy soils underlaid by clay, (and moist
flatwoods soils in some locations) produce the
best results. Of course if irrigation is available,
these forages can be grown almost anywhere.

Overseeding bahiagrass pastures: The bahiagrass
sod should be cultivated to obtain 30 to 50
percent disturbance when overseeding. This will
reduce the bahiagrass competition with the
ryegrass or clover seedlings. Ryegrass
overseeding on bahiagrass in southern
peninsular Fl. is successful in some years (one
out of 10 ?), but small grains are rarely if ever
successful.

Overseeding bermudagrass hay fields in
northern Fl.: If overseeding is done with the
intention of harvesting the crop as hay or silage,
then overseeding with small grains and/or
crimson clover may work best as compared to
ryegrass. Ryegrass has a longer growing season
and will compete with the bermudagrass in the
spring especially if it is allowed to accumulate
for harvesting as hay or silage. This competition
may be detrimental to the bermudagrass stand.
On the other hand, if it is grazed, then the
competition may be controlled.


Overseeding Perennial Peanut: If overseeding
for hay production or grazing, again oats or one
of the other small grains or crimson clover
would be the better choices. I have seen
crimson clover overseeded on a small perennial
peanut pasture and used for creep grazing that
was very successful.

CGC

Keep Crop Rotations in Mind for Peanuts

Many first-time peanut growers had excellent
yields in 2003 because of favorable weather, but
in many cases the peanuts were planted on fields
that had not grown peanuts in recent years, and
perhaps never. Some of these fields may have
been in pastures or not cropped for long periods,
which could have contributed to a lack of
disease or nematode problems. Such growers
should realize that if they want to continue
having the opportunity for high yields, they
should provide crop rotations for future crops of
peanuts. Grass crops, especially bahiagrass, are
excellent rotation crops for peanuts. For best
results, peanuts should not be grown on the
same land more often than once three to four
years.

EBW

Peanut Crop Report

It appears that the 2003 United States' peanut
crop will be one of the best on record. The
average yield is estimated to be in excess of
3000 pounds per acre, with all producing areas
having good to excellent crops. Only a small
percentage of the crop would be endangered by
extreme weather conditions, such as freezes or
floods. Despite a reduced acreage from 2002,
the total supply of US peanuts will be greater in
2003 because of the high yields. The 2003
supply will exceed domestic requirements,
which provides a substantial supply available for
export. The export price will determine the
volume that would likely be exported.

EBW










If you intend to prepare a clean-tilled seedbed,
then plan to do the initial tillage in December.
This will allow some time for plant material to
rot before final seedbed preparation and
planting.

CGC

Overseeding Warm Season Perennials with
Cool Season Annuals

When overseeding pastures or hay fields, wait
until growth slows and remove all excess forage
by grazing or mechanical harvest before
planting. Overseeding works best where there is
plentiful soil moisture throughout the growing
season. This is more likely to occur in northwest
Fl. and less likely to occur in southern
peninsular Fl. due to rainfall patterns. In fact
overseeding is generally not recommended in
southern peninsular Fl. especially on bahiagrass.
Site or soil type also plays an important role in
successfully growing cool season annuals:
Soils and sites must be carefully selected. Clay
soils, sandy soils underlaid by clay, (and moist
flatwoods soils in some locations) produce the
best results. Of course if irrigation is available,
these forages can be grown almost anywhere.

Overseeding bahiagrass pastures: The bahiagrass
sod should be cultivated to obtain 30 to 50
percent disturbance when overseeding. This will
reduce the bahiagrass competition with the
ryegrass or clover seedlings. Ryegrass
overseeding on bahiagrass in southern
peninsular Fl. is successful in some years (one
out of 10 ?), but small grains are rarely if ever
successful.

Overseeding bermudagrass hay fields in
northern Fl.: If overseeding is done with the
intention of harvesting the crop as hay or silage,
then overseeding with small grains and/or
crimson clover may work best as compared to
ryegrass. Ryegrass has a longer growing season
and will compete with the bermudagrass in the
spring especially if it is allowed to accumulate
for harvesting as hay or silage. This competition
may be detrimental to the bermudagrass stand.
On the other hand, if it is grazed, then the
competition may be controlled.


Overseeding Perennial Peanut: If overseeding
for hay production or grazing, again oats or one
of the other small grains or crimson clover
would be the better choices. I have seen
crimson clover overseeded on a small perennial
peanut pasture and used for creep grazing that
was very successful.

CGC

Keep Crop Rotations in Mind for Peanuts

Many first-time peanut growers had excellent
yields in 2003 because of favorable weather, but
in many cases the peanuts were planted on fields
that had not grown peanuts in recent years, and
perhaps never. Some of these fields may have
been in pastures or not cropped for long periods,
which could have contributed to a lack of
disease or nematode problems. Such growers
should realize that if they want to continue
having the opportunity for high yields, they
should provide crop rotations for future crops of
peanuts. Grass crops, especially bahiagrass, are
excellent rotation crops for peanuts. For best
results, peanuts should not be grown on the
same land more often than once three to four
years.

EBW

Peanut Crop Report

It appears that the 2003 United States' peanut
crop will be one of the best on record. The
average yield is estimated to be in excess of
3000 pounds per acre, with all producing areas
having good to excellent crops. Only a small
percentage of the crop would be endangered by
extreme weather conditions, such as freezes or
floods. Despite a reduced acreage from 2002,
the total supply of US peanuts will be greater in
2003 because of the high yields. The 2003
supply will exceed domestic requirements,
which provides a substantial supply available for
export. The export price will determine the
volume that would likely be exported.

EBW










If you intend to prepare a clean-tilled seedbed,
then plan to do the initial tillage in December.
This will allow some time for plant material to
rot before final seedbed preparation and
planting.

CGC

Overseeding Warm Season Perennials with
Cool Season Annuals

When overseeding pastures or hay fields, wait
until growth slows and remove all excess forage
by grazing or mechanical harvest before
planting. Overseeding works best where there is
plentiful soil moisture throughout the growing
season. This is more likely to occur in northwest
Fl. and less likely to occur in southern
peninsular Fl. due to rainfall patterns. In fact
overseeding is generally not recommended in
southern peninsular Fl. especially on bahiagrass.
Site or soil type also plays an important role in
successfully growing cool season annuals:
Soils and sites must be carefully selected. Clay
soils, sandy soils underlaid by clay, (and moist
flatwoods soils in some locations) produce the
best results. Of course if irrigation is available,
these forages can be grown almost anywhere.

Overseeding bahiagrass pastures: The bahiagrass
sod should be cultivated to obtain 30 to 50
percent disturbance when overseeding. This will
reduce the bahiagrass competition with the
ryegrass or clover seedlings. Ryegrass
overseeding on bahiagrass in southern
peninsular Fl. is successful in some years (one
out of 10 ?), but small grains are rarely if ever
successful.

Overseeding bermudagrass hay fields in
northern Fl.: If overseeding is done with the
intention of harvesting the crop as hay or silage,
then overseeding with small grains and/or
crimson clover may work best as compared to
ryegrass. Ryegrass has a longer growing season
and will compete with the bermudagrass in the
spring especially if it is allowed to accumulate
for harvesting as hay or silage. This competition
may be detrimental to the bermudagrass stand.
On the other hand, if it is grazed, then the
competition may be controlled.


Overseeding Perennial Peanut: If overseeding
for hay production or grazing, again oats or one
of the other small grains or crimson clover
would be the better choices. I have seen
crimson clover overseeded on a small perennial
peanut pasture and used for creep grazing that
was very successful.

CGC

Keep Crop Rotations in Mind for Peanuts

Many first-time peanut growers had excellent
yields in 2003 because of favorable weather, but
in many cases the peanuts were planted on fields
that had not grown peanuts in recent years, and
perhaps never. Some of these fields may have
been in pastures or not cropped for long periods,
which could have contributed to a lack of
disease or nematode problems. Such growers
should realize that if they want to continue
having the opportunity for high yields, they
should provide crop rotations for future crops of
peanuts. Grass crops, especially bahiagrass, are
excellent rotation crops for peanuts. For best
results, peanuts should not be grown on the
same land more often than once three to four
years.

EBW

Peanut Crop Report

It appears that the 2003 United States' peanut
crop will be one of the best on record. The
average yield is estimated to be in excess of
3000 pounds per acre, with all producing areas
having good to excellent crops. Only a small
percentage of the crop would be endangered by
extreme weather conditions, such as freezes or
floods. Despite a reduced acreage from 2002,
the total supply of US peanuts will be greater in
2003 because of the high yields. The 2003
supply will exceed domestic requirements,
which provides a substantial supply available for
export. The export price will determine the
volume that would likely be exported.

EBW










Peanut Pod Blaster

To use the peanut maturity profile method, often
called the 'hull-scrape' method, the outer layer
of the peanut hull must be removed in order to
expose the color of the middle layer which
indicates the maturity level of the pod. The pods
are then arranged on a profile board which
provides an objective basis for estimating the
maturity status of the peanuts and therefore
predicting the ideal time to dig the peanuts. The
original means of removing the outer layer of
the pod was to scrape each pod with a knife,
which was a slow process. The wet pod blaster
was later developed, which used high air
pressure to blow a mixture of water and glass
beads over the pods while in a rotating basket to
remove the outer layer of the pods. This
equipment greatly increased the speed of the
operation, but the cost of the specialized and
supporting equipment, plus supplies, resulted in
only the larger counties having such facilities.
In most cases, the county extension office,
through contributions and other funds, provided
this valuable service to the growers. A more
simple method which uses an electric-powered
pressure washer has been developed and appears
to be effective as well as being less expensive
and more convenient than the blaster that uses
air pressure and glass beads.

EBW

Planning for Tobacco Plants in 2004

Growers normally make a decision in November
or December on their expected source of plants
for the next crop. The source may be from plant
beds or greenhouses that the farmer owns, or he
may enter into cooperative production with
neighbors or contract with a commercial grower.
Whatever the source, the plants should be of the
variety desired, free of diseases, and of good
quality. Since plant beds are the source of most
of the plants used, preparation and fumigation of
the beds should be done in November or early
December. Prior to fumigation the bed area
should be prepared by incorporating weed or
crop residue with the soil so that it will


decompose and not interfere with the movement
of the fumigant gas throughout the soil. Clumps
of trash or plant debris can keep weed seed and
disease organisms from being killed by the
fumigant. The final bed preparation before
fumigation should leave the area slightly raised
for good drainage. Allow enough room around
the beds so that if needed, ditches can be dug to
prevent water from washing over or standing on
the beds. If rain is not adequate, irrigate the area
a few days prior to fumigation so that weed seed
will be softened and thereby more likely to be
killed by the fumigant. At fumigation the soil
should be slightly moist and the air temperature
should be above 55 degrees. Remember that
most fumigants contain 25-33 percent
chloropicrin, which does not volatilize as rapidly
as methyl bromide, thereby requiring a longer
exposure and aeration period than methyl
bromide alone. A two-week aeration period is
needed to be sure that all of the fumigant has
been lost from the soil and it would be safe to
seed the beds.

EBW

Tobacco Market Update

All of the southern flue-cured tobacco markets
and contract centers have closed for the year,
and the more northern markets will close very
soon as almost all of the 2003 crop has been
marketed. For Florida markets, over 10 million
pounds were delivered and the average price was
$1.85 per pound. Total pounds delivered to all
contract centers in the United States thus far is
over 410 million pounds and has been sold for
an average price of over $1.86 per pound. The
US auction markets thus far has received over
91 million pounds and for an average price of
over $1.79 per pound.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Developments

Progress on legislation to provide for a tobacco
quota buyout was slowed in October when a
senate committee reached an impasse on the










Peanut Pod Blaster

To use the peanut maturity profile method, often
called the 'hull-scrape' method, the outer layer
of the peanut hull must be removed in order to
expose the color of the middle layer which
indicates the maturity level of the pod. The pods
are then arranged on a profile board which
provides an objective basis for estimating the
maturity status of the peanuts and therefore
predicting the ideal time to dig the peanuts. The
original means of removing the outer layer of
the pod was to scrape each pod with a knife,
which was a slow process. The wet pod blaster
was later developed, which used high air
pressure to blow a mixture of water and glass
beads over the pods while in a rotating basket to
remove the outer layer of the pods. This
equipment greatly increased the speed of the
operation, but the cost of the specialized and
supporting equipment, plus supplies, resulted in
only the larger counties having such facilities.
In most cases, the county extension office,
through contributions and other funds, provided
this valuable service to the growers. A more
simple method which uses an electric-powered
pressure washer has been developed and appears
to be effective as well as being less expensive
and more convenient than the blaster that uses
air pressure and glass beads.

EBW

Planning for Tobacco Plants in 2004

Growers normally make a decision in November
or December on their expected source of plants
for the next crop. The source may be from plant
beds or greenhouses that the farmer owns, or he
may enter into cooperative production with
neighbors or contract with a commercial grower.
Whatever the source, the plants should be of the
variety desired, free of diseases, and of good
quality. Since plant beds are the source of most
of the plants used, preparation and fumigation of
the beds should be done in November or early
December. Prior to fumigation the bed area
should be prepared by incorporating weed or
crop residue with the soil so that it will


decompose and not interfere with the movement
of the fumigant gas throughout the soil. Clumps
of trash or plant debris can keep weed seed and
disease organisms from being killed by the
fumigant. The final bed preparation before
fumigation should leave the area slightly raised
for good drainage. Allow enough room around
the beds so that if needed, ditches can be dug to
prevent water from washing over or standing on
the beds. If rain is not adequate, irrigate the area
a few days prior to fumigation so that weed seed
will be softened and thereby more likely to be
killed by the fumigant. At fumigation the soil
should be slightly moist and the air temperature
should be above 55 degrees. Remember that
most fumigants contain 25-33 percent
chloropicrin, which does not volatilize as rapidly
as methyl bromide, thereby requiring a longer
exposure and aeration period than methyl
bromide alone. A two-week aeration period is
needed to be sure that all of the fumigant has
been lost from the soil and it would be safe to
seed the beds.

EBW

Tobacco Market Update

All of the southern flue-cured tobacco markets
and contract centers have closed for the year,
and the more northern markets will close very
soon as almost all of the 2003 crop has been
marketed. For Florida markets, over 10 million
pounds were delivered and the average price was
$1.85 per pound. Total pounds delivered to all
contract centers in the United States thus far is
over 410 million pounds and has been sold for
an average price of over $1.86 per pound. The
US auction markets thus far has received over
91 million pounds and for an average price of
over $1.79 per pound.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Developments

Progress on legislation to provide for a tobacco
quota buyout was slowed in October when a
senate committee reached an impasse on the










Peanut Pod Blaster

To use the peanut maturity profile method, often
called the 'hull-scrape' method, the outer layer
of the peanut hull must be removed in order to
expose the color of the middle layer which
indicates the maturity level of the pod. The pods
are then arranged on a profile board which
provides an objective basis for estimating the
maturity status of the peanuts and therefore
predicting the ideal time to dig the peanuts. The
original means of removing the outer layer of
the pod was to scrape each pod with a knife,
which was a slow process. The wet pod blaster
was later developed, which used high air
pressure to blow a mixture of water and glass
beads over the pods while in a rotating basket to
remove the outer layer of the pods. This
equipment greatly increased the speed of the
operation, but the cost of the specialized and
supporting equipment, plus supplies, resulted in
only the larger counties having such facilities.
In most cases, the county extension office,
through contributions and other funds, provided
this valuable service to the growers. A more
simple method which uses an electric-powered
pressure washer has been developed and appears
to be effective as well as being less expensive
and more convenient than the blaster that uses
air pressure and glass beads.

EBW

Planning for Tobacco Plants in 2004

Growers normally make a decision in November
or December on their expected source of plants
for the next crop. The source may be from plant
beds or greenhouses that the farmer owns, or he
may enter into cooperative production with
neighbors or contract with a commercial grower.
Whatever the source, the plants should be of the
variety desired, free of diseases, and of good
quality. Since plant beds are the source of most
of the plants used, preparation and fumigation of
the beds should be done in November or early
December. Prior to fumigation the bed area
should be prepared by incorporating weed or
crop residue with the soil so that it will


decompose and not interfere with the movement
of the fumigant gas throughout the soil. Clumps
of trash or plant debris can keep weed seed and
disease organisms from being killed by the
fumigant. The final bed preparation before
fumigation should leave the area slightly raised
for good drainage. Allow enough room around
the beds so that if needed, ditches can be dug to
prevent water from washing over or standing on
the beds. If rain is not adequate, irrigate the area
a few days prior to fumigation so that weed seed
will be softened and thereby more likely to be
killed by the fumigant. At fumigation the soil
should be slightly moist and the air temperature
should be above 55 degrees. Remember that
most fumigants contain 25-33 percent
chloropicrin, which does not volatilize as rapidly
as methyl bromide, thereby requiring a longer
exposure and aeration period than methyl
bromide alone. A two-week aeration period is
needed to be sure that all of the fumigant has
been lost from the soil and it would be safe to
seed the beds.

EBW

Tobacco Market Update

All of the southern flue-cured tobacco markets
and contract centers have closed for the year,
and the more northern markets will close very
soon as almost all of the 2003 crop has been
marketed. For Florida markets, over 10 million
pounds were delivered and the average price was
$1.85 per pound. Total pounds delivered to all
contract centers in the United States thus far is
over 410 million pounds and has been sold for
an average price of over $1.86 per pound. The
US auction markets thus far has received over
91 million pounds and for an average price of
over $1.79 per pound.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Developments

Progress on legislation to provide for a tobacco
quota buyout was slowed in October when a
senate committee reached an impasse on the










Peanut Pod Blaster

To use the peanut maturity profile method, often
called the 'hull-scrape' method, the outer layer
of the peanut hull must be removed in order to
expose the color of the middle layer which
indicates the maturity level of the pod. The pods
are then arranged on a profile board which
provides an objective basis for estimating the
maturity status of the peanuts and therefore
predicting the ideal time to dig the peanuts. The
original means of removing the outer layer of
the pod was to scrape each pod with a knife,
which was a slow process. The wet pod blaster
was later developed, which used high air
pressure to blow a mixture of water and glass
beads over the pods while in a rotating basket to
remove the outer layer of the pods. This
equipment greatly increased the speed of the
operation, but the cost of the specialized and
supporting equipment, plus supplies, resulted in
only the larger counties having such facilities.
In most cases, the county extension office,
through contributions and other funds, provided
this valuable service to the growers. A more
simple method which uses an electric-powered
pressure washer has been developed and appears
to be effective as well as being less expensive
and more convenient than the blaster that uses
air pressure and glass beads.

EBW

Planning for Tobacco Plants in 2004

Growers normally make a decision in November
or December on their expected source of plants
for the next crop. The source may be from plant
beds or greenhouses that the farmer owns, or he
may enter into cooperative production with
neighbors or contract with a commercial grower.
Whatever the source, the plants should be of the
variety desired, free of diseases, and of good
quality. Since plant beds are the source of most
of the plants used, preparation and fumigation of
the beds should be done in November or early
December. Prior to fumigation the bed area
should be prepared by incorporating weed or
crop residue with the soil so that it will


decompose and not interfere with the movement
of the fumigant gas throughout the soil. Clumps
of trash or plant debris can keep weed seed and
disease organisms from being killed by the
fumigant. The final bed preparation before
fumigation should leave the area slightly raised
for good drainage. Allow enough room around
the beds so that if needed, ditches can be dug to
prevent water from washing over or standing on
the beds. If rain is not adequate, irrigate the area
a few days prior to fumigation so that weed seed
will be softened and thereby more likely to be
killed by the fumigant. At fumigation the soil
should be slightly moist and the air temperature
should be above 55 degrees. Remember that
most fumigants contain 25-33 percent
chloropicrin, which does not volatilize as rapidly
as methyl bromide, thereby requiring a longer
exposure and aeration period than methyl
bromide alone. A two-week aeration period is
needed to be sure that all of the fumigant has
been lost from the soil and it would be safe to
seed the beds.

EBW

Tobacco Market Update

All of the southern flue-cured tobacco markets
and contract centers have closed for the year,
and the more northern markets will close very
soon as almost all of the 2003 crop has been
marketed. For Florida markets, over 10 million
pounds were delivered and the average price was
$1.85 per pound. Total pounds delivered to all
contract centers in the United States thus far is
over 410 million pounds and has been sold for
an average price of over $1.86 per pound. The
US auction markets thus far has received over
91 million pounds and for an average price of
over $1.79 per pound.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Developments

Progress on legislation to provide for a tobacco
quota buyout was slowed in October when a
senate committee reached an impasse on the










level of FDA control of tobacco products that
would be allowed. The FDA legislation is
separate from the quota buyout legislation, but it
is expected that only a bill that combined the
two proposals would have a chance for passage.
At this time it appears that legislation on either
bill alone, or a combined bill will have to wait
until 2004.

EBW

Nitrogen Use and Lime Needs

How quickly a soil becomes acid is dependent
on several things including N source being
applied to crops. Anhydrous ammonia requires
the highest amount of calcium carbonate
equivalent (2,960 lbs. per ton of nitrogen
material), followed by ammonium sulphate,
urea, with ammonium nitrate and nitrogen
solutions being about the same depending on the
ratio of urea and ammonium nitrate in the
solution (about 1,180 lbs. of calcium carbonate
to neutralize a ton of these materials). It is
common to use N solutions with S in many areas
because the cost is normally less than dry
material. Keep a close check on pH when high
rates of N are being used on crops like corn,
cotton, or hay fields.


Yield Responses to Deep Tillage

Years of research with small grains as well as
row crops show that all of these crops respond to
deep tillage where a compaction layer occurs. A
high percentage of the slow growth associated
with small grains is due to lack of rooting depth.
Yield increase of 25% or more may be expected
from deep tillage on small grains as well as other
crops if irrigation is not supplied. Deep tillage
with a subsoiler or chisel plow or ripping under
the row of row crops does pay.

DLW

Publications

Updated Publications

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2003

NEW Publications


SS-AGR-194


SS-AGR-199


Cotton Cultural Practices and
Fertility Management

Soils and Fertilization for
Florida Rice Production


DLW


October Crop Report

The National Agricultural Statistics Service provided the following crop estimates in their October report:

Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per Acre (x1000) Yield per Acre

Peanuts 107 2900 lb 1277 3095 lb

Tobacco, all 4.3 2500 lb 413 2044 lb

Sugarcane 441 40.0 ton 997 36.2 ton

The October estimates included corn acreage for Florida, which was 85,000 acres planted with 28,000
acres to be harvested for grain. The grain yield estimates will be made in the year-end summary in
January, as well as the corn silage estimates. Based on the above acreage estimates, more acres of Florida










level of FDA control of tobacco products that
would be allowed. The FDA legislation is
separate from the quota buyout legislation, but it
is expected that only a bill that combined the
two proposals would have a chance for passage.
At this time it appears that legislation on either
bill alone, or a combined bill will have to wait
until 2004.

EBW

Nitrogen Use and Lime Needs

How quickly a soil becomes acid is dependent
on several things including N source being
applied to crops. Anhydrous ammonia requires
the highest amount of calcium carbonate
equivalent (2,960 lbs. per ton of nitrogen
material), followed by ammonium sulphate,
urea, with ammonium nitrate and nitrogen
solutions being about the same depending on the
ratio of urea and ammonium nitrate in the
solution (about 1,180 lbs. of calcium carbonate
to neutralize a ton of these materials). It is
common to use N solutions with S in many areas
because the cost is normally less than dry
material. Keep a close check on pH when high
rates of N are being used on crops like corn,
cotton, or hay fields.


Yield Responses to Deep Tillage

Years of research with small grains as well as
row crops show that all of these crops respond to
deep tillage where a compaction layer occurs. A
high percentage of the slow growth associated
with small grains is due to lack of rooting depth.
Yield increase of 25% or more may be expected
from deep tillage on small grains as well as other
crops if irrigation is not supplied. Deep tillage
with a subsoiler or chisel plow or ripping under
the row of row crops does pay.

DLW

Publications

Updated Publications

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2003

NEW Publications


SS-AGR-194


SS-AGR-199


Cotton Cultural Practices and
Fertility Management

Soils and Fertilization for
Florida Rice Production


DLW


October Crop Report

The National Agricultural Statistics Service provided the following crop estimates in their October report:

Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per Acre (x1000) Yield per Acre

Peanuts 107 2900 lb 1277 3095 lb

Tobacco, all 4.3 2500 lb 413 2044 lb

Sugarcane 441 40.0 ton 997 36.2 ton

The October estimates included corn acreage for Florida, which was 85,000 acres planted with 28,000
acres to be harvested for grain. The grain yield estimates will be made in the year-end summary in
January, as well as the corn silage estimates. Based on the above acreage estimates, more acres of Florida










level of FDA control of tobacco products that
would be allowed. The FDA legislation is
separate from the quota buyout legislation, but it
is expected that only a bill that combined the
two proposals would have a chance for passage.
At this time it appears that legislation on either
bill alone, or a combined bill will have to wait
until 2004.

EBW

Nitrogen Use and Lime Needs

How quickly a soil becomes acid is dependent
on several things including N source being
applied to crops. Anhydrous ammonia requires
the highest amount of calcium carbonate
equivalent (2,960 lbs. per ton of nitrogen
material), followed by ammonium sulphate,
urea, with ammonium nitrate and nitrogen
solutions being about the same depending on the
ratio of urea and ammonium nitrate in the
solution (about 1,180 lbs. of calcium carbonate
to neutralize a ton of these materials). It is
common to use N solutions with S in many areas
because the cost is normally less than dry
material. Keep a close check on pH when high
rates of N are being used on crops like corn,
cotton, or hay fields.


Yield Responses to Deep Tillage

Years of research with small grains as well as
row crops show that all of these crops respond to
deep tillage where a compaction layer occurs. A
high percentage of the slow growth associated
with small grains is due to lack of rooting depth.
Yield increase of 25% or more may be expected
from deep tillage on small grains as well as other
crops if irrigation is not supplied. Deep tillage
with a subsoiler or chisel plow or ripping under
the row of row crops does pay.

DLW

Publications

Updated Publications

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2003

NEW Publications


SS-AGR-194


SS-AGR-199


Cotton Cultural Practices and
Fertility Management

Soils and Fertilization for
Florida Rice Production


DLW


October Crop Report

The National Agricultural Statistics Service provided the following crop estimates in their October report:

Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per Acre (x1000) Yield per Acre

Peanuts 107 2900 lb 1277 3095 lb

Tobacco, all 4.3 2500 lb 413 2044 lb

Sugarcane 441 40.0 ton 997 36.2 ton

The October estimates included corn acreage for Florida, which was 85,000 acres planted with 28,000
acres to be harvested for grain. The grain yield estimates will be made in the year-end summary in
January, as well as the corn silage estimates. Based on the above acreage estimates, more acres of Florida










level of FDA control of tobacco products that
would be allowed. The FDA legislation is
separate from the quota buyout legislation, but it
is expected that only a bill that combined the
two proposals would have a chance for passage.
At this time it appears that legislation on either
bill alone, or a combined bill will have to wait
until 2004.

EBW

Nitrogen Use and Lime Needs

How quickly a soil becomes acid is dependent
on several things including N source being
applied to crops. Anhydrous ammonia requires
the highest amount of calcium carbonate
equivalent (2,960 lbs. per ton of nitrogen
material), followed by ammonium sulphate,
urea, with ammonium nitrate and nitrogen
solutions being about the same depending on the
ratio of urea and ammonium nitrate in the
solution (about 1,180 lbs. of calcium carbonate
to neutralize a ton of these materials). It is
common to use N solutions with S in many areas
because the cost is normally less than dry
material. Keep a close check on pH when high
rates of N are being used on crops like corn,
cotton, or hay fields.


Yield Responses to Deep Tillage

Years of research with small grains as well as
row crops show that all of these crops respond to
deep tillage where a compaction layer occurs. A
high percentage of the slow growth associated
with small grains is due to lack of rooting depth.
Yield increase of 25% or more may be expected
from deep tillage on small grains as well as other
crops if irrigation is not supplied. Deep tillage
with a subsoiler or chisel plow or ripping under
the row of row crops does pay.

DLW

Publications

Updated Publications

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2003

NEW Publications


SS-AGR-194


SS-AGR-199


Cotton Cultural Practices and
Fertility Management

Soils and Fertilization for
Florida Rice Production


DLW


October Crop Report

The National Agricultural Statistics Service provided the following crop estimates in their October report:

Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per Acre (x1000) Yield per Acre

Peanuts 107 2900 lb 1277 3095 lb

Tobacco, all 4.3 2500 lb 413 2044 lb

Sugarcane 441 40.0 ton 997 36.2 ton

The October estimates included corn acreage for Florida, which was 85,000 acres planted with 28,000
acres to be harvested for grain. The grain yield estimates will be made in the year-end summary in
January, as well as the corn silage estimates. Based on the above acreage estimates, more acres of Florida










corn will probably be cut for silage than will be harvested for grain. This has been the trend in recent
years. Nationally the estimated corn yield per acre will be 142.2 bushels, which would be a record if it is
realized. The total corn production would also be a record, breaking the previous record set in 1994.
Soybean yield and production in United States will be down this year.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the
exclusion of similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A.
Mossler, Pest Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist.