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 Table of Contents
 Fertilizer usage in corn
 Defoliating cotton
 Nutrients in grain of corn
 Alfalfa
 Collect soil samples from...
 Cool season pasture legumes
 Fall forage update
 Perennial peanut planning...
 Sweetclover
 Cool weather effects on peanut...
 Marketing peanuts
 Peanut crop report
 Preparations for the 2004 tobacco...
 Tobacco buyout proposals
 Tobacco market update
 August crop report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00039
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: October 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00039

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Fertilizer usage in corn
        Page 2
    Defoliating cotton
        Page 2
    Nutrients in grain of corn
        Page 2
    Alfalfa
        Page 2
    Collect soil samples from pastures
        Page 2
    Cool season pasture legumes
        Page 3
    Fall forage update
        Page 3
    Perennial peanut planning ahead
        Page 3
    Sweetclover
        Page 3
    Cool weather effects on peanuts
        Page 4
    Marketing peanuts
        Page 4
    Peanut crop report
        Page 4
    Preparations for the 2004 tobacco crop
        Page 4
    Tobacco buyout proposals
        Page 4
    Tobacco market update
        Page 5
    August crop report
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

October, 2003

DATES TO REMEMBER

Feb. 24-25, 2004 FL Weed Science Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Pierce
May 27, 2004 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra


IN THIS ISSUE

CORN
Fertilizer Usage in Corn ......... .................................. 2

COTTON
Defoliating Cotton ...................................................... 2
N utrients in Grain of Corn ..................................... ........... 2

FORAGE
Alfalfa ............ .... ............................................. 2
Collect Soil Samples from Pastures ..................................... ... 2
Cool Season Pasture Legumes ............................................. 3
Fall Forage U pdate ..................................... ..... .......... 3
Perennial Peanut: Planning Ahead ................................... ..... 3
Sweetclover ...................................... ................... ....

PEANUTS
Cool W weather Effects on Peanuts ................................ ....... 4
Marketing Peanuts ......... .... ................. .................. 4
Peanut Crop Report ................. ................................ 4

TOBACCO
Preparations for the 2004 Tobacco Crop ..................................... 4
Tobacco Buyout Proposals ................................................ 4
Tobacco Market Update ................. ............................ 5

MISCELLANEOUS
August Crop Report ..................................................... 5

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor
Waddill, Director.









Fertilizer Usage in Corn

Yields of corn have increased dramatically
since the 1950's due to use of hybrids.
With higher yields, higher rates of nutrients
have been removed from fields with both
grain and silage. The average use of
fertilizer on a per acre basis in 1950 was N-
17 lbs/A, P-26 lbs/A as the oxide, and K- 17
lbs/A as the oxide. In 2000 the average
fertilizer use rate had risen to: N- 150 lbs/A,
P- 64 lbs/A, and K- 91 lbs/A. In the Corn
Belt, fertilizer may be fall-applied while all
nutrient are applied just prior to or during
the growing season in Florida due to nutrient
susceptibility to leaching or runoff during
erosion.

DLW

Defoliating Cotton

Cotton can be defoliated without yield loss
when at least 60% of the cotton is open.
Defoliants and boll openers work together to
remove leaves and open all mature bolls within a
two week period after treatment. Picking ahead
of this schedule may result in unopened bolls
and leaves or more trash in the seed cotton and
consequently discounts. Generally defoliants
and boll openers work better under warmer
conditions and with lower rates than later in the
season when temperatures are cooler.

DLW

Nutrients in Grain of Corn

N, P, and K are very important for high yields of
corn silage and grain. The amount of nutrients
stored in the grain as a percentage of the total in
the plant is as follows: N- 60%, P- 75 %, and K-
35 %. Therefore, most of the N taken up after
silking and tasseling goes into the grain (about
150 lbs/A). Ear size and rows of grain and
essentially grain yield are determined early so
additional N applications late in the season only
increases grain protein content and has little


influence on final yield. Nitrogen status early in
the season until tasseling is very important. The
majority of the P is in the grain. Therefore, only
low levels of starter P are necessary to get corn
off to a fast start. Corn that is knee high has
only taken up about 3 lbs/A of P. Phosphorus
uptake late in the season is important as well as
small amounts of starter P near the row at
planting. Potassium is important early in the
season since more of it is used in leaf and stalk
development than for the other nutrients. It also
plays a big role in general health of the corn
plant and standability.

DLW

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is a high-quality legume forage crop that
is mainly used for hay or silage but can be green
chopped or grazed in some situations. It can be
utilized by horses, dairy, and beef cattle. There
is a great demand for alfalfa hay by the Florida
horse and dairy industries. Thousands of tons of
alfalfa hay are shipped into Florida each year.
Thus, occasionally there is interest in growing
alfalfa in the state. For additional details see the
new fact sheet "Alfalfa Production in Florida"
located at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG192

CGC

Collect Soil Samples from Pastures

Soil samples collected in late October and
November can be analyzed and results returned
in time to plan for February and March
applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough
so that samples can be collected without
interference from excessive moisture.

CGC

Cool Season Pasture Legumes

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their
growth as well as that of the accompanying
grass. Thus, they can be used to replace part of
the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The legumes not









Fertilizer Usage in Corn

Yields of corn have increased dramatically
since the 1950's due to use of hybrids.
With higher yields, higher rates of nutrients
have been removed from fields with both
grain and silage. The average use of
fertilizer on a per acre basis in 1950 was N-
17 lbs/A, P-26 lbs/A as the oxide, and K- 17
lbs/A as the oxide. In 2000 the average
fertilizer use rate had risen to: N- 150 lbs/A,
P- 64 lbs/A, and K- 91 lbs/A. In the Corn
Belt, fertilizer may be fall-applied while all
nutrient are applied just prior to or during
the growing season in Florida due to nutrient
susceptibility to leaching or runoff during
erosion.

DLW

Defoliating Cotton

Cotton can be defoliated without yield loss
when at least 60% of the cotton is open.
Defoliants and boll openers work together to
remove leaves and open all mature bolls within a
two week period after treatment. Picking ahead
of this schedule may result in unopened bolls
and leaves or more trash in the seed cotton and
consequently discounts. Generally defoliants
and boll openers work better under warmer
conditions and with lower rates than later in the
season when temperatures are cooler.

DLW

Nutrients in Grain of Corn

N, P, and K are very important for high yields of
corn silage and grain. The amount of nutrients
stored in the grain as a percentage of the total in
the plant is as follows: N- 60%, P- 75 %, and K-
35 %. Therefore, most of the N taken up after
silking and tasseling goes into the grain (about
150 lbs/A). Ear size and rows of grain and
essentially grain yield are determined early so
additional N applications late in the season only
increases grain protein content and has little


influence on final yield. Nitrogen status early in
the season until tasseling is very important. The
majority of the P is in the grain. Therefore, only
low levels of starter P are necessary to get corn
off to a fast start. Corn that is knee high has
only taken up about 3 lbs/A of P. Phosphorus
uptake late in the season is important as well as
small amounts of starter P near the row at
planting. Potassium is important early in the
season since more of it is used in leaf and stalk
development than for the other nutrients. It also
plays a big role in general health of the corn
plant and standability.

DLW

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is a high-quality legume forage crop that
is mainly used for hay or silage but can be green
chopped or grazed in some situations. It can be
utilized by horses, dairy, and beef cattle. There
is a great demand for alfalfa hay by the Florida
horse and dairy industries. Thousands of tons of
alfalfa hay are shipped into Florida each year.
Thus, occasionally there is interest in growing
alfalfa in the state. For additional details see the
new fact sheet "Alfalfa Production in Florida"
located at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG192

CGC

Collect Soil Samples from Pastures

Soil samples collected in late October and
November can be analyzed and results returned
in time to plan for February and March
applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough
so that samples can be collected without
interference from excessive moisture.

CGC

Cool Season Pasture Legumes

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their
growth as well as that of the accompanying
grass. Thus, they can be used to replace part of
the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The legumes not









Fertilizer Usage in Corn

Yields of corn have increased dramatically
since the 1950's due to use of hybrids.
With higher yields, higher rates of nutrients
have been removed from fields with both
grain and silage. The average use of
fertilizer on a per acre basis in 1950 was N-
17 lbs/A, P-26 lbs/A as the oxide, and K- 17
lbs/A as the oxide. In 2000 the average
fertilizer use rate had risen to: N- 150 lbs/A,
P- 64 lbs/A, and K- 91 lbs/A. In the Corn
Belt, fertilizer may be fall-applied while all
nutrient are applied just prior to or during
the growing season in Florida due to nutrient
susceptibility to leaching or runoff during
erosion.

DLW

Defoliating Cotton

Cotton can be defoliated without yield loss
when at least 60% of the cotton is open.
Defoliants and boll openers work together to
remove leaves and open all mature bolls within a
two week period after treatment. Picking ahead
of this schedule may result in unopened bolls
and leaves or more trash in the seed cotton and
consequently discounts. Generally defoliants
and boll openers work better under warmer
conditions and with lower rates than later in the
season when temperatures are cooler.

DLW

Nutrients in Grain of Corn

N, P, and K are very important for high yields of
corn silage and grain. The amount of nutrients
stored in the grain as a percentage of the total in
the plant is as follows: N- 60%, P- 75 %, and K-
35 %. Therefore, most of the N taken up after
silking and tasseling goes into the grain (about
150 lbs/A). Ear size and rows of grain and
essentially grain yield are determined early so
additional N applications late in the season only
increases grain protein content and has little


influence on final yield. Nitrogen status early in
the season until tasseling is very important. The
majority of the P is in the grain. Therefore, only
low levels of starter P are necessary to get corn
off to a fast start. Corn that is knee high has
only taken up about 3 lbs/A of P. Phosphorus
uptake late in the season is important as well as
small amounts of starter P near the row at
planting. Potassium is important early in the
season since more of it is used in leaf and stalk
development than for the other nutrients. It also
plays a big role in general health of the corn
plant and standability.

DLW

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is a high-quality legume forage crop that
is mainly used for hay or silage but can be green
chopped or grazed in some situations. It can be
utilized by horses, dairy, and beef cattle. There
is a great demand for alfalfa hay by the Florida
horse and dairy industries. Thousands of tons of
alfalfa hay are shipped into Florida each year.
Thus, occasionally there is interest in growing
alfalfa in the state. For additional details see the
new fact sheet "Alfalfa Production in Florida"
located at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG192

CGC

Collect Soil Samples from Pastures

Soil samples collected in late October and
November can be analyzed and results returned
in time to plan for February and March
applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough
so that samples can be collected without
interference from excessive moisture.

CGC

Cool Season Pasture Legumes

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their
growth as well as that of the accompanying
grass. Thus, they can be used to replace part of
the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The legumes not









Fertilizer Usage in Corn

Yields of corn have increased dramatically
since the 1950's due to use of hybrids.
With higher yields, higher rates of nutrients
have been removed from fields with both
grain and silage. The average use of
fertilizer on a per acre basis in 1950 was N-
17 lbs/A, P-26 lbs/A as the oxide, and K- 17
lbs/A as the oxide. In 2000 the average
fertilizer use rate had risen to: N- 150 lbs/A,
P- 64 lbs/A, and K- 91 lbs/A. In the Corn
Belt, fertilizer may be fall-applied while all
nutrient are applied just prior to or during
the growing season in Florida due to nutrient
susceptibility to leaching or runoff during
erosion.

DLW

Defoliating Cotton

Cotton can be defoliated without yield loss
when at least 60% of the cotton is open.
Defoliants and boll openers work together to
remove leaves and open all mature bolls within a
two week period after treatment. Picking ahead
of this schedule may result in unopened bolls
and leaves or more trash in the seed cotton and
consequently discounts. Generally defoliants
and boll openers work better under warmer
conditions and with lower rates than later in the
season when temperatures are cooler.

DLW

Nutrients in Grain of Corn

N, P, and K are very important for high yields of
corn silage and grain. The amount of nutrients
stored in the grain as a percentage of the total in
the plant is as follows: N- 60%, P- 75 %, and K-
35 %. Therefore, most of the N taken up after
silking and tasseling goes into the grain (about
150 lbs/A). Ear size and rows of grain and
essentially grain yield are determined early so
additional N applications late in the season only
increases grain protein content and has little


influence on final yield. Nitrogen status early in
the season until tasseling is very important. The
majority of the P is in the grain. Therefore, only
low levels of starter P are necessary to get corn
off to a fast start. Corn that is knee high has
only taken up about 3 lbs/A of P. Phosphorus
uptake late in the season is important as well as
small amounts of starter P near the row at
planting. Potassium is important early in the
season since more of it is used in leaf and stalk
development than for the other nutrients. It also
plays a big role in general health of the corn
plant and standability.

DLW

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is a high-quality legume forage crop that
is mainly used for hay or silage but can be green
chopped or grazed in some situations. It can be
utilized by horses, dairy, and beef cattle. There
is a great demand for alfalfa hay by the Florida
horse and dairy industries. Thousands of tons of
alfalfa hay are shipped into Florida each year.
Thus, occasionally there is interest in growing
alfalfa in the state. For additional details see the
new fact sheet "Alfalfa Production in Florida"
located at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG192

CGC

Collect Soil Samples from Pastures

Soil samples collected in late October and
November can be analyzed and results returned
in time to plan for February and March
applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough
so that samples can be collected without
interference from excessive moisture.

CGC

Cool Season Pasture Legumes

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their
growth as well as that of the accompanying
grass. Thus, they can be used to replace part of
the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The legumes not









Fertilizer Usage in Corn

Yields of corn have increased dramatically
since the 1950's due to use of hybrids.
With higher yields, higher rates of nutrients
have been removed from fields with both
grain and silage. The average use of
fertilizer on a per acre basis in 1950 was N-
17 lbs/A, P-26 lbs/A as the oxide, and K- 17
lbs/A as the oxide. In 2000 the average
fertilizer use rate had risen to: N- 150 lbs/A,
P- 64 lbs/A, and K- 91 lbs/A. In the Corn
Belt, fertilizer may be fall-applied while all
nutrient are applied just prior to or during
the growing season in Florida due to nutrient
susceptibility to leaching or runoff during
erosion.

DLW

Defoliating Cotton

Cotton can be defoliated without yield loss
when at least 60% of the cotton is open.
Defoliants and boll openers work together to
remove leaves and open all mature bolls within a
two week period after treatment. Picking ahead
of this schedule may result in unopened bolls
and leaves or more trash in the seed cotton and
consequently discounts. Generally defoliants
and boll openers work better under warmer
conditions and with lower rates than later in the
season when temperatures are cooler.

DLW

Nutrients in Grain of Corn

N, P, and K are very important for high yields of
corn silage and grain. The amount of nutrients
stored in the grain as a percentage of the total in
the plant is as follows: N- 60%, P- 75 %, and K-
35 %. Therefore, most of the N taken up after
silking and tasseling goes into the grain (about
150 lbs/A). Ear size and rows of grain and
essentially grain yield are determined early so
additional N applications late in the season only
increases grain protein content and has little


influence on final yield. Nitrogen status early in
the season until tasseling is very important. The
majority of the P is in the grain. Therefore, only
low levels of starter P are necessary to get corn
off to a fast start. Corn that is knee high has
only taken up about 3 lbs/A of P. Phosphorus
uptake late in the season is important as well as
small amounts of starter P near the row at
planting. Potassium is important early in the
season since more of it is used in leaf and stalk
development than for the other nutrients. It also
plays a big role in general health of the corn
plant and standability.

DLW

Alfalfa

Alfalfa is a high-quality legume forage crop that
is mainly used for hay or silage but can be green
chopped or grazed in some situations. It can be
utilized by horses, dairy, and beef cattle. There
is a great demand for alfalfa hay by the Florida
horse and dairy industries. Thousands of tons of
alfalfa hay are shipped into Florida each year.
Thus, occasionally there is interest in growing
alfalfa in the state. For additional details see the
new fact sheet "Alfalfa Production in Florida"
located at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG192

CGC

Collect Soil Samples from Pastures

Soil samples collected in late October and
November can be analyzed and results returned
in time to plan for February and March
applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough
so that samples can be collected without
interference from excessive moisture.

CGC

Cool Season Pasture Legumes

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their
growth as well as that of the accompanying
grass. Thus, they can be used to replace part of
the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The legumes not









only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the
quality of the pasture in that they are often more
digestible and have a higher level of protein than
a pure grass pasture. Cool season legumes
planted in a warm season perennial grass pasture
extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool
temperatures where most of the warm season
grasses will have essentially stopped growing
and the top growth may even be killed by frost.
The most critical factor in growing legumes is
water. They can only be grown in soils with
good water holding capacity, highwater table, or
irrigated soils. This restricts the use of cool
season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest region and to certain irrigated areas in
the peninsular section.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in
Florida are alfalfa, white clover, red clover,
crimson clover, arrowleaf clover and
sweetclover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be
seen growing in waste areas or along the
roadsides. See the fact sheet "Winter Forage
Legume Guide" at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/DS 127
for a brief summery of each cool season (winter)
legume that can be grown in Florida.


at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266 for the
recommended cool-season forages and varieties
that can be grown in Florida with some success.

CGC

Perennial Peanut: Planning Ahead

If you are wanting to establish a new planting of
perennial peanut, start planning now. Check out
the revised source list for planting material. See
the fact sheet "Perennial Peanut Source List of
Planting Material (Rhizomes) and Hay" which
can be found on EDIS,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html in the near
future. If you want to establish the new planting
on a bahiagrass sod, you will need to spray the
sod with Roundup herbicide now (before frost)
in order to kill the bahiagrass. Yes, kill the
bahiagrass. If you don't kill the bahiagrass, it
will compete with the peanut seedlings during
the spring for soil moisture which is very critical
for establishment of the peanut. If you want to
establish on a clean tilled seedbed, you will need
to do the primary tillage in November or
December. Be ready to plant in February and
March. Irrigate to guarantee successful
establishment.


CGC


CGC


Fall Forage Update

Cool-season forages can supply excellent
grazing for livestock. They are usually higher in
total digestible nutrients and protein than our
summer perennial grasses. Planting and growing
these forage crops can involve considerable
expense; therefore, they are often used only to
supplement frosted perennial grass pastures or
low quality hay. Some livestock producers may
reserve them for young animals that need higher
quality forages. Winter forage cannot be grown
everywhere in the state and on every soil type.
Some areas and some soils are too dry during the
cool season to successfully grow plants.
Therefore, the type of winter forage and the site
where it is grown should be carefully selected.
See the revised fact sheet "Fall Forage Update"


Sweetclover

Hubam Sweetclover can be grown in Florida. It
is an annual white sweetclover with the
scientific name Melilotus alba (Figure 1).
Another variety, Floranna, has been grown, but
seed are no longer available. Sweetclover is not
a true clover as is white, red, or crimson clover
(Trifolium sp.), and is placed in an entirely
different genus or group. It is more closely
related to alfalfa and when seed are inoculated at
planting, an alfalfa sweetclover inoculant must
be used. There are biennial types of sweetclover
grown in the U. S., but not in Florida. Volunteer
plants of an annual yellow flowered type
(Melilotus officinalis) can occasionally be seen
in Florida. Leaves of sweetclover have three
leaflets that tend to be toothed around the
margins. Sweetclover develops an extensive root


__









only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the
quality of the pasture in that they are often more
digestible and have a higher level of protein than
a pure grass pasture. Cool season legumes
planted in a warm season perennial grass pasture
extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool
temperatures where most of the warm season
grasses will have essentially stopped growing
and the top growth may even be killed by frost.
The most critical factor in growing legumes is
water. They can only be grown in soils with
good water holding capacity, highwater table, or
irrigated soils. This restricts the use of cool
season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest region and to certain irrigated areas in
the peninsular section.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in
Florida are alfalfa, white clover, red clover,
crimson clover, arrowleaf clover and
sweetclover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be
seen growing in waste areas or along the
roadsides. See the fact sheet "Winter Forage
Legume Guide" at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/DS 127
for a brief summery of each cool season (winter)
legume that can be grown in Florida.


at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266 for the
recommended cool-season forages and varieties
that can be grown in Florida with some success.

CGC

Perennial Peanut: Planning Ahead

If you are wanting to establish a new planting of
perennial peanut, start planning now. Check out
the revised source list for planting material. See
the fact sheet "Perennial Peanut Source List of
Planting Material (Rhizomes) and Hay" which
can be found on EDIS,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html in the near
future. If you want to establish the new planting
on a bahiagrass sod, you will need to spray the
sod with Roundup herbicide now (before frost)
in order to kill the bahiagrass. Yes, kill the
bahiagrass. If you don't kill the bahiagrass, it
will compete with the peanut seedlings during
the spring for soil moisture which is very critical
for establishment of the peanut. If you want to
establish on a clean tilled seedbed, you will need
to do the primary tillage in November or
December. Be ready to plant in February and
March. Irrigate to guarantee successful
establishment.


CGC


CGC


Fall Forage Update

Cool-season forages can supply excellent
grazing for livestock. They are usually higher in
total digestible nutrients and protein than our
summer perennial grasses. Planting and growing
these forage crops can involve considerable
expense; therefore, they are often used only to
supplement frosted perennial grass pastures or
low quality hay. Some livestock producers may
reserve them for young animals that need higher
quality forages. Winter forage cannot be grown
everywhere in the state and on every soil type.
Some areas and some soils are too dry during the
cool season to successfully grow plants.
Therefore, the type of winter forage and the site
where it is grown should be carefully selected.
See the revised fact sheet "Fall Forage Update"


Sweetclover

Hubam Sweetclover can be grown in Florida. It
is an annual white sweetclover with the
scientific name Melilotus alba (Figure 1).
Another variety, Floranna, has been grown, but
seed are no longer available. Sweetclover is not
a true clover as is white, red, or crimson clover
(Trifolium sp.), and is placed in an entirely
different genus or group. It is more closely
related to alfalfa and when seed are inoculated at
planting, an alfalfa sweetclover inoculant must
be used. There are biennial types of sweetclover
grown in the U. S., but not in Florida. Volunteer
plants of an annual yellow flowered type
(Melilotus officinalis) can occasionally be seen
in Florida. Leaves of sweetclover have three
leaflets that tend to be toothed around the
margins. Sweetclover develops an extensive root


__









only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the
quality of the pasture in that they are often more
digestible and have a higher level of protein than
a pure grass pasture. Cool season legumes
planted in a warm season perennial grass pasture
extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool
temperatures where most of the warm season
grasses will have essentially stopped growing
and the top growth may even be killed by frost.
The most critical factor in growing legumes is
water. They can only be grown in soils with
good water holding capacity, highwater table, or
irrigated soils. This restricts the use of cool
season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest region and to certain irrigated areas in
the peninsular section.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in
Florida are alfalfa, white clover, red clover,
crimson clover, arrowleaf clover and
sweetclover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be
seen growing in waste areas or along the
roadsides. See the fact sheet "Winter Forage
Legume Guide" at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/DS 127
for a brief summery of each cool season (winter)
legume that can be grown in Florida.


at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266 for the
recommended cool-season forages and varieties
that can be grown in Florida with some success.

CGC

Perennial Peanut: Planning Ahead

If you are wanting to establish a new planting of
perennial peanut, start planning now. Check out
the revised source list for planting material. See
the fact sheet "Perennial Peanut Source List of
Planting Material (Rhizomes) and Hay" which
can be found on EDIS,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html in the near
future. If you want to establish the new planting
on a bahiagrass sod, you will need to spray the
sod with Roundup herbicide now (before frost)
in order to kill the bahiagrass. Yes, kill the
bahiagrass. If you don't kill the bahiagrass, it
will compete with the peanut seedlings during
the spring for soil moisture which is very critical
for establishment of the peanut. If you want to
establish on a clean tilled seedbed, you will need
to do the primary tillage in November or
December. Be ready to plant in February and
March. Irrigate to guarantee successful
establishment.


CGC


CGC


Fall Forage Update

Cool-season forages can supply excellent
grazing for livestock. They are usually higher in
total digestible nutrients and protein than our
summer perennial grasses. Planting and growing
these forage crops can involve considerable
expense; therefore, they are often used only to
supplement frosted perennial grass pastures or
low quality hay. Some livestock producers may
reserve them for young animals that need higher
quality forages. Winter forage cannot be grown
everywhere in the state and on every soil type.
Some areas and some soils are too dry during the
cool season to successfully grow plants.
Therefore, the type of winter forage and the site
where it is grown should be carefully selected.
See the revised fact sheet "Fall Forage Update"


Sweetclover

Hubam Sweetclover can be grown in Florida. It
is an annual white sweetclover with the
scientific name Melilotus alba (Figure 1).
Another variety, Floranna, has been grown, but
seed are no longer available. Sweetclover is not
a true clover as is white, red, or crimson clover
(Trifolium sp.), and is placed in an entirely
different genus or group. It is more closely
related to alfalfa and when seed are inoculated at
planting, an alfalfa sweetclover inoculant must
be used. There are biennial types of sweetclover
grown in the U. S., but not in Florida. Volunteer
plants of an annual yellow flowered type
(Melilotus officinalis) can occasionally be seen
in Florida. Leaves of sweetclover have three
leaflets that tend to be toothed around the
margins. Sweetclover develops an extensive root


__









only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the
quality of the pasture in that they are often more
digestible and have a higher level of protein than
a pure grass pasture. Cool season legumes
planted in a warm season perennial grass pasture
extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool
temperatures where most of the warm season
grasses will have essentially stopped growing
and the top growth may even be killed by frost.
The most critical factor in growing legumes is
water. They can only be grown in soils with
good water holding capacity, highwater table, or
irrigated soils. This restricts the use of cool
season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest region and to certain irrigated areas in
the peninsular section.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in
Florida are alfalfa, white clover, red clover,
crimson clover, arrowleaf clover and
sweetclover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be
seen growing in waste areas or along the
roadsides. See the fact sheet "Winter Forage
Legume Guide" at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/DS 127
for a brief summery of each cool season (winter)
legume that can be grown in Florida.


at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266 for the
recommended cool-season forages and varieties
that can be grown in Florida with some success.

CGC

Perennial Peanut: Planning Ahead

If you are wanting to establish a new planting of
perennial peanut, start planning now. Check out
the revised source list for planting material. See
the fact sheet "Perennial Peanut Source List of
Planting Material (Rhizomes) and Hay" which
can be found on EDIS,
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html in the near
future. If you want to establish the new planting
on a bahiagrass sod, you will need to spray the
sod with Roundup herbicide now (before frost)
in order to kill the bahiagrass. Yes, kill the
bahiagrass. If you don't kill the bahiagrass, it
will compete with the peanut seedlings during
the spring for soil moisture which is very critical
for establishment of the peanut. If you want to
establish on a clean tilled seedbed, you will need
to do the primary tillage in November or
December. Be ready to plant in February and
March. Irrigate to guarantee successful
establishment.


CGC


CGC


Fall Forage Update

Cool-season forages can supply excellent
grazing for livestock. They are usually higher in
total digestible nutrients and protein than our
summer perennial grasses. Planting and growing
these forage crops can involve considerable
expense; therefore, they are often used only to
supplement frosted perennial grass pastures or
low quality hay. Some livestock producers may
reserve them for young animals that need higher
quality forages. Winter forage cannot be grown
everywhere in the state and on every soil type.
Some areas and some soils are too dry during the
cool season to successfully grow plants.
Therefore, the type of winter forage and the site
where it is grown should be carefully selected.
See the revised fact sheet "Fall Forage Update"


Sweetclover

Hubam Sweetclover can be grown in Florida. It
is an annual white sweetclover with the
scientific name Melilotus alba (Figure 1).
Another variety, Floranna, has been grown, but
seed are no longer available. Sweetclover is not
a true clover as is white, red, or crimson clover
(Trifolium sp.), and is placed in an entirely
different genus or group. It is more closely
related to alfalfa and when seed are inoculated at
planting, an alfalfa sweetclover inoculant must
be used. There are biennial types of sweetclover
grown in the U. S., but not in Florida. Volunteer
plants of an annual yellow flowered type
(Melilotus officinalis) can occasionally be seen
in Florida. Leaves of sweetclover have three
leaflets that tend to be toothed around the
margins. Sweetclover develops an extensive root


__









system with a deep taproot. Once established it
is able to grow under somewhat dryer soil
conditions than true clovers. See the new fact
sheet "Sweetclover Production and Use in
Florida" located at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG191 for complete
details on growing sweetclover in Florida.

CGC

Cool Weather Effects on Peanuts

Cooler weather and shorter days slow the
development and maturity of peanuts below that
realized during the summer. Before digging, be
sure to check for maturity of the pods to insure
getting the best yield and grade possible.
Adjustments should also be made in the drying
temperature for peanuts during cool weather.
The general rule of thumb is to heat the air only
15-20 degrees above the ambient, but not to
exceed 95 degrees. During the warmer days of
August and September, the 95 degree setting is
adequate during the day, with a possible
lowering the setting at night. As the
temperatures drop in October and November, it
is advisable to lower the thermostat, especially
at night. Drying the peanuts at a fast rate can
result in the skin separating from the seed during
shelling, resulting in 'bald-head' peanuts and
also increased splitting of kernels. This damage
is generally done at the beginning of drying
when the moisture content of the peanuts are at
their highest level.

EBW

Marketing Peanuts

While some farmers had pre-harvest contracts
that provided for the delivery of the peanuts at
harvest, others may sell their peanuts at harvest
for the current price, or they may place them
under loan and sell them at a later date. At
present the market price and loan rate ($355 per
ton) are almost the same. The grower may join a
cooperative marketing association that will store
the peanuts and sell them when it seems
advisable, or the farmer may use on-farm storage
and sell them at an opportune time.


EBW

Peanut Crop Report

The September crop report estimated the 2003
average peanut for the United States would be
over 3100 pounds per acre, with all production
areas having excellent crops. If realized, this
average yield would be an all-time record.
Quality is also reported to be excellent.

EBW

Preparations for the 2004 Tobacco Crop

It is now time to start preparing plant bed areas
for seeding later this year. All weeds or crop
residue should be incorporated in the soil so that
it will decompose before the beds are fumigated.
Perhaps the most important task in preparing for
2004 would be to calculate the cost of
production for the 2003 crop. If there is a quota
buyout, the price level for tobacco would
probably change from the current levels and
growers would be better prepared to evaluate
contracts by knowing the cost of producing a
pound of tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Legislation is being introduced in the U. S.
House of Representatives to provide for a
buyout of tobacco quota, which would eliminate
the current tobacco program. It is expected that
this proposal will eventually reach a conference
committee that would consider the Senate bill
and also another Senate measure that would
provide for FDA regulation of tobacco products.
The House bill calls for a buyout of quota that
would provide $8 per pound for quota owners
and $4 per pound for growers. The payment
period would be over seven years. The bill also
calls for Tobacco Advisory Boards to
recommend future limits on production and
would keep the traditional growing areas. Many
changes and clarifications may develop as the
legislation is considered.












system with a deep taproot. Once established it
is able to grow under somewhat dryer soil
conditions than true clovers. See the new fact
sheet "Sweetclover Production and Use in
Florida" located at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG191 for complete
details on growing sweetclover in Florida.

CGC

Cool Weather Effects on Peanuts

Cooler weather and shorter days slow the
development and maturity of peanuts below that
realized during the summer. Before digging, be
sure to check for maturity of the pods to insure
getting the best yield and grade possible.
Adjustments should also be made in the drying
temperature for peanuts during cool weather.
The general rule of thumb is to heat the air only
15-20 degrees above the ambient, but not to
exceed 95 degrees. During the warmer days of
August and September, the 95 degree setting is
adequate during the day, with a possible
lowering the setting at night. As the
temperatures drop in October and November, it
is advisable to lower the thermostat, especially
at night. Drying the peanuts at a fast rate can
result in the skin separating from the seed during
shelling, resulting in 'bald-head' peanuts and
also increased splitting of kernels. This damage
is generally done at the beginning of drying
when the moisture content of the peanuts are at
their highest level.

EBW

Marketing Peanuts

While some farmers had pre-harvest contracts
that provided for the delivery of the peanuts at
harvest, others may sell their peanuts at harvest
for the current price, or they may place them
under loan and sell them at a later date. At
present the market price and loan rate ($355 per
ton) are almost the same. The grower may join a
cooperative marketing association that will store
the peanuts and sell them when it seems
advisable, or the farmer may use on-farm storage
and sell them at an opportune time.


EBW

Peanut Crop Report

The September crop report estimated the 2003
average peanut for the United States would be
over 3100 pounds per acre, with all production
areas having excellent crops. If realized, this
average yield would be an all-time record.
Quality is also reported to be excellent.

EBW

Preparations for the 2004 Tobacco Crop

It is now time to start preparing plant bed areas
for seeding later this year. All weeds or crop
residue should be incorporated in the soil so that
it will decompose before the beds are fumigated.
Perhaps the most important task in preparing for
2004 would be to calculate the cost of
production for the 2003 crop. If there is a quota
buyout, the price level for tobacco would
probably change from the current levels and
growers would be better prepared to evaluate
contracts by knowing the cost of producing a
pound of tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Legislation is being introduced in the U. S.
House of Representatives to provide for a
buyout of tobacco quota, which would eliminate
the current tobacco program. It is expected that
this proposal will eventually reach a conference
committee that would consider the Senate bill
and also another Senate measure that would
provide for FDA regulation of tobacco products.
The House bill calls for a buyout of quota that
would provide $8 per pound for quota owners
and $4 per pound for growers. The payment
period would be over seven years. The bill also
calls for Tobacco Advisory Boards to
recommend future limits on production and
would keep the traditional growing areas. Many
changes and clarifications may develop as the
legislation is considered.












system with a deep taproot. Once established it
is able to grow under somewhat dryer soil
conditions than true clovers. See the new fact
sheet "Sweetclover Production and Use in
Florida" located at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG191 for complete
details on growing sweetclover in Florida.

CGC

Cool Weather Effects on Peanuts

Cooler weather and shorter days slow the
development and maturity of peanuts below that
realized during the summer. Before digging, be
sure to check for maturity of the pods to insure
getting the best yield and grade possible.
Adjustments should also be made in the drying
temperature for peanuts during cool weather.
The general rule of thumb is to heat the air only
15-20 degrees above the ambient, but not to
exceed 95 degrees. During the warmer days of
August and September, the 95 degree setting is
adequate during the day, with a possible
lowering the setting at night. As the
temperatures drop in October and November, it
is advisable to lower the thermostat, especially
at night. Drying the peanuts at a fast rate can
result in the skin separating from the seed during
shelling, resulting in 'bald-head' peanuts and
also increased splitting of kernels. This damage
is generally done at the beginning of drying
when the moisture content of the peanuts are at
their highest level.

EBW

Marketing Peanuts

While some farmers had pre-harvest contracts
that provided for the delivery of the peanuts at
harvest, others may sell their peanuts at harvest
for the current price, or they may place them
under loan and sell them at a later date. At
present the market price and loan rate ($355 per
ton) are almost the same. The grower may join a
cooperative marketing association that will store
the peanuts and sell them when it seems
advisable, or the farmer may use on-farm storage
and sell them at an opportune time.


EBW

Peanut Crop Report

The September crop report estimated the 2003
average peanut for the United States would be
over 3100 pounds per acre, with all production
areas having excellent crops. If realized, this
average yield would be an all-time record.
Quality is also reported to be excellent.

EBW

Preparations for the 2004 Tobacco Crop

It is now time to start preparing plant bed areas
for seeding later this year. All weeds or crop
residue should be incorporated in the soil so that
it will decompose before the beds are fumigated.
Perhaps the most important task in preparing for
2004 would be to calculate the cost of
production for the 2003 crop. If there is a quota
buyout, the price level for tobacco would
probably change from the current levels and
growers would be better prepared to evaluate
contracts by knowing the cost of producing a
pound of tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Legislation is being introduced in the U. S.
House of Representatives to provide for a
buyout of tobacco quota, which would eliminate
the current tobacco program. It is expected that
this proposal will eventually reach a conference
committee that would consider the Senate bill
and also another Senate measure that would
provide for FDA regulation of tobacco products.
The House bill calls for a buyout of quota that
would provide $8 per pound for quota owners
and $4 per pound for growers. The payment
period would be over seven years. The bill also
calls for Tobacco Advisory Boards to
recommend future limits on production and
would keep the traditional growing areas. Many
changes and clarifications may develop as the
legislation is considered.












system with a deep taproot. Once established it
is able to grow under somewhat dryer soil
conditions than true clovers. See the new fact
sheet "Sweetclover Production and Use in
Florida" located at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG191 for complete
details on growing sweetclover in Florida.

CGC

Cool Weather Effects on Peanuts

Cooler weather and shorter days slow the
development and maturity of peanuts below that
realized during the summer. Before digging, be
sure to check for maturity of the pods to insure
getting the best yield and grade possible.
Adjustments should also be made in the drying
temperature for peanuts during cool weather.
The general rule of thumb is to heat the air only
15-20 degrees above the ambient, but not to
exceed 95 degrees. During the warmer days of
August and September, the 95 degree setting is
adequate during the day, with a possible
lowering the setting at night. As the
temperatures drop in October and November, it
is advisable to lower the thermostat, especially
at night. Drying the peanuts at a fast rate can
result in the skin separating from the seed during
shelling, resulting in 'bald-head' peanuts and
also increased splitting of kernels. This damage
is generally done at the beginning of drying
when the moisture content of the peanuts are at
their highest level.

EBW

Marketing Peanuts

While some farmers had pre-harvest contracts
that provided for the delivery of the peanuts at
harvest, others may sell their peanuts at harvest
for the current price, or they may place them
under loan and sell them at a later date. At
present the market price and loan rate ($355 per
ton) are almost the same. The grower may join a
cooperative marketing association that will store
the peanuts and sell them when it seems
advisable, or the farmer may use on-farm storage
and sell them at an opportune time.


EBW

Peanut Crop Report

The September crop report estimated the 2003
average peanut for the United States would be
over 3100 pounds per acre, with all production
areas having excellent crops. If realized, this
average yield would be an all-time record.
Quality is also reported to be excellent.

EBW

Preparations for the 2004 Tobacco Crop

It is now time to start preparing plant bed areas
for seeding later this year. All weeds or crop
residue should be incorporated in the soil so that
it will decompose before the beds are fumigated.
Perhaps the most important task in preparing for
2004 would be to calculate the cost of
production for the 2003 crop. If there is a quota
buyout, the price level for tobacco would
probably change from the current levels and
growers would be better prepared to evaluate
contracts by knowing the cost of producing a
pound of tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Legislation is being introduced in the U. S.
House of Representatives to provide for a
buyout of tobacco quota, which would eliminate
the current tobacco program. It is expected that
this proposal will eventually reach a conference
committee that would consider the Senate bill
and also another Senate measure that would
provide for FDA regulation of tobacco products.
The House bill calls for a buyout of quota that
would provide $8 per pound for quota owners
and $4 per pound for growers. The payment
period would be over seven years. The bill also
calls for Tobacco Advisory Boards to
recommend future limits on production and
would keep the traditional growing areas. Many
changes and clarifications may develop as the
legislation is considered.












system with a deep taproot. Once established it
is able to grow under somewhat dryer soil
conditions than true clovers. See the new fact
sheet "Sweetclover Production and Use in
Florida" located at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG191 for complete
details on growing sweetclover in Florida.

CGC

Cool Weather Effects on Peanuts

Cooler weather and shorter days slow the
development and maturity of peanuts below that
realized during the summer. Before digging, be
sure to check for maturity of the pods to insure
getting the best yield and grade possible.
Adjustments should also be made in the drying
temperature for peanuts during cool weather.
The general rule of thumb is to heat the air only
15-20 degrees above the ambient, but not to
exceed 95 degrees. During the warmer days of
August and September, the 95 degree setting is
adequate during the day, with a possible
lowering the setting at night. As the
temperatures drop in October and November, it
is advisable to lower the thermostat, especially
at night. Drying the peanuts at a fast rate can
result in the skin separating from the seed during
shelling, resulting in 'bald-head' peanuts and
also increased splitting of kernels. This damage
is generally done at the beginning of drying
when the moisture content of the peanuts are at
their highest level.

EBW

Marketing Peanuts

While some farmers had pre-harvest contracts
that provided for the delivery of the peanuts at
harvest, others may sell their peanuts at harvest
for the current price, or they may place them
under loan and sell them at a later date. At
present the market price and loan rate ($355 per
ton) are almost the same. The grower may join a
cooperative marketing association that will store
the peanuts and sell them when it seems
advisable, or the farmer may use on-farm storage
and sell them at an opportune time.


EBW

Peanut Crop Report

The September crop report estimated the 2003
average peanut for the United States would be
over 3100 pounds per acre, with all production
areas having excellent crops. If realized, this
average yield would be an all-time record.
Quality is also reported to be excellent.

EBW

Preparations for the 2004 Tobacco Crop

It is now time to start preparing plant bed areas
for seeding later this year. All weeds or crop
residue should be incorporated in the soil so that
it will decompose before the beds are fumigated.
Perhaps the most important task in preparing for
2004 would be to calculate the cost of
production for the 2003 crop. If there is a quota
buyout, the price level for tobacco would
probably change from the current levels and
growers would be better prepared to evaluate
contracts by knowing the cost of producing a
pound of tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Legislation is being introduced in the U. S.
House of Representatives to provide for a
buyout of tobacco quota, which would eliminate
the current tobacco program. It is expected that
this proposal will eventually reach a conference
committee that would consider the Senate bill
and also another Senate measure that would
provide for FDA regulation of tobacco products.
The House bill calls for a buyout of quota that
would provide $8 per pound for quota owners
and $4 per pound for growers. The payment
period would be over seven years. The bill also
calls for Tobacco Advisory Boards to
recommend future limits on production and
would keep the traditional growing areas. Many
changes and clarifications may develop as the
legislation is considered.












EBW Tobacco Market Update


The two tobacco contract centers in Florida
should soon complete the 2003 season. Over 10
million pounds of tobacco has been delivered to
them for an average price of $1.85 per pound.
Some Georgia and Alabama tobacco is delivered
to the Florida centers, and some Florida tobacco
is delivered to centers in Georgia. There are no
auction markets in Florida, but over 70% of the
US tobacco sold at auction has gone under loan.

EBW


September Crop Report

The USDA's National Statistics Service reported the following estimates of 2003 crop productions of
September 1:


Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per acre (x1000) Yield per acre

Peanuts 107 2900 lb 1277 3121 lb

Cotton, all 99* 621 lb* 12,192 667 lb

Tobacco, all 4 2500 lb 414 2008 lb

Sugarcane 441 40 ton 996 36.2 ton
*August estimates.

Other crops are not estimated for Florida, but soybean and corn estimates in the United States are down
from those of a month earlier.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; M. A. Mossler, Pest Management Information Specialist, E.
B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.


EBW


Tobacco Market Update









EBW Tobacco Market Update


The two tobacco contract centers in Florida
should soon complete the 2003 season. Over 10
million pounds of tobacco has been delivered to
them for an average price of $1.85 per pound.
Some Georgia and Alabama tobacco is delivered
to the Florida centers, and some Florida tobacco
is delivered to centers in Georgia. There are no
auction markets in Florida, but over 70% of the
US tobacco sold at auction has gone under loan.

EBW


September Crop Report

The USDA's National Statistics Service reported the following estimates of 2003 crop productions of
September 1:


Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per acre (x1000) Yield per acre

Peanuts 107 2900 lb 1277 3121 lb

Cotton, all 99* 621 lb* 12,192 667 lb

Tobacco, all 4 2500 lb 414 2008 lb

Sugarcane 441 40 ton 996 36.2 ton
*August estimates.

Other crops are not estimated for Florida, but soybean and corn estimates in the United States are down
from those of a month earlier.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; M. A. Mossler, Pest Management Information Specialist, E.
B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.


EBW


Tobacco Market Update