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 Table of Contents
 Planting date for corn and grain...
 Residual fertility
 Prepare to defoliate cotton
 Getting ready for Winter
 Excessive peanut vine growth
 Late-season yellowing of peanu...
 Tobacco auction system
 Tobacco quota buyout proposals
 Tobacco sales report
 August crop report
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00038
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: September 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00038

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Planting date for corn and grain sorghum
        Page 2
    Residual fertility
        Page 2
    Prepare to defoliate cotton
        Page 2
    Getting ready for Winter
        Page 2
    Excessive peanut vine growth
        Page 2
    Late-season yellowing of peanuts
        Page 3
    Tobacco auction system
        Page 3
    Tobacco quota buyout proposals
        Page 3
    Tobacco sales report
        Page 3
    August crop report
        Page 4
    Publications
        Page 4
Full Text






AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

September, 2003

DATES TO REMEMBER
Sept. 5 Row Crop Field Day Jay Research Farm
Feb. 24-25, 2004 FL Weed Science Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Pierce
May 27, 2004 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra


IN THIS ISSUE


CORN
Planting Date for
Residual Fertility


Corn and Grain Sorghum


COTTON
Prepare to Defoliate Cotton .....

FORAGE
Getting Ready for Winter .......

PEANUTS
Excessive Peanut Vine Growth
Late-Season Yellowing of Peanuts

TOBACCO
Tobacco Auction System .......
Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals
Tobacco Sales Report .........

MISCELLANEOUS
August Crop Report ..........
Publications ...............


. . . . . . . . . 2


. . . . . . . . . 2
.~2


. . . . . . . . . 4
. . . . . . . . . 4


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University ofFlorida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.







Planting Date for Corn and Grain Sorghum

Both corn and grain sorghum require at least 90
days of good growing conditions to get to grain
production even on short season hybrids.
Therefore, grain planted in August seldom
matures as well as would be expected. Insects
are generally not as severe from August plantings
because numbers usually go down in September.
The last date of good yields of grain and silage in
our planting date trials have normally been in late
July.

DLW

Residual Fertility

Several growers had planned on planting cotton
and had N applied before planting from various
sources. Some of these fields did not get planted.
Heavy soils will often hold as much as 60 pounds
of available N in the rooting zone. However, if
rainfall and wet conditions were what kept
growers from planting there is a good likelihood
that N was leached out. Results from cotton
trials on relatively heavy soils at NFREC,
Quincy, showed that sidedressed N moved
through the soil fairly rapidly over a 5 week
period after N was applied to below the 12 inch
soil depth, and probably out of the root zone.
Don't expect much residual N being around for
fall small grain crops or winter grazing.

DLW

Prepare to Defoliate Cotton

There are many defoliants on the market with
different modes of action. The effectiveness of
any of the defoliants is dependant upon status of
the crop (N fertility status, soil water content,
weather, and many other factors). Usually 60 %
open boll is considered the time of maturity when
yields will not be reduced if defoliants and boll
openers are applied. Information on timing,
rates, and materials can be found at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG188.


Getting Ready for Winter


Now is the time to purchase seed and start
selecting and preparing ground for planting cool-
season forages. The soon to be released fact
sheet "Fall Forage Update 2003" will have a
listing and discussion of recommended varieties
and planting practices. We are going into the fall
with plenty of soil moisture and there is
prediction of more rain to come. This should
make it easier than usual to get ryegrass and
other cool season forages established. This may
be the cool-season when we will have excellent
growing conditions. If you are planting rye (the
small grain) don't get in too big of a hurry if the
temperature stays high. Wait until the weather
changes and we get several cool nights before
planting. This usually occurs after Oct. 15 in
northern Florida and after Nov. 01 in southern
Florida. Rye is susceptible to certain seedling
diseases when planted in hot weather. Oats can
be planted earlier than other small grains and
ryegrass, since it is less susceptible to seedling
diseases.

CGC

Excessive Peanut Vine Growth

There may be some fields of 2003 peanuts where
vine growth became excessive due to the rainy
weather. Excessive weed growth may have also
become a problem. In such cases, it may be
difficult to follow the rows during digging, which
increases the loss of pods. It may also be
difficult to properly invert the vines for optimum
field drying. Thus it may be necessary to
consider mowing the top third of the vines before
digging. Mowing is not generally desirable, but
may be necessary in some cases. If the decision
is made to mow, be sure the blades of the mower
are sharp so that stripping of the pods from the
vines during mowing is kept to a minimum.
Raise the mower high enough so that only about
a third of the vines are mowed. Lower mowing
heights can increase the stripping of pods from
the vines. The peanuts can then be dug when the
mowed portion has wilted enough so as not to
interfere with efficient digging.

EBW


DLW







Planting Date for Corn and Grain Sorghum

Both corn and grain sorghum require at least 90
days of good growing conditions to get to grain
production even on short season hybrids.
Therefore, grain planted in August seldom
matures as well as would be expected. Insects
are generally not as severe from August plantings
because numbers usually go down in September.
The last date of good yields of grain and silage in
our planting date trials have normally been in late
July.

DLW

Residual Fertility

Several growers had planned on planting cotton
and had N applied before planting from various
sources. Some of these fields did not get planted.
Heavy soils will often hold as much as 60 pounds
of available N in the rooting zone. However, if
rainfall and wet conditions were what kept
growers from planting there is a good likelihood
that N was leached out. Results from cotton
trials on relatively heavy soils at NFREC,
Quincy, showed that sidedressed N moved
through the soil fairly rapidly over a 5 week
period after N was applied to below the 12 inch
soil depth, and probably out of the root zone.
Don't expect much residual N being around for
fall small grain crops or winter grazing.

DLW

Prepare to Defoliate Cotton

There are many defoliants on the market with
different modes of action. The effectiveness of
any of the defoliants is dependant upon status of
the crop (N fertility status, soil water content,
weather, and many other factors). Usually 60 %
open boll is considered the time of maturity when
yields will not be reduced if defoliants and boll
openers are applied. Information on timing,
rates, and materials can be found at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG188.


Getting Ready for Winter


Now is the time to purchase seed and start
selecting and preparing ground for planting cool-
season forages. The soon to be released fact
sheet "Fall Forage Update 2003" will have a
listing and discussion of recommended varieties
and planting practices. We are going into the fall
with plenty of soil moisture and there is
prediction of more rain to come. This should
make it easier than usual to get ryegrass and
other cool season forages established. This may
be the cool-season when we will have excellent
growing conditions. If you are planting rye (the
small grain) don't get in too big of a hurry if the
temperature stays high. Wait until the weather
changes and we get several cool nights before
planting. This usually occurs after Oct. 15 in
northern Florida and after Nov. 01 in southern
Florida. Rye is susceptible to certain seedling
diseases when planted in hot weather. Oats can
be planted earlier than other small grains and
ryegrass, since it is less susceptible to seedling
diseases.

CGC

Excessive Peanut Vine Growth

There may be some fields of 2003 peanuts where
vine growth became excessive due to the rainy
weather. Excessive weed growth may have also
become a problem. In such cases, it may be
difficult to follow the rows during digging, which
increases the loss of pods. It may also be
difficult to properly invert the vines for optimum
field drying. Thus it may be necessary to
consider mowing the top third of the vines before
digging. Mowing is not generally desirable, but
may be necessary in some cases. If the decision
is made to mow, be sure the blades of the mower
are sharp so that stripping of the pods from the
vines during mowing is kept to a minimum.
Raise the mower high enough so that only about
a third of the vines are mowed. Lower mowing
heights can increase the stripping of pods from
the vines. The peanuts can then be dug when the
mowed portion has wilted enough so as not to
interfere with efficient digging.

EBW


DLW







Planting Date for Corn and Grain Sorghum

Both corn and grain sorghum require at least 90
days of good growing conditions to get to grain
production even on short season hybrids.
Therefore, grain planted in August seldom
matures as well as would be expected. Insects
are generally not as severe from August plantings
because numbers usually go down in September.
The last date of good yields of grain and silage in
our planting date trials have normally been in late
July.

DLW

Residual Fertility

Several growers had planned on planting cotton
and had N applied before planting from various
sources. Some of these fields did not get planted.
Heavy soils will often hold as much as 60 pounds
of available N in the rooting zone. However, if
rainfall and wet conditions were what kept
growers from planting there is a good likelihood
that N was leached out. Results from cotton
trials on relatively heavy soils at NFREC,
Quincy, showed that sidedressed N moved
through the soil fairly rapidly over a 5 week
period after N was applied to below the 12 inch
soil depth, and probably out of the root zone.
Don't expect much residual N being around for
fall small grain crops or winter grazing.

DLW

Prepare to Defoliate Cotton

There are many defoliants on the market with
different modes of action. The effectiveness of
any of the defoliants is dependant upon status of
the crop (N fertility status, soil water content,
weather, and many other factors). Usually 60 %
open boll is considered the time of maturity when
yields will not be reduced if defoliants and boll
openers are applied. Information on timing,
rates, and materials can be found at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG188.


Getting Ready for Winter


Now is the time to purchase seed and start
selecting and preparing ground for planting cool-
season forages. The soon to be released fact
sheet "Fall Forage Update 2003" will have a
listing and discussion of recommended varieties
and planting practices. We are going into the fall
with plenty of soil moisture and there is
prediction of more rain to come. This should
make it easier than usual to get ryegrass and
other cool season forages established. This may
be the cool-season when we will have excellent
growing conditions. If you are planting rye (the
small grain) don't get in too big of a hurry if the
temperature stays high. Wait until the weather
changes and we get several cool nights before
planting. This usually occurs after Oct. 15 in
northern Florida and after Nov. 01 in southern
Florida. Rye is susceptible to certain seedling
diseases when planted in hot weather. Oats can
be planted earlier than other small grains and
ryegrass, since it is less susceptible to seedling
diseases.

CGC

Excessive Peanut Vine Growth

There may be some fields of 2003 peanuts where
vine growth became excessive due to the rainy
weather. Excessive weed growth may have also
become a problem. In such cases, it may be
difficult to follow the rows during digging, which
increases the loss of pods. It may also be
difficult to properly invert the vines for optimum
field drying. Thus it may be necessary to
consider mowing the top third of the vines before
digging. Mowing is not generally desirable, but
may be necessary in some cases. If the decision
is made to mow, be sure the blades of the mower
are sharp so that stripping of the pods from the
vines during mowing is kept to a minimum.
Raise the mower high enough so that only about
a third of the vines are mowed. Lower mowing
heights can increase the stripping of pods from
the vines. The peanuts can then be dug when the
mowed portion has wilted enough so as not to
interfere with efficient digging.

EBW


DLW







Planting Date for Corn and Grain Sorghum

Both corn and grain sorghum require at least 90
days of good growing conditions to get to grain
production even on short season hybrids.
Therefore, grain planted in August seldom
matures as well as would be expected. Insects
are generally not as severe from August plantings
because numbers usually go down in September.
The last date of good yields of grain and silage in
our planting date trials have normally been in late
July.

DLW

Residual Fertility

Several growers had planned on planting cotton
and had N applied before planting from various
sources. Some of these fields did not get planted.
Heavy soils will often hold as much as 60 pounds
of available N in the rooting zone. However, if
rainfall and wet conditions were what kept
growers from planting there is a good likelihood
that N was leached out. Results from cotton
trials on relatively heavy soils at NFREC,
Quincy, showed that sidedressed N moved
through the soil fairly rapidly over a 5 week
period after N was applied to below the 12 inch
soil depth, and probably out of the root zone.
Don't expect much residual N being around for
fall small grain crops or winter grazing.

DLW

Prepare to Defoliate Cotton

There are many defoliants on the market with
different modes of action. The effectiveness of
any of the defoliants is dependant upon status of
the crop (N fertility status, soil water content,
weather, and many other factors). Usually 60 %
open boll is considered the time of maturity when
yields will not be reduced if defoliants and boll
openers are applied. Information on timing,
rates, and materials can be found at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG188.


Getting Ready for Winter


Now is the time to purchase seed and start
selecting and preparing ground for planting cool-
season forages. The soon to be released fact
sheet "Fall Forage Update 2003" will have a
listing and discussion of recommended varieties
and planting practices. We are going into the fall
with plenty of soil moisture and there is
prediction of more rain to come. This should
make it easier than usual to get ryegrass and
other cool season forages established. This may
be the cool-season when we will have excellent
growing conditions. If you are planting rye (the
small grain) don't get in too big of a hurry if the
temperature stays high. Wait until the weather
changes and we get several cool nights before
planting. This usually occurs after Oct. 15 in
northern Florida and after Nov. 01 in southern
Florida. Rye is susceptible to certain seedling
diseases when planted in hot weather. Oats can
be planted earlier than other small grains and
ryegrass, since it is less susceptible to seedling
diseases.

CGC

Excessive Peanut Vine Growth

There may be some fields of 2003 peanuts where
vine growth became excessive due to the rainy
weather. Excessive weed growth may have also
become a problem. In such cases, it may be
difficult to follow the rows during digging, which
increases the loss of pods. It may also be
difficult to properly invert the vines for optimum
field drying. Thus it may be necessary to
consider mowing the top third of the vines before
digging. Mowing is not generally desirable, but
may be necessary in some cases. If the decision
is made to mow, be sure the blades of the mower
are sharp so that stripping of the pods from the
vines during mowing is kept to a minimum.
Raise the mower high enough so that only about
a third of the vines are mowed. Lower mowing
heights can increase the stripping of pods from
the vines. The peanuts can then be dug when the
mowed portion has wilted enough so as not to
interfere with efficient digging.

EBW


DLW







Planting Date for Corn and Grain Sorghum

Both corn and grain sorghum require at least 90
days of good growing conditions to get to grain
production even on short season hybrids.
Therefore, grain planted in August seldom
matures as well as would be expected. Insects
are generally not as severe from August plantings
because numbers usually go down in September.
The last date of good yields of grain and silage in
our planting date trials have normally been in late
July.

DLW

Residual Fertility

Several growers had planned on planting cotton
and had N applied before planting from various
sources. Some of these fields did not get planted.
Heavy soils will often hold as much as 60 pounds
of available N in the rooting zone. However, if
rainfall and wet conditions were what kept
growers from planting there is a good likelihood
that N was leached out. Results from cotton
trials on relatively heavy soils at NFREC,
Quincy, showed that sidedressed N moved
through the soil fairly rapidly over a 5 week
period after N was applied to below the 12 inch
soil depth, and probably out of the root zone.
Don't expect much residual N being around for
fall small grain crops or winter grazing.

DLW

Prepare to Defoliate Cotton

There are many defoliants on the market with
different modes of action. The effectiveness of
any of the defoliants is dependant upon status of
the crop (N fertility status, soil water content,
weather, and many other factors). Usually 60 %
open boll is considered the time of maturity when
yields will not be reduced if defoliants and boll
openers are applied. Information on timing,
rates, and materials can be found at
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG188.


Getting Ready for Winter


Now is the time to purchase seed and start
selecting and preparing ground for planting cool-
season forages. The soon to be released fact
sheet "Fall Forage Update 2003" will have a
listing and discussion of recommended varieties
and planting practices. We are going into the fall
with plenty of soil moisture and there is
prediction of more rain to come. This should
make it easier than usual to get ryegrass and
other cool season forages established. This may
be the cool-season when we will have excellent
growing conditions. If you are planting rye (the
small grain) don't get in too big of a hurry if the
temperature stays high. Wait until the weather
changes and we get several cool nights before
planting. This usually occurs after Oct. 15 in
northern Florida and after Nov. 01 in southern
Florida. Rye is susceptible to certain seedling
diseases when planted in hot weather. Oats can
be planted earlier than other small grains and
ryegrass, since it is less susceptible to seedling
diseases.

CGC

Excessive Peanut Vine Growth

There may be some fields of 2003 peanuts where
vine growth became excessive due to the rainy
weather. Excessive weed growth may have also
become a problem. In such cases, it may be
difficult to follow the rows during digging, which
increases the loss of pods. It may also be
difficult to properly invert the vines for optimum
field drying. Thus it may be necessary to
consider mowing the top third of the vines before
digging. Mowing is not generally desirable, but
may be necessary in some cases. If the decision
is made to mow, be sure the blades of the mower
are sharp so that stripping of the pods from the
vines during mowing is kept to a minimum.
Raise the mower high enough so that only about
a third of the vines are mowed. Lower mowing
heights can increase the stripping of pods from
the vines. The peanuts can then be dug when the
mowed portion has wilted enough so as not to
interfere with efficient digging.

EBW


DLW







Late-Season Yellowing of Peanuts

Some causes of late-season yellowing of peanut
vines are obvious. Areas of water-saturated soils
may yellow due to the flooding, and also peanut
vines generally develop a slightly yellow color as
they approach maturity, especially if there is a
heavy pod load. Other yellowing may be
indicative of nematode or disease problems. In
general, yellowing due to nematodes will be in
spots as the more heavily damaged plants show
the most yellowing. An examination of the roots
and pods of affected plants for galling will help
confirm whether or not nematodes are the
primary cause of the yellowing. Late season
infection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
may also cause the vines to yellow. The degree
of infection determines if only a few scattered
plants are yellow or if large areas of the field turn
yellow. Yellowing of vines due to TSWV is
more pronounced than the yellowing caused by
pod maturity. At this late date of infection,
stunting of plants and the typical ring-spot lesion
may not be obvious, and yellowing may be the
only symptom available for field diagnosis.
Other diseases may also contribute to vine
yellowing, as they attack the plants already
weakened by TSWV.

EBW

Tobacco Auction System

While tobacco auctions are no longer held in
Florida, there has been a change in the way they
are conducted. As a result of a farmer lawsuit,
the auctioneer's chant and verbal bids by the
buyers have been replaced by computers. Each
buyer is issued a hand-held computer that shows
the opening or asking price which declines until a
buyer punches the key indicating a bid. There
are no tie bids because the first bid wins. There
are four auction markets in Georgia, and others


in the Carolinas and Virginia. Practically all of
Florida's tobacco is sold by contract, as is about
75-80 percent of the rest of the US flue-cured
crop.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

Prior to the congressional August recess, Senator
McConnell of Kentucky introduced a bill that
would provide for the buyout of tobacco quota.
It is expected that this bill may progress in the
Senate, possibly being combined with another bill
that would provide for FDA regulation of
tobacco. When Congress reconvenes in
September, activity on this bill, as well as
possible bills from the House of Representatives,
will be likely. It is expected that the tobacco
buyout proposals will be up for voting before the
end of the year.

EBW

Tobacco Sales Report

Through August, flue-cured tobacco auctions in
the US have sold about 26 million pounds (about
24% of that designated) of tobacco for an
average price of $1.69 per pound. Over 64% of
the tobacco has been placed under loan.
Contract sales have amounted to 186 million
pounds (43% of designations) for an average
price of almost $1.83 per pound. The two
Florida contract delivery points have received
almost 6 million pounds (over 60% of
designations) and the season average price is now
almost $1.83. The Florida delivery stations will
probably complete operations in September, but
it will be late October before all auctions and
contract centers close for the year.

EBW







Late-Season Yellowing of Peanuts

Some causes of late-season yellowing of peanut
vines are obvious. Areas of water-saturated soils
may yellow due to the flooding, and also peanut
vines generally develop a slightly yellow color as
they approach maturity, especially if there is a
heavy pod load. Other yellowing may be
indicative of nematode or disease problems. In
general, yellowing due to nematodes will be in
spots as the more heavily damaged plants show
the most yellowing. An examination of the roots
and pods of affected plants for galling will help
confirm whether or not nematodes are the
primary cause of the yellowing. Late season
infection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
may also cause the vines to yellow. The degree
of infection determines if only a few scattered
plants are yellow or if large areas of the field turn
yellow. Yellowing of vines due to TSWV is
more pronounced than the yellowing caused by
pod maturity. At this late date of infection,
stunting of plants and the typical ring-spot lesion
may not be obvious, and yellowing may be the
only symptom available for field diagnosis.
Other diseases may also contribute to vine
yellowing, as they attack the plants already
weakened by TSWV.

EBW

Tobacco Auction System

While tobacco auctions are no longer held in
Florida, there has been a change in the way they
are conducted. As a result of a farmer lawsuit,
the auctioneer's chant and verbal bids by the
buyers have been replaced by computers. Each
buyer is issued a hand-held computer that shows
the opening or asking price which declines until a
buyer punches the key indicating a bid. There
are no tie bids because the first bid wins. There
are four auction markets in Georgia, and others


in the Carolinas and Virginia. Practically all of
Florida's tobacco is sold by contract, as is about
75-80 percent of the rest of the US flue-cured
crop.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

Prior to the congressional August recess, Senator
McConnell of Kentucky introduced a bill that
would provide for the buyout of tobacco quota.
It is expected that this bill may progress in the
Senate, possibly being combined with another bill
that would provide for FDA regulation of
tobacco. When Congress reconvenes in
September, activity on this bill, as well as
possible bills from the House of Representatives,
will be likely. It is expected that the tobacco
buyout proposals will be up for voting before the
end of the year.

EBW

Tobacco Sales Report

Through August, flue-cured tobacco auctions in
the US have sold about 26 million pounds (about
24% of that designated) of tobacco for an
average price of $1.69 per pound. Over 64% of
the tobacco has been placed under loan.
Contract sales have amounted to 186 million
pounds (43% of designations) for an average
price of almost $1.83 per pound. The two
Florida contract delivery points have received
almost 6 million pounds (over 60% of
designations) and the season average price is now
almost $1.83. The Florida delivery stations will
probably complete operations in September, but
it will be late October before all auctions and
contract centers close for the year.

EBW







Late-Season Yellowing of Peanuts

Some causes of late-season yellowing of peanut
vines are obvious. Areas of water-saturated soils
may yellow due to the flooding, and also peanut
vines generally develop a slightly yellow color as
they approach maturity, especially if there is a
heavy pod load. Other yellowing may be
indicative of nematode or disease problems. In
general, yellowing due to nematodes will be in
spots as the more heavily damaged plants show
the most yellowing. An examination of the roots
and pods of affected plants for galling will help
confirm whether or not nematodes are the
primary cause of the yellowing. Late season
infection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
may also cause the vines to yellow. The degree
of infection determines if only a few scattered
plants are yellow or if large areas of the field turn
yellow. Yellowing of vines due to TSWV is
more pronounced than the yellowing caused by
pod maturity. At this late date of infection,
stunting of plants and the typical ring-spot lesion
may not be obvious, and yellowing may be the
only symptom available for field diagnosis.
Other diseases may also contribute to vine
yellowing, as they attack the plants already
weakened by TSWV.

EBW

Tobacco Auction System

While tobacco auctions are no longer held in
Florida, there has been a change in the way they
are conducted. As a result of a farmer lawsuit,
the auctioneer's chant and verbal bids by the
buyers have been replaced by computers. Each
buyer is issued a hand-held computer that shows
the opening or asking price which declines until a
buyer punches the key indicating a bid. There
are no tie bids because the first bid wins. There
are four auction markets in Georgia, and others


in the Carolinas and Virginia. Practically all of
Florida's tobacco is sold by contract, as is about
75-80 percent of the rest of the US flue-cured
crop.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

Prior to the congressional August recess, Senator
McConnell of Kentucky introduced a bill that
would provide for the buyout of tobacco quota.
It is expected that this bill may progress in the
Senate, possibly being combined with another bill
that would provide for FDA regulation of
tobacco. When Congress reconvenes in
September, activity on this bill, as well as
possible bills from the House of Representatives,
will be likely. It is expected that the tobacco
buyout proposals will be up for voting before the
end of the year.

EBW

Tobacco Sales Report

Through August, flue-cured tobacco auctions in
the US have sold about 26 million pounds (about
24% of that designated) of tobacco for an
average price of $1.69 per pound. Over 64% of
the tobacco has been placed under loan.
Contract sales have amounted to 186 million
pounds (43% of designations) for an average
price of almost $1.83 per pound. The two
Florida contract delivery points have received
almost 6 million pounds (over 60% of
designations) and the season average price is now
almost $1.83. The Florida delivery stations will
probably complete operations in September, but
it will be late October before all auctions and
contract centers close for the year.

EBW







Late-Season Yellowing of Peanuts

Some causes of late-season yellowing of peanut
vines are obvious. Areas of water-saturated soils
may yellow due to the flooding, and also peanut
vines generally develop a slightly yellow color as
they approach maturity, especially if there is a
heavy pod load. Other yellowing may be
indicative of nematode or disease problems. In
general, yellowing due to nematodes will be in
spots as the more heavily damaged plants show
the most yellowing. An examination of the roots
and pods of affected plants for galling will help
confirm whether or not nematodes are the
primary cause of the yellowing. Late season
infection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
may also cause the vines to yellow. The degree
of infection determines if only a few scattered
plants are yellow or if large areas of the field turn
yellow. Yellowing of vines due to TSWV is
more pronounced than the yellowing caused by
pod maturity. At this late date of infection,
stunting of plants and the typical ring-spot lesion
may not be obvious, and yellowing may be the
only symptom available for field diagnosis.
Other diseases may also contribute to vine
yellowing, as they attack the plants already
weakened by TSWV.

EBW

Tobacco Auction System

While tobacco auctions are no longer held in
Florida, there has been a change in the way they
are conducted. As a result of a farmer lawsuit,
the auctioneer's chant and verbal bids by the
buyers have been replaced by computers. Each
buyer is issued a hand-held computer that shows
the opening or asking price which declines until a
buyer punches the key indicating a bid. There
are no tie bids because the first bid wins. There
are four auction markets in Georgia, and others


in the Carolinas and Virginia. Practically all of
Florida's tobacco is sold by contract, as is about
75-80 percent of the rest of the US flue-cured
crop.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

Prior to the congressional August recess, Senator
McConnell of Kentucky introduced a bill that
would provide for the buyout of tobacco quota.
It is expected that this bill may progress in the
Senate, possibly being combined with another bill
that would provide for FDA regulation of
tobacco. When Congress reconvenes in
September, activity on this bill, as well as
possible bills from the House of Representatives,
will be likely. It is expected that the tobacco
buyout proposals will be up for voting before the
end of the year.

EBW

Tobacco Sales Report

Through August, flue-cured tobacco auctions in
the US have sold about 26 million pounds (about
24% of that designated) of tobacco for an
average price of $1.69 per pound. Over 64% of
the tobacco has been placed under loan.
Contract sales have amounted to 186 million
pounds (43% of designations) for an average
price of almost $1.83 per pound. The two
Florida contract delivery points have received
almost 6 million pounds (over 60% of
designations) and the season average price is now
almost $1.83. The Florida delivery stations will
probably complete operations in September, but
it will be late October before all auctions and
contract centers close for the year.

EBW







August Crop Report


The USDA's National Statistics Service reported the following estimates of 2003 crop production:


Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per acre (x1000) Yield per acre

Peanuts 107 2700 lb 1277 3102 lb

Cotton, all 99 621 lb 12,302 667 lb

Tobacco, all 4 2550 lb 414 2031 lb

Sugarcane 440 36.5 ton 995 34.7 ton

Other crops are not estimated for Florida, but corn in the United States is estimated to be up 12% over
2002. The estimated yield is almost 140 bushels per acre, which, if realized, would be a record, as would
be the total production. Soybean production is estimated to be 5% above 2002, while winter wheat
productions is expected to be up 42% over the previous year.

EBW

Publications

The following publications have been recently UPDATED and are available through EDIS. A PDF file
for each publication is also available.


SS-AGR-80

CIR-1084


SS-AGR-159


Skunk\ ici (Paederiafoetida)

Energy from Crops: Production and Management of Biomass/Energy Crops on Phosphatic
Clay in Central Florida

Perennial Peanut Source List of Planting Material (Rhizomes) and Hay


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.







August Crop Report


The USDA's National Statistics Service reported the following estimates of 2003 crop production:


Florida United States

Harvested Acres Harvested Acres
Crop (x1000) Yield per acre (x1000) Yield per acre

Peanuts 107 2700 lb 1277 3102 lb

Cotton, all 99 621 lb 12,302 667 lb

Tobacco, all 4 2550 lb 414 2031 lb

Sugarcane 440 36.5 ton 995 34.7 ton

Other crops are not estimated for Florida, but corn in the United States is estimated to be up 12% over
2002. The estimated yield is almost 140 bushels per acre, which, if realized, would be a record, as would
be the total production. Soybean production is estimated to be 5% above 2002, while winter wheat
productions is expected to be up 42% over the previous year.

EBW

Publications

The following publications have been recently UPDATED and are available through EDIS. A PDF file
for each publication is also available.


SS-AGR-80

CIR-1084


SS-AGR-159


Skunk\ ici (Paederiafoetida)

Energy from Crops: Production and Management of Biomass/Energy Crops on Phosphatic
Clay in Central Florida

Perennial Peanut Source List of Planting Material (Rhizomes) and Hay


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.