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 Table of Contents
 Corn disease and dry down
 New cotton variety requires aggressive...
 Sulfur deficiency in cotton
 Pesticide registrations and...
 What to do with a wet hay crop
 Harvest excess grass for silag...
 Fertilize for fall hay product...
 Stockpile (reserve) forage for...
 Fall armyworms in fertilized pasture...
 Spittle bugs in hay fields
 Summer forage legume = protein
 Getting ready for winter
 Weed control reminder
 Pesticide potpourri
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00037
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: August 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00037

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Corn disease and dry down
        Page 2
    New cotton variety requires aggressive growth regulator application
        Page 2
    Sulfur deficiency in cotton
        Page 2
    Pesticide registrations and actions
        Page 2
    What to do with a wet hay crop
        Page 3
    Harvest excess grass for silage
        Page 3
    Fertilize for fall hay production
        Page 4
    Stockpile (reserve) forage for winter feed
        Page 4
    Fall armyworms in fertilized pasture and hay fields
        Page 4
    Spittle bugs in hay fields
        Page 4
    Summer forage legume = protein
        Page 5
    Getting ready for winter
        Page 5
    Weed control reminder
        Page 5
    Pesticide potpourri
        Page 5
    Publications
        Page 6
Full Text






AGRONOMY
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION
August, 2003
DATES TO REMEMBER
Aug. 28 Peanut Field Day Marianna
Sept. 3-4 17h Annual Georgia Peanut Tour Macon, GA
Sept. 5 Row Crop Field Day Jay Research Farm
Feb. 24-25, 2004 FL Weed Science Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Pierce
May 27, 2004 Corn Silage Field Day, Citra

IN THIS ISSUE

CORN
Corn Disease and Dry Down ....................................... 2

COTTON
New Cotton Variety Requires Aggressive Growth Regulator Application ...... 2
Sulfur Deficiency in Cotton ........................................ 2
Pesticide Registrations and Actions .................................. 2

FORAGE
What To Do With a Wet Hay Crop? ................. ............. 3
Harvest Excess Grass For Silage .................................... 3
Fertilize for Fall Hay Production .................................... 4
Stockpile (reserve) Forage for Winter Feed ............................ 4
Fall Armyworms in Fertilized Pasture and Hay Fields ..................... 4
Spittle Bugs in Hay Fields ......................................... 4
Summer Forage Legumes = Protein ................... ............. 5
Getting Ready for W inter ............................ ............. 5
W eed Control Reminder ........................................... 5

MISCELLANEOUS
Pesticide Potpourri ............................................... 5
Publications ..................................... ............. 6


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University ofFlorida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.






Corn Disease and Dry Down


Weather conditions in 2003 have been very
conducive to outbreaks of southern corn leaf
blight and rust. This occurs during periods
of high rainfall and high temperature. Late
planted corn is usually more susceptible than
early planted corn due to a larger spore load
late in the season. Corn is much more
susceptible after it reaches the reproductive
stage than it is during the vegetative stage.
Seemingly healthy corn, at the start of tassel
emergence may completely fall apart after 4-
5 weeks with leaves turning brown and
drying up from the base toward the tassel.
Silage hybrids, that are planted late, should
be watched closely since they can go from
being green to completely brown almost over
a weekend due to disease. Double crop corn
is especially susceptible to disease attack at a
young age if a lot of plant residue is left in
the field from the first corn crop. Some of
the tropical hybrids have much better
resistance to disease than early planted mid-
west type hybrids and should be considered
for 2nd crop planting.

DLW

New Cotton Variety Requires Aggressive
Growth Regulator Application

DP 555 BG/RR is one of the new generation
of high yielding transgenic cotton cultivars.
It is tall growing and needs mepiquat
chloride (MQ) applications early to keep
growth down. Rain in 2003 resulted in fast
early growth. DP 555 should have the first
application of MQ earlier than most varieties
and at higher rates. Normal rates of MQ are
often 8 oz/A at the 10th to 12th node stage.
However, this variety should have rates of
12-16 oz/A soon after square initiation.
Generally, MQ with surfactants become rain
fast after a 4 hour period. Therefore,
spraying in the morning may be advised
when in periods of afternoon rain showers.

DLW


Many fields of cotton have a yellow cast to
them even though adequate nitrogen (N) has
been applied. Additional N has not solved
this problem and only makes it worse. Sulfur
(S) deficiencies often occur in years like this
one when frequent and heavy rains will leach
the nutrients below the root zone. Rooting
may not be as deep either since soils may be
water logged, thus limiting rooting depth.
Sulfur and N deficiency can be distinguished
from the other since unlike N, S is not
mobile in the plant. This means that S
deficiency symptoms will occur in the new
growth at the top of the plant while the
bottom part of the plant may not show
symptoms. However, S deficiency is often
thought to be N deficiency. N deficiency
shows up first on the older leaves at the
bottom of the plant. There are several
materials that supply S to the crop. The
most commonly used S sources are materials
like 28-0-0-5 which have both N and S.
However, ammonium thiosulfate can be used
alone and contains 26-43% sulfur. Other
materials like gypsum have been used and
contain about 15-18% S and have been
shown to give as much as a bale increase in
yield when S was deficient. Therefore total
S needs for a cotton crop is about 35-45
lbs/A.

DLW

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

On June 18, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services
(FDACS) conditionally registered BASF's
plant growth regulator Pentia (mepiquat
pentaborate) for foliar application to cotton
to assist in height reduction, open canopy,
better early boll retention, possibly larger
bolls, less boll rot, improved defoliation, and
better harvest efficiency. The EPA
registration number for the product is 7969-
191. (FDACS PREC July Agenda).


Sulfur Deficiency in Cotton






Corn Disease and Dry Down


Weather conditions in 2003 have been very
conducive to outbreaks of southern corn leaf
blight and rust. This occurs during periods
of high rainfall and high temperature. Late
planted corn is usually more susceptible than
early planted corn due to a larger spore load
late in the season. Corn is much more
susceptible after it reaches the reproductive
stage than it is during the vegetative stage.
Seemingly healthy corn, at the start of tassel
emergence may completely fall apart after 4-
5 weeks with leaves turning brown and
drying up from the base toward the tassel.
Silage hybrids, that are planted late, should
be watched closely since they can go from
being green to completely brown almost over
a weekend due to disease. Double crop corn
is especially susceptible to disease attack at a
young age if a lot of plant residue is left in
the field from the first corn crop. Some of
the tropical hybrids have much better
resistance to disease than early planted mid-
west type hybrids and should be considered
for 2nd crop planting.

DLW

New Cotton Variety Requires Aggressive
Growth Regulator Application

DP 555 BG/RR is one of the new generation
of high yielding transgenic cotton cultivars.
It is tall growing and needs mepiquat
chloride (MQ) applications early to keep
growth down. Rain in 2003 resulted in fast
early growth. DP 555 should have the first
application of MQ earlier than most varieties
and at higher rates. Normal rates of MQ are
often 8 oz/A at the 10th to 12th node stage.
However, this variety should have rates of
12-16 oz/A soon after square initiation.
Generally, MQ with surfactants become rain
fast after a 4 hour period. Therefore,
spraying in the morning may be advised
when in periods of afternoon rain showers.

DLW


Many fields of cotton have a yellow cast to
them even though adequate nitrogen (N) has
been applied. Additional N has not solved
this problem and only makes it worse. Sulfur
(S) deficiencies often occur in years like this
one when frequent and heavy rains will leach
the nutrients below the root zone. Rooting
may not be as deep either since soils may be
water logged, thus limiting rooting depth.
Sulfur and N deficiency can be distinguished
from the other since unlike N, S is not
mobile in the plant. This means that S
deficiency symptoms will occur in the new
growth at the top of the plant while the
bottom part of the plant may not show
symptoms. However, S deficiency is often
thought to be N deficiency. N deficiency
shows up first on the older leaves at the
bottom of the plant. There are several
materials that supply S to the crop. The
most commonly used S sources are materials
like 28-0-0-5 which have both N and S.
However, ammonium thiosulfate can be used
alone and contains 26-43% sulfur. Other
materials like gypsum have been used and
contain about 15-18% S and have been
shown to give as much as a bale increase in
yield when S was deficient. Therefore total
S needs for a cotton crop is about 35-45
lbs/A.

DLW

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

On June 18, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services
(FDACS) conditionally registered BASF's
plant growth regulator Pentia (mepiquat
pentaborate) for foliar application to cotton
to assist in height reduction, open canopy,
better early boll retention, possibly larger
bolls, less boll rot, improved defoliation, and
better harvest efficiency. The EPA
registration number for the product is 7969-
191. (FDACS PREC July Agenda).


Sulfur Deficiency in Cotton






Corn Disease and Dry Down


Weather conditions in 2003 have been very
conducive to outbreaks of southern corn leaf
blight and rust. This occurs during periods
of high rainfall and high temperature. Late
planted corn is usually more susceptible than
early planted corn due to a larger spore load
late in the season. Corn is much more
susceptible after it reaches the reproductive
stage than it is during the vegetative stage.
Seemingly healthy corn, at the start of tassel
emergence may completely fall apart after 4-
5 weeks with leaves turning brown and
drying up from the base toward the tassel.
Silage hybrids, that are planted late, should
be watched closely since they can go from
being green to completely brown almost over
a weekend due to disease. Double crop corn
is especially susceptible to disease attack at a
young age if a lot of plant residue is left in
the field from the first corn crop. Some of
the tropical hybrids have much better
resistance to disease than early planted mid-
west type hybrids and should be considered
for 2nd crop planting.

DLW

New Cotton Variety Requires Aggressive
Growth Regulator Application

DP 555 BG/RR is one of the new generation
of high yielding transgenic cotton cultivars.
It is tall growing and needs mepiquat
chloride (MQ) applications early to keep
growth down. Rain in 2003 resulted in fast
early growth. DP 555 should have the first
application of MQ earlier than most varieties
and at higher rates. Normal rates of MQ are
often 8 oz/A at the 10th to 12th node stage.
However, this variety should have rates of
12-16 oz/A soon after square initiation.
Generally, MQ with surfactants become rain
fast after a 4 hour period. Therefore,
spraying in the morning may be advised
when in periods of afternoon rain showers.

DLW


Many fields of cotton have a yellow cast to
them even though adequate nitrogen (N) has
been applied. Additional N has not solved
this problem and only makes it worse. Sulfur
(S) deficiencies often occur in years like this
one when frequent and heavy rains will leach
the nutrients below the root zone. Rooting
may not be as deep either since soils may be
water logged, thus limiting rooting depth.
Sulfur and N deficiency can be distinguished
from the other since unlike N, S is not
mobile in the plant. This means that S
deficiency symptoms will occur in the new
growth at the top of the plant while the
bottom part of the plant may not show
symptoms. However, S deficiency is often
thought to be N deficiency. N deficiency
shows up first on the older leaves at the
bottom of the plant. There are several
materials that supply S to the crop. The
most commonly used S sources are materials
like 28-0-0-5 which have both N and S.
However, ammonium thiosulfate can be used
alone and contains 26-43% sulfur. Other
materials like gypsum have been used and
contain about 15-18% S and have been
shown to give as much as a bale increase in
yield when S was deficient. Therefore total
S needs for a cotton crop is about 35-45
lbs/A.

DLW

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

On June 18, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services
(FDACS) conditionally registered BASF's
plant growth regulator Pentia (mepiquat
pentaborate) for foliar application to cotton
to assist in height reduction, open canopy,
better early boll retention, possibly larger
bolls, less boll rot, improved defoliation, and
better harvest efficiency. The EPA
registration number for the product is 7969-
191. (FDACS PREC July Agenda).


Sulfur Deficiency in Cotton






Corn Disease and Dry Down


Weather conditions in 2003 have been very
conducive to outbreaks of southern corn leaf
blight and rust. This occurs during periods
of high rainfall and high temperature. Late
planted corn is usually more susceptible than
early planted corn due to a larger spore load
late in the season. Corn is much more
susceptible after it reaches the reproductive
stage than it is during the vegetative stage.
Seemingly healthy corn, at the start of tassel
emergence may completely fall apart after 4-
5 weeks with leaves turning brown and
drying up from the base toward the tassel.
Silage hybrids, that are planted late, should
be watched closely since they can go from
being green to completely brown almost over
a weekend due to disease. Double crop corn
is especially susceptible to disease attack at a
young age if a lot of plant residue is left in
the field from the first corn crop. Some of
the tropical hybrids have much better
resistance to disease than early planted mid-
west type hybrids and should be considered
for 2nd crop planting.

DLW

New Cotton Variety Requires Aggressive
Growth Regulator Application

DP 555 BG/RR is one of the new generation
of high yielding transgenic cotton cultivars.
It is tall growing and needs mepiquat
chloride (MQ) applications early to keep
growth down. Rain in 2003 resulted in fast
early growth. DP 555 should have the first
application of MQ earlier than most varieties
and at higher rates. Normal rates of MQ are
often 8 oz/A at the 10th to 12th node stage.
However, this variety should have rates of
12-16 oz/A soon after square initiation.
Generally, MQ with surfactants become rain
fast after a 4 hour period. Therefore,
spraying in the morning may be advised
when in periods of afternoon rain showers.

DLW


Many fields of cotton have a yellow cast to
them even though adequate nitrogen (N) has
been applied. Additional N has not solved
this problem and only makes it worse. Sulfur
(S) deficiencies often occur in years like this
one when frequent and heavy rains will leach
the nutrients below the root zone. Rooting
may not be as deep either since soils may be
water logged, thus limiting rooting depth.
Sulfur and N deficiency can be distinguished
from the other since unlike N, S is not
mobile in the plant. This means that S
deficiency symptoms will occur in the new
growth at the top of the plant while the
bottom part of the plant may not show
symptoms. However, S deficiency is often
thought to be N deficiency. N deficiency
shows up first on the older leaves at the
bottom of the plant. There are several
materials that supply S to the crop. The
most commonly used S sources are materials
like 28-0-0-5 which have both N and S.
However, ammonium thiosulfate can be used
alone and contains 26-43% sulfur. Other
materials like gypsum have been used and
contain about 15-18% S and have been
shown to give as much as a bale increase in
yield when S was deficient. Therefore total
S needs for a cotton crop is about 35-45
lbs/A.

DLW

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

On June 18, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services
(FDACS) conditionally registered BASF's
plant growth regulator Pentia (mepiquat
pentaborate) for foliar application to cotton
to assist in height reduction, open canopy,
better early boll retention, possibly larger
bolls, less boll rot, improved defoliation, and
better harvest efficiency. The EPA
registration number for the product is 7969-
191. (FDACS PREC July Agenda).


Sulfur Deficiency in Cotton






Based on a request by Bayer CropScience,
tolerances have been established for residues
of the herbicide flufenacet in or on field corn
grain/stover/forage (0.05/0.4/0.4 ppm) and
on soybean seed (0.1 ppm). (Federal
Register, 6/25/03).

Albaugh has requested the deletion of red
potato off their 2,4-D LV4 herbicide label.
This was one of the two 2,4-D formulations
available for this use registered in Florida.
The other product is Riverdale 2,4-D LV6
(EPA Reg. # 228-95). (Federal Register,
6/25/03).

MAM

What To Do With a Wet Hay Crop?

Sometimes we just can't get the grass hay
dry enough to bale. It may be at 20 to 22
percent moisture, but we need to get it down
to 15% or less in order for it not to mold.
Daily thunder showers have set in and the
next hay crop has started growing, and we
need to get that grass off the field! What to
do? The grass is too dry to make roll bale
silage. For the ensiling process to work
properly, the grass should be at 55 to 65
percent moisture. And, if we roll up grass
that is 22% moisture and wrap it in plastic -
we will just have moldy, rotten "hay"
wrapped in plastic! It might be possible to
use a hay preservative propionicc acid), but it
will take some time to get rigged up, have
the preservative shipped etc. The best
solution just might be to bale the grass, stack
it, cover it with plastic and treat it with
anhydrous ammonia. Anhydrous ammonia is
an excellent preservative and will suppress
the growth of molds. For additional
information treating hay with anhydrous
ammonia, see the publication "Improving the
Feeding Value of Hay by Anhydrous
Ammonia Treatment", Bulletin 888, go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA203

The following was extracted from the above
mentioned publication: "Anhydrous


ammonia has antimicrobial effects. In several
cases livestock producers have ammoniated
hay which was baled too wet (about 25%
moisture). Ammonia inhibited mold growth,
and the hay was fed successfully. In another
case a livestock producer baled forage
shortly after cutting. The intention was to
bale the forage wet and treat it with
anhydrous ammonia at 4% of the forage dry
matter to inhibit spoilage, mold growth, and
improve feeding value. The baled forage was
very wet (about 60% moisture). Anhydrous
ammonia has a strong attraction for water,
and the resulting treated forage had a strong
ammonia odor which reduced intake by
yearling cattle. Because of potential intake
problems, it is recommended that forage
greater than 25 to 30% moisture content not
be treated with anhydrous ammonia at 4% of
the forage dry matter. Hay that is 25 to 30%
moisture can still be treated at 4% but should
be ammoniated shortly after baling to reduce
heating that occurs in wet hay. Some
producers treat silage or hay with anhydrous
ammonia at 1% of the forage dry matter.
Application of anhydrous ammonia at 1% of
the forage dry matter yields different results
compared to ammoniation at 4% of the
forage dry matter. Treatment at 1% of the
forage dry matter limits mold growth and can
be used successfully with wet (65%
moisture) forage, but does not enhance
forage nutritional value to a large extent."

CGC

Harvest Excess Grass For Silage

High humidity and frequent rainfall during
August makes hay harvest difficult. Grass
can be harvested and stored as silage without
interference from frequent rains, since the
grass is stored at a high moisture content (55
to 75 percent moisture). Hay must be dried
to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

Fertilize for Fall Hay Production






Based on a request by Bayer CropScience,
tolerances have been established for residues
of the herbicide flufenacet in or on field corn
grain/stover/forage (0.05/0.4/0.4 ppm) and
on soybean seed (0.1 ppm). (Federal
Register, 6/25/03).

Albaugh has requested the deletion of red
potato off their 2,4-D LV4 herbicide label.
This was one of the two 2,4-D formulations
available for this use registered in Florida.
The other product is Riverdale 2,4-D LV6
(EPA Reg. # 228-95). (Federal Register,
6/25/03).

MAM

What To Do With a Wet Hay Crop?

Sometimes we just can't get the grass hay
dry enough to bale. It may be at 20 to 22
percent moisture, but we need to get it down
to 15% or less in order for it not to mold.
Daily thunder showers have set in and the
next hay crop has started growing, and we
need to get that grass off the field! What to
do? The grass is too dry to make roll bale
silage. For the ensiling process to work
properly, the grass should be at 55 to 65
percent moisture. And, if we roll up grass
that is 22% moisture and wrap it in plastic -
we will just have moldy, rotten "hay"
wrapped in plastic! It might be possible to
use a hay preservative propionicc acid), but it
will take some time to get rigged up, have
the preservative shipped etc. The best
solution just might be to bale the grass, stack
it, cover it with plastic and treat it with
anhydrous ammonia. Anhydrous ammonia is
an excellent preservative and will suppress
the growth of molds. For additional
information treating hay with anhydrous
ammonia, see the publication "Improving the
Feeding Value of Hay by Anhydrous
Ammonia Treatment", Bulletin 888, go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA203

The following was extracted from the above
mentioned publication: "Anhydrous


ammonia has antimicrobial effects. In several
cases livestock producers have ammoniated
hay which was baled too wet (about 25%
moisture). Ammonia inhibited mold growth,
and the hay was fed successfully. In another
case a livestock producer baled forage
shortly after cutting. The intention was to
bale the forage wet and treat it with
anhydrous ammonia at 4% of the forage dry
matter to inhibit spoilage, mold growth, and
improve feeding value. The baled forage was
very wet (about 60% moisture). Anhydrous
ammonia has a strong attraction for water,
and the resulting treated forage had a strong
ammonia odor which reduced intake by
yearling cattle. Because of potential intake
problems, it is recommended that forage
greater than 25 to 30% moisture content not
be treated with anhydrous ammonia at 4% of
the forage dry matter. Hay that is 25 to 30%
moisture can still be treated at 4% but should
be ammoniated shortly after baling to reduce
heating that occurs in wet hay. Some
producers treat silage or hay with anhydrous
ammonia at 1% of the forage dry matter.
Application of anhydrous ammonia at 1% of
the forage dry matter yields different results
compared to ammoniation at 4% of the
forage dry matter. Treatment at 1% of the
forage dry matter limits mold growth and can
be used successfully with wet (65%
moisture) forage, but does not enhance
forage nutritional value to a large extent."

CGC

Harvest Excess Grass For Silage

High humidity and frequent rainfall during
August makes hay harvest difficult. Grass
can be harvested and stored as silage without
interference from frequent rains, since the
grass is stored at a high moisture content (55
to 75 percent moisture). Hay must be dried
to less than 20 percent moisture.

CGC

Fertilize for Fall Hay Production






In central and south Florida much of the hay
is made in October and November when
damage by rain is less likely than in the
spring and summer. Production of a large
fall hay crop usually requires an application
of fertilizer sometime from late August
through early October. Fertilizing Pangola
digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide
rhodesgrass, one of the stargrasses or
improved bermudagrasses in late August will
provide enough time for adequate growth
before the cool, dry weather begins when
plant growth slows. Some producers delay
fertilization until early October in an attempt
to avoid problems with foliage feeding
worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can
be grazed or mowed close in August or early
September to remove mature growth. This
will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time since there will be less of the
overly mature and dead plant material in the
hay. Those who have facilities and
equipment to use silage might want to
consider harvesting excess summer grass as
silage, and then use the fall growth for hay.

CGC

Stockpile (reserve) Forage for Winter
Feed

In central and south Florida stockpiling
forage (letting grass accumulate in the field)
is one way to supply part of an animal's
winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is
usually allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in
the fall before being utilized. One of the
problems associated with this system is the
decrease in digestibility with increase in age
of the forage. This problem can be partially
overcome by selecting the proper grass to
use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola and the
other digitgrasses have been used for many
years for this purpose. Their digestibility
drops with increase in age but palatability is
maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled


forage. It maintains a relatively high level of
digestibility with increase in age, thus making
it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the
cool season than Pangola. The quality and
feed value of stockpiled forage continues to
decline with time, and therefore it should be
used up before other feed sources are
utilized.

CGC

Fall Armyworms in Fertilized Pasture and
Hay Fields

It's that time of year again when the fall
armyworm attacks fertilized grasses. Spot
check recently fertilized fields to determine if
a serious infestation of worms is present.
The cattle egret (white bird) feeding in
pastures may be a tip off indicating the
presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not
been determined. Action should be taken
immediately if an outbreak of worms occurs.
First, consider using the grass before the
worms destroy it. In hay fields, if enough
growth has accumulated to harvest, then it
may be wise to go ahead and harvest
immediately rather than waiting to
accumulate additional growth. If the grass
can be grazed, concentrate a large number of
cattle in the area and graze it off quickly.
Second, consider the use of an insecticide to
control the worms. For additional
information on control, go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IG061

CGC

Spittle Bugs in Hay Fields

The two-lined spittle bug may cause severe
damage in hay fields or pastures. The young
spittlebug or nymph can be found in the
spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of
the grass plant. The nymph which is soft and
white in color will over a period of several
weeks develop into an adult spittlebug. The






In central and south Florida much of the hay
is made in October and November when
damage by rain is less likely than in the
spring and summer. Production of a large
fall hay crop usually requires an application
of fertilizer sometime from late August
through early October. Fertilizing Pangola
digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide
rhodesgrass, one of the stargrasses or
improved bermudagrasses in late August will
provide enough time for adequate growth
before the cool, dry weather begins when
plant growth slows. Some producers delay
fertilization until early October in an attempt
to avoid problems with foliage feeding
worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can
be grazed or mowed close in August or early
September to remove mature growth. This
will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time since there will be less of the
overly mature and dead plant material in the
hay. Those who have facilities and
equipment to use silage might want to
consider harvesting excess summer grass as
silage, and then use the fall growth for hay.

CGC

Stockpile (reserve) Forage for Winter
Feed

In central and south Florida stockpiling
forage (letting grass accumulate in the field)
is one way to supply part of an animal's
winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is
usually allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in
the fall before being utilized. One of the
problems associated with this system is the
decrease in digestibility with increase in age
of the forage. This problem can be partially
overcome by selecting the proper grass to
use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola and the
other digitgrasses have been used for many
years for this purpose. Their digestibility
drops with increase in age but palatability is
maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled


forage. It maintains a relatively high level of
digestibility with increase in age, thus making
it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the
cool season than Pangola. The quality and
feed value of stockpiled forage continues to
decline with time, and therefore it should be
used up before other feed sources are
utilized.

CGC

Fall Armyworms in Fertilized Pasture and
Hay Fields

It's that time of year again when the fall
armyworm attacks fertilized grasses. Spot
check recently fertilized fields to determine if
a serious infestation of worms is present.
The cattle egret (white bird) feeding in
pastures may be a tip off indicating the
presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not
been determined. Action should be taken
immediately if an outbreak of worms occurs.
First, consider using the grass before the
worms destroy it. In hay fields, if enough
growth has accumulated to harvest, then it
may be wise to go ahead and harvest
immediately rather than waiting to
accumulate additional growth. If the grass
can be grazed, concentrate a large number of
cattle in the area and graze it off quickly.
Second, consider the use of an insecticide to
control the worms. For additional
information on control, go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IG061

CGC

Spittle Bugs in Hay Fields

The two-lined spittle bug may cause severe
damage in hay fields or pastures. The young
spittlebug or nymph can be found in the
spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of
the grass plant. The nymph which is soft and
white in color will over a period of several
weeks develop into an adult spittlebug. The






In central and south Florida much of the hay
is made in October and November when
damage by rain is less likely than in the
spring and summer. Production of a large
fall hay crop usually requires an application
of fertilizer sometime from late August
through early October. Fertilizing Pangola
digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide
rhodesgrass, one of the stargrasses or
improved bermudagrasses in late August will
provide enough time for adequate growth
before the cool, dry weather begins when
plant growth slows. Some producers delay
fertilization until early October in an attempt
to avoid problems with foliage feeding
worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can
be grazed or mowed close in August or early
September to remove mature growth. This
will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time since there will be less of the
overly mature and dead plant material in the
hay. Those who have facilities and
equipment to use silage might want to
consider harvesting excess summer grass as
silage, and then use the fall growth for hay.

CGC

Stockpile (reserve) Forage for Winter
Feed

In central and south Florida stockpiling
forage (letting grass accumulate in the field)
is one way to supply part of an animal's
winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is
usually allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in
the fall before being utilized. One of the
problems associated with this system is the
decrease in digestibility with increase in age
of the forage. This problem can be partially
overcome by selecting the proper grass to
use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola and the
other digitgrasses have been used for many
years for this purpose. Their digestibility
drops with increase in age but palatability is
maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled


forage. It maintains a relatively high level of
digestibility with increase in age, thus making
it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the
cool season than Pangola. The quality and
feed value of stockpiled forage continues to
decline with time, and therefore it should be
used up before other feed sources are
utilized.

CGC

Fall Armyworms in Fertilized Pasture and
Hay Fields

It's that time of year again when the fall
armyworm attacks fertilized grasses. Spot
check recently fertilized fields to determine if
a serious infestation of worms is present.
The cattle egret (white bird) feeding in
pastures may be a tip off indicating the
presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not
been determined. Action should be taken
immediately if an outbreak of worms occurs.
First, consider using the grass before the
worms destroy it. In hay fields, if enough
growth has accumulated to harvest, then it
may be wise to go ahead and harvest
immediately rather than waiting to
accumulate additional growth. If the grass
can be grazed, concentrate a large number of
cattle in the area and graze it off quickly.
Second, consider the use of an insecticide to
control the worms. For additional
information on control, go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IG061

CGC

Spittle Bugs in Hay Fields

The two-lined spittle bug may cause severe
damage in hay fields or pastures. The young
spittlebug or nymph can be found in the
spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of
the grass plant. The nymph which is soft and
white in color will over a period of several
weeks develop into an adult spittlebug. The






In central and south Florida much of the hay
is made in October and November when
damage by rain is less likely than in the
spring and summer. Production of a large
fall hay crop usually requires an application
of fertilizer sometime from late August
through early October. Fertilizing Pangola
digitgrass, Floralta limpograss, Callide
rhodesgrass, one of the stargrasses or
improved bermudagrasses in late August will
provide enough time for adequate growth
before the cool, dry weather begins when
plant growth slows. Some producers delay
fertilization until early October in an attempt
to avoid problems with foliage feeding
worms.

Fields to be used for fall hay production can
be grazed or mowed close in August or early
September to remove mature growth. This
will contribute to a higher quality hay at
harvest-time since there will be less of the
overly mature and dead plant material in the
hay. Those who have facilities and
equipment to use silage might want to
consider harvesting excess summer grass as
silage, and then use the fall growth for hay.

CGC

Stockpile (reserve) Forage for Winter
Feed

In central and south Florida stockpiling
forage (letting grass accumulate in the field)
is one way to supply part of an animal's
winter feed supply. The stockpiled forage is
usually allowed to grow 10 or more weeks in
the fall before being utilized. One of the
problems associated with this system is the
decrease in digestibility with increase in age
of the forage. This problem can be partially
overcome by selecting the proper grass to
use as a stockpiled forage. Pangola and the
other digitgrasses have been used for many
years for this purpose. Their digestibility
drops with increase in age but palatability is
maintained. Floralta limpograss
(Hemarthria) can also be used as a stockpiled


forage. It maintains a relatively high level of
digestibility with increase in age, thus making
it especially suited for stockpiling. Also,
Floralta may make more growth during the
cool season than Pangola. The quality and
feed value of stockpiled forage continues to
decline with time, and therefore it should be
used up before other feed sources are
utilized.

CGC

Fall Armyworms in Fertilized Pasture and
Hay Fields

It's that time of year again when the fall
armyworm attacks fertilized grasses. Spot
check recently fertilized fields to determine if
a serious infestation of worms is present.
The cattle egret (white bird) feeding in
pastures may be a tip off indicating the
presence of worms. Feeding by birds may be
a control factor, but its effectiveness has not
been determined. Action should be taken
immediately if an outbreak of worms occurs.
First, consider using the grass before the
worms destroy it. In hay fields, if enough
growth has accumulated to harvest, then it
may be wise to go ahead and harvest
immediately rather than waiting to
accumulate additional growth. If the grass
can be grazed, concentrate a large number of
cattle in the area and graze it off quickly.
Second, consider the use of an insecticide to
control the worms. For additional
information on control, go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IG061

CGC

Spittle Bugs in Hay Fields

The two-lined spittle bug may cause severe
damage in hay fields or pastures. The young
spittlebug or nymph can be found in the
spittle (white, frothy material) at the base of
the grass plant. The nymph which is soft and
white in color will over a period of several
weeks develop into an adult spittlebug. The






adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes
across each wing. Although both the
nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult
spittlebugs can be found in May and June
then again in late August through September
into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a
problem when a pasture is intensively grazed
throughout the summer or where repeated
cuttings of hay are taken. Where grass is
allowed to accumulate during the summer
spittlebugs may cause serious injury to the
grass. Insecticides have been used in the
past to kill the adult spittlebug but timing
was critical. At the present time, no
insecticide are registered for use on
spittlebugs. For additional information, go
to: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IGO61

CGC

Summer Forage Legumes = Protein

Cows and calves grazing the tips of branches
and stems of summer legumes will be eating
forage with a protein content of 15% plus on
a dry matter basis. This high protein content
usually does not exist in our warm season
perennial grasses during August. Thus,
summer legumes can be a real plus for calves
that need a high level of protein. Research
has shown that calves will make extra weight
gain when summer legumes are available.

CGC

Getting Ready for Winter

It is not too early to start thinking about how
much hay or other conserved forage will be
needed for the winter, and whether or not
you will be planting some winter pasture.
For information on winter pasture,
recommended varieties etc. see the
publication "Fall Forage Update 2002".
Contact the county extension office or go to:


http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266

CGC

Weed Control Reminder

Plateau herbicide has a supplemental label
for use on established bahiagrass to control
sandbur.
Sandbur has been a problem in hayfields as
well as recreational areas. The following
was taken from Weeds in the Sunshine:
Weed Management in Pastures and
Rangeland 2003. "Apply postemergence
prior to seedhead formation. Always add a
non-ionic surfactant at 0.25%(v/v) of the
spray volume when using water as a carrier.
A methylated seed oil is not recommended
because it will increase injury to bahiagrass.
If a nitrogen based liquid fertilizer is used as
the spray carrier, a surfactant is not required.
Use only the 4 oz rate in bahiagrass
[higher rates can be used in bermudagrass].
Rates higher than 4 oz may kill the
bahiagrass. Use of Plateau will result in a
temporary reduction in bahiagrass growth. It
may result in the loss of one hay cutting."
For additional information on weed control
in pastures and hayfields go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG006

CGC

Pesticide Potpourri

The U.S. Agriculture Department reported
that farmers cut soybean planting back to
73.7 million acres this year the lowest since
1998, the third year in a row in which
farmers have reduced their soybean acreage.
However, growers in 15 states increased
their soybean acreage, particularly in
southeastern states like North Carolina,
where persistent rains drenched the soil,
hampering efforts to plant cotton and corn.
Although overall soybean planting is down,
states continue to increase their use of
genetically engineered soybean. The survey






adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes
across each wing. Although both the
nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult
spittlebugs can be found in May and June
then again in late August through September
into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a
problem when a pasture is intensively grazed
throughout the summer or where repeated
cuttings of hay are taken. Where grass is
allowed to accumulate during the summer
spittlebugs may cause serious injury to the
grass. Insecticides have been used in the
past to kill the adult spittlebug but timing
was critical. At the present time, no
insecticide are registered for use on
spittlebugs. For additional information, go
to: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IGO61

CGC

Summer Forage Legumes = Protein

Cows and calves grazing the tips of branches
and stems of summer legumes will be eating
forage with a protein content of 15% plus on
a dry matter basis. This high protein content
usually does not exist in our warm season
perennial grasses during August. Thus,
summer legumes can be a real plus for calves
that need a high level of protein. Research
has shown that calves will make extra weight
gain when summer legumes are available.

CGC

Getting Ready for Winter

It is not too early to start thinking about how
much hay or other conserved forage will be
needed for the winter, and whether or not
you will be planting some winter pasture.
For information on winter pasture,
recommended varieties etc. see the
publication "Fall Forage Update 2002".
Contact the county extension office or go to:


http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266

CGC

Weed Control Reminder

Plateau herbicide has a supplemental label
for use on established bahiagrass to control
sandbur.
Sandbur has been a problem in hayfields as
well as recreational areas. The following
was taken from Weeds in the Sunshine:
Weed Management in Pastures and
Rangeland 2003. "Apply postemergence
prior to seedhead formation. Always add a
non-ionic surfactant at 0.25%(v/v) of the
spray volume when using water as a carrier.
A methylated seed oil is not recommended
because it will increase injury to bahiagrass.
If a nitrogen based liquid fertilizer is used as
the spray carrier, a surfactant is not required.
Use only the 4 oz rate in bahiagrass
[higher rates can be used in bermudagrass].
Rates higher than 4 oz may kill the
bahiagrass. Use of Plateau will result in a
temporary reduction in bahiagrass growth. It
may result in the loss of one hay cutting."
For additional information on weed control
in pastures and hayfields go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG006

CGC

Pesticide Potpourri

The U.S. Agriculture Department reported
that farmers cut soybean planting back to
73.7 million acres this year the lowest since
1998, the third year in a row in which
farmers have reduced their soybean acreage.
However, growers in 15 states increased
their soybean acreage, particularly in
southeastern states like North Carolina,
where persistent rains drenched the soil,
hampering efforts to plant cotton and corn.
Although overall soybean planting is down,
states continue to increase their use of
genetically engineered soybean. The survey






adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes
across each wing. Although both the
nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult
spittlebugs can be found in May and June
then again in late August through September
into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a
problem when a pasture is intensively grazed
throughout the summer or where repeated
cuttings of hay are taken. Where grass is
allowed to accumulate during the summer
spittlebugs may cause serious injury to the
grass. Insecticides have been used in the
past to kill the adult spittlebug but timing
was critical. At the present time, no
insecticide are registered for use on
spittlebugs. For additional information, go
to: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IGO61

CGC

Summer Forage Legumes = Protein

Cows and calves grazing the tips of branches
and stems of summer legumes will be eating
forage with a protein content of 15% plus on
a dry matter basis. This high protein content
usually does not exist in our warm season
perennial grasses during August. Thus,
summer legumes can be a real plus for calves
that need a high level of protein. Research
has shown that calves will make extra weight
gain when summer legumes are available.

CGC

Getting Ready for Winter

It is not too early to start thinking about how
much hay or other conserved forage will be
needed for the winter, and whether or not
you will be planting some winter pasture.
For information on winter pasture,
recommended varieties etc. see the
publication "Fall Forage Update 2002".
Contact the county extension office or go to:


http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266

CGC

Weed Control Reminder

Plateau herbicide has a supplemental label
for use on established bahiagrass to control
sandbur.
Sandbur has been a problem in hayfields as
well as recreational areas. The following
was taken from Weeds in the Sunshine:
Weed Management in Pastures and
Rangeland 2003. "Apply postemergence
prior to seedhead formation. Always add a
non-ionic surfactant at 0.25%(v/v) of the
spray volume when using water as a carrier.
A methylated seed oil is not recommended
because it will increase injury to bahiagrass.
If a nitrogen based liquid fertilizer is used as
the spray carrier, a surfactant is not required.
Use only the 4 oz rate in bahiagrass
[higher rates can be used in bermudagrass].
Rates higher than 4 oz may kill the
bahiagrass. Use of Plateau will result in a
temporary reduction in bahiagrass growth. It
may result in the loss of one hay cutting."
For additional information on weed control
in pastures and hayfields go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG006

CGC

Pesticide Potpourri

The U.S. Agriculture Department reported
that farmers cut soybean planting back to
73.7 million acres this year the lowest since
1998, the third year in a row in which
farmers have reduced their soybean acreage.
However, growers in 15 states increased
their soybean acreage, particularly in
southeastern states like North Carolina,
where persistent rains drenched the soil,
hampering efforts to plant cotton and corn.
Although overall soybean planting is down,
states continue to increase their use of
genetically engineered soybean. The survey






adult is a flying insect that is dark in color
and has two very narrow orange stripes
across each wing. Although both the
nymphs and adults feed on the plants, it is
the adults that cause injury. Adult
spittlebugs can be found in May and June
then again in late August through September
into October.

Control Spittlebugs are usually not a
problem when a pasture is intensively grazed
throughout the summer or where repeated
cuttings of hay are taken. Where grass is
allowed to accumulate during the summer
spittlebugs may cause serious injury to the
grass. Insecticides have been used in the
past to kill the adult spittlebug but timing
was critical. At the present time, no
insecticide are registered for use on
spittlebugs. For additional information, go
to: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IGO61

CGC

Summer Forage Legumes = Protein

Cows and calves grazing the tips of branches
and stems of summer legumes will be eating
forage with a protein content of 15% plus on
a dry matter basis. This high protein content
usually does not exist in our warm season
perennial grasses during August. Thus,
summer legumes can be a real plus for calves
that need a high level of protein. Research
has shown that calves will make extra weight
gain when summer legumes are available.

CGC

Getting Ready for Winter

It is not too early to start thinking about how
much hay or other conserved forage will be
needed for the winter, and whether or not
you will be planting some winter pasture.
For information on winter pasture,
recommended varieties etc. see the
publication "Fall Forage Update 2002".
Contact the county extension office or go to:


http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA266

CGC

Weed Control Reminder

Plateau herbicide has a supplemental label
for use on established bahiagrass to control
sandbur.
Sandbur has been a problem in hayfields as
well as recreational areas. The following
was taken from Weeds in the Sunshine:
Weed Management in Pastures and
Rangeland 2003. "Apply postemergence
prior to seedhead formation. Always add a
non-ionic surfactant at 0.25%(v/v) of the
spray volume when using water as a carrier.
A methylated seed oil is not recommended
because it will increase injury to bahiagrass.
If a nitrogen based liquid fertilizer is used as
the spray carrier, a surfactant is not required.
Use only the 4 oz rate in bahiagrass
[higher rates can be used in bermudagrass].
Rates higher than 4 oz may kill the
bahiagrass. Use of Plateau will result in a
temporary reduction in bahiagrass growth. It
may result in the loss of one hay cutting."
For additional information on weed control
in pastures and hayfields go to:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG006

CGC

Pesticide Potpourri

The U.S. Agriculture Department reported
that farmers cut soybean planting back to
73.7 million acres this year the lowest since
1998, the third year in a row in which
farmers have reduced their soybean acreage.
However, growers in 15 states increased
their soybean acreage, particularly in
southeastern states like North Carolina,
where persistent rains drenched the soil,
hampering efforts to plant cotton and corn.
Although overall soybean planting is down,
states continue to increase their use of
genetically engineered soybean. The survey






said that 76 percent of the soybean crop is
Roundup Ready soybean, a figure that is
six percent higher than last year's planting.
Arkansas farmers generated the greatest
increase in biotech soybean use, up 16


percent to 84 percent of the state's 2.9
million acres. In contrast, Ohio and
Michigan increased their biotech soybean
crop by just 1 percent. Ohio's 4.4 million
acres of soybean are 74 percent biotech, and
Michigan's 2.1 million acres are 73 percent
genetically engineered. (Associated Press
6/30/03, via Agnet).


MAM


PUBLICATIONS


The following publications have been recently UPDATED and are available through EDIS
(http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/). A PDF file for each publication is also available.


SS-AGR-01
SS-AGR-03
SS-AGR-09
SS-AGR-10
SS-AGR-14
SS-AGR-15
SS-AGR-16
SS-AGR-27
SS-AGR-91
SS-AGR-100
SS-AGR-103
SS-AGR-104


Weed Management in Tobacco 2003
Weed Management in Peanuts 2003
Weed Management in Sugarcane 2003
Weed Management in Rice 2003
Herbicide Prepackage Mixtures 2003
Diagnosing Herbicide Injury 2003
Approximate Herbicide Pricing 2003
Conversion Factors
SunOleic/High Oleic Peanuts
Principles of Weed Science
Recrop Intervals for Herbicides Used in Cotton, Corn and Peanut in Florida
Trade Name, Common Name and Registrant of Some Herbicides


SS-AGR-106 Names and Addresses of Some Herbicide Manufacturers and Formulators

The following NEW publication is available through EDIS (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu). A PDF file
for this publication is also available.

SS-AGR-193 Crabgrass as a Forage and Hay Crop

Please visit the Agronomy Department Homepage (http://agronomy.ifas.ufl.edu) for other
publications on field and forage crops.


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; M. A. Mossler, Pest Management Information Specialist, E. B.
Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.