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 Table of Contents
 Late nitrogen (N) applications...
 The changing cotton industry
 Production and prices in U.S....
 Hairy indigo and oldy but...
 Hay and pasture insects
 Mowing pastures
 Summer annual grasses/grazing...
 Vegetative propagation of forage...
 Barn rot of tobacco
 Pesticide potpourri
 Pesticide registrations and...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00036
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: July 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00036

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Late nitrogen (N) applications on corn
        Page 2
    The changing cotton industry
        Page 2
    Production and prices in U.S. cotton
        Page 2
    Hairy indigo and oldy but goodie
        Page 3
    Hay and pasture insects
        Page 3
    Mowing pastures
        Page 4
    Summer annual grasses/grazing management
        Page 4
    Vegetative propagation of forage grasses
        Page 4
    Barn rot of tobacco
        Page 5
    Pesticide potpourri
        Page 5
    Pesticide registrations and actions
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION

July, 2003

DATES TO REMEMBER

July 7 Perennial Peanut Field Day Moultrie, GA
July 8 Agronomy Weed Science Field Day (Deep South Weed Tour) Jay
Research Farm
Sept. 3-4 17t Annual Georgia Peanut Tour Macon, GA
Sept. 5 Row Crop Field Day Jay Research Farm
Aug. 28 Peanut Field Day Marianna



IN THIS ISSUE

CORN
Late Nitrogen (N) Applications on Corn .................................. 2

COTTON
The Changing Cotton Industry ............................................ 2
Production and Prices in U.S. Cotton ....................................... 2

FORAGE
Hairy Indigo an Oldy But Goodie ......................................... 3
Hay and Pasture Insects ................................................. 3
Mowing Pastures ...................................................... 4
Summer Annual Grasses/Grazing Management ............................... 4
Vegetative Propagation of Forage Grasses ................................... 4

TOBACCO
Barn Rot of Tobacco ................................................... 5

MISCELLANEOUS
Pesticide Potpourri ..................................... ......... ..... 5
Pesticide Registrations and Actions ................................... .... 5


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University ofFlorida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.










Late Nitrogen (N) Applications On Corn

There are always questions about applying
additional N to corn late in the season after high
rainfall periods. Our research has shown that
there is little value in applying N after tasseling.
If corn is N deficient until the tassel period, yield
will be reduced no matter what rate is applied
after this time. Late N has been shown to
increase protein content of the grain but is not an
economical way to increase protein. If corn is
dark green at the tassel stage, no yield increase is
expected from additional applications even
though the corn crop can take up an additional
100-150 lbs/A during this time until maturity.
Timing of N during the vegetative period is the
key to high silage or grain yields.

DLW

The Changing Cotton Industry

The cotton industry has had several major events
that have changed the way cotton is grown in the
last several years. The boll weevil eradication
program began about 20 years ago. The
program has been completed for several years in
the SE Coastal Plain including Florida, Georgia,
Alabama, North and South Carolina and Virginia
and in some other regions covering about 5.5
million acres. No insecticide applications are
made for boll weevils in this area now where 10
to 15 applications were made at one time. Active
programs cover most of the other 10 million
acres of U.S. cotton at the current time. Texas,
the largest cotton growing state, estimates that
the eradication program has increased their yield
by 20%. The benefits of being weevil free
through the boll weevil eradication program
makes good use of another major technology, the
development of Bt and other genetically
transformed traits of cotton. Non-weevil free
areas cannot take advantage of the Bt technology
since those areas have to be sprayed with
insecticides to control the weevil. In weevil free
areas cotton may not have to be sprayed with
insecticides if Bt genetic technology protects the
crop from the boll worm and bud worm. The
genetic technology revolution has become the


fastest technology adoption in farming in the past
decade with about 80% of the cotton grown in
the U.S. being transgenic. This has brought
about an estimated $20 per acre increase in
profits across the U.S. cotton belt. Another
major impact to the U.S. cotton industry has been
the closing of mills as they move to other
countries to take advantage of cheaper labor.
About 100 mills closed in the U.S. in 2002
resulting in much less U.S. cotton being used at
home. Exports have been increasing in recent
years and will have to continue to do so to offset
the decline in domestic use.

DLW

Production and Prices in U.S. Cotton

Cotton was grown in the colonies every year after
1621. By the early 1700's, 20% of the clothes
worn by the colonist were made from domestic
cotton. Cotton production increased 24 fold
within 7 years after the invention of the cotton
gin by Whitney and 59 fold by 1810. Production
continued to increase until 1861 with nearly 4
million bales of cotton being produced with an
average price of about 11 cents /lb to less than 12
million bales by 1863 with an average price of
53cents /lb. This price was not matched again
until 1976. Production of cotton continued to
rise until about 1940. However, the depression
and record production of about 17 million bales
in 1931 pushed the average price /lb to less than
6 cents/lb. Record supplies kept prices to less
than 10 cents/lb during the 30's. WWII brought
less production and increased prices to about 40
cents/lb. Competition from man made fibers
during the 60's and 70's depressed prices and
therefore production. In recent years, the U.S.
has produced about 17-19 million bales /year on
about 14-15 million acres. The price has varied
from 30 cents/lb to over a dollar /lb. With mill
closings, more of the cotton has to be exported to
maintain price. Florida has produced from
100,000 to 120,000 acres of cotton since the mid
90's.

DLW










Late Nitrogen (N) Applications On Corn

There are always questions about applying
additional N to corn late in the season after high
rainfall periods. Our research has shown that
there is little value in applying N after tasseling.
If corn is N deficient until the tassel period, yield
will be reduced no matter what rate is applied
after this time. Late N has been shown to
increase protein content of the grain but is not an
economical way to increase protein. If corn is
dark green at the tassel stage, no yield increase is
expected from additional applications even
though the corn crop can take up an additional
100-150 lbs/A during this time until maturity.
Timing of N during the vegetative period is the
key to high silage or grain yields.

DLW

The Changing Cotton Industry

The cotton industry has had several major events
that have changed the way cotton is grown in the
last several years. The boll weevil eradication
program began about 20 years ago. The
program has been completed for several years in
the SE Coastal Plain including Florida, Georgia,
Alabama, North and South Carolina and Virginia
and in some other regions covering about 5.5
million acres. No insecticide applications are
made for boll weevils in this area now where 10
to 15 applications were made at one time. Active
programs cover most of the other 10 million
acres of U.S. cotton at the current time. Texas,
the largest cotton growing state, estimates that
the eradication program has increased their yield
by 20%. The benefits of being weevil free
through the boll weevil eradication program
makes good use of another major technology, the
development of Bt and other genetically
transformed traits of cotton. Non-weevil free
areas cannot take advantage of the Bt technology
since those areas have to be sprayed with
insecticides to control the weevil. In weevil free
areas cotton may not have to be sprayed with
insecticides if Bt genetic technology protects the
crop from the boll worm and bud worm. The
genetic technology revolution has become the


fastest technology adoption in farming in the past
decade with about 80% of the cotton grown in
the U.S. being transgenic. This has brought
about an estimated $20 per acre increase in
profits across the U.S. cotton belt. Another
major impact to the U.S. cotton industry has been
the closing of mills as they move to other
countries to take advantage of cheaper labor.
About 100 mills closed in the U.S. in 2002
resulting in much less U.S. cotton being used at
home. Exports have been increasing in recent
years and will have to continue to do so to offset
the decline in domestic use.

DLW

Production and Prices in U.S. Cotton

Cotton was grown in the colonies every year after
1621. By the early 1700's, 20% of the clothes
worn by the colonist were made from domestic
cotton. Cotton production increased 24 fold
within 7 years after the invention of the cotton
gin by Whitney and 59 fold by 1810. Production
continued to increase until 1861 with nearly 4
million bales of cotton being produced with an
average price of about 11 cents /lb to less than 12
million bales by 1863 with an average price of
53cents /lb. This price was not matched again
until 1976. Production of cotton continued to
rise until about 1940. However, the depression
and record production of about 17 million bales
in 1931 pushed the average price /lb to less than
6 cents/lb. Record supplies kept prices to less
than 10 cents/lb during the 30's. WWII brought
less production and increased prices to about 40
cents/lb. Competition from man made fibers
during the 60's and 70's depressed prices and
therefore production. In recent years, the U.S.
has produced about 17-19 million bales /year on
about 14-15 million acres. The price has varied
from 30 cents/lb to over a dollar /lb. With mill
closings, more of the cotton has to be exported to
maintain price. Florida has produced from
100,000 to 120,000 acres of cotton since the mid
90's.

DLW










Late Nitrogen (N) Applications On Corn

There are always questions about applying
additional N to corn late in the season after high
rainfall periods. Our research has shown that
there is little value in applying N after tasseling.
If corn is N deficient until the tassel period, yield
will be reduced no matter what rate is applied
after this time. Late N has been shown to
increase protein content of the grain but is not an
economical way to increase protein. If corn is
dark green at the tassel stage, no yield increase is
expected from additional applications even
though the corn crop can take up an additional
100-150 lbs/A during this time until maturity.
Timing of N during the vegetative period is the
key to high silage or grain yields.

DLW

The Changing Cotton Industry

The cotton industry has had several major events
that have changed the way cotton is grown in the
last several years. The boll weevil eradication
program began about 20 years ago. The
program has been completed for several years in
the SE Coastal Plain including Florida, Georgia,
Alabama, North and South Carolina and Virginia
and in some other regions covering about 5.5
million acres. No insecticide applications are
made for boll weevils in this area now where 10
to 15 applications were made at one time. Active
programs cover most of the other 10 million
acres of U.S. cotton at the current time. Texas,
the largest cotton growing state, estimates that
the eradication program has increased their yield
by 20%. The benefits of being weevil free
through the boll weevil eradication program
makes good use of another major technology, the
development of Bt and other genetically
transformed traits of cotton. Non-weevil free
areas cannot take advantage of the Bt technology
since those areas have to be sprayed with
insecticides to control the weevil. In weevil free
areas cotton may not have to be sprayed with
insecticides if Bt genetic technology protects the
crop from the boll worm and bud worm. The
genetic technology revolution has become the


fastest technology adoption in farming in the past
decade with about 80% of the cotton grown in
the U.S. being transgenic. This has brought
about an estimated $20 per acre increase in
profits across the U.S. cotton belt. Another
major impact to the U.S. cotton industry has been
the closing of mills as they move to other
countries to take advantage of cheaper labor.
About 100 mills closed in the U.S. in 2002
resulting in much less U.S. cotton being used at
home. Exports have been increasing in recent
years and will have to continue to do so to offset
the decline in domestic use.

DLW

Production and Prices in U.S. Cotton

Cotton was grown in the colonies every year after
1621. By the early 1700's, 20% of the clothes
worn by the colonist were made from domestic
cotton. Cotton production increased 24 fold
within 7 years after the invention of the cotton
gin by Whitney and 59 fold by 1810. Production
continued to increase until 1861 with nearly 4
million bales of cotton being produced with an
average price of about 11 cents /lb to less than 12
million bales by 1863 with an average price of
53cents /lb. This price was not matched again
until 1976. Production of cotton continued to
rise until about 1940. However, the depression
and record production of about 17 million bales
in 1931 pushed the average price /lb to less than
6 cents/lb. Record supplies kept prices to less
than 10 cents/lb during the 30's. WWII brought
less production and increased prices to about 40
cents/lb. Competition from man made fibers
during the 60's and 70's depressed prices and
therefore production. In recent years, the U.S.
has produced about 17-19 million bales /year on
about 14-15 million acres. The price has varied
from 30 cents/lb to over a dollar /lb. With mill
closings, more of the cotton has to be exported to
maintain price. Florida has produced from
100,000 to 120,000 acres of cotton since the mid
90's.

DLW










Hairy Indigo an Oldy But Goodie

Hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta L.). is a
summer annual legume that has been used by
Florida ranchers for many years. It is a true
annual that makes seed in the fall and is killed by
the first hard frost. If not grazed, plants may
reach a height of 4 to 7 feet. Widely spaced
plants may branch to fill in spaces up to 5 feet in
diameter. The stems become very woody as the
plant matures. Stems and leaves are covered
with short, bristle-like hairs. There have been
reports that these hairs have caused irritation of
the grazing animal's skin when the animals were
grazing for extended periods of time and when
heavy dews were present. Hairy indigo produces
30 to 70 percent hard seed. These seed may drop
to the ground, but do not germinate during the
year they are produced. They will germinate in
future years when dormancy is broken, thus
insuring a good volunteer stand. For this reason
some vegetable field crop growers consider hairy
indigo a weed! Hairy indigo is adapted to high
dry upland sands, but will also grow on well
drained flatwoods.

The leaves of hairy indigo are very high in
protein and are highly digestible. Animals may
take one or two days to learn to eat hairy indigo.
In a creep grazing study calves learned to eat
hairy indigo and gained 1.80 pounds per day
where as on the control treatment (bahiagrass
alone) they gained 1.50 pounds per day. Some
producers stockpile hairy indigo for use in the
fall. Cows will lick the leaves off the plants
leaving the course woody stems.

"PRODUCTION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FLORIDA"

1 Plant on well-drained soils between March
15 and June 15.

2. Graze grass as close as possible (less than 3
inches) if planting in perennial grass sod.

3. Drill in 5 to 10 pounds of seed per acre or
broadcast 10 to 15 pounds per acre with a
prepared seedbed and 15 pounds per acre,


broadcast in established pasture. Plant seed
no more than 12 inch deep.

4. Fertilizer application should be based on soil
tests, the producer's knowledge of his field
and pasture fertility, and his production
objectives. No nitrogen should be applied.

5. Lime to a target pH of 6.0.

6. Graze when the crop reaches 12 to 18 inches
in height.

7. Cut for hay when the crop is 2 feet to 3 feet
in height, leaving a 3-inch stubble.

8. Practice rotational grazing.

9. If you wish to obtain a harvestable seed crop,
remove the cattle two weeks prior to flower
initiation."

(Source Circular S-318, "Hairy Indigo a
Summer Legume for Florida by D. D.
Baltensperger and cll/L )

CGC

Hay and Pasture Insects

Be on the look out for fall armyworms and grass
loopers. Fertilized pastures and hay fields seem
to attract the fall armyworm moth. They
especially like bermudagrass. Populations reach
a peak in late July, August and September. A
large congregation of cattle egrets in a field
fertilized for fall hay production may indicate an
infestation of fall armyworms.

Spittlebugs build up in fields where grass has
been allowed to accumulate throughout the
summer. Circular spots where the grass is dying
back indicates spittlebug damage. Fields with a
severe spittlebug infestation should be grazed or
harvested for hay or silage. This will open the
field up and allow sunlight to desiccate the young
nymphs. If the adults are emerging or have
emerged at the time when the field is harvested,
then they can be killed with an application of










Hairy Indigo an Oldy But Goodie

Hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta L.). is a
summer annual legume that has been used by
Florida ranchers for many years. It is a true
annual that makes seed in the fall and is killed by
the first hard frost. If not grazed, plants may
reach a height of 4 to 7 feet. Widely spaced
plants may branch to fill in spaces up to 5 feet in
diameter. The stems become very woody as the
plant matures. Stems and leaves are covered
with short, bristle-like hairs. There have been
reports that these hairs have caused irritation of
the grazing animal's skin when the animals were
grazing for extended periods of time and when
heavy dews were present. Hairy indigo produces
30 to 70 percent hard seed. These seed may drop
to the ground, but do not germinate during the
year they are produced. They will germinate in
future years when dormancy is broken, thus
insuring a good volunteer stand. For this reason
some vegetable field crop growers consider hairy
indigo a weed! Hairy indigo is adapted to high
dry upland sands, but will also grow on well
drained flatwoods.

The leaves of hairy indigo are very high in
protein and are highly digestible. Animals may
take one or two days to learn to eat hairy indigo.
In a creep grazing study calves learned to eat
hairy indigo and gained 1.80 pounds per day
where as on the control treatment (bahiagrass
alone) they gained 1.50 pounds per day. Some
producers stockpile hairy indigo for use in the
fall. Cows will lick the leaves off the plants
leaving the course woody stems.

"PRODUCTION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FLORIDA"

1 Plant on well-drained soils between March
15 and June 15.

2. Graze grass as close as possible (less than 3
inches) if planting in perennial grass sod.

3. Drill in 5 to 10 pounds of seed per acre or
broadcast 10 to 15 pounds per acre with a
prepared seedbed and 15 pounds per acre,


broadcast in established pasture. Plant seed
no more than 12 inch deep.

4. Fertilizer application should be based on soil
tests, the producer's knowledge of his field
and pasture fertility, and his production
objectives. No nitrogen should be applied.

5. Lime to a target pH of 6.0.

6. Graze when the crop reaches 12 to 18 inches
in height.

7. Cut for hay when the crop is 2 feet to 3 feet
in height, leaving a 3-inch stubble.

8. Practice rotational grazing.

9. If you wish to obtain a harvestable seed crop,
remove the cattle two weeks prior to flower
initiation."

(Source Circular S-318, "Hairy Indigo a
Summer Legume for Florida by D. D.
Baltensperger and cll/L )

CGC

Hay and Pasture Insects

Be on the look out for fall armyworms and grass
loopers. Fertilized pastures and hay fields seem
to attract the fall armyworm moth. They
especially like bermudagrass. Populations reach
a peak in late July, August and September. A
large congregation of cattle egrets in a field
fertilized for fall hay production may indicate an
infestation of fall armyworms.

Spittlebugs build up in fields where grass has
been allowed to accumulate throughout the
summer. Circular spots where the grass is dying
back indicates spittlebug damage. Fields with a
severe spittlebug infestation should be grazed or
harvested for hay or silage. This will open the
field up and allow sunlight to desiccate the young
nymphs. If the adults are emerging or have
emerged at the time when the field is harvested,
then they can be killed with an application of










insecticide. Burning of fields in the winter helps
in spittlebug control. Susceptible plants include
digitgrass (Pangola), limpograsses, and
bermudagrasses. Chinch bugs have been a
problem on Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug
damage usually occurs on the higher, dryer
ground. Populations should diminish in
September.

CGC

Mowing Pastures

Late July early August may be a good time to
mow pastures. Usually by this time, dogfennels
are large but have not made seed. Mowing them
at this time may reduce their regrowth. Also,
pastures will have been spot grazed and mowing
the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more
palatable and nutritious. For the commercial
cattle operation, mowing should be avoided if
possible for economic reasons. In some
situations, use of a herbicide for weed control
may be called for.

CGC.

Summer Annual Grasses/Grazing
Management

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids can add quantity and quality to a summer
forage program. These crops, when planted on
well drained, fertile soils and with proper
fertilization and management, can furnish grazing
for 2 or more cows per acre from June into
September. Forage quality declines rapidly as
plants mature so grazing management should be
designed to keep the plants in a young vegetative
state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25
to 30 inches and then graze down to 6 to 8
inches. Continuous grazing can be used on pearl
millet, if the stocking rate can be adjusted to keep
the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continuous
grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent
production. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids
should not be grazed continuously because of the


danger of prussic acid poisoning when young
forage is consumed. This crop should not be
grazed before plants reach 30 inches.

CGC

Vegetative Propagation of Forage Grasses

In order to obtain god stands, Coastal
bermudagrass, Tifton 85, stargrasses, and other
vegetatively propagated grasses require special
attention. When preparing a seedbed, two factors
are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be
planted in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be
free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand
failures: 1) planting in fields that have stands of
other grasses (common bermudagrass), 2) using
dried out sprigs or tops, 3) prolonged drought
after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass is
established. The planting material should be
planted on a clean, moist seedbed that is free of
other growing grasses. When planting tops, use
mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old. Use fresh
planting material with at least three nodes or
joints, Plant sprigs or tops the same day they are
harvested. Cover the planting material
immediately or within 15 minutes after dropping
on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than
bermudagrass sprigs and quicker than tops of
Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming the soil
around the planting material after it has been
distributed and covered is very critical in
maintaining adequate soil moisture in the soil
surface and thus preventing the planting material
from drying out and dying. Grass planted in the
summer usually requires 90 days or more before
it is established well enough for any type of
harvest to be taken. If less than 100% stand
establishment has occurred, caution should be
exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north
Florida, try to complete summer plantings by
August 15.

CGC










insecticide. Burning of fields in the winter helps
in spittlebug control. Susceptible plants include
digitgrass (Pangola), limpograsses, and
bermudagrasses. Chinch bugs have been a
problem on Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug
damage usually occurs on the higher, dryer
ground. Populations should diminish in
September.

CGC

Mowing Pastures

Late July early August may be a good time to
mow pastures. Usually by this time, dogfennels
are large but have not made seed. Mowing them
at this time may reduce their regrowth. Also,
pastures will have been spot grazed and mowing
the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more
palatable and nutritious. For the commercial
cattle operation, mowing should be avoided if
possible for economic reasons. In some
situations, use of a herbicide for weed control
may be called for.

CGC.

Summer Annual Grasses/Grazing
Management

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids can add quantity and quality to a summer
forage program. These crops, when planted on
well drained, fertile soils and with proper
fertilization and management, can furnish grazing
for 2 or more cows per acre from June into
September. Forage quality declines rapidly as
plants mature so grazing management should be
designed to keep the plants in a young vegetative
state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25
to 30 inches and then graze down to 6 to 8
inches. Continuous grazing can be used on pearl
millet, if the stocking rate can be adjusted to keep
the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continuous
grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent
production. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids
should not be grazed continuously because of the


danger of prussic acid poisoning when young
forage is consumed. This crop should not be
grazed before plants reach 30 inches.

CGC

Vegetative Propagation of Forage Grasses

In order to obtain god stands, Coastal
bermudagrass, Tifton 85, stargrasses, and other
vegetatively propagated grasses require special
attention. When preparing a seedbed, two factors
are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be
planted in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be
free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand
failures: 1) planting in fields that have stands of
other grasses (common bermudagrass), 2) using
dried out sprigs or tops, 3) prolonged drought
after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass is
established. The planting material should be
planted on a clean, moist seedbed that is free of
other growing grasses. When planting tops, use
mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old. Use fresh
planting material with at least three nodes or
joints, Plant sprigs or tops the same day they are
harvested. Cover the planting material
immediately or within 15 minutes after dropping
on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than
bermudagrass sprigs and quicker than tops of
Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming the soil
around the planting material after it has been
distributed and covered is very critical in
maintaining adequate soil moisture in the soil
surface and thus preventing the planting material
from drying out and dying. Grass planted in the
summer usually requires 90 days or more before
it is established well enough for any type of
harvest to be taken. If less than 100% stand
establishment has occurred, caution should be
exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north
Florida, try to complete summer plantings by
August 15.

CGC










insecticide. Burning of fields in the winter helps
in spittlebug control. Susceptible plants include
digitgrass (Pangola), limpograsses, and
bermudagrasses. Chinch bugs have been a
problem on Callide Rhodesgrass. Chinch bug
damage usually occurs on the higher, dryer
ground. Populations should diminish in
September.

CGC

Mowing Pastures

Late July early August may be a good time to
mow pastures. Usually by this time, dogfennels
are large but have not made seed. Mowing them
at this time may reduce their regrowth. Also,
pastures will have been spot grazed and mowing
the tops off of accumulated bahiagrass will allow
new growth to develop that will be more
palatable and nutritious. For the commercial
cattle operation, mowing should be avoided if
possible for economic reasons. In some
situations, use of a herbicide for weed control
may be called for.

CGC.

Summer Annual Grasses/Grazing
Management

Pearlmillet and the sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids can add quantity and quality to a summer
forage program. These crops, when planted on
well drained, fertile soils and with proper
fertilization and management, can furnish grazing
for 2 or more cows per acre from June into
September. Forage quality declines rapidly as
plants mature so grazing management should be
designed to keep the plants in a young vegetative
state. Rotational grazing can be used with either
grass. Allow the plants to grow to a height of 25
to 30 inches and then graze down to 6 to 8
inches. Continuous grazing can be used on pearl
millet, if the stocking rate can be adjusted to keep
the forage at 10 to 12 inches. Close continuous
grazing reduces the stand and lowers subsequent
production. The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids
should not be grazed continuously because of the


danger of prussic acid poisoning when young
forage is consumed. This crop should not be
grazed before plants reach 30 inches.

CGC

Vegetative Propagation of Forage Grasses

In order to obtain god stands, Coastal
bermudagrass, Tifton 85, stargrasses, and other
vegetatively propagated grasses require special
attention. When preparing a seedbed, two factors
are important: 1) dug sprigs or tops should be
planted in moist soil and 2) the seedbed should be
free of weeds.

There are four common reasons for stand
failures: 1) planting in fields that have stands of
other grasses (common bermudagrass), 2) using
dried out sprigs or tops, 3) prolonged drought
after planting, and 4) grazing before the grass is
established. The planting material should be
planted on a clean, moist seedbed that is free of
other growing grasses. When planting tops, use
mature grass 8 to 10 weeks old. Use fresh
planting material with at least three nodes or
joints, Plant sprigs or tops the same day they are
harvested. Cover the planting material
immediately or within 15 minutes after dropping
on the soil surface. Experience has shown that
bermudagrass tops will dry out quicker than
bermudagrass sprigs and quicker than tops of
Pangola digitgrass. Packing or firming the soil
around the planting material after it has been
distributed and covered is very critical in
maintaining adequate soil moisture in the soil
surface and thus preventing the planting material
from drying out and dying. Grass planted in the
summer usually requires 90 days or more before
it is established well enough for any type of
harvest to be taken. If less than 100% stand
establishment has occurred, caution should be
exercised during the first year after planting to
allow for complete stand development. In north
Florida, try to complete summer plantings by
August 15.

CGC










Barn Rot of Tobacco


Despite a recent break in the rain, forecasts
indicate that above normal rain may continue
over the next few weeks. If so, it can be expected
that barn rot problems will not go away. The
upper leaves are generally not as susceptible to
barn rot as the lower leaves because the water
content of the leaves is less and the removal of
the lower leaves allows more air circulation
under the remaining leaves. However frequent
rain and leaf damage due to wind, disease,
insects, and harvesting can promote the disease.
Barn rot is caused by bacteria that enter wounds
to the leaf, especially under wet conditions and
the temperatures and humidity used for leaf
yellowing. To reduce the chances for barn rot,
harvest tobacco only when it is dry and avoid
areas in the field where hollow stalk, soft rot,
jelly rot (the field form of the disease) is present.
Harvest only mature tobacco so that the
yellowing period can be kept as short as possible.
Make sure that the racks or boxes are uniformly
packed and that all air goes through the tobacco
and not between the boxes or racks. It may help
to run the fans with little or no heat for a few
hours to help dry the leaf surface before the
yellowing stage is started. Inspect the tobacco
when unloading the barns and discard any
tobacco that may have rotted.

EBW


Based on a letter dated February 13, 2003, the
Federal Aviation Administration, in conjunction
with the Department of Homeland Security, has
approved the suggestion of the National
Agricultural Aviation Association that "cut-off"
switches be installed and hidden on agricultural
aircraft. Additionally, the FAA has determined
that these installations are minor, and need be
noted only in maintenance records which are filed
in accordance with 14 CFR 43.9(a). Questions
can be directed to Wayne Fry, at (202) 493-
5228. (Agricultural Aviation, May/June 2003).

MAM

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

Based on work by IR-4, a tolerance has been
established for residues of the insecticide
clothianidin in or on field/sweet/pop corn
grain/stover/forage (0.01/0.10/0.10 ppm). The
regulation became effective May 30, 2003.
(Federal Register, 5/30/03).

GB34 Biological Fungicide (Bacillus pumilis
GB34) has been approved for seed treatment of
soybean for root diseases caused by Rhizoctonia
spp. and Fusarium spp. The EPA registration
number is 7501-192. (Federal Register,
5/30/03).

MAM


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.


Pesticide Potpourri










Barn Rot of Tobacco


Despite a recent break in the rain, forecasts
indicate that above normal rain may continue
over the next few weeks. If so, it can be expected
that barn rot problems will not go away. The
upper leaves are generally not as susceptible to
barn rot as the lower leaves because the water
content of the leaves is less and the removal of
the lower leaves allows more air circulation
under the remaining leaves. However frequent
rain and leaf damage due to wind, disease,
insects, and harvesting can promote the disease.
Barn rot is caused by bacteria that enter wounds
to the leaf, especially under wet conditions and
the temperatures and humidity used for leaf
yellowing. To reduce the chances for barn rot,
harvest tobacco only when it is dry and avoid
areas in the field where hollow stalk, soft rot,
jelly rot (the field form of the disease) is present.
Harvest only mature tobacco so that the
yellowing period can be kept as short as possible.
Make sure that the racks or boxes are uniformly
packed and that all air goes through the tobacco
and not between the boxes or racks. It may help
to run the fans with little or no heat for a few
hours to help dry the leaf surface before the
yellowing stage is started. Inspect the tobacco
when unloading the barns and discard any
tobacco that may have rotted.

EBW


Based on a letter dated February 13, 2003, the
Federal Aviation Administration, in conjunction
with the Department of Homeland Security, has
approved the suggestion of the National
Agricultural Aviation Association that "cut-off"
switches be installed and hidden on agricultural
aircraft. Additionally, the FAA has determined
that these installations are minor, and need be
noted only in maintenance records which are filed
in accordance with 14 CFR 43.9(a). Questions
can be directed to Wayne Fry, at (202) 493-
5228. (Agricultural Aviation, May/June 2003).

MAM

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

Based on work by IR-4, a tolerance has been
established for residues of the insecticide
clothianidin in or on field/sweet/pop corn
grain/stover/forage (0.01/0.10/0.10 ppm). The
regulation became effective May 30, 2003.
(Federal Register, 5/30/03).

GB34 Biological Fungicide (Bacillus pumilis
GB34) has been approved for seed treatment of
soybean for root diseases caused by Rhizoctonia
spp. and Fusarium spp. The EPA registration
number is 7501-192. (Federal Register,
5/30/03).

MAM


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.


Pesticide Potpourri










Barn Rot of Tobacco


Despite a recent break in the rain, forecasts
indicate that above normal rain may continue
over the next few weeks. If so, it can be expected
that barn rot problems will not go away. The
upper leaves are generally not as susceptible to
barn rot as the lower leaves because the water
content of the leaves is less and the removal of
the lower leaves allows more air circulation
under the remaining leaves. However frequent
rain and leaf damage due to wind, disease,
insects, and harvesting can promote the disease.
Barn rot is caused by bacteria that enter wounds
to the leaf, especially under wet conditions and
the temperatures and humidity used for leaf
yellowing. To reduce the chances for barn rot,
harvest tobacco only when it is dry and avoid
areas in the field where hollow stalk, soft rot,
jelly rot (the field form of the disease) is present.
Harvest only mature tobacco so that the
yellowing period can be kept as short as possible.
Make sure that the racks or boxes are uniformly
packed and that all air goes through the tobacco
and not between the boxes or racks. It may help
to run the fans with little or no heat for a few
hours to help dry the leaf surface before the
yellowing stage is started. Inspect the tobacco
when unloading the barns and discard any
tobacco that may have rotted.

EBW


Based on a letter dated February 13, 2003, the
Federal Aviation Administration, in conjunction
with the Department of Homeland Security, has
approved the suggestion of the National
Agricultural Aviation Association that "cut-off"
switches be installed and hidden on agricultural
aircraft. Additionally, the FAA has determined
that these installations are minor, and need be
noted only in maintenance records which are filed
in accordance with 14 CFR 43.9(a). Questions
can be directed to Wayne Fry, at (202) 493-
5228. (Agricultural Aviation, May/June 2003).

MAM

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

Based on work by IR-4, a tolerance has been
established for residues of the insecticide
clothianidin in or on field/sweet/pop corn
grain/stover/forage (0.01/0.10/0.10 ppm). The
regulation became effective May 30, 2003.
(Federal Register, 5/30/03).

GB34 Biological Fungicide (Bacillus pumilis
GB34) has been approved for seed treatment of
soybean for root diseases caused by Rhizoctonia
spp. and Fusarium spp. The EPA registration
number is 7501-192. (Federal Register,
5/30/03).

MAM


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.


Pesticide Potpourri