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 Table of Contents
 Conservation tillage for cotto...
 Keeping an eye on tropical soda...
 Tolerance for dual herbicide on...
 Peanut acreage for 2003
 Virginia peanuts
 Corn soybean rotation
 Exemption for tolerance on soybean...
 Blue mold of tobacco
 Records needed to determine fertilizer...
 Slow growth of tobacco
 Various diseases of tobacco
 Glyphosate market
 Prospective 2003 field crop...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00034
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: May 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00034

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Conservation tillage for cotton
        Page 2
    Keeping an eye on tropical soda apple infestation on your pasture
        Page 2
    Tolerance for dual herbicide on forages
        Page 3
    Peanut acreage for 2003
        Page 3
    Virginia peanuts
        Page 3
    Corn soybean rotation
        Page 3
    Exemption for tolerance on soybean seed treatment
        Page 4
    Blue mold of tobacco
        Page 4
    Records needed to determine fertilizer replacement for tobacco
        Page 4
    Slow growth of tobacco
        Page 4
    Various diseases of tobacco
        Page 4
    Glyphosate market
        Page 5
    Prospective 2003 field crop acreage
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY

UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA NOTES
IFAS EXTENSION
May, 2003

DATES TO REMEMBER
May 8 Forage Field Day Jay Research Farm
May 15 Range Cattle Field Day Ona
May 19-22 Aquatic Weed Control Short Course 2003 Ft. Lauderdale
May 21-23 Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Meeting Daytona Beach
July 7 Perennial Peanut Field Day Moultrie, GA
July 8 Agronomy Weed Science Field Day (Deep South Weed Tour) Jay Research Farm
Sept. 5 Row Crop Field Day Jay Research Farm

IN THIS ISSUE PAGE

CORN
Conservation Tillage for Cotton ........................................... 2

FORAGE
Keeping an Eye on Tropical Soda Apple Infestation on Your Pasture ............... 2
Tolerance for Dual Herbicide on Forages .................................... 3

PEANUTS
Peanut Acreage for 2003 ................................................ 3
Use of Boron on Peanuts ................................................ 3
Virginia Peanuts ...................................... ................ 3

SOYBEAN
Corn/Soybean Rotation ................................................. 3
Exemption for Tolerance on Soybean Seed Treatment .......................... 4

TOBACCO
Blue Mold of Tobacco ...................................... ............ 4
Records Needed to Determine Fertilizer Replacement for Tobacco ................. 4
Slow Growth of Tobacco ................................................ 4
Virus Diseases of Tobacco ............................................. 4

MISCELLANEOUS
Glyphosate M market ...................................... .............. 5
Prospective 2003 Field Crop Acreage ..................................... 5

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University ofFlorida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.







Conservation Tillage for Cotton

A Cotton Foundation study reports that 78
percent of growers who have moved to
conservation tillage since 1997 credit the change
to Roundup Ready technology. Also, about 59
percent of U.S. cotton acres are being farmed
using some form of conversation tillage (no-till or
reduced till). Growers who have adopted
conservation tillage indicated on the survey that
they believe it saves an average of $20.13 an acre
over conventional production methods. The
director of the National Cotton Council's
technical services says this study confirms what
most in the industry suspected. (Progressive
Farmer, March 2003, via Agnet).

MAM

Keeping an Eye on Tropical Soda Apple
Infestation on Your Pasture

Tropical soda apple (TSA) has invaded pastures
in south Florida since 1990. Serious efforts were
made to control TSA in Florida in the mid 1990s
but the enthusiasm eventually waned. Currently,
there are more than 500,000 acres of TSA
infestation in Florida.

Tropical soda apple is spread to new locations by
cattle movement, wildlife, contaminated hay,
grass seed and sod. It is on the list of Florida
State's Noxious Weed according to Florida Law
(Fla Admin. Code 5B-57-007) and as such it is
unlawful to introduce, possess, or move TSA
plants deliberately except under permit issued by
Florida DACS or the USDA. Recently, some
southern states including Georgia, Mississippi,
and Alabama have considered passing legislation
to regulate the movement of cattle from Florida
to their states in order to stop the spread of TSA
in southeastern USA. Such legislation, if
adopted, would require the quarantine of Florida
cattle at specified locations for up to one week
during/prior to shipment. The expense of such
confinement will be charged to the cattle owner
and will tend to increase cattle production costs
in Florida.


Therefore, South Florida cattlemen need to pay
greater attention to TSA infestation on their
pastures and engage in renewed efforts at
preventing, monitoring and controlling TSA as
follows:

Sparse Stand:

For sparse stands in south Florida, spot spray
individual TSA plants in November with a 0.5%
solution of Remedy (tryclopyr) + 0.1% non ionic
surfactant. Wet foliage completely to the point
of dripping with solution and use a color maker
in the spray mix to ensure all plants are treated.
Monitor the weed problem through winter and
spot-spray new/regrowth of TSA plants on that
pasture again in February of the following year.
Monitor plants through spring and if there are
still some live TSA plants on the pasture, spot-
spray a third time in May followed by continued
monitoring through summer. Monitoring and
repeated spot-spraying at about 60 d intervals
over 2 years will prevent TSA fruits form
maturing seed and help clean up a sparse stand of
TSA on a pasture unless pasture is re-infested
with seed introduced from outside.

Dense Stand:

Dense stands of TSA on pasture in south Florida
must be mowed repeatedly to a 3-inch stubble in
November, February and April to prevent fruit
setting/seed maturation. Repeated mowing every
50-60 days can in itself cause 50-60 % mortality
in mature TSA plants. After the April mowing,
allow the TSA plants to regrow for about 60
days and broadcast spray 1 qt /A of Remedy +
0.1% non-ionic surfactant in June. Next, monitor
TSA plants through September and spot-spray
remaining plants in October with a 0.5% Remedy
solution + the non-ionic surfactant and the color
marker. Continue monitoring TSA for at least
another year and spot spray emerging plants
every 60 days as described for sparse stands until
pasture is completely cleaned up.

There are hopeful signs that a variety of
biological agents (insects, virus) for TSA control







Conservation Tillage for Cotton

A Cotton Foundation study reports that 78
percent of growers who have moved to
conservation tillage since 1997 credit the change
to Roundup Ready technology. Also, about 59
percent of U.S. cotton acres are being farmed
using some form of conversation tillage (no-till or
reduced till). Growers who have adopted
conservation tillage indicated on the survey that
they believe it saves an average of $20.13 an acre
over conventional production methods. The
director of the National Cotton Council's
technical services says this study confirms what
most in the industry suspected. (Progressive
Farmer, March 2003, via Agnet).

MAM

Keeping an Eye on Tropical Soda Apple
Infestation on Your Pasture

Tropical soda apple (TSA) has invaded pastures
in south Florida since 1990. Serious efforts were
made to control TSA in Florida in the mid 1990s
but the enthusiasm eventually waned. Currently,
there are more than 500,000 acres of TSA
infestation in Florida.

Tropical soda apple is spread to new locations by
cattle movement, wildlife, contaminated hay,
grass seed and sod. It is on the list of Florida
State's Noxious Weed according to Florida Law
(Fla Admin. Code 5B-57-007) and as such it is
unlawful to introduce, possess, or move TSA
plants deliberately except under permit issued by
Florida DACS or the USDA. Recently, some
southern states including Georgia, Mississippi,
and Alabama have considered passing legislation
to regulate the movement of cattle from Florida
to their states in order to stop the spread of TSA
in southeastern USA. Such legislation, if
adopted, would require the quarantine of Florida
cattle at specified locations for up to one week
during/prior to shipment. The expense of such
confinement will be charged to the cattle owner
and will tend to increase cattle production costs
in Florida.


Therefore, South Florida cattlemen need to pay
greater attention to TSA infestation on their
pastures and engage in renewed efforts at
preventing, monitoring and controlling TSA as
follows:

Sparse Stand:

For sparse stands in south Florida, spot spray
individual TSA plants in November with a 0.5%
solution of Remedy (tryclopyr) + 0.1% non ionic
surfactant. Wet foliage completely to the point
of dripping with solution and use a color maker
in the spray mix to ensure all plants are treated.
Monitor the weed problem through winter and
spot-spray new/regrowth of TSA plants on that
pasture again in February of the following year.
Monitor plants through spring and if there are
still some live TSA plants on the pasture, spot-
spray a third time in May followed by continued
monitoring through summer. Monitoring and
repeated spot-spraying at about 60 d intervals
over 2 years will prevent TSA fruits form
maturing seed and help clean up a sparse stand of
TSA on a pasture unless pasture is re-infested
with seed introduced from outside.

Dense Stand:

Dense stands of TSA on pasture in south Florida
must be mowed repeatedly to a 3-inch stubble in
November, February and April to prevent fruit
setting/seed maturation. Repeated mowing every
50-60 days can in itself cause 50-60 % mortality
in mature TSA plants. After the April mowing,
allow the TSA plants to regrow for about 60
days and broadcast spray 1 qt /A of Remedy +
0.1% non-ionic surfactant in June. Next, monitor
TSA plants through September and spot-spray
remaining plants in October with a 0.5% Remedy
solution + the non-ionic surfactant and the color
marker. Continue monitoring TSA for at least
another year and spot spray emerging plants
every 60 days as described for sparse stands until
pasture is completely cleaned up.

There are hopeful signs that a variety of
biological agents (insects, virus) for TSA control







will soon become available to increase our
arsenals on this noxious pasture weed. But for
the meantime, prevention, monitoring and
repeated spraying with Remedy provide the key
to successful tropical soda apple control in south
Florida.

MBA

Tolerance for Dual Herbicide on Forages

Based on work by IR-4, tolerances have been
obtained for the use of the herbicide Dual
Magnum (S-metolachlor) in or on grass forage
(10 ppm), grass hay (0.2 ppm), spinach (0.5
ppm), and tomato (0.1 ppm). (Federal Register,
4/2/03).

MAM

Peanut Acreage for 2003

Estimates for an increased acreage (15%) of
Florida peanuts in 2003 indicate that increased
importance should be given to using practices
that help insure good yields and quality. One is
the need for rotation of peanuts behind crops that
do not support the same diseases or pests that
attack peanuts. Grass crops and cotton are
generally desirable rotation crops. Peanuts
should not be planted on the same field more than
once every three to four years. If disease or
nematode problems were severe in the peanuts, it
would be advisable to allow five to six years
between peanut crops and being sure that
desirable rotation crops are planted each year of
that rotation. If the peanuts are to be planted in a
field that has never grown peanuts, be sure that
nitrogen-fixing bacteria are present in the soil.
An indication of the presence of the desirable
bacteria would be the growth of cowpeas, alyce
clover, Florida beggarweed, and certain other
legumes in the field. If there is doubt that the
bacteria is present, then an inoculant could be
applied at planting.

EBW

Use of Boron on Peanuts

In general peanuts grown on the sandy soils of
Florida require some boron fertilization to insure


good yields and quality. Boron also prevents
'hollow-heart' which is a lack of internal
development of the kernels and results in a lower
grade and price for the peanuts. Boron can be a
part of the fertilizer applied before planting, or it
may be included in the first or second fungicide
spray for leaf spot control. The general
recommendation is to apply Y2 to 3/4 pound of
elemental boron per acre. Since boron leaches
readily, it may be advisable to replace any that
may have been leached by heavy rains that
occurred before flowering. Excessive rates of
boron are toxic to the peanut plant and should be
avoided.

EBW

Virginia Peanuts

The prospective planting report by NASS-USDA
indicates a considerable decrease in peanut
acreage in North Carolina and Virginia, states
that grow mostly the virginia market-type peanut.
The virginia market type peanut is larger than the
runner market type, grown mostly in Florida,
Georgia, and Alabama, and is generally used for
roasting, either shelled or unshelled. There are
reports that the decline in acreage in the
traditional states is due to the combination of low
loan prices and the high cost of production
making profits less likely. Some of the virginia
market-type peanut production may shift to
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. They may
be grown under contract, but other marketing
alternatives are available. Production costs are
higher for virginia peanuts because of seed
costs, the desirability of irrigation, extra gypsum
to help insure a bright hull, and the greater care
needed to prevent harvest losses.

EBW

Corn/Soybean Rotation

The days of the venerable corn/soybean rotation
appear to be numbered. The reasons include
declining soybean yields, federal commodity
policy, soybean competition from Brazil,
developing local corn markets and the advent of
rootworm-resistant hybrids. With soybean yields
falling by nearly twenty percent over the last
eight years, growers who are experimenting with







will soon become available to increase our
arsenals on this noxious pasture weed. But for
the meantime, prevention, monitoring and
repeated spraying with Remedy provide the key
to successful tropical soda apple control in south
Florida.

MBA

Tolerance for Dual Herbicide on Forages

Based on work by IR-4, tolerances have been
obtained for the use of the herbicide Dual
Magnum (S-metolachlor) in or on grass forage
(10 ppm), grass hay (0.2 ppm), spinach (0.5
ppm), and tomato (0.1 ppm). (Federal Register,
4/2/03).

MAM

Peanut Acreage for 2003

Estimates for an increased acreage (15%) of
Florida peanuts in 2003 indicate that increased
importance should be given to using practices
that help insure good yields and quality. One is
the need for rotation of peanuts behind crops that
do not support the same diseases or pests that
attack peanuts. Grass crops and cotton are
generally desirable rotation crops. Peanuts
should not be planted on the same field more than
once every three to four years. If disease or
nematode problems were severe in the peanuts, it
would be advisable to allow five to six years
between peanut crops and being sure that
desirable rotation crops are planted each year of
that rotation. If the peanuts are to be planted in a
field that has never grown peanuts, be sure that
nitrogen-fixing bacteria are present in the soil.
An indication of the presence of the desirable
bacteria would be the growth of cowpeas, alyce
clover, Florida beggarweed, and certain other
legumes in the field. If there is doubt that the
bacteria is present, then an inoculant could be
applied at planting.

EBW

Use of Boron on Peanuts

In general peanuts grown on the sandy soils of
Florida require some boron fertilization to insure


good yields and quality. Boron also prevents
'hollow-heart' which is a lack of internal
development of the kernels and results in a lower
grade and price for the peanuts. Boron can be a
part of the fertilizer applied before planting, or it
may be included in the first or second fungicide
spray for leaf spot control. The general
recommendation is to apply Y2 to 3/4 pound of
elemental boron per acre. Since boron leaches
readily, it may be advisable to replace any that
may have been leached by heavy rains that
occurred before flowering. Excessive rates of
boron are toxic to the peanut plant and should be
avoided.

EBW

Virginia Peanuts

The prospective planting report by NASS-USDA
indicates a considerable decrease in peanut
acreage in North Carolina and Virginia, states
that grow mostly the virginia market-type peanut.
The virginia market type peanut is larger than the
runner market type, grown mostly in Florida,
Georgia, and Alabama, and is generally used for
roasting, either shelled or unshelled. There are
reports that the decline in acreage in the
traditional states is due to the combination of low
loan prices and the high cost of production
making profits less likely. Some of the virginia
market-type peanut production may shift to
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. They may
be grown under contract, but other marketing
alternatives are available. Production costs are
higher for virginia peanuts because of seed
costs, the desirability of irrigation, extra gypsum
to help insure a bright hull, and the greater care
needed to prevent harvest losses.

EBW

Corn/Soybean Rotation

The days of the venerable corn/soybean rotation
appear to be numbered. The reasons include
declining soybean yields, federal commodity
policy, soybean competition from Brazil,
developing local corn markets and the advent of
rootworm-resistant hybrids. With soybean yields
falling by nearly twenty percent over the last
eight years, growers who are experimenting with







will soon become available to increase our
arsenals on this noxious pasture weed. But for
the meantime, prevention, monitoring and
repeated spraying with Remedy provide the key
to successful tropical soda apple control in south
Florida.

MBA

Tolerance for Dual Herbicide on Forages

Based on work by IR-4, tolerances have been
obtained for the use of the herbicide Dual
Magnum (S-metolachlor) in or on grass forage
(10 ppm), grass hay (0.2 ppm), spinach (0.5
ppm), and tomato (0.1 ppm). (Federal Register,
4/2/03).

MAM

Peanut Acreage for 2003

Estimates for an increased acreage (15%) of
Florida peanuts in 2003 indicate that increased
importance should be given to using practices
that help insure good yields and quality. One is
the need for rotation of peanuts behind crops that
do not support the same diseases or pests that
attack peanuts. Grass crops and cotton are
generally desirable rotation crops. Peanuts
should not be planted on the same field more than
once every three to four years. If disease or
nematode problems were severe in the peanuts, it
would be advisable to allow five to six years
between peanut crops and being sure that
desirable rotation crops are planted each year of
that rotation. If the peanuts are to be planted in a
field that has never grown peanuts, be sure that
nitrogen-fixing bacteria are present in the soil.
An indication of the presence of the desirable
bacteria would be the growth of cowpeas, alyce
clover, Florida beggarweed, and certain other
legumes in the field. If there is doubt that the
bacteria is present, then an inoculant could be
applied at planting.

EBW

Use of Boron on Peanuts

In general peanuts grown on the sandy soils of
Florida require some boron fertilization to insure


good yields and quality. Boron also prevents
'hollow-heart' which is a lack of internal
development of the kernels and results in a lower
grade and price for the peanuts. Boron can be a
part of the fertilizer applied before planting, or it
may be included in the first or second fungicide
spray for leaf spot control. The general
recommendation is to apply Y2 to 3/4 pound of
elemental boron per acre. Since boron leaches
readily, it may be advisable to replace any that
may have been leached by heavy rains that
occurred before flowering. Excessive rates of
boron are toxic to the peanut plant and should be
avoided.

EBW

Virginia Peanuts

The prospective planting report by NASS-USDA
indicates a considerable decrease in peanut
acreage in North Carolina and Virginia, states
that grow mostly the virginia market-type peanut.
The virginia market type peanut is larger than the
runner market type, grown mostly in Florida,
Georgia, and Alabama, and is generally used for
roasting, either shelled or unshelled. There are
reports that the decline in acreage in the
traditional states is due to the combination of low
loan prices and the high cost of production
making profits less likely. Some of the virginia
market-type peanut production may shift to
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. They may
be grown under contract, but other marketing
alternatives are available. Production costs are
higher for virginia peanuts because of seed
costs, the desirability of irrigation, extra gypsum
to help insure a bright hull, and the greater care
needed to prevent harvest losses.

EBW

Corn/Soybean Rotation

The days of the venerable corn/soybean rotation
appear to be numbered. The reasons include
declining soybean yields, federal commodity
policy, soybean competition from Brazil,
developing local corn markets and the advent of
rootworm-resistant hybrids. With soybean yields
falling by nearly twenty percent over the last
eight years, growers who are experimenting with







will soon become available to increase our
arsenals on this noxious pasture weed. But for
the meantime, prevention, monitoring and
repeated spraying with Remedy provide the key
to successful tropical soda apple control in south
Florida.

MBA

Tolerance for Dual Herbicide on Forages

Based on work by IR-4, tolerances have been
obtained for the use of the herbicide Dual
Magnum (S-metolachlor) in or on grass forage
(10 ppm), grass hay (0.2 ppm), spinach (0.5
ppm), and tomato (0.1 ppm). (Federal Register,
4/2/03).

MAM

Peanut Acreage for 2003

Estimates for an increased acreage (15%) of
Florida peanuts in 2003 indicate that increased
importance should be given to using practices
that help insure good yields and quality. One is
the need for rotation of peanuts behind crops that
do not support the same diseases or pests that
attack peanuts. Grass crops and cotton are
generally desirable rotation crops. Peanuts
should not be planted on the same field more than
once every three to four years. If disease or
nematode problems were severe in the peanuts, it
would be advisable to allow five to six years
between peanut crops and being sure that
desirable rotation crops are planted each year of
that rotation. If the peanuts are to be planted in a
field that has never grown peanuts, be sure that
nitrogen-fixing bacteria are present in the soil.
An indication of the presence of the desirable
bacteria would be the growth of cowpeas, alyce
clover, Florida beggarweed, and certain other
legumes in the field. If there is doubt that the
bacteria is present, then an inoculant could be
applied at planting.

EBW

Use of Boron on Peanuts

In general peanuts grown on the sandy soils of
Florida require some boron fertilization to insure


good yields and quality. Boron also prevents
'hollow-heart' which is a lack of internal
development of the kernels and results in a lower
grade and price for the peanuts. Boron can be a
part of the fertilizer applied before planting, or it
may be included in the first or second fungicide
spray for leaf spot control. The general
recommendation is to apply Y2 to 3/4 pound of
elemental boron per acre. Since boron leaches
readily, it may be advisable to replace any that
may have been leached by heavy rains that
occurred before flowering. Excessive rates of
boron are toxic to the peanut plant and should be
avoided.

EBW

Virginia Peanuts

The prospective planting report by NASS-USDA
indicates a considerable decrease in peanut
acreage in North Carolina and Virginia, states
that grow mostly the virginia market-type peanut.
The virginia market type peanut is larger than the
runner market type, grown mostly in Florida,
Georgia, and Alabama, and is generally used for
roasting, either shelled or unshelled. There are
reports that the decline in acreage in the
traditional states is due to the combination of low
loan prices and the high cost of production
making profits less likely. Some of the virginia
market-type peanut production may shift to
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. They may
be grown under contract, but other marketing
alternatives are available. Production costs are
higher for virginia peanuts because of seed
costs, the desirability of irrigation, extra gypsum
to help insure a bright hull, and the greater care
needed to prevent harvest losses.

EBW

Corn/Soybean Rotation

The days of the venerable corn/soybean rotation
appear to be numbered. The reasons include
declining soybean yields, federal commodity
policy, soybean competition from Brazil,
developing local corn markets and the advent of
rootworm-resistant hybrids. With soybean yields
falling by nearly twenty percent over the last
eight years, growers who are experimenting with







two years of corn followed by one year of
soybean are seeing increased soybean yield.
When Bt rootworm-resistant corn hybrids
become available, they should let growers plant a
second year of corn without losing yield, while
picking up higher soybean yields in the third year
of the rotation. (Top Producer, March 2003, via
Agnet).

MAM

Exemption for Tolerance on Soybean Seed
Treatment

Based on a request by Gustafson LLC, an
exemption from the requirement of tolerance has
been granted for residues of Bacillus pumilus GB
34 when used as a seed treatment in or on
soybean and soybean after harvest. (Federal
Register, 4/2/03).

MAM

Blue Mold of Tobacco

The blue mold fungus has been found on several
farms in Florida, but has yet to become a serious
problem. However as the tobacco grows and
becomes more succulent, blue mold can become
very damaging, especially during periods of rainy
weather. Acrobat and Actigard are labeled for
blue mold prevention and control, and should be
used as needed.

EBW

Records Needed to Determine Fertilizer
Replacement for Tobacco

If rains become heavy or frequent enough to
leach nitrogen and other nutrients that have been
applied for tobacco, replacement may be needed.
The amount of replacement will depend on the
age of the plants, how much and when fertilizer
was applied, and when and how much rainfall the
tobacco received. Irrigation records are also
needed. Keep these records to help determine
how much replacement fertilizer will be needed.

EBW


Slow Growth of Tobacco

Cool weather in April added to those conditions
that slowed the recovery of tobacco plants from
transplanting. Among the other conditions that
could have contributed to the slow growth
included stunting by certain herbicides, such as
Prowl. Greenhouse-grown transplants are often
slower to resume growth than bare root plants.
Diseases, such as blue mold or stem and leaf
lesions caused by the Rhizoctonia fungus, may
have also slowed recovery from transplanting. In
many cases plants that have become woody after
numerous clippings, do not resume growth as fast
as younger and more succulent plants. A new
factor was added in 2003 with the use of
Actigard to reduce tomato spotted wilt virus
infection. Actigard-treated plants have been
reported to be slow to resume growth when stress
conditions exist. In general these conditions only
slow recovery and do not cause permanent
stunting. While side-dress applications of
fertilizer may speed recovery to some extent,
response will be slower than it will be as the
temperatures rise and also time allows the plants
to recover from other stunting causes. There are
reports that experimental chemicals are being
tested for possible use in reducing some of the
stresses that cause slow recovery from
transplanting.

EBW


Virus Diseases of Tobacco


There are reports of outbreaks of the cucumber
mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco. This virus can
cause severe stunting of plants, with the young
leaves being yellow or having a mosaic pattern in
them. The leaves are more narrow than normal
and may be closer together on the stalk. Early
suckering has also been noted. If other virus
diseases are present in the same plant, it appears
that even more loss can be expected. The CMV
virus is spread by aphids and there are many
other plant hosts for the virus, including
numerous weeds and crops. Potato virus-Y
(PVY) and tobacco etch virus (TEV) are also
spread by aphids, while tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) is spread by thrips. Tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) is normally spread by human,
machine, or other means of direct contact. It is







two years of corn followed by one year of
soybean are seeing increased soybean yield.
When Bt rootworm-resistant corn hybrids
become available, they should let growers plant a
second year of corn without losing yield, while
picking up higher soybean yields in the third year
of the rotation. (Top Producer, March 2003, via
Agnet).

MAM

Exemption for Tolerance on Soybean Seed
Treatment

Based on a request by Gustafson LLC, an
exemption from the requirement of tolerance has
been granted for residues of Bacillus pumilus GB
34 when used as a seed treatment in or on
soybean and soybean after harvest. (Federal
Register, 4/2/03).

MAM

Blue Mold of Tobacco

The blue mold fungus has been found on several
farms in Florida, but has yet to become a serious
problem. However as the tobacco grows and
becomes more succulent, blue mold can become
very damaging, especially during periods of rainy
weather. Acrobat and Actigard are labeled for
blue mold prevention and control, and should be
used as needed.

EBW

Records Needed to Determine Fertilizer
Replacement for Tobacco

If rains become heavy or frequent enough to
leach nitrogen and other nutrients that have been
applied for tobacco, replacement may be needed.
The amount of replacement will depend on the
age of the plants, how much and when fertilizer
was applied, and when and how much rainfall the
tobacco received. Irrigation records are also
needed. Keep these records to help determine
how much replacement fertilizer will be needed.

EBW


Slow Growth of Tobacco

Cool weather in April added to those conditions
that slowed the recovery of tobacco plants from
transplanting. Among the other conditions that
could have contributed to the slow growth
included stunting by certain herbicides, such as
Prowl. Greenhouse-grown transplants are often
slower to resume growth than bare root plants.
Diseases, such as blue mold or stem and leaf
lesions caused by the Rhizoctonia fungus, may
have also slowed recovery from transplanting. In
many cases plants that have become woody after
numerous clippings, do not resume growth as fast
as younger and more succulent plants. A new
factor was added in 2003 with the use of
Actigard to reduce tomato spotted wilt virus
infection. Actigard-treated plants have been
reported to be slow to resume growth when stress
conditions exist. In general these conditions only
slow recovery and do not cause permanent
stunting. While side-dress applications of
fertilizer may speed recovery to some extent,
response will be slower than it will be as the
temperatures rise and also time allows the plants
to recover from other stunting causes. There are
reports that experimental chemicals are being
tested for possible use in reducing some of the
stresses that cause slow recovery from
transplanting.

EBW


Virus Diseases of Tobacco


There are reports of outbreaks of the cucumber
mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco. This virus can
cause severe stunting of plants, with the young
leaves being yellow or having a mosaic pattern in
them. The leaves are more narrow than normal
and may be closer together on the stalk. Early
suckering has also been noted. If other virus
diseases are present in the same plant, it appears
that even more loss can be expected. The CMV
virus is spread by aphids and there are many
other plant hosts for the virus, including
numerous weeds and crops. Potato virus-Y
(PVY) and tobacco etch virus (TEV) are also
spread by aphids, while tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) is spread by thrips. Tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) is normally spread by human,
machine, or other means of direct contact. It is







two years of corn followed by one year of
soybean are seeing increased soybean yield.
When Bt rootworm-resistant corn hybrids
become available, they should let growers plant a
second year of corn without losing yield, while
picking up higher soybean yields in the third year
of the rotation. (Top Producer, March 2003, via
Agnet).

MAM

Exemption for Tolerance on Soybean Seed
Treatment

Based on a request by Gustafson LLC, an
exemption from the requirement of tolerance has
been granted for residues of Bacillus pumilus GB
34 when used as a seed treatment in or on
soybean and soybean after harvest. (Federal
Register, 4/2/03).

MAM

Blue Mold of Tobacco

The blue mold fungus has been found on several
farms in Florida, but has yet to become a serious
problem. However as the tobacco grows and
becomes more succulent, blue mold can become
very damaging, especially during periods of rainy
weather. Acrobat and Actigard are labeled for
blue mold prevention and control, and should be
used as needed.

EBW

Records Needed to Determine Fertilizer
Replacement for Tobacco

If rains become heavy or frequent enough to
leach nitrogen and other nutrients that have been
applied for tobacco, replacement may be needed.
The amount of replacement will depend on the
age of the plants, how much and when fertilizer
was applied, and when and how much rainfall the
tobacco received. Irrigation records are also
needed. Keep these records to help determine
how much replacement fertilizer will be needed.

EBW


Slow Growth of Tobacco

Cool weather in April added to those conditions
that slowed the recovery of tobacco plants from
transplanting. Among the other conditions that
could have contributed to the slow growth
included stunting by certain herbicides, such as
Prowl. Greenhouse-grown transplants are often
slower to resume growth than bare root plants.
Diseases, such as blue mold or stem and leaf
lesions caused by the Rhizoctonia fungus, may
have also slowed recovery from transplanting. In
many cases plants that have become woody after
numerous clippings, do not resume growth as fast
as younger and more succulent plants. A new
factor was added in 2003 with the use of
Actigard to reduce tomato spotted wilt virus
infection. Actigard-treated plants have been
reported to be slow to resume growth when stress
conditions exist. In general these conditions only
slow recovery and do not cause permanent
stunting. While side-dress applications of
fertilizer may speed recovery to some extent,
response will be slower than it will be as the
temperatures rise and also time allows the plants
to recover from other stunting causes. There are
reports that experimental chemicals are being
tested for possible use in reducing some of the
stresses that cause slow recovery from
transplanting.

EBW


Virus Diseases of Tobacco


There are reports of outbreaks of the cucumber
mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco. This virus can
cause severe stunting of plants, with the young
leaves being yellow or having a mosaic pattern in
them. The leaves are more narrow than normal
and may be closer together on the stalk. Early
suckering has also been noted. If other virus
diseases are present in the same plant, it appears
that even more loss can be expected. The CMV
virus is spread by aphids and there are many
other plant hosts for the virus, including
numerous weeds and crops. Potato virus-Y
(PVY) and tobacco etch virus (TEV) are also
spread by aphids, while tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) is spread by thrips. Tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) is normally spread by human,
machine, or other means of direct contact. It is







two years of corn followed by one year of
soybean are seeing increased soybean yield.
When Bt rootworm-resistant corn hybrids
become available, they should let growers plant a
second year of corn without losing yield, while
picking up higher soybean yields in the third year
of the rotation. (Top Producer, March 2003, via
Agnet).

MAM

Exemption for Tolerance on Soybean Seed
Treatment

Based on a request by Gustafson LLC, an
exemption from the requirement of tolerance has
been granted for residues of Bacillus pumilus GB
34 when used as a seed treatment in or on
soybean and soybean after harvest. (Federal
Register, 4/2/03).

MAM

Blue Mold of Tobacco

The blue mold fungus has been found on several
farms in Florida, but has yet to become a serious
problem. However as the tobacco grows and
becomes more succulent, blue mold can become
very damaging, especially during periods of rainy
weather. Acrobat and Actigard are labeled for
blue mold prevention and control, and should be
used as needed.

EBW

Records Needed to Determine Fertilizer
Replacement for Tobacco

If rains become heavy or frequent enough to
leach nitrogen and other nutrients that have been
applied for tobacco, replacement may be needed.
The amount of replacement will depend on the
age of the plants, how much and when fertilizer
was applied, and when and how much rainfall the
tobacco received. Irrigation records are also
needed. Keep these records to help determine
how much replacement fertilizer will be needed.

EBW


Slow Growth of Tobacco

Cool weather in April added to those conditions
that slowed the recovery of tobacco plants from
transplanting. Among the other conditions that
could have contributed to the slow growth
included stunting by certain herbicides, such as
Prowl. Greenhouse-grown transplants are often
slower to resume growth than bare root plants.
Diseases, such as blue mold or stem and leaf
lesions caused by the Rhizoctonia fungus, may
have also slowed recovery from transplanting. In
many cases plants that have become woody after
numerous clippings, do not resume growth as fast
as younger and more succulent plants. A new
factor was added in 2003 with the use of
Actigard to reduce tomato spotted wilt virus
infection. Actigard-treated plants have been
reported to be slow to resume growth when stress
conditions exist. In general these conditions only
slow recovery and do not cause permanent
stunting. While side-dress applications of
fertilizer may speed recovery to some extent,
response will be slower than it will be as the
temperatures rise and also time allows the plants
to recover from other stunting causes. There are
reports that experimental chemicals are being
tested for possible use in reducing some of the
stresses that cause slow recovery from
transplanting.

EBW


Virus Diseases of Tobacco


There are reports of outbreaks of the cucumber
mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco. This virus can
cause severe stunting of plants, with the young
leaves being yellow or having a mosaic pattern in
them. The leaves are more narrow than normal
and may be closer together on the stalk. Early
suckering has also been noted. If other virus
diseases are present in the same plant, it appears
that even more loss can be expected. The CMV
virus is spread by aphids and there are many
other plant hosts for the virus, including
numerous weeds and crops. Potato virus-Y
(PVY) and tobacco etch virus (TEV) are also
spread by aphids, while tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) is spread by thrips. Tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) is normally spread by human,
machine, or other means of direct contact. It is







two years of corn followed by one year of
soybean are seeing increased soybean yield.
When Bt rootworm-resistant corn hybrids
become available, they should let growers plant a
second year of corn without losing yield, while
picking up higher soybean yields in the third year
of the rotation. (Top Producer, March 2003, via
Agnet).

MAM

Exemption for Tolerance on Soybean Seed
Treatment

Based on a request by Gustafson LLC, an
exemption from the requirement of tolerance has
been granted for residues of Bacillus pumilus GB
34 when used as a seed treatment in or on
soybean and soybean after harvest. (Federal
Register, 4/2/03).

MAM

Blue Mold of Tobacco

The blue mold fungus has been found on several
farms in Florida, but has yet to become a serious
problem. However as the tobacco grows and
becomes more succulent, blue mold can become
very damaging, especially during periods of rainy
weather. Acrobat and Actigard are labeled for
blue mold prevention and control, and should be
used as needed.

EBW

Records Needed to Determine Fertilizer
Replacement for Tobacco

If rains become heavy or frequent enough to
leach nitrogen and other nutrients that have been
applied for tobacco, replacement may be needed.
The amount of replacement will depend on the
age of the plants, how much and when fertilizer
was applied, and when and how much rainfall the
tobacco received. Irrigation records are also
needed. Keep these records to help determine
how much replacement fertilizer will be needed.

EBW


Slow Growth of Tobacco

Cool weather in April added to those conditions
that slowed the recovery of tobacco plants from
transplanting. Among the other conditions that
could have contributed to the slow growth
included stunting by certain herbicides, such as
Prowl. Greenhouse-grown transplants are often
slower to resume growth than bare root plants.
Diseases, such as blue mold or stem and leaf
lesions caused by the Rhizoctonia fungus, may
have also slowed recovery from transplanting. In
many cases plants that have become woody after
numerous clippings, do not resume growth as fast
as younger and more succulent plants. A new
factor was added in 2003 with the use of
Actigard to reduce tomato spotted wilt virus
infection. Actigard-treated plants have been
reported to be slow to resume growth when stress
conditions exist. In general these conditions only
slow recovery and do not cause permanent
stunting. While side-dress applications of
fertilizer may speed recovery to some extent,
response will be slower than it will be as the
temperatures rise and also time allows the plants
to recover from other stunting causes. There are
reports that experimental chemicals are being
tested for possible use in reducing some of the
stresses that cause slow recovery from
transplanting.

EBW


Virus Diseases of Tobacco


There are reports of outbreaks of the cucumber
mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco. This virus can
cause severe stunting of plants, with the young
leaves being yellow or having a mosaic pattern in
them. The leaves are more narrow than normal
and may be closer together on the stalk. Early
suckering has also been noted. If other virus
diseases are present in the same plant, it appears
that even more loss can be expected. The CMV
virus is spread by aphids and there are many
other plant hosts for the virus, including
numerous weeds and crops. Potato virus-Y
(PVY) and tobacco etch virus (TEV) are also
spread by aphids, while tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) is spread by thrips. Tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV) is normally spread by human,
machine, or other means of direct contact. It is







often difficult to identify a virus by the visual
symptoms alone, so laboratory confirmation is
often needed. Thus far CMV is the only virus
that has been reported to be in Florida tobacco,
but it is likely that the others are or will be
present.

EBW

Glyphosate Market

Carl Casale, vice president of North American
operations for Monsanto, was cited as telling a
group of investors that the company's practices in
the glyphosate herbicide industry, which is being
investigated by the Justice Department, is in
preliminary stages and could last "some period of


months." Monsanto said last week that it and
other glyphosate makers are cooperating with the
investigation into "possible anticompetitive
conduct." Casale said the glyphosate industry is
very competitive. Although Monsanto's
Roundup brand products are dominant, the
company expects its market share to fall to about
71 percent this year from 77 percent in 2002.
(Knight-Ridder Tribune, March 20, 2003 via
Agnet).


MAM


Prospective 2003 Field Crop Acreage

The USDA's National Statistics Service has released the report of expected acreage of field crops for 2003.
These estimates are based on surveys of farmers and the report was released on March 31.


Florida United States

2003 Acres 2003/2002 Acres 2003/2002 Acres
Crop (x1000) (x100) (x100)

Corn, all 85 113 100

Wheat, all 20 222 102

Hay, all 280 100 99

Soybeans 11 110 99

Peanuts 110 115 92

Cotton 100 83 102

Tobacco, all 4 87 97

The same report included expected United States percentages ofbiotech varieties or corn, cotton, and
soybeans, which were 38, 70, and 80, respectively.

EBW




The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.







often difficult to identify a virus by the visual
symptoms alone, so laboratory confirmation is
often needed. Thus far CMV is the only virus
that has been reported to be in Florida tobacco,
but it is likely that the others are or will be
present.

EBW

Glyphosate Market

Carl Casale, vice president of North American
operations for Monsanto, was cited as telling a
group of investors that the company's practices in
the glyphosate herbicide industry, which is being
investigated by the Justice Department, is in
preliminary stages and could last "some period of


months." Monsanto said last week that it and
other glyphosate makers are cooperating with the
investigation into "possible anticompetitive
conduct." Casale said the glyphosate industry is
very competitive. Although Monsanto's
Roundup brand products are dominant, the
company expects its market share to fall to about
71 percent this year from 77 percent in 2002.
(Knight-Ridder Tribune, March 20, 2003 via
Agnet).


MAM


Prospective 2003 Field Crop Acreage

The USDA's National Statistics Service has released the report of expected acreage of field crops for 2003.
These estimates are based on surveys of farmers and the report was released on March 31.


Florida United States

2003 Acres 2003/2002 Acres 2003/2002 Acres
Crop (x1000) (x100) (x100)

Corn, all 85 113 100

Wheat, all 20 222 102

Hay, all 280 100 99

Soybeans 11 110 99

Peanuts 110 115 92

Cotton 100 83 102

Tobacco, all 4 87 97

The same report included expected United States percentages ofbiotech varieties or corn, cotton, and
soybeans, which were 38, 70, and 80, respectively.

EBW




The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.