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 Table of Contents
 Rootworm protected corn registered...
 Cover crops for cotton or...
 No increase in resistance seen...
 Planting date for cotton
 Inoculants for peanuts
 New Florida peanut varieties
 Twin rows for peanuts
 Actigard for transplanted...
 Blue mold found in tobacco
 Pesticide potpourri
 Pesticides registrations and...
 Slow growth of tobacco
 Biomass of a cover crop
 Buyer beware - telemarketers are...
 Nematicidal bacillus thuringiensis...
 Reduced tillage
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00033
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: April 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00033

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Rootworm protected corn registered with controversy
        Page 2
    Cover crops for cotton or peanuts
        Page 2
    No increase in resistance seen for pink boll worm populations
        Page 2
    Planting date for cotton
        Page 3
    Inoculants for peanuts
        Page 3
    New Florida peanut varieties
        Page 3
    Twin rows for peanuts
        Page 4
    Actigard for transplanted tobacco
        Page 4
    Blue mold found in tobacco
        Page 4
    Pesticide potpourri
        Page 4
    Pesticides registrations and actions
        Page 5
    Slow growth of tobacco
        Page 5
    Biomass of a cover crop
        Page 6
    Buyer beware - telemarketers are in the AG business too!
        Page 6
    Nematicidal bacillus thuringiensis in proteins?
        Page 6
    Reduced tillage
        Page 7
    Publications
        Page 7
Full Text








GRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

IFAS EXTENSION


NOTES


April, 2003


DATES TO REMEMBER
May 8 Forage Field Day Jay Research Farm
May 19-22 Aquatic Weed Control Short Course 2003 Ft. Lauderdale
May 21-23 Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Meeting Daytona Beach
July 8 Agronomy Weed Science Field Day (Deep South Weed Tour) Jay
Research Farm
September 5 Row Crop Field Day Jay Research Farm


IN THIS ISSUE

CORN
Rootworm Protected Corn Registered with Controversy .................. ...

COTTON
Cover Crops for Cotton or Peanuts ......................................
No Increase in Resistance Seen for Pink Bollworm Populations ................
Planting D ate for Cotton ...........................................


PAGE


2


2
2
. . .. 2


........ 2
. . 2
. . 3


PEANUTS
Inoculants for Peanuts .........................................
New Florida Peanut Varieties ......................................
Tw in Row s for Peanuts ........................................

TOBACCO
Actigard for Transplanted Tobacco ...............................
Blue M old Found in Tobacco ....................................
Pesticide Potpourri ..............................................
Pesticide Registrations and Actions ...............................
Slow Growth of Tobacco .......................................

MISCELLANEOUS
Biom ass of a Cover Crop .......................................
Buyer Beware Telemarketers are in the AG Business Too! ..............
Nematicidal Bacillus thuringiensis Proteins? ........................
R educed T village ..............................................
Publications ........ ..........................................


. . . 3
. . . 3
. . . 4
.~4


. . . 6
. . . 6
. . . 6
. . . 7
. . . 7
.~7


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University ofFlorida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.







Rootworm Protected Corn Registered with
Controversy

On February 25, the EPA approved Monsanto's
new biotech corn, YieldGard Rootworm Corn,
for planting in 2003. Asst. Administrator Steve
Johnson said the Agency put the plant-
incorporated protectant through a multiyear
science-based review process to "ensure that it is
safe for human health and the environment." The
USDA has estimated that the devastating pest
costs U.S. corn growers about $1 billion
annually. In order to reduce potential insect
resistance, Monsanto must ensure that a 20
percent "refuge" exists. The company also is
required to conduct added research on resistance
management.

However, scientists who were consulted before
the February decision say that the EPA ignored
their advice and is doing too little to ensure that
insects don't develop resistance to the insecticide
produced by the plant. Last October, a scientific
review board recommended that the strain should
only be grown if farmers plant an equal area of
non-transgenic corn next to it. Such a stipulation
would have undermined the commercial viability
of the strain, however, and the EPA rejected it,
saying that a 20 percent "refuge" of non-
transgenic corn will suffice. The controversy
surrounds the fact that YieldGard produces
much less toxin than existing Bt crops killing
only about half of the rootworm population.
With such a low mortality rate, resistance is
certain to arise, the panel said the only question
is when. Eleven members of the scientific review
board that looked at Monsanto's application
urged the EPA to require a refuge size of at least
50 percent of the total area planted with corn. In
the end, the EPA sided with three dissenting
review board members, and sanctioned the 20
percent refuge size that Monsanto had requested.
(CropLife America S.i,,hlij, 2/28/03 & AgNet,
3/6/03).

MAM

Cover Crops for Cotton or Peanuts

Where cotton or peanuts are to be planted in
April or May, cover crops should be killed 3-4


weeks ahead of planting to conserve moisture,
eliminate or reduce soil insects and reduce
populations of grass hoppers or other insects
feeding on green foliage. Mixtures of Roundup
and 2,4-D can be very effective against both
broadleaf and grass cover crops and weeds.
Phenoxy herbicides require application 30 days
ahead of planting cotton and are important in
controlling winter weeds such as cut leaf evening
primrose, horseweed and wild radish that are
hard to control with glyphosate.

DLW

No Increase in Resistance Seen for Pink
Bollworm Populations

Genetically engineered cotton in Arizona, grown
using a strategy mandated by the EPA, is
effectively controlling a common crop pest
without causing increased pesticide resistance,
suggesting that transgenic crops could help the
environment through reduced insecticide use.
Researcher Yves Carriere, an evolutionary
ecologist at the University of Arizona in Tucson,
believes that "Transgenic crops have potential to
improve agriculture, but we must be careful
when we use them." To minimize the risk of
evolved resistance against Bt crops, the EPA in
1995 required all growers of Bt cotton to plant
crops that do not generate the toxins alongside Bt
crops. Insects vulnerable to Bt toxins are kept
alive in such fields to mix their insecticide-
susceptible genes with resistance traits to dilute
and therefore delay the evolution of resistance
among their descendants. "The EPA was right in
doing so," Carriere explained. "This refuge
strategy is absolutely needed to delay the
evolution of resistance." Carriere and colleagues
looked at the population density of pink
bollworm, a key cotton pest, across 300,000
acres of cotton in Arizona over a 10-year span -
five years before Bt cotton was deployed and five
years after. More than 1,000 traps containing
sex pheromones were deployed to capture insects
for study. Investigators found up to a four-fold
decrease in pesticide applications following the
introduction of Bt cotton, which also led to up to
six-fold decrease in pink bollworm population
density. This steady decline suggests the pink
bollworm soon could be eliminated as a key pest.


_ _







Rootworm Protected Corn Registered with
Controversy

On February 25, the EPA approved Monsanto's
new biotech corn, YieldGard Rootworm Corn,
for planting in 2003. Asst. Administrator Steve
Johnson said the Agency put the plant-
incorporated protectant through a multiyear
science-based review process to "ensure that it is
safe for human health and the environment." The
USDA has estimated that the devastating pest
costs U.S. corn growers about $1 billion
annually. In order to reduce potential insect
resistance, Monsanto must ensure that a 20
percent "refuge" exists. The company also is
required to conduct added research on resistance
management.

However, scientists who were consulted before
the February decision say that the EPA ignored
their advice and is doing too little to ensure that
insects don't develop resistance to the insecticide
produced by the plant. Last October, a scientific
review board recommended that the strain should
only be grown if farmers plant an equal area of
non-transgenic corn next to it. Such a stipulation
would have undermined the commercial viability
of the strain, however, and the EPA rejected it,
saying that a 20 percent "refuge" of non-
transgenic corn will suffice. The controversy
surrounds the fact that YieldGard produces
much less toxin than existing Bt crops killing
only about half of the rootworm population.
With such a low mortality rate, resistance is
certain to arise, the panel said the only question
is when. Eleven members of the scientific review
board that looked at Monsanto's application
urged the EPA to require a refuge size of at least
50 percent of the total area planted with corn. In
the end, the EPA sided with three dissenting
review board members, and sanctioned the 20
percent refuge size that Monsanto had requested.
(CropLife America S.i,,hlij, 2/28/03 & AgNet,
3/6/03).

MAM

Cover Crops for Cotton or Peanuts

Where cotton or peanuts are to be planted in
April or May, cover crops should be killed 3-4


weeks ahead of planting to conserve moisture,
eliminate or reduce soil insects and reduce
populations of grass hoppers or other insects
feeding on green foliage. Mixtures of Roundup
and 2,4-D can be very effective against both
broadleaf and grass cover crops and weeds.
Phenoxy herbicides require application 30 days
ahead of planting cotton and are important in
controlling winter weeds such as cut leaf evening
primrose, horseweed and wild radish that are
hard to control with glyphosate.

DLW

No Increase in Resistance Seen for Pink
Bollworm Populations

Genetically engineered cotton in Arizona, grown
using a strategy mandated by the EPA, is
effectively controlling a common crop pest
without causing increased pesticide resistance,
suggesting that transgenic crops could help the
environment through reduced insecticide use.
Researcher Yves Carriere, an evolutionary
ecologist at the University of Arizona in Tucson,
believes that "Transgenic crops have potential to
improve agriculture, but we must be careful
when we use them." To minimize the risk of
evolved resistance against Bt crops, the EPA in
1995 required all growers of Bt cotton to plant
crops that do not generate the toxins alongside Bt
crops. Insects vulnerable to Bt toxins are kept
alive in such fields to mix their insecticide-
susceptible genes with resistance traits to dilute
and therefore delay the evolution of resistance
among their descendants. "The EPA was right in
doing so," Carriere explained. "This refuge
strategy is absolutely needed to delay the
evolution of resistance." Carriere and colleagues
looked at the population density of pink
bollworm, a key cotton pest, across 300,000
acres of cotton in Arizona over a 10-year span -
five years before Bt cotton was deployed and five
years after. More than 1,000 traps containing
sex pheromones were deployed to capture insects
for study. Investigators found up to a four-fold
decrease in pesticide applications following the
introduction of Bt cotton, which also led to up to
six-fold decrease in pink bollworm population
density. This steady decline suggests the pink
bollworm soon could be eliminated as a key pest.


_ _







Rootworm Protected Corn Registered with
Controversy

On February 25, the EPA approved Monsanto's
new biotech corn, YieldGard Rootworm Corn,
for planting in 2003. Asst. Administrator Steve
Johnson said the Agency put the plant-
incorporated protectant through a multiyear
science-based review process to "ensure that it is
safe for human health and the environment." The
USDA has estimated that the devastating pest
costs U.S. corn growers about $1 billion
annually. In order to reduce potential insect
resistance, Monsanto must ensure that a 20
percent "refuge" exists. The company also is
required to conduct added research on resistance
management.

However, scientists who were consulted before
the February decision say that the EPA ignored
their advice and is doing too little to ensure that
insects don't develop resistance to the insecticide
produced by the plant. Last October, a scientific
review board recommended that the strain should
only be grown if farmers plant an equal area of
non-transgenic corn next to it. Such a stipulation
would have undermined the commercial viability
of the strain, however, and the EPA rejected it,
saying that a 20 percent "refuge" of non-
transgenic corn will suffice. The controversy
surrounds the fact that YieldGard produces
much less toxin than existing Bt crops killing
only about half of the rootworm population.
With such a low mortality rate, resistance is
certain to arise, the panel said the only question
is when. Eleven members of the scientific review
board that looked at Monsanto's application
urged the EPA to require a refuge size of at least
50 percent of the total area planted with corn. In
the end, the EPA sided with three dissenting
review board members, and sanctioned the 20
percent refuge size that Monsanto had requested.
(CropLife America S.i,,hlij, 2/28/03 & AgNet,
3/6/03).

MAM

Cover Crops for Cotton or Peanuts

Where cotton or peanuts are to be planted in
April or May, cover crops should be killed 3-4


weeks ahead of planting to conserve moisture,
eliminate or reduce soil insects and reduce
populations of grass hoppers or other insects
feeding on green foliage. Mixtures of Roundup
and 2,4-D can be very effective against both
broadleaf and grass cover crops and weeds.
Phenoxy herbicides require application 30 days
ahead of planting cotton and are important in
controlling winter weeds such as cut leaf evening
primrose, horseweed and wild radish that are
hard to control with glyphosate.

DLW

No Increase in Resistance Seen for Pink
Bollworm Populations

Genetically engineered cotton in Arizona, grown
using a strategy mandated by the EPA, is
effectively controlling a common crop pest
without causing increased pesticide resistance,
suggesting that transgenic crops could help the
environment through reduced insecticide use.
Researcher Yves Carriere, an evolutionary
ecologist at the University of Arizona in Tucson,
believes that "Transgenic crops have potential to
improve agriculture, but we must be careful
when we use them." To minimize the risk of
evolved resistance against Bt crops, the EPA in
1995 required all growers of Bt cotton to plant
crops that do not generate the toxins alongside Bt
crops. Insects vulnerable to Bt toxins are kept
alive in such fields to mix their insecticide-
susceptible genes with resistance traits to dilute
and therefore delay the evolution of resistance
among their descendants. "The EPA was right in
doing so," Carriere explained. "This refuge
strategy is absolutely needed to delay the
evolution of resistance." Carriere and colleagues
looked at the population density of pink
bollworm, a key cotton pest, across 300,000
acres of cotton in Arizona over a 10-year span -
five years before Bt cotton was deployed and five
years after. More than 1,000 traps containing
sex pheromones were deployed to capture insects
for study. Investigators found up to a four-fold
decrease in pesticide applications following the
introduction of Bt cotton, which also led to up to
six-fold decrease in pink bollworm population
density. This steady decline suggests the pink
bollworm soon could be eliminated as a key pest.


_ _







A senior staff scientist for the Union of
Concerned Scientists in Washington, was pleased
to see the results. "The Arizona scientists
deserve a lot of credit for their systematic study
of the use of Bt cotton," she said. "Frankly, this
is what we'd like to see in many other places in
the country." Both groups feel these results do
not necessarily extrapolate to Bt crops in other
parts of the country. Says Carriere, "Here in
Arizona it is clear Bt cotton has caused a
dramatic reduction in the use of synthetic
insecticides. But I'm talking about Arizona.
This is not my general position for every
transgenic." (UPI, 2/4/03 via AgNet).


MAM


Planting Date for Cotton

Cotton can generally be planted from late March
through the third week of June in Florida.
However, early planted cotton has several
advantages including the ability to overcome
insect, weed, or environmental stresses if enough
growing season is left. Sometimes there are
stand failures due to any number of causes and it
allows growers time to replant if it has been
planted early enough. Recent data with hardlock
on cotton shows that high temperature and
relative humidity during blooming contributes to
the disease. Early planting may reduce hardlock
through cooler temperatures and lower humidity
during the bloom period. However, temperature
and humidity can be high at any time from May
until late August. Planting full season varieties
any time from late March until mid May would
be preferable to mid June plantings. Moisture
may be more available under non irrigated
conditions in early April as compared to early
May to get stand establishment.

DLW

Inoculants for Peanuts

There are reports that many fields of peanuts
2003 may be planted in non-traditional areas of
production. In such situations growers should
assess the need for adding nitrogen-fixing
bacteria to the peanuts. The cowpea strain of
bacteria is effective on peanuts as well as a large


group of other legume crops and weeds. If
peanuts, beggarweeds, alyceclover, cowpeas, and
other legumes are growing or have grown on the
field in recent years, then the bacteria occur
naturally in the soil and an inoculant may not be
needed. If only grass or other non-legume plants
have grown recently on the field, then adding an
inoculant at planting would be advisable. The
bacteria infect the roots and form nodules that
allows nitrogen to be extracted from the air and
used for growth by the bacteria and the peanut
plant.

EBW


New Florida Peanut Varieties


The University of Florida released six new
peanut varieties in 2002. Although 2003 seed
supplies are limited, farmers may be able to get
some seed, or if not they could observe any tests
or fields planted in their area. There are two
early maturity varieties and both have the high
oleic oil chemistry. Andru II has excellent
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance and
some white mold resistance. Anderson's Peanuts
has the marketing contract for Andru II and
would be the source of seed. GP-1 is also an
early maturity variety and is licensed to Golden
Peanut, but seed will not be generally available
until 2004. Norden and Carver are medium
maturity and both varieties have good TSWV
and white mold resistance. Norden has high oleic
oil chemistry and is a replacement for SunOleic
97R. Of the six new varieties, more seed of
Norden are available than for any other. Carver
has some CBR resistance. The late maturity
varieties are Hull and DP-1. Hull is a high oleic
variety that has resistance to TSWV, late leaf
spot, white mold, and has some resistance to
CBR and root knot nematodes. Seed supplies of
Hull are limited. DP-1 has the highest level of
resistance of any variety to late leaf spot, TSWV,
and white mold. Seed are marketed through
Damascus Peanut Company, but supplies are
limited for 2003.

EBW







A senior staff scientist for the Union of
Concerned Scientists in Washington, was pleased
to see the results. "The Arizona scientists
deserve a lot of credit for their systematic study
of the use of Bt cotton," she said. "Frankly, this
is what we'd like to see in many other places in
the country." Both groups feel these results do
not necessarily extrapolate to Bt crops in other
parts of the country. Says Carriere, "Here in
Arizona it is clear Bt cotton has caused a
dramatic reduction in the use of synthetic
insecticides. But I'm talking about Arizona.
This is not my general position for every
transgenic." (UPI, 2/4/03 via AgNet).


MAM


Planting Date for Cotton

Cotton can generally be planted from late March
through the third week of June in Florida.
However, early planted cotton has several
advantages including the ability to overcome
insect, weed, or environmental stresses if enough
growing season is left. Sometimes there are
stand failures due to any number of causes and it
allows growers time to replant if it has been
planted early enough. Recent data with hardlock
on cotton shows that high temperature and
relative humidity during blooming contributes to
the disease. Early planting may reduce hardlock
through cooler temperatures and lower humidity
during the bloom period. However, temperature
and humidity can be high at any time from May
until late August. Planting full season varieties
any time from late March until mid May would
be preferable to mid June plantings. Moisture
may be more available under non irrigated
conditions in early April as compared to early
May to get stand establishment.

DLW

Inoculants for Peanuts

There are reports that many fields of peanuts
2003 may be planted in non-traditional areas of
production. In such situations growers should
assess the need for adding nitrogen-fixing
bacteria to the peanuts. The cowpea strain of
bacteria is effective on peanuts as well as a large


group of other legume crops and weeds. If
peanuts, beggarweeds, alyceclover, cowpeas, and
other legumes are growing or have grown on the
field in recent years, then the bacteria occur
naturally in the soil and an inoculant may not be
needed. If only grass or other non-legume plants
have grown recently on the field, then adding an
inoculant at planting would be advisable. The
bacteria infect the roots and form nodules that
allows nitrogen to be extracted from the air and
used for growth by the bacteria and the peanut
plant.

EBW


New Florida Peanut Varieties


The University of Florida released six new
peanut varieties in 2002. Although 2003 seed
supplies are limited, farmers may be able to get
some seed, or if not they could observe any tests
or fields planted in their area. There are two
early maturity varieties and both have the high
oleic oil chemistry. Andru II has excellent
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance and
some white mold resistance. Anderson's Peanuts
has the marketing contract for Andru II and
would be the source of seed. GP-1 is also an
early maturity variety and is licensed to Golden
Peanut, but seed will not be generally available
until 2004. Norden and Carver are medium
maturity and both varieties have good TSWV
and white mold resistance. Norden has high oleic
oil chemistry and is a replacement for SunOleic
97R. Of the six new varieties, more seed of
Norden are available than for any other. Carver
has some CBR resistance. The late maturity
varieties are Hull and DP-1. Hull is a high oleic
variety that has resistance to TSWV, late leaf
spot, white mold, and has some resistance to
CBR and root knot nematodes. Seed supplies of
Hull are limited. DP-1 has the highest level of
resistance of any variety to late leaf spot, TSWV,
and white mold. Seed are marketed through
Damascus Peanut Company, but supplies are
limited for 2003.

EBW







A senior staff scientist for the Union of
Concerned Scientists in Washington, was pleased
to see the results. "The Arizona scientists
deserve a lot of credit for their systematic study
of the use of Bt cotton," she said. "Frankly, this
is what we'd like to see in many other places in
the country." Both groups feel these results do
not necessarily extrapolate to Bt crops in other
parts of the country. Says Carriere, "Here in
Arizona it is clear Bt cotton has caused a
dramatic reduction in the use of synthetic
insecticides. But I'm talking about Arizona.
This is not my general position for every
transgenic." (UPI, 2/4/03 via AgNet).


MAM


Planting Date for Cotton

Cotton can generally be planted from late March
through the third week of June in Florida.
However, early planted cotton has several
advantages including the ability to overcome
insect, weed, or environmental stresses if enough
growing season is left. Sometimes there are
stand failures due to any number of causes and it
allows growers time to replant if it has been
planted early enough. Recent data with hardlock
on cotton shows that high temperature and
relative humidity during blooming contributes to
the disease. Early planting may reduce hardlock
through cooler temperatures and lower humidity
during the bloom period. However, temperature
and humidity can be high at any time from May
until late August. Planting full season varieties
any time from late March until mid May would
be preferable to mid June plantings. Moisture
may be more available under non irrigated
conditions in early April as compared to early
May to get stand establishment.

DLW

Inoculants for Peanuts

There are reports that many fields of peanuts
2003 may be planted in non-traditional areas of
production. In such situations growers should
assess the need for adding nitrogen-fixing
bacteria to the peanuts. The cowpea strain of
bacteria is effective on peanuts as well as a large


group of other legume crops and weeds. If
peanuts, beggarweeds, alyceclover, cowpeas, and
other legumes are growing or have grown on the
field in recent years, then the bacteria occur
naturally in the soil and an inoculant may not be
needed. If only grass or other non-legume plants
have grown recently on the field, then adding an
inoculant at planting would be advisable. The
bacteria infect the roots and form nodules that
allows nitrogen to be extracted from the air and
used for growth by the bacteria and the peanut
plant.

EBW


New Florida Peanut Varieties


The University of Florida released six new
peanut varieties in 2002. Although 2003 seed
supplies are limited, farmers may be able to get
some seed, or if not they could observe any tests
or fields planted in their area. There are two
early maturity varieties and both have the high
oleic oil chemistry. Andru II has excellent
tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance and
some white mold resistance. Anderson's Peanuts
has the marketing contract for Andru II and
would be the source of seed. GP-1 is also an
early maturity variety and is licensed to Golden
Peanut, but seed will not be generally available
until 2004. Norden and Carver are medium
maturity and both varieties have good TSWV
and white mold resistance. Norden has high oleic
oil chemistry and is a replacement for SunOleic
97R. Of the six new varieties, more seed of
Norden are available than for any other. Carver
has some CBR resistance. The late maturity
varieties are Hull and DP-1. Hull is a high oleic
variety that has resistance to TSWV, late leaf
spot, white mold, and has some resistance to
CBR and root knot nematodes. Seed supplies of
Hull are limited. DP-1 has the highest level of
resistance of any variety to late leaf spot, TSWV,
and white mold. Seed are marketed through
Damascus Peanut Company, but supplies are
limited for 2003.

EBW







Twin Rows for Peanuts

Research at Marianna and many other locations
for several years have shown that higher yields
are usually obtained when peanuts are planted in
twin rows rather than in single rows. Twin rows
provide for more competition for weeds, while
reducing competition between the peanut plants.
Infection by tomato spotted wilt virus is usually
less in twin rows, which is probably due to the
faster ground cover by the peanut vines. Since
the seeding rate for single rows is usually six
seed per foot, while in twin rows it is three seed
per foot, the seed requirements per acre are the
same. A twin row planter and possible
adjustments to the digger would be needed when
growing peanuts in twin rows.

EBW

Actigard for Transplanted Tobacco

Growers that received an Actigard label from the
Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization may note that
in addition to using Actigard in the greenhouse or
plant bed for suppression of tomato spotted wilt
virus (TSWV), the chemical can also be applied
soon after transplanting, also for TSWV
suppression. The label for blue mold prevention
calls for Actigard applications to begin after the
plants are 18 inches tall. However the
application for TSWV suppression should also
provide some prevention of blue mold. Growers
should have a copy of the label from
Stabilization if they use Actigard as directed for
TSWV suppression.

EBW

Blue Mold Found in Tobacco

Active blue mold has been found in both Florida
and Georgia plant beds, and wet and cool
weather would be favorable for further
development of the disease. Agronomic practices
to limit development of blue mold in both plant
beds and the field include irrigating only as
needed to maintain plant growth, avoiding
excessive rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and avoiding
high plant populations when transplanting.
Succulent, tender plants are more susceptible to


blue mold infection and damage than are hardier
plants. Fungicides that can be used to prevent
blue mold include mancozeb in both the plant bed
and field, and Acrobat and Actigard in the field.
Follow label directions for rate and timing of
applications.

EBW

Pesticide Potpourri

Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 on
geraniums has been confirmed in the U.S. This
is a bacterial pathogen that causes southern
bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops, including
potato, tomato, pepper, and tobacco. This
pathogen is on the bioterrorism list because of its
threat to food crops. The infected cuttings were
shipped from Kenya by a supplier to companies
in Michigan and New Hampshire. Once rooted,
these cuttings were shipped again. There are
currently no confirmed detections in Florida.
(UF/IFAS Pest Alert, 2/24/03).

With the phaseout of methyl bromide looming,
scientists have been looking for replacements for
sites where this fumigant has historically been
employed. For stored grain, researchers at
Purdue have found that ozone may be a
promising chemical. The team set out to test the
efficacy of the reactive gas on a variety of grains,
including rice, popcorn, soft red winter wheat,
hard red winter wheat, soybean, and corn.
Except for immature weevils that were inside
grain kernels, a 50-ppm treatment affected all
insect species tested. Additionally, the treatment
did not affect any of the characteristics of
thegrains, such as the popping volume of corn,
the milling characteristics of wheat, and the
stickiness of rice. (Pesticide & Toxic C/L liil
News, 2/17/03).

The Environmental Regulatory Commission
(ERC) met in late February in Tallahassee to
continue rule adoption of a phosphorus criterion
for the Everglades Protection Area. The ERC is
considering setting the standard for every part of
the system at 10 ppb. The Florida ag community
is asking ERC members to: base the criterion on
scientific information; consider economic
impacts; and, to consider the risks/benefits to the







Twin Rows for Peanuts

Research at Marianna and many other locations
for several years have shown that higher yields
are usually obtained when peanuts are planted in
twin rows rather than in single rows. Twin rows
provide for more competition for weeds, while
reducing competition between the peanut plants.
Infection by tomato spotted wilt virus is usually
less in twin rows, which is probably due to the
faster ground cover by the peanut vines. Since
the seeding rate for single rows is usually six
seed per foot, while in twin rows it is three seed
per foot, the seed requirements per acre are the
same. A twin row planter and possible
adjustments to the digger would be needed when
growing peanuts in twin rows.

EBW

Actigard for Transplanted Tobacco

Growers that received an Actigard label from the
Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization may note that
in addition to using Actigard in the greenhouse or
plant bed for suppression of tomato spotted wilt
virus (TSWV), the chemical can also be applied
soon after transplanting, also for TSWV
suppression. The label for blue mold prevention
calls for Actigard applications to begin after the
plants are 18 inches tall. However the
application for TSWV suppression should also
provide some prevention of blue mold. Growers
should have a copy of the label from
Stabilization if they use Actigard as directed for
TSWV suppression.

EBW

Blue Mold Found in Tobacco

Active blue mold has been found in both Florida
and Georgia plant beds, and wet and cool
weather would be favorable for further
development of the disease. Agronomic practices
to limit development of blue mold in both plant
beds and the field include irrigating only as
needed to maintain plant growth, avoiding
excessive rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and avoiding
high plant populations when transplanting.
Succulent, tender plants are more susceptible to


blue mold infection and damage than are hardier
plants. Fungicides that can be used to prevent
blue mold include mancozeb in both the plant bed
and field, and Acrobat and Actigard in the field.
Follow label directions for rate and timing of
applications.

EBW

Pesticide Potpourri

Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 on
geraniums has been confirmed in the U.S. This
is a bacterial pathogen that causes southern
bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops, including
potato, tomato, pepper, and tobacco. This
pathogen is on the bioterrorism list because of its
threat to food crops. The infected cuttings were
shipped from Kenya by a supplier to companies
in Michigan and New Hampshire. Once rooted,
these cuttings were shipped again. There are
currently no confirmed detections in Florida.
(UF/IFAS Pest Alert, 2/24/03).

With the phaseout of methyl bromide looming,
scientists have been looking for replacements for
sites where this fumigant has historically been
employed. For stored grain, researchers at
Purdue have found that ozone may be a
promising chemical. The team set out to test the
efficacy of the reactive gas on a variety of grains,
including rice, popcorn, soft red winter wheat,
hard red winter wheat, soybean, and corn.
Except for immature weevils that were inside
grain kernels, a 50-ppm treatment affected all
insect species tested. Additionally, the treatment
did not affect any of the characteristics of
thegrains, such as the popping volume of corn,
the milling characteristics of wheat, and the
stickiness of rice. (Pesticide & Toxic C/L liil
News, 2/17/03).

The Environmental Regulatory Commission
(ERC) met in late February in Tallahassee to
continue rule adoption of a phosphorus criterion
for the Everglades Protection Area. The ERC is
considering setting the standard for every part of
the system at 10 ppb. The Florida ag community
is asking ERC members to: base the criterion on
scientific information; consider economic
impacts; and, to consider the risks/benefits to the







Twin Rows for Peanuts

Research at Marianna and many other locations
for several years have shown that higher yields
are usually obtained when peanuts are planted in
twin rows rather than in single rows. Twin rows
provide for more competition for weeds, while
reducing competition between the peanut plants.
Infection by tomato spotted wilt virus is usually
less in twin rows, which is probably due to the
faster ground cover by the peanut vines. Since
the seeding rate for single rows is usually six
seed per foot, while in twin rows it is three seed
per foot, the seed requirements per acre are the
same. A twin row planter and possible
adjustments to the digger would be needed when
growing peanuts in twin rows.

EBW

Actigard for Transplanted Tobacco

Growers that received an Actigard label from the
Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization may note that
in addition to using Actigard in the greenhouse or
plant bed for suppression of tomato spotted wilt
virus (TSWV), the chemical can also be applied
soon after transplanting, also for TSWV
suppression. The label for blue mold prevention
calls for Actigard applications to begin after the
plants are 18 inches tall. However the
application for TSWV suppression should also
provide some prevention of blue mold. Growers
should have a copy of the label from
Stabilization if they use Actigard as directed for
TSWV suppression.

EBW

Blue Mold Found in Tobacco

Active blue mold has been found in both Florida
and Georgia plant beds, and wet and cool
weather would be favorable for further
development of the disease. Agronomic practices
to limit development of blue mold in both plant
beds and the field include irrigating only as
needed to maintain plant growth, avoiding
excessive rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and avoiding
high plant populations when transplanting.
Succulent, tender plants are more susceptible to


blue mold infection and damage than are hardier
plants. Fungicides that can be used to prevent
blue mold include mancozeb in both the plant bed
and field, and Acrobat and Actigard in the field.
Follow label directions for rate and timing of
applications.

EBW

Pesticide Potpourri

Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 on
geraniums has been confirmed in the U.S. This
is a bacterial pathogen that causes southern
bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops, including
potato, tomato, pepper, and tobacco. This
pathogen is on the bioterrorism list because of its
threat to food crops. The infected cuttings were
shipped from Kenya by a supplier to companies
in Michigan and New Hampshire. Once rooted,
these cuttings were shipped again. There are
currently no confirmed detections in Florida.
(UF/IFAS Pest Alert, 2/24/03).

With the phaseout of methyl bromide looming,
scientists have been looking for replacements for
sites where this fumigant has historically been
employed. For stored grain, researchers at
Purdue have found that ozone may be a
promising chemical. The team set out to test the
efficacy of the reactive gas on a variety of grains,
including rice, popcorn, soft red winter wheat,
hard red winter wheat, soybean, and corn.
Except for immature weevils that were inside
grain kernels, a 50-ppm treatment affected all
insect species tested. Additionally, the treatment
did not affect any of the characteristics of
thegrains, such as the popping volume of corn,
the milling characteristics of wheat, and the
stickiness of rice. (Pesticide & Toxic C/L liil
News, 2/17/03).

The Environmental Regulatory Commission
(ERC) met in late February in Tallahassee to
continue rule adoption of a phosphorus criterion
for the Everglades Protection Area. The ERC is
considering setting the standard for every part of
the system at 10 ppb. The Florida ag community
is asking ERC members to: base the criterion on
scientific information; consider economic
impacts; and, to consider the risks/benefits to the







Twin Rows for Peanuts

Research at Marianna and many other locations
for several years have shown that higher yields
are usually obtained when peanuts are planted in
twin rows rather than in single rows. Twin rows
provide for more competition for weeds, while
reducing competition between the peanut plants.
Infection by tomato spotted wilt virus is usually
less in twin rows, which is probably due to the
faster ground cover by the peanut vines. Since
the seeding rate for single rows is usually six
seed per foot, while in twin rows it is three seed
per foot, the seed requirements per acre are the
same. A twin row planter and possible
adjustments to the digger would be needed when
growing peanuts in twin rows.

EBW

Actigard for Transplanted Tobacco

Growers that received an Actigard label from the
Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization may note that
in addition to using Actigard in the greenhouse or
plant bed for suppression of tomato spotted wilt
virus (TSWV), the chemical can also be applied
soon after transplanting, also for TSWV
suppression. The label for blue mold prevention
calls for Actigard applications to begin after the
plants are 18 inches tall. However the
application for TSWV suppression should also
provide some prevention of blue mold. Growers
should have a copy of the label from
Stabilization if they use Actigard as directed for
TSWV suppression.

EBW

Blue Mold Found in Tobacco

Active blue mold has been found in both Florida
and Georgia plant beds, and wet and cool
weather would be favorable for further
development of the disease. Agronomic practices
to limit development of blue mold in both plant
beds and the field include irrigating only as
needed to maintain plant growth, avoiding
excessive rates of nitrogen fertilizer, and avoiding
high plant populations when transplanting.
Succulent, tender plants are more susceptible to


blue mold infection and damage than are hardier
plants. Fungicides that can be used to prevent
blue mold include mancozeb in both the plant bed
and field, and Acrobat and Actigard in the field.
Follow label directions for rate and timing of
applications.

EBW

Pesticide Potpourri

Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 on
geraniums has been confirmed in the U.S. This
is a bacterial pathogen that causes southern
bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops, including
potato, tomato, pepper, and tobacco. This
pathogen is on the bioterrorism list because of its
threat to food crops. The infected cuttings were
shipped from Kenya by a supplier to companies
in Michigan and New Hampshire. Once rooted,
these cuttings were shipped again. There are
currently no confirmed detections in Florida.
(UF/IFAS Pest Alert, 2/24/03).

With the phaseout of methyl bromide looming,
scientists have been looking for replacements for
sites where this fumigant has historically been
employed. For stored grain, researchers at
Purdue have found that ozone may be a
promising chemical. The team set out to test the
efficacy of the reactive gas on a variety of grains,
including rice, popcorn, soft red winter wheat,
hard red winter wheat, soybean, and corn.
Except for immature weevils that were inside
grain kernels, a 50-ppm treatment affected all
insect species tested. Additionally, the treatment
did not affect any of the characteristics of
thegrains, such as the popping volume of corn,
the milling characteristics of wheat, and the
stickiness of rice. (Pesticide & Toxic C/L liil
News, 2/17/03).

The Environmental Regulatory Commission
(ERC) met in late February in Tallahassee to
continue rule adoption of a phosphorus criterion
for the Everglades Protection Area. The ERC is
considering setting the standard for every part of
the system at 10 ppb. The Florida ag community
is asking ERC members to: base the criterion on
scientific information; consider economic
impacts; and, to consider the risks/benefits to the







public. The Duke University Wetlands Center
and other highly respected experts dispute the
need for 10 ppb even for water flowing into
pristine areas, citing actual research that shows
16 ppb is an appropriate standard that would
fully protect the Everglades. Nearly half of the
planned Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs)
have been built, with more than 22,000 additional
acres to come on line by the end of 2004. These
STAs, paid for by farmers and taxpayers at a
cost of $800 million, may be capable of lowering
phosphorus concentration to the 15 ppb range.
There is no proven technology that can reduce the
concentration to 10 ppb. (FFAA Florida Focus,
2/18/03).

In a meeting with FDA's Center for Food Safety
and Applied Nutrition staff to discuss priorities
for FY2003 and beyond, it was learned that
FDA's primary focus will be on anti-terrorism
programs. Also of interest is the provision of the
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism
Preparedness and Response Act of 2002,
requiring all domestic and foreign facilities that
manufacture, process, pack, or hold food for
human or animal consumption in the U.S. to
register with FDA by December 2003, regardless
of whether or not FDA has issued the final
regulation. While farms, food retailers, and
restaurants are currently exempted, this process
will have an impact on food chain partners and
could provide a possible platform for traceability
ofbiotech-derived food and feed. (CropLife
America .SpI.,llijl, 2/14/03).

MAM

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

On February 6, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS)
sent a letter to Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. to
inform them that the Department had accepted
the Section 24(c) application for the use of
Actigard (acibenzolar-s-methyl) fungicide
(EPA Reg. # 100-922) on tobacco seedlings
grown in seed beds or plant/float houses. Users
must sign a waiver from the Flue Cured Tobacco
Cooperative Stabilization Corporation. The
Special Local Needs (SLN) number is FL-
030003. (FDACS letter of 2/6/03).


The Interim Risk Management Decision (IRED)
for the organophosphate pesticide dicrotophos
(Bidrin) is now available, according to a
Federal Register notice published on February 5.
Dicrotophos is primarily used on cotton and is
eligible for reregistration with certain changes,
including a reduction in the total application rate,
a prohibition of aerial applications, and a
production cap to reduce risks to workers and the
environment. The IRED states that dicrotophos
fits into its own risk cup, i.e., its individual,
aggregate risks from food and drinking water are
within acceptable levels. (EPA OPP Update,
2/12/03).

MAM

Slow Growth of Tobacco

There are often a number of complaints about
slow recovery and growth of plants after they are
transplanted, even if a good stand has been
obtained. There are several possibilities for this
slow growth. Plant quality may be a factor, as
plants that are or have been mildly infected with
blue mold, rhizoctonia, or other diseases may be
slow to resume growth. If the plants have been
clipped and hardened excessively, they may live
and eventually grow well, but they are slower in
development. Likewise, plants that were grown
with too little nitrogen are slow to develop.
Generally plants that have been moderately
hardened and clipped, live well and resume
growth fairly soon after transplanting.

Greenhouse-grown plants may grow slower than
plant bed plants, especially if they are small and
transplanted at a shallow depth and little or no
shank or stem is below ground. New root
development out of the root ball is often slower
than on the below-ground shank. Soil-applied
pesticides may also slow the growth of
transplants. Fumigants have not been a major
problem in recent years, but could be this year
because of wet weather and fumigation shortly
before transplanting. It would usually be more
noticeable on heavier soils or in wetter areas of
the field. Plants stunted by fumigants form few
new roots and the shank is generally enlarged.
Prowl may often temporarily stunt plants, but
generally there is no loss in yield. New roots on







public. The Duke University Wetlands Center
and other highly respected experts dispute the
need for 10 ppb even for water flowing into
pristine areas, citing actual research that shows
16 ppb is an appropriate standard that would
fully protect the Everglades. Nearly half of the
planned Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs)
have been built, with more than 22,000 additional
acres to come on line by the end of 2004. These
STAs, paid for by farmers and taxpayers at a
cost of $800 million, may be capable of lowering
phosphorus concentration to the 15 ppb range.
There is no proven technology that can reduce the
concentration to 10 ppb. (FFAA Florida Focus,
2/18/03).

In a meeting with FDA's Center for Food Safety
and Applied Nutrition staff to discuss priorities
for FY2003 and beyond, it was learned that
FDA's primary focus will be on anti-terrorism
programs. Also of interest is the provision of the
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism
Preparedness and Response Act of 2002,
requiring all domestic and foreign facilities that
manufacture, process, pack, or hold food for
human or animal consumption in the U.S. to
register with FDA by December 2003, regardless
of whether or not FDA has issued the final
regulation. While farms, food retailers, and
restaurants are currently exempted, this process
will have an impact on food chain partners and
could provide a possible platform for traceability
ofbiotech-derived food and feed. (CropLife
America .SpI.,llijl, 2/14/03).

MAM

Pesticide Registrations and Actions

On February 6, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS)
sent a letter to Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. to
inform them that the Department had accepted
the Section 24(c) application for the use of
Actigard (acibenzolar-s-methyl) fungicide
(EPA Reg. # 100-922) on tobacco seedlings
grown in seed beds or plant/float houses. Users
must sign a waiver from the Flue Cured Tobacco
Cooperative Stabilization Corporation. The
Special Local Needs (SLN) number is FL-
030003. (FDACS letter of 2/6/03).


The Interim Risk Management Decision (IRED)
for the organophosphate pesticide dicrotophos
(Bidrin) is now available, according to a
Federal Register notice published on February 5.
Dicrotophos is primarily used on cotton and is
eligible for reregistration with certain changes,
including a reduction in the total application rate,
a prohibition of aerial applications, and a
production cap to reduce risks to workers and the
environment. The IRED states that dicrotophos
fits into its own risk cup, i.e., its individual,
aggregate risks from food and drinking water are
within acceptable levels. (EPA OPP Update,
2/12/03).

MAM

Slow Growth of Tobacco

There are often a number of complaints about
slow recovery and growth of plants after they are
transplanted, even if a good stand has been
obtained. There are several possibilities for this
slow growth. Plant quality may be a factor, as
plants that are or have been mildly infected with
blue mold, rhizoctonia, or other diseases may be
slow to resume growth. If the plants have been
clipped and hardened excessively, they may live
and eventually grow well, but they are slower in
development. Likewise, plants that were grown
with too little nitrogen are slow to develop.
Generally plants that have been moderately
hardened and clipped, live well and resume
growth fairly soon after transplanting.

Greenhouse-grown plants may grow slower than
plant bed plants, especially if they are small and
transplanted at a shallow depth and little or no
shank or stem is below ground. New root
development out of the root ball is often slower
than on the below-ground shank. Soil-applied
pesticides may also slow the growth of
transplants. Fumigants have not been a major
problem in recent years, but could be this year
because of wet weather and fumigation shortly
before transplanting. It would usually be more
noticeable on heavier soils or in wetter areas of
the field. Plants stunted by fumigants form few
new roots and the shank is generally enlarged.
Prowl may often temporarily stunt plants, but
generally there is no loss in yield. New roots on







Prowl-damaged plants are often short, swollen
and have a blunt root tip. Other herbicides may
stunt the tobacco plants. There have been some
reports that plants treated with Actigard may be
slow in resuming growth after transplanting.
Cool weather, insects and diseases may prevent
fast early growth. Be sure to inspect for active
pest problems.

EBW

Biomass of a Cover Crop

Cover crops should be managed (fertilized and
planted at the proper date and seeding rate) to
make maximum amounts of cover for the crop
being planted into it. Research has shown that
high rates of cover crops (3000 lbs dry matter or
more) will result in cooler soil conditions during
the summer and more soil moisture throughout
the season and better yields in drought years.
Cover crops that reach 3 feet tall before killing
can make ideal situations to strip till cotton or
peanuts in. Most cover crops are never managed
or fertilized and often result in little more than
natural winter weed growth and will make little
difference to crop yield or soil quality. However,
it is better to plant the main crop on a timely
basis than to wait for the cover crop to make the
most growth.

DLW

Buyer Beware Telemarketers are in the AG
Business Too!

It happens every year, generally in the spring, but
it can happen at any time. An unsuspecting
grower gets a phone call and is presented with a
'wonder' product that is his or her answer to
weed control. The product name is often coded;
something like SP124, SM409, etc., etc. This
past week SK142 was a product name brought to
my attention. These people who call are very
good, and present a good argument and seem to
know what they are talking about. They will
often ask for a credit card number and will ship
the product directly to you. In addition, the price
sounds great.

The catch you ask? Snake Oil? Well here are a


couple of things to make you scratch your head.
1) how come I never heard of it before?,
not mentioned in grower meetings, etc.
2) why doesn't a distributor carry it?
3) if its so good, why is it so cheap?
4) what kind of a name is SK142?

Actually the product is generally a legitimate
herbicide, but not the wonder product you are led
to believe. Remember that all pesticides have a
twenty year patent life and after that time anyone
can market the product, but must use a different
trade name. So, the "wonder pr1duct'" is an old
herbicide with a new name. 2,4-D is a common
material used in these marketing schemes. I was
even asked about a wonder product for pecans.
The marketing person claimed 4 years worth of
bareground weed control under the trees. I
checked with agent, he checked and found out the
firm was in Georgia but home base for the
company was in Long Island, NY. They finally
sent a product label and it was prometon.
Prometon is the active ingredient in Pramitol,
which has been used for years as a soil sterilant.
In essence the grower would have gotten 4 years
worth of weed control but all the pecan trees
would have died from the prometon.

When someone gets a phone call of this type, the
best thing to do is ask for specifics. Can you
send (fax) a label? Do you have a web site?
What is the active ingredientss? What is your
EPA registration number? Also, ask for a phone
number where they can be reached. In addition,
if the product is 2,4-D or similar, are you really
saving money? Remember that buying a
pesticide over the phone has a lot of risks
including purity or authenticity of the product,
and lack of product support. Buyer Beware!

GEM

Nematicidal Bacillus lthuringien i' Proteins?

Crystal proteins from the Gram-positive soil
bacterium, Bacillus ;ili, ii0iL i/i/. (Bt), are pore-
forming toxins used extensively to control insect
pests, but their effect on the invertebrate phylum
Nematoda, which includes many soil dwelling
species, has been under-investigated. However,
researchers at the University of California, San







Prowl-damaged plants are often short, swollen
and have a blunt root tip. Other herbicides may
stunt the tobacco plants. There have been some
reports that plants treated with Actigard may be
slow in resuming growth after transplanting.
Cool weather, insects and diseases may prevent
fast early growth. Be sure to inspect for active
pest problems.

EBW

Biomass of a Cover Crop

Cover crops should be managed (fertilized and
planted at the proper date and seeding rate) to
make maximum amounts of cover for the crop
being planted into it. Research has shown that
high rates of cover crops (3000 lbs dry matter or
more) will result in cooler soil conditions during
the summer and more soil moisture throughout
the season and better yields in drought years.
Cover crops that reach 3 feet tall before killing
can make ideal situations to strip till cotton or
peanuts in. Most cover crops are never managed
or fertilized and often result in little more than
natural winter weed growth and will make little
difference to crop yield or soil quality. However,
it is better to plant the main crop on a timely
basis than to wait for the cover crop to make the
most growth.

DLW

Buyer Beware Telemarketers are in the AG
Business Too!

It happens every year, generally in the spring, but
it can happen at any time. An unsuspecting
grower gets a phone call and is presented with a
'wonder' product that is his or her answer to
weed control. The product name is often coded;
something like SP124, SM409, etc., etc. This
past week SK142 was a product name brought to
my attention. These people who call are very
good, and present a good argument and seem to
know what they are talking about. They will
often ask for a credit card number and will ship
the product directly to you. In addition, the price
sounds great.

The catch you ask? Snake Oil? Well here are a


couple of things to make you scratch your head.
1) how come I never heard of it before?,
not mentioned in grower meetings, etc.
2) why doesn't a distributor carry it?
3) if its so good, why is it so cheap?
4) what kind of a name is SK142?

Actually the product is generally a legitimate
herbicide, but not the wonder product you are led
to believe. Remember that all pesticides have a
twenty year patent life and after that time anyone
can market the product, but must use a different
trade name. So, the "wonder pr1duct'" is an old
herbicide with a new name. 2,4-D is a common
material used in these marketing schemes. I was
even asked about a wonder product for pecans.
The marketing person claimed 4 years worth of
bareground weed control under the trees. I
checked with agent, he checked and found out the
firm was in Georgia but home base for the
company was in Long Island, NY. They finally
sent a product label and it was prometon.
Prometon is the active ingredient in Pramitol,
which has been used for years as a soil sterilant.
In essence the grower would have gotten 4 years
worth of weed control but all the pecan trees
would have died from the prometon.

When someone gets a phone call of this type, the
best thing to do is ask for specifics. Can you
send (fax) a label? Do you have a web site?
What is the active ingredientss? What is your
EPA registration number? Also, ask for a phone
number where they can be reached. In addition,
if the product is 2,4-D or similar, are you really
saving money? Remember that buying a
pesticide over the phone has a lot of risks
including purity or authenticity of the product,
and lack of product support. Buyer Beware!

GEM

Nematicidal Bacillus lthuringien i' Proteins?

Crystal proteins from the Gram-positive soil
bacterium, Bacillus ;ili, ii0iL i/i/. (Bt), are pore-
forming toxins used extensively to control insect
pests, but their effect on the invertebrate phylum
Nematoda, which includes many soil dwelling
species, has been under-investigated. However,
researchers at the University of California, San







Prowl-damaged plants are often short, swollen
and have a blunt root tip. Other herbicides may
stunt the tobacco plants. There have been some
reports that plants treated with Actigard may be
slow in resuming growth after transplanting.
Cool weather, insects and diseases may prevent
fast early growth. Be sure to inspect for active
pest problems.

EBW

Biomass of a Cover Crop

Cover crops should be managed (fertilized and
planted at the proper date and seeding rate) to
make maximum amounts of cover for the crop
being planted into it. Research has shown that
high rates of cover crops (3000 lbs dry matter or
more) will result in cooler soil conditions during
the summer and more soil moisture throughout
the season and better yields in drought years.
Cover crops that reach 3 feet tall before killing
can make ideal situations to strip till cotton or
peanuts in. Most cover crops are never managed
or fertilized and often result in little more than
natural winter weed growth and will make little
difference to crop yield or soil quality. However,
it is better to plant the main crop on a timely
basis than to wait for the cover crop to make the
most growth.

DLW

Buyer Beware Telemarketers are in the AG
Business Too!

It happens every year, generally in the spring, but
it can happen at any time. An unsuspecting
grower gets a phone call and is presented with a
'wonder' product that is his or her answer to
weed control. The product name is often coded;
something like SP124, SM409, etc., etc. This
past week SK142 was a product name brought to
my attention. These people who call are very
good, and present a good argument and seem to
know what they are talking about. They will
often ask for a credit card number and will ship
the product directly to you. In addition, the price
sounds great.

The catch you ask? Snake Oil? Well here are a


couple of things to make you scratch your head.
1) how come I never heard of it before?,
not mentioned in grower meetings, etc.
2) why doesn't a distributor carry it?
3) if its so good, why is it so cheap?
4) what kind of a name is SK142?

Actually the product is generally a legitimate
herbicide, but not the wonder product you are led
to believe. Remember that all pesticides have a
twenty year patent life and after that time anyone
can market the product, but must use a different
trade name. So, the "wonder pr1duct'" is an old
herbicide with a new name. 2,4-D is a common
material used in these marketing schemes. I was
even asked about a wonder product for pecans.
The marketing person claimed 4 years worth of
bareground weed control under the trees. I
checked with agent, he checked and found out the
firm was in Georgia but home base for the
company was in Long Island, NY. They finally
sent a product label and it was prometon.
Prometon is the active ingredient in Pramitol,
which has been used for years as a soil sterilant.
In essence the grower would have gotten 4 years
worth of weed control but all the pecan trees
would have died from the prometon.

When someone gets a phone call of this type, the
best thing to do is ask for specifics. Can you
send (fax) a label? Do you have a web site?
What is the active ingredientss? What is your
EPA registration number? Also, ask for a phone
number where they can be reached. In addition,
if the product is 2,4-D or similar, are you really
saving money? Remember that buying a
pesticide over the phone has a lot of risks
including purity or authenticity of the product,
and lack of product support. Buyer Beware!

GEM

Nematicidal Bacillus lthuringien i' Proteins?

Crystal proteins from the Gram-positive soil
bacterium, Bacillus ;ili, ii0iL i/i/. (Bt), are pore-
forming toxins used extensively to control insect
pests, but their effect on the invertebrate phylum
Nematoda, which includes many soil dwelling
species, has been under-investigated. However,
researchers at the University of California, San







Diego, are demonstrating that Bt crystal proteins
are also toxic to nematodes. The group
expressed seven different crystal toxin proteins
from two largely unstudied Bt protein
subfamilies and measured their toxicity on
diverse free-living nematode species. They
observed that four of these crystal proteins are
active against multiple nematode species.
Toxicity in nematodes correlated with damage to
the intestine, consistent with the mechanism of
crystal toxin action in insects. In addition, they
showed that one novel nematicidal crystal protein
can be engineered to a small 43-kDa active core.
"Given the very low toxicity of Bt crystal
proteins in general toward vertebrates, Bt crystal
proteins may one day provide safe, cost-effective
control of nematode parasites, such as those that
infect over one quarter of the human population,"
conclude the researchers. (The Scientist,
2/18/03).


MAM


Reduced Tillage


show up in a wet season, as we have had this fall
and winter, when nutrients leach below the
compaction layer and roots cannot get down to
them. Subsoiling on most of our Coastal Plain
soils will give a significant yield response on
most crops. However, most data shows that
corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean can be strip till
planted without any yield loss and all but the
planting pass eliminated.

DLW

Publications

The following publication has been recently
UPDATED and is available through EDIS. A
PDF file for this publication is also available.

SS-AGR-176 Fertilizing and Liming Forage
Crops

The following NEW publication is available
through EDIS. A PDF file for this publication is
also available.


Are there tillage passes that can be eliminated
when fuel prices are high without affecting yield?
Much of the small grain this year has shown
yellow spots in the fields. Past examination of
these fields indicates to us that about 80% of
small grain problems are caused by lack of deep
tillage to break the compaction layer. This may


SS-AGR-190


Producing Peanuts for the Fresh
Market


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.







Diego, are demonstrating that Bt crystal proteins
are also toxic to nematodes. The group
expressed seven different crystal toxin proteins
from two largely unstudied Bt protein
subfamilies and measured their toxicity on
diverse free-living nematode species. They
observed that four of these crystal proteins are
active against multiple nematode species.
Toxicity in nematodes correlated with damage to
the intestine, consistent with the mechanism of
crystal toxin action in insects. In addition, they
showed that one novel nematicidal crystal protein
can be engineered to a small 43-kDa active core.
"Given the very low toxicity of Bt crystal
proteins in general toward vertebrates, Bt crystal
proteins may one day provide safe, cost-effective
control of nematode parasites, such as those that
infect over one quarter of the human population,"
conclude the researchers. (The Scientist,
2/18/03).


MAM


Reduced Tillage


show up in a wet season, as we have had this fall
and winter, when nutrients leach below the
compaction layer and roots cannot get down to
them. Subsoiling on most of our Coastal Plain
soils will give a significant yield response on
most crops. However, most data shows that
corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean can be strip till
planted without any yield loss and all but the
planting pass eliminated.

DLW

Publications

The following publication has been recently
UPDATED and is available through EDIS. A
PDF file for this publication is also available.

SS-AGR-176 Fertilizing and Liming Forage
Crops

The following NEW publication is available
through EDIS. A PDF file for this publication is
also available.


Are there tillage passes that can be eliminated
when fuel prices are high without affecting yield?
Much of the small grain this year has shown
yellow spots in the fields. Past examination of
these fields indicates to us that about 80% of
small grain problems are caused by lack of deep
tillage to break the compaction layer. This may


SS-AGR-190


Producing Peanuts for the Fresh
Market


The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.