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 Table of Contents
 Acceptance of transgenic varieties...
 Cotton seed supplies
 Starter fertilizer needs for...
 Bermudagrass establishment - time...
 Best management practices...
 Hay producers
 Slow growth for cool season...
 Soil testing of pasture
 Use of lime stabilized sludge on...
 Preventative weed management
 Pesticide registration updates
 Annual report of 2002 crop...


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00031
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: February 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00031

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Acceptance of transgenic varieties of cotton
        Page 2
    Cotton seed supplies
        Page 2
    Starter fertilizer needs for corn
        Page 2
    Bermudagrass establishment - time for planting
        Page 2
    Best management practices for pastures
        Page 2
    Hay producers
        Page 3
    Slow growth for cool season pastures
        Page 3
    Soil testing of pasture
        Page 4
    Use of lime stabilized sludge on bahiagrass pastures
        Page 4
    Preventative weed management
        Page 4
    Pesticide registration updates
        Page 5
    Annual report of 2002 crop production+
        Page 6
Full Text







AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA
IFAS EXTENSION


OTES


February 2003

DATES TO REMEMBER
May 8 Forage Field Day, Jay Research Farm
July 8 Agronomy Weed Science Field Day (Deep South Weed Tour),
Jay Research Farm
September 5 Row Crop Field Day, Jay Research Farm


IN THIS ISSUE


COTTON
Acceptance of Transgenic Varieties of Cotton ......
Cotton Seed Supplies .........................
Starter Fertilizer Needs for Corn ...............

FORAGE
Bermudagrass Establishment Time of Planting .....
Best Management Practices for Pastures ..........
H ay Producers ............................
Slow Growth of Cool Season Pastures ............
Soil Testing of Pasture ........................
Use of Lime Stabilized Sludge on Bahiagrass Pastures

WEED MANAGEMENT
Preventative Weed Management ................

MISCELLANEOUS
Pesticide Registration Updates ..................
Annual Report of 2002 Crop Production ..........


. . . . 2
. . . . . . 2
. . . .. . . 3
. . . . . . 3
. . . .. . . 4
. . . . . .. 4


. . . . . . 4


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Office. Florida
Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University ofFlorida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.











Acceptance of Transgenic Varieties of
Cotton

Delta and Pine Land Company sells about
75% of all cotton grown in the U.S. Of the
cotton seed that was sold from the company
in 2002, 95% was transgenic with either the
Roundup Ready, Bt or a combination of the
two traits. Most of the non transgenic
varieties are still available but little is grown
commercially.

DLW

Cotton Seed Supplies

Seed production was hampered in 2002 by a
bad harvest season, however, seed supplies
of all varieties look adequate for 2003. It is
advisable to line up seed for the newest
varieties since seed of these will be in
shortest supply.

DLW

Starter Fertilizer Needs for Corn

Years of research on corn has shown that
most hybrids will respond in growth and
yield to fertilizer applied two inches to the
side and two inches below the seed or to a
surface dribble of a fertilizer containing N,
P, and S. A mixture of 50% 10-34-0 and
50% 28-0-0-5 is often adequate to supply all
of the P needs throughout the season. Even
soils that are high in P will respond to starter
fertilizers. However, P rates can be reduced
on high P soils since no more than 2 lbs./A of
P taken up on a per acre basis on corn 12
inches tall. Nitrogen must be kept out of the
seed furrow since it can reduce stands.

DLW


Bermudagrass Establishment Time of
Planting

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be
established from vegetative plant parts. Dug
sprigs, consisting of underground rhizomes,
plant crowns and stolons can be planted from
mid-February through July. Sprigging
bermudagrass in mid to late winter before it
starts growing (before breaking dormancy) is
encouraged. Sprigs dug in early spring after
the plants have broken dormancy have lower
levels of energy reserves. Energy reserves
are needed to initiate and develop new shoots
(sprouts). Also, soil moisture is usually
more favorable in late winter as compared to
spring (April-May). In the spring, when top
growth reaches four to six inches, digging
and planting of sprigs should be delayed until
after the first hay harvest or harvest of tops
for planting. Tops (green stems) can be
planted in June and July. The grass should
be overly mature with six weeks or more of
growth when the tops are harvested for
planting. (source: Florida Forage Handbook).

CGC

Best Management Practices for Pastures

"On bahiagrass pastures nitrogen is applied
in relation to intensity of use, but generally
50 to 60 pounds of
nitrogen/acre should be applied in late
winter. This time correlates with a period of
low to moderate rainfall and nitrogen
fertilizer is least likely to be washed into
surface waters. It is also the time ranches
are most in need of forage. Other perennial
grasses may need nitrogen in late winter and
at other times through the year based on
IFAS recommendations."











Acceptance of Transgenic Varieties of
Cotton

Delta and Pine Land Company sells about
75% of all cotton grown in the U.S. Of the
cotton seed that was sold from the company
in 2002, 95% was transgenic with either the
Roundup Ready, Bt or a combination of the
two traits. Most of the non transgenic
varieties are still available but little is grown
commercially.

DLW

Cotton Seed Supplies

Seed production was hampered in 2002 by a
bad harvest season, however, seed supplies
of all varieties look adequate for 2003. It is
advisable to line up seed for the newest
varieties since seed of these will be in
shortest supply.

DLW

Starter Fertilizer Needs for Corn

Years of research on corn has shown that
most hybrids will respond in growth and
yield to fertilizer applied two inches to the
side and two inches below the seed or to a
surface dribble of a fertilizer containing N,
P, and S. A mixture of 50% 10-34-0 and
50% 28-0-0-5 is often adequate to supply all
of the P needs throughout the season. Even
soils that are high in P will respond to starter
fertilizers. However, P rates can be reduced
on high P soils since no more than 2 lbs./A of
P taken up on a per acre basis on corn 12
inches tall. Nitrogen must be kept out of the
seed furrow since it can reduce stands.

DLW


Bermudagrass Establishment Time of
Planting

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be
established from vegetative plant parts. Dug
sprigs, consisting of underground rhizomes,
plant crowns and stolons can be planted from
mid-February through July. Sprigging
bermudagrass in mid to late winter before it
starts growing (before breaking dormancy) is
encouraged. Sprigs dug in early spring after
the plants have broken dormancy have lower
levels of energy reserves. Energy reserves
are needed to initiate and develop new shoots
(sprouts). Also, soil moisture is usually
more favorable in late winter as compared to
spring (April-May). In the spring, when top
growth reaches four to six inches, digging
and planting of sprigs should be delayed until
after the first hay harvest or harvest of tops
for planting. Tops (green stems) can be
planted in June and July. The grass should
be overly mature with six weeks or more of
growth when the tops are harvested for
planting. (source: Florida Forage Handbook).

CGC

Best Management Practices for Pastures

"On bahiagrass pastures nitrogen is applied
in relation to intensity of use, but generally
50 to 60 pounds of
nitrogen/acre should be applied in late
winter. This time correlates with a period of
low to moderate rainfall and nitrogen
fertilizer is least likely to be washed into
surface waters. It is also the time ranches
are most in need of forage. Other perennial
grasses may need nitrogen in late winter and
at other times through the year based on
IFAS recommendations."











Acceptance of Transgenic Varieties of
Cotton

Delta and Pine Land Company sells about
75% of all cotton grown in the U.S. Of the
cotton seed that was sold from the company
in 2002, 95% was transgenic with either the
Roundup Ready, Bt or a combination of the
two traits. Most of the non transgenic
varieties are still available but little is grown
commercially.

DLW

Cotton Seed Supplies

Seed production was hampered in 2002 by a
bad harvest season, however, seed supplies
of all varieties look adequate for 2003. It is
advisable to line up seed for the newest
varieties since seed of these will be in
shortest supply.

DLW

Starter Fertilizer Needs for Corn

Years of research on corn has shown that
most hybrids will respond in growth and
yield to fertilizer applied two inches to the
side and two inches below the seed or to a
surface dribble of a fertilizer containing N,
P, and S. A mixture of 50% 10-34-0 and
50% 28-0-0-5 is often adequate to supply all
of the P needs throughout the season. Even
soils that are high in P will respond to starter
fertilizers. However, P rates can be reduced
on high P soils since no more than 2 lbs./A of
P taken up on a per acre basis on corn 12
inches tall. Nitrogen must be kept out of the
seed furrow since it can reduce stands.

DLW


Bermudagrass Establishment Time of
Planting

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be
established from vegetative plant parts. Dug
sprigs, consisting of underground rhizomes,
plant crowns and stolons can be planted from
mid-February through July. Sprigging
bermudagrass in mid to late winter before it
starts growing (before breaking dormancy) is
encouraged. Sprigs dug in early spring after
the plants have broken dormancy have lower
levels of energy reserves. Energy reserves
are needed to initiate and develop new shoots
(sprouts). Also, soil moisture is usually
more favorable in late winter as compared to
spring (April-May). In the spring, when top
growth reaches four to six inches, digging
and planting of sprigs should be delayed until
after the first hay harvest or harvest of tops
for planting. Tops (green stems) can be
planted in June and July. The grass should
be overly mature with six weeks or more of
growth when the tops are harvested for
planting. (source: Florida Forage Handbook).

CGC

Best Management Practices for Pastures

"On bahiagrass pastures nitrogen is applied
in relation to intensity of use, but generally
50 to 60 pounds of
nitrogen/acre should be applied in late
winter. This time correlates with a period of
low to moderate rainfall and nitrogen
fertilizer is least likely to be washed into
surface waters. It is also the time ranches
are most in need of forage. Other perennial
grasses may need nitrogen in late winter and
at other times through the year based on
IFAS recommendations."











Acceptance of Transgenic Varieties of
Cotton

Delta and Pine Land Company sells about
75% of all cotton grown in the U.S. Of the
cotton seed that was sold from the company
in 2002, 95% was transgenic with either the
Roundup Ready, Bt or a combination of the
two traits. Most of the non transgenic
varieties are still available but little is grown
commercially.

DLW

Cotton Seed Supplies

Seed production was hampered in 2002 by a
bad harvest season, however, seed supplies
of all varieties look adequate for 2003. It is
advisable to line up seed for the newest
varieties since seed of these will be in
shortest supply.

DLW

Starter Fertilizer Needs for Corn

Years of research on corn has shown that
most hybrids will respond in growth and
yield to fertilizer applied two inches to the
side and two inches below the seed or to a
surface dribble of a fertilizer containing N,
P, and S. A mixture of 50% 10-34-0 and
50% 28-0-0-5 is often adequate to supply all
of the P needs throughout the season. Even
soils that are high in P will respond to starter
fertilizers. However, P rates can be reduced
on high P soils since no more than 2 lbs./A of
P taken up on a per acre basis on corn 12
inches tall. Nitrogen must be kept out of the
seed furrow since it can reduce stands.

DLW


Bermudagrass Establishment Time of
Planting

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be
established from vegetative plant parts. Dug
sprigs, consisting of underground rhizomes,
plant crowns and stolons can be planted from
mid-February through July. Sprigging
bermudagrass in mid to late winter before it
starts growing (before breaking dormancy) is
encouraged. Sprigs dug in early spring after
the plants have broken dormancy have lower
levels of energy reserves. Energy reserves
are needed to initiate and develop new shoots
(sprouts). Also, soil moisture is usually
more favorable in late winter as compared to
spring (April-May). In the spring, when top
growth reaches four to six inches, digging
and planting of sprigs should be delayed until
after the first hay harvest or harvest of tops
for planting. Tops (green stems) can be
planted in June and July. The grass should
be overly mature with six weeks or more of
growth when the tops are harvested for
planting. (source: Florida Forage Handbook).

CGC

Best Management Practices for Pastures

"On bahiagrass pastures nitrogen is applied
in relation to intensity of use, but generally
50 to 60 pounds of
nitrogen/acre should be applied in late
winter. This time correlates with a period of
low to moderate rainfall and nitrogen
fertilizer is least likely to be washed into
surface waters. It is also the time ranches
are most in need of forage. Other perennial
grasses may need nitrogen in late winter and
at other times through the year based on
IFAS recommendations."











Acceptance of Transgenic Varieties of
Cotton

Delta and Pine Land Company sells about
75% of all cotton grown in the U.S. Of the
cotton seed that was sold from the company
in 2002, 95% was transgenic with either the
Roundup Ready, Bt or a combination of the
two traits. Most of the non transgenic
varieties are still available but little is grown
commercially.

DLW

Cotton Seed Supplies

Seed production was hampered in 2002 by a
bad harvest season, however, seed supplies
of all varieties look adequate for 2003. It is
advisable to line up seed for the newest
varieties since seed of these will be in
shortest supply.

DLW

Starter Fertilizer Needs for Corn

Years of research on corn has shown that
most hybrids will respond in growth and
yield to fertilizer applied two inches to the
side and two inches below the seed or to a
surface dribble of a fertilizer containing N,
P, and S. A mixture of 50% 10-34-0 and
50% 28-0-0-5 is often adequate to supply all
of the P needs throughout the season. Even
soils that are high in P will respond to starter
fertilizers. However, P rates can be reduced
on high P soils since no more than 2 lbs./A of
P taken up on a per acre basis on corn 12
inches tall. Nitrogen must be kept out of the
seed furrow since it can reduce stands.

DLW


Bermudagrass Establishment Time of
Planting

The improved hybrid bermudagrasses do not
produce sufficient seed and must be
established from vegetative plant parts. Dug
sprigs, consisting of underground rhizomes,
plant crowns and stolons can be planted from
mid-February through July. Sprigging
bermudagrass in mid to late winter before it
starts growing (before breaking dormancy) is
encouraged. Sprigs dug in early spring after
the plants have broken dormancy have lower
levels of energy reserves. Energy reserves
are needed to initiate and develop new shoots
(sprouts). Also, soil moisture is usually
more favorable in late winter as compared to
spring (April-May). In the spring, when top
growth reaches four to six inches, digging
and planting of sprigs should be delayed until
after the first hay harvest or harvest of tops
for planting. Tops (green stems) can be
planted in June and July. The grass should
be overly mature with six weeks or more of
growth when the tops are harvested for
planting. (source: Florida Forage Handbook).

CGC

Best Management Practices for Pastures

"On bahiagrass pastures nitrogen is applied
in relation to intensity of use, but generally
50 to 60 pounds of
nitrogen/acre should be applied in late
winter. This time correlates with a period of
low to moderate rainfall and nitrogen
fertilizer is least likely to be washed into
surface waters. It is also the time ranches
are most in need of forage. Other perennial
grasses may need nitrogen in late winter and
at other times through the year based on
IFAS recommendations."











"Timing of Nutrient Application: To avoid
nutrient losses through runoff, apply
fertilizers during times with the least
potential for leaching or surface runoff.
Refer to the water budget (provided by
NRC S) for your county to determine the
times when the lowest potential for nutrient
losses from rainfall occur. Time nutrient
applications so that they coincide as closely
as possible with periods of plant growth and
nutrient uptake."

"Optimize Nutrient Uptake: Maintain proper
soil pH for optimum utilization of applied
nutrients, while preventing toxic effects from
other accumulated elements, such as copper.
The pH recommendations are published in
Univ. of Florida, IFAS Fact Sheet # SL-
129."

"Prevent Nutrient movement off-site: Include
erosion control practices to minimize soil
loss and runoff that can carry dissolved and
soil-bore nutrients to surface waters. Filter
strips along streams are very effective in
reducing the levels of suspended solids and
nutrients.
Try to prevent spreading fertilizers in ditches
as this is a means of movement off-site.
Also, plan fertilizer loading sites away from
ditches and canals where spills can
contaminate the water."

[Source: Water Quality Best Management
Practices for Cow/Calf Operations in
Florida; June 1999.]

CGC

Hay Producers

Prepare for the coming season: Bum frosted
bermudagrass stubble to reduce spittlebug
infestation, certain fungal diseases, remove


trash and kill early germinating winter
weeds. Burning also seems to allow the sun
to warm the ground and stimulate growth.
Do not burn too soon. Wait until a few green
shoots are present, indicating that the
bermudagrass is breaking "dormancy". If a
hard freeze follows shortly after growth is
stimulated, the stand could be damaged.
This is especially true for a non-cold tolerant
bermuda such as Coastcross 1. Coastal
and other bermudagrasses that have rhizomes
have greater cold tolerance and will likely
survive a hard freeze.

Study soil tests and consider last years
growth. Are there areas in the field where
growth appeared to be reduced or where the
stand is thinning? Bermudagrass uses a lot
of potassium and over time there may be
excessive "drawdown" of the potassium in
the soil profile if only minimal amounts have
been applied. Thinning of the stand is a
common symptom of insufficient potassium.

Fertilize the new growth with 80 pounds ofN
per acre and the soil test recommended
amounts of potassium and phosphorus.

Be prepared to control winter weeds in the
first growth period if needed. Burning will
kill many of the weed seedlings, but a
herbicide may be needed to kill weeds that
escape the fire or that germinate later. Try to
kill these weeds early so that they will have
enough time to dry and disintegrate before
the first harvest is taken.

CGC

Slow Growth of Cool Season Pastures

Several complaints have been received about
the slow growth of cool season pastures.
Comments such as "The ryegrass is dark











"Timing of Nutrient Application: To avoid
nutrient losses through runoff, apply
fertilizers during times with the least
potential for leaching or surface runoff.
Refer to the water budget (provided by
NRC S) for your county to determine the
times when the lowest potential for nutrient
losses from rainfall occur. Time nutrient
applications so that they coincide as closely
as possible with periods of plant growth and
nutrient uptake."

"Optimize Nutrient Uptake: Maintain proper
soil pH for optimum utilization of applied
nutrients, while preventing toxic effects from
other accumulated elements, such as copper.
The pH recommendations are published in
Univ. of Florida, IFAS Fact Sheet # SL-
129."

"Prevent Nutrient movement off-site: Include
erosion control practices to minimize soil
loss and runoff that can carry dissolved and
soil-bore nutrients to surface waters. Filter
strips along streams are very effective in
reducing the levels of suspended solids and
nutrients.
Try to prevent spreading fertilizers in ditches
as this is a means of movement off-site.
Also, plan fertilizer loading sites away from
ditches and canals where spills can
contaminate the water."

[Source: Water Quality Best Management
Practices for Cow/Calf Operations in
Florida; June 1999.]

CGC

Hay Producers

Prepare for the coming season: Bum frosted
bermudagrass stubble to reduce spittlebug
infestation, certain fungal diseases, remove


trash and kill early germinating winter
weeds. Burning also seems to allow the sun
to warm the ground and stimulate growth.
Do not burn too soon. Wait until a few green
shoots are present, indicating that the
bermudagrass is breaking "dormancy". If a
hard freeze follows shortly after growth is
stimulated, the stand could be damaged.
This is especially true for a non-cold tolerant
bermuda such as Coastcross 1. Coastal
and other bermudagrasses that have rhizomes
have greater cold tolerance and will likely
survive a hard freeze.

Study soil tests and consider last years
growth. Are there areas in the field where
growth appeared to be reduced or where the
stand is thinning? Bermudagrass uses a lot
of potassium and over time there may be
excessive "drawdown" of the potassium in
the soil profile if only minimal amounts have
been applied. Thinning of the stand is a
common symptom of insufficient potassium.

Fertilize the new growth with 80 pounds ofN
per acre and the soil test recommended
amounts of potassium and phosphorus.

Be prepared to control winter weeds in the
first growth period if needed. Burning will
kill many of the weed seedlings, but a
herbicide may be needed to kill weeds that
escape the fire or that germinate later. Try to
kill these weeds early so that they will have
enough time to dry and disintegrate before
the first harvest is taken.

CGC

Slow Growth of Cool Season Pastures

Several complaints have been received about
the slow growth of cool season pastures.
Comments such as "The ryegrass is dark











green but is just setting there" have been
heard. This slow growth of cool season
forages is most likely due to the extended
period of cold weather. In some situations,
rye may still be suffering from an early
season attack of seedling diseases such as
pythium.

With the arrival of warmer temperatures,
adequate soil moisture and nitrogen, these
grasses should begin rapid growth. Don't
overgraze. Leave plenty of leaf to capture
the energy in sunlight which makes the plant
grow.

CGC

Soil Testing of Pasture

Soil testing of pastures for pH (soil acidity or
alkalinity) is still important. The target pH
for bahiagrass pastures is 5.0 in South FL or
5.5 on the heavier soils in North FL. If the
pH has fallen below 5.0, lime will need to be
added to the pasture. Most of the time we are
concerned with adding lime to correct soil
acidity. But, recently it has been
demonstrated that bahiagrass pastures can be
over-limed. Where the pH has been pushed
above 7.0, bahiagrass has died and attempts
to get it reestablished have failed. At pH 7.0
or above, important micronutrients become
unavailable to the plant and this causes the
bahiagrass plants to die. In such situations,
elemental sulfur can be added, at
considerable expense, to lower the pH below
7.0 which hopefully will allow bahiagrass
seedlings to establish

CGC


Use of Lime Stabilized Sludge on
Bahiagrass Pastures

Lime stabilized sludge contains significant
amounts of liming material that will raise the
soil pH.

Producers using this material for its nitrogen
content should constantly be aware of the
liming effect of the material. Ask the
supplier to inform you of the amount of lime
(or lime equivalent) that is being applied with
each load. They will need to have run a
calcium carbonate equivalence (CCE) test on
the material. You then multiply the amount
of lime per load by the number of loads per
acre to get the liming rate. Is it 1000 pounds
of lime per acre? If so, one application per
year for two years will give you a ton of lime
per acre and may move the pH up one unit.
Therefore if you are starting at 6.0, you may
move the pH to 7.0. Also, take a soil sample
and check the soil pH at least once each year
on any land to which you are applying sludge
(a.k.a, biosolids).

CGC

Preventative Weed Management

Preventative weed management sounds like a
beginning weed science class subject, but it
actually does have some practical merit. In
this article I will discuss a couple of ways
preventative weed management can be used
by growers and agents to spot problem issues
and prevent major weed infestations.

Scouting: How much money is spent ever
year scouting for insects? Why not weeds?
Everyone thinks weeds can't sneak up and
explode into a devastating population
overnight, so why worry. Well, I won't
argue that point, but I think weed resistance











green but is just setting there" have been
heard. This slow growth of cool season
forages is most likely due to the extended
period of cold weather. In some situations,
rye may still be suffering from an early
season attack of seedling diseases such as
pythium.

With the arrival of warmer temperatures,
adequate soil moisture and nitrogen, these
grasses should begin rapid growth. Don't
overgraze. Leave plenty of leaf to capture
the energy in sunlight which makes the plant
grow.

CGC

Soil Testing of Pasture

Soil testing of pastures for pH (soil acidity or
alkalinity) is still important. The target pH
for bahiagrass pastures is 5.0 in South FL or
5.5 on the heavier soils in North FL. If the
pH has fallen below 5.0, lime will need to be
added to the pasture. Most of the time we are
concerned with adding lime to correct soil
acidity. But, recently it has been
demonstrated that bahiagrass pastures can be
over-limed. Where the pH has been pushed
above 7.0, bahiagrass has died and attempts
to get it reestablished have failed. At pH 7.0
or above, important micronutrients become
unavailable to the plant and this causes the
bahiagrass plants to die. In such situations,
elemental sulfur can be added, at
considerable expense, to lower the pH below
7.0 which hopefully will allow bahiagrass
seedlings to establish

CGC


Use of Lime Stabilized Sludge on
Bahiagrass Pastures

Lime stabilized sludge contains significant
amounts of liming material that will raise the
soil pH.

Producers using this material for its nitrogen
content should constantly be aware of the
liming effect of the material. Ask the
supplier to inform you of the amount of lime
(or lime equivalent) that is being applied with
each load. They will need to have run a
calcium carbonate equivalence (CCE) test on
the material. You then multiply the amount
of lime per load by the number of loads per
acre to get the liming rate. Is it 1000 pounds
of lime per acre? If so, one application per
year for two years will give you a ton of lime
per acre and may move the pH up one unit.
Therefore if you are starting at 6.0, you may
move the pH to 7.0. Also, take a soil sample
and check the soil pH at least once each year
on any land to which you are applying sludge
(a.k.a, biosolids).

CGC

Preventative Weed Management

Preventative weed management sounds like a
beginning weed science class subject, but it
actually does have some practical merit. In
this article I will discuss a couple of ways
preventative weed management can be used
by growers and agents to spot problem issues
and prevent major weed infestations.

Scouting: How much money is spent ever
year scouting for insects? Why not weeds?
Everyone thinks weeds can't sneak up and
explode into a devastating population
overnight, so why worry. Well, I won't
argue that point, but I think weed resistance











green but is just setting there" have been
heard. This slow growth of cool season
forages is most likely due to the extended
period of cold weather. In some situations,
rye may still be suffering from an early
season attack of seedling diseases such as
pythium.

With the arrival of warmer temperatures,
adequate soil moisture and nitrogen, these
grasses should begin rapid growth. Don't
overgraze. Leave plenty of leaf to capture
the energy in sunlight which makes the plant
grow.

CGC

Soil Testing of Pasture

Soil testing of pastures for pH (soil acidity or
alkalinity) is still important. The target pH
for bahiagrass pastures is 5.0 in South FL or
5.5 on the heavier soils in North FL. If the
pH has fallen below 5.0, lime will need to be
added to the pasture. Most of the time we are
concerned with adding lime to correct soil
acidity. But, recently it has been
demonstrated that bahiagrass pastures can be
over-limed. Where the pH has been pushed
above 7.0, bahiagrass has died and attempts
to get it reestablished have failed. At pH 7.0
or above, important micronutrients become
unavailable to the plant and this causes the
bahiagrass plants to die. In such situations,
elemental sulfur can be added, at
considerable expense, to lower the pH below
7.0 which hopefully will allow bahiagrass
seedlings to establish

CGC


Use of Lime Stabilized Sludge on
Bahiagrass Pastures

Lime stabilized sludge contains significant
amounts of liming material that will raise the
soil pH.

Producers using this material for its nitrogen
content should constantly be aware of the
liming effect of the material. Ask the
supplier to inform you of the amount of lime
(or lime equivalent) that is being applied with
each load. They will need to have run a
calcium carbonate equivalence (CCE) test on
the material. You then multiply the amount
of lime per load by the number of loads per
acre to get the liming rate. Is it 1000 pounds
of lime per acre? If so, one application per
year for two years will give you a ton of lime
per acre and may move the pH up one unit.
Therefore if you are starting at 6.0, you may
move the pH to 7.0. Also, take a soil sample
and check the soil pH at least once each year
on any land to which you are applying sludge
(a.k.a, biosolids).

CGC

Preventative Weed Management

Preventative weed management sounds like a
beginning weed science class subject, but it
actually does have some practical merit. In
this article I will discuss a couple of ways
preventative weed management can be used
by growers and agents to spot problem issues
and prevent major weed infestations.

Scouting: How much money is spent ever
year scouting for insects? Why not weeds?
Everyone thinks weeds can't sneak up and
explode into a devastating population
overnight, so why worry. Well, I won't
argue that point, but I think weed resistance











is a good a reason as any to watch out for
weeds. When your scouts are in the fields,
have them note unusual weed patches, or
single weeds that appear to live in a sea of
dead colleagues. Several weedy species,
such as pigweeds, are going to a major
nightmare, particularly with so many
herbicides having the same mode-of-action.
Remember that one pigweed will produce
over 250,000 seeds and since crop rotation is
limited for many growers, nipping the
problem quickly is money well spent.

Clean seed and field amendments: How
many times have you heard someone say -
"didn't have that problem til ___? Let me
fill in the blank with several examples.

1. Chicken litter not an issue directly out
of the chicken house, but several weeds
flourish on the litter piles sitting outside
the house. These often go un-noticed
when the litter is later hauled to be
spread on the field.

2. Gin trash cotton gin trash is often used
as a source of nutrients and organic
amendment, but is many times loaded
with weed seeds. I performed a peanut
study once with gin trash and counted
over 30 species within a 100 x 100 foot
area. Be sure to let the trash compost
and that will eliminate many weed
problems.

3. Small grain cover small grains are used
in the winter for a cover crop or winter
cattle grazing. However, be sure to
check the source of seed. Many folks
will not used certified seed to save
money, and buy the cheapest stuff
available. That is OK, but be sure to
check how many weed seeds you are
purchasing with your small grain seed.


4. Hay another good source of weed seeds
is hay brought in for winter feeding.
Weeds like crabgrass, goosegrass,
panicum are easily spread through
contaminated hay. It is hard to detect
many of these at the time of feeding but
one measure could be to limit the number
of feeding sites and the area that cattle
can spread the seed.

The key issue in preventative weed
management is keeping ones eyes open to
potential ways weeds can spread.
Contaminated seed, hay, and equipment are
some of the possibilities, but each operation
has many unique ways. Crop rotation was a
good way to reduce many problems in the
past, but economics is driving many growers
to plant the same crop year after year.
Therefore, prevention, particularly in the
case of herbicide resistant weed populations
will become more and more critical.

GEM

Pesticide Registration Updates

On November 7, FDACS registered BASF
Corporation's Headline (pyraclostrobin)
fungicide (EPA Reg. # 7969-186) for control
of disease in citrus, peanut, potato, and other
crops. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 12/5/02).

On November 8, FDACS conditionally
registered Valent U.S.A. Corporation's
Regiment (bispyribac sodium) herbicide
(EPA Reg. # 59639-105) for selective
postemergent control of many weeds
infesting rice. (FDACS PREC Agenda,
12/5/02).

On November 8, FDACS conditionally
registered Dow AgroSciences' Grandstand












R (triclopyr) herbicide (EPA Reg. # Dupont Agricultural Products received
62719-215) for selective postemergent tolerances for residues of the herbicide
broadleaf weed control in rice. (FDACS pyrithiobac sodium (Staple) in or on
PREC Agenda, 12/5/02). undelinted cotton seed (0.02 ppm) and cotton
gin byproducts (0.15 ppm). (Federal
Register, 12/4/02).

MAM



Annual Report of 2002 Crop Production

The USDA-NASS has released the following estimates of crop production for 2002:


Florida United States

Crop Acres (x1000) Average Yield Acres (x1000) Average Yield

Corn for grain 34 96 bu 69,313 130 bu

Corn for silage 34 18 ton 7,490 14 ton

Wheat 7 43 bu 45,817 35.3 bu

Hay, all 280 2.80 ton 64,497 2.34 ton

Peanuts 86 2300 lb 1296.7 2561 lb

Soybeans 8 31 bu 72,160 37.8 bu

Cotton 115 346 lb 13,962 663 lb

Tobacco 4.6 2600 lb 430.3 2068 lb

Sugarcane 461 38.2 ton 1026.1 35.0 ton



The use oftrade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.