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 Table of Contents
 Bermudagrass establishment
 Cool season forages
 Liming pastures
 Sources of hay
 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria for...
 Planting dates for green peanu...
 Valencia peanut varieties
 Actigard for tobacco plant beds...
 Tobacco quota for 2003
 Managing wild radish in wheat and...
 Impact of farm bill on row...
 Soil test depth for long term strip...
 Pesticide update


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00030
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: January 2003
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00030

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Bermudagrass establishment
        Page 2
    Cool season forages
        Page 2
    Liming pastures
        Page 3
    Sources of hay
        Page 3
    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria for peanuts
        Page 3
    Planting dates for green peanuts
        Page 3
    Valencia peanut varieties
        Page 4
    Actigard for tobacco plant beds and greenhouses
        Page 4
    Tobacco quota for 2003
        Page 4
    Managing wild radish in wheat and other small grains
        Page 5
    Impact of farm bill on row crops
        Page 6
    Soil test depth for long term strip till and no-till fields
        Page 6
    Pesticide update
        Page 6
Full Text







UNIVERSITY OF

SFLORIDA

EXTENSION
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


AGRONOMY


NOTE


January 2003


January 22
January 27-30
January 30
January 31
February 2-4
February 3
February 9-12


DATES TO REMEMBER
Agronomic Crops In-Service Training, Quincy
Southern Weed Sci. Society Annual Meeting, Houstin, TX
Corn Silage Production Meeting, Branford
Corn Silage Production Meeting, Okeechobee
ASA Southern Branch Meetings, Mobile, AL
Flue-Cured Tobacco Stabilization District Meeting, Live Oak
Weed Science Society of America Meetings, Jacksonville


IN THIS ISSUE


FORAGE
Bermudagrass Establishment ................ .............................. 2
Cool Season Forages ........... ............................................ 2
Liming Pastures ................................... .................... 3
Sources of Hay .......... ................................................. 3

PEANUT
Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria for Peanuts ................ ........................ 3
Planting Dates for Green Peanuts ................ ........................... 3
Valencia Peanut Varieties .................................................. 4

TOBACCO
Actigard for Tobacco Plant Beds and Greenhouses .............................. 4
Tobacco Quota for 2003 ................................................... 4

WEED MANAGEMENT
Managing Wild Radish in Wheat and Other Small Grains ................... ....... 5

OTHER
Impact of Farm Bill on Row Crops ............................................ 6
Soil Test Depth For Long Term Strip Till and No-till Fields ........................ 6
Pesticide Update .............. ................... .................... 6


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/ Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/ University of Florida/ Christine Taylor
Waddill, Director.









Bermudagrass Establishment


Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can
be established by planting dug sprigs from
mid January through March. This is
especially true for those that produce lots of
rhizomes. The stargrasses which do not
produce rhizomes and Coastcross-1
bermudagrass which produces very few
rhizomes can be planted in the summer from
tops. All of the bermudagrasses can be
established by planting tops in the summer,
but there may be some advantages for
planting dug sprigs at the beginning of the
growing season. Earlier planting may result
in more complete coverage and more forage
production during the establishment year.
Since this is a cooler time of the year, heat
damage ("scalding") is avoided. There is
usually less weed competition in the spring
as compared to summer plantings. On the
other hand, failure may result from a spring
drought (April-May). This is especially true
for peninsular Florida.

CGC

Cool Season Forages

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-
season legumes, and mixtures of these
forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grasses will
need additional nitrogen for sustained
vigorous growth. Apply an additional 50 to
65 lb./A of N. Two hundred lb. of
ammonium nitrate contains approximately
67 lb. of N. Ammonium sulphate is 21%
nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb. of N. If
possible, apply the N after a grazing cycle
when the grass has been grazed down and


apply later in the day when the dew has
dried.

On flatwoods soil where ryegrass is
commonly grown, nitrogen can be lost
through the process of denitrification. This
is the process, where under flooded
conditions, certain bacteria convert nitrate to
nitrogen gas and the nitrogen goes out of the
soil into the air. Plants will turn a light
yellow in color which is an indicator of
nitrogen deficiency. This usually occurs as
yellow spots in the pasture that have poor
growth. These spots will occur in
depressions or swells where water
accumulates and stands or where the soil
stays completely saturated for several days.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and
rotational grazing (stocking) provide the
opportunity to prevent overgrazing. Allow
pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then graze.
When the cool season forages have been
grazed down to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the
animals should be moved to a new pasture.
Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a
large pasture with an electric fence can
provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing
(stocking) promotes uniform grazing and
maximum use of the forage. If acreage is
limited or growth reduced, use the practice
of "Limit Grazing". Limit grazing is the
practice of moving the cattle in and out of
the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for two hours or less will
conserve forage, yet permit the animals to
obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC









Bermudagrass Establishment


Most improved hybrid bermudagrasses can
be established by planting dug sprigs from
mid January through March. This is
especially true for those that produce lots of
rhizomes. The stargrasses which do not
produce rhizomes and Coastcross-1
bermudagrass which produces very few
rhizomes can be planted in the summer from
tops. All of the bermudagrasses can be
established by planting tops in the summer,
but there may be some advantages for
planting dug sprigs at the beginning of the
growing season. Earlier planting may result
in more complete coverage and more forage
production during the establishment year.
Since this is a cooler time of the year, heat
damage ("scalding") is avoided. There is
usually less weed competition in the spring
as compared to summer plantings. On the
other hand, failure may result from a spring
drought (April-May). This is especially true
for peninsular Florida.

CGC

Cool Season Forages

Ryegrass, small grains, tall fescue, cool-
season legumes, and mixtures of these
forages may need extra attention in
February.

Nitrogen The cool season grasses will
need additional nitrogen for sustained
vigorous growth. Apply an additional 50 to
65 lb./A of N. Two hundred lb. of
ammonium nitrate contains approximately
67 lb. of N. Ammonium sulphate is 21%
nitrogen and 24% sulphur. Three hundred
pounds per acre would apply 63 lb. of N. If
possible, apply the N after a grazing cycle
when the grass has been grazed down and


apply later in the day when the dew has
dried.

On flatwoods soil where ryegrass is
commonly grown, nitrogen can be lost
through the process of denitrification. This
is the process, where under flooded
conditions, certain bacteria convert nitrate to
nitrogen gas and the nitrogen goes out of the
soil into the air. Plants will turn a light
yellow in color which is an indicator of
nitrogen deficiency. This usually occurs as
yellow spots in the pasture that have poor
growth. These spots will occur in
depressions or swells where water
accumulates and stands or where the soil
stays completely saturated for several days.

Grazing Management Cross fencing and
rotational grazing (stocking) provide the
opportunity to prevent overgrazing. Allow
pastures to grow 6 to 10" tall and then graze.
When the cool season forages have been
grazed down to a 2 to 3" stubble height, the
animals should be moved to a new pasture.
Overgrazing slows the rate of recovery and
reduces future growth. Cross fencing of a
large pasture with an electric fence can
provide the subdivisions needed for
rotational grazing. Rotational grazing
(stocking) promotes uniform grazing and
maximum use of the forage. If acreage is
limited or growth reduced, use the practice
of "Limit Grazing". Limit grazing is the
practice of moving the cattle in and out of
the cool season pasture each day. Allowing
them to graze for two hours or less will
conserve forage, yet permit the animals to
obtain some protein and energy to
supplement their diet.

CGC









Liming Pastures Sources of Hay


January and February may be an opportune
time to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates
that lime is needed. This is especially true
for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it
provides an opportunity for the lime to be
incorporated. Lime should be incorporated
into the soil whenever possible since lime
reacts with the soil with which it contacts.
Surface applied lime neutralizes the soil
acidity of the surface soil, but has little
immediate effect on the soil pH below the
top inch or so. Most pastures probably do
not need to be limed. Tropical grasses in
general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5.
The cool season legumes and grasses do
require a higher pH and where these are
grown liming may be needed more
frequently than is required on our permanent
grass pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay
fields where high rates of nitrogen fertilizer
are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless
it is needed as indicated by soil testing. To
do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that
has a high pH. The high pH at the soil
surface may bring about volatilization of
ammonia when ammonium fertilizers, such
as urea-ammonium nitrate solutions, come
in contact with it. Therefore, do not put out
lime and nitrogen at the same time. For late
winter- spring applications, apply the
nitrogen first and allow enough time for a
rain to move it into the soil before applying
the lime.

CGC


The Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for
sale are listed by county. You may obtain
this information by going to DACS' Internet
web site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go
directly to the hay directory at
http://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flah
ay.htm.

CGC

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria for Peanuts

When assigning the peanut base to a farm,
growers should consider if inoculation with
nitrogen-fixing bacteria might be needed.
There have been few recent instances of
inoculation failures on Florida peanuts
because the bacteria apparently survive in
the soil in a normal three to four year peanut
rotation, and also on certain other legumes,
such as beggarweeds, alyceclover, hairy
indigo, and cowpeas. Partridge pea, a
common legume in some wooded areas, also
utilize the same strain of bacteria in the
nitrogen-fixing process. If the peanut base is
to be moved to a new farm, be sure to check
if there were some of the above legumes
growing on the land. If none had grown for
several years, an inoculant could be applied
at planting to insure good nodulation.

EBW

Planting Dates for Green Peanuts

Over the past few years, peanuts for the
fresh market have been planted south of the
normal production areas in Florida. These
peanuts are being planted at times that allow
harvest during a market window when
supplies of green peanuts are limited or non-
existent, which is primarily during the late


Liming Pastures


Sources of Hay









Liming Pastures Sources of Hay


January and February may be an opportune
time to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates
that lime is needed. This is especially true
for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it
provides an opportunity for the lime to be
incorporated. Lime should be incorporated
into the soil whenever possible since lime
reacts with the soil with which it contacts.
Surface applied lime neutralizes the soil
acidity of the surface soil, but has little
immediate effect on the soil pH below the
top inch or so. Most pastures probably do
not need to be limed. Tropical grasses in
general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5.
The cool season legumes and grasses do
require a higher pH and where these are
grown liming may be needed more
frequently than is required on our permanent
grass pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay
fields where high rates of nitrogen fertilizer
are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless
it is needed as indicated by soil testing. To
do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that
has a high pH. The high pH at the soil
surface may bring about volatilization of
ammonia when ammonium fertilizers, such
as urea-ammonium nitrate solutions, come
in contact with it. Therefore, do not put out
lime and nitrogen at the same time. For late
winter- spring applications, apply the
nitrogen first and allow enough time for a
rain to move it into the soil before applying
the lime.

CGC


The Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for
sale are listed by county. You may obtain
this information by going to DACS' Internet
web site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go
directly to the hay directory at
http://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flah
ay.htm.

CGC

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria for Peanuts

When assigning the peanut base to a farm,
growers should consider if inoculation with
nitrogen-fixing bacteria might be needed.
There have been few recent instances of
inoculation failures on Florida peanuts
because the bacteria apparently survive in
the soil in a normal three to four year peanut
rotation, and also on certain other legumes,
such as beggarweeds, alyceclover, hairy
indigo, and cowpeas. Partridge pea, a
common legume in some wooded areas, also
utilize the same strain of bacteria in the
nitrogen-fixing process. If the peanut base is
to be moved to a new farm, be sure to check
if there were some of the above legumes
growing on the land. If none had grown for
several years, an inoculant could be applied
at planting to insure good nodulation.

EBW

Planting Dates for Green Peanuts

Over the past few years, peanuts for the
fresh market have been planted south of the
normal production areas in Florida. These
peanuts are being planted at times that allow
harvest during a market window when
supplies of green peanuts are limited or non-
existent, which is primarily during the late


Liming Pastures


Sources of Hay









Liming Pastures Sources of Hay


January and February may be an opportune
time to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates
that lime is needed. This is especially true
for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it
provides an opportunity for the lime to be
incorporated. Lime should be incorporated
into the soil whenever possible since lime
reacts with the soil with which it contacts.
Surface applied lime neutralizes the soil
acidity of the surface soil, but has little
immediate effect on the soil pH below the
top inch or so. Most pastures probably do
not need to be limed. Tropical grasses in
general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5.
The cool season legumes and grasses do
require a higher pH and where these are
grown liming may be needed more
frequently than is required on our permanent
grass pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay
fields where high rates of nitrogen fertilizer
are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless
it is needed as indicated by soil testing. To
do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that
has a high pH. The high pH at the soil
surface may bring about volatilization of
ammonia when ammonium fertilizers, such
as urea-ammonium nitrate solutions, come
in contact with it. Therefore, do not put out
lime and nitrogen at the same time. For late
winter- spring applications, apply the
nitrogen first and allow enough time for a
rain to move it into the soil before applying
the lime.

CGC


The Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for
sale are listed by county. You may obtain
this information by going to DACS' Internet
web site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go
directly to the hay directory at
http://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flah
ay.htm.

CGC

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria for Peanuts

When assigning the peanut base to a farm,
growers should consider if inoculation with
nitrogen-fixing bacteria might be needed.
There have been few recent instances of
inoculation failures on Florida peanuts
because the bacteria apparently survive in
the soil in a normal three to four year peanut
rotation, and also on certain other legumes,
such as beggarweeds, alyceclover, hairy
indigo, and cowpeas. Partridge pea, a
common legume in some wooded areas, also
utilize the same strain of bacteria in the
nitrogen-fixing process. If the peanut base is
to be moved to a new farm, be sure to check
if there were some of the above legumes
growing on the land. If none had grown for
several years, an inoculant could be applied
at planting to insure good nodulation.

EBW

Planting Dates for Green Peanuts

Over the past few years, peanuts for the
fresh market have been planted south of the
normal production areas in Florida. These
peanuts are being planted at times that allow
harvest during a market window when
supplies of green peanuts are limited or non-
existent, which is primarily during the late


Liming Pastures


Sources of Hay









Liming Pastures Sources of Hay


January and February may be an opportune
time to lime pastures, if soil testing indicates
that lime is needed. This is especially true
for those areas that are to be renovated and
replanted in the spring or summer since it
provides an opportunity for the lime to be
incorporated. Lime should be incorporated
into the soil whenever possible since lime
reacts with the soil with which it contacts.
Surface applied lime neutralizes the soil
acidity of the surface soil, but has little
immediate effect on the soil pH below the
top inch or so. Most pastures probably do
not need to be limed. Tropical grasses in
general do not require a high pH.
Bahiagrass grows well at a pH of 5.0 to 5.5.
The cool season legumes and grasses do
require a higher pH and where these are
grown liming may be needed more
frequently than is required on our permanent
grass pastures. Also, bermudagrass hay
fields where high rates of nitrogen fertilizer
are applied may require more frequent
liming. Do not apply lime to pastures unless
it is needed as indicated by soil testing. To
do so, will be a waste of lime and money.

Be aware that applying lime to a pasture sod,
forms a thin layer of soil at the surface that
has a high pH. The high pH at the soil
surface may bring about volatilization of
ammonia when ammonium fertilizers, such
as urea-ammonium nitrate solutions, come
in contact with it. Therefore, do not put out
lime and nitrogen at the same time. For late
winter- spring applications, apply the
nitrogen first and allow enough time for a
rain to move it into the soil before applying
the lime.

CGC


The Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services maintains a Florida Hay
Directory. Hay producers who have hay for
sale are listed by county. You may obtain
this information by going to DACS' Internet
web site at http://www.fl-ag.com/ or go
directly to the hay directory at
http://www.florida-agriculture.com/hay/flah
ay.htm.

CGC

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria for Peanuts

When assigning the peanut base to a farm,
growers should consider if inoculation with
nitrogen-fixing bacteria might be needed.
There have been few recent instances of
inoculation failures on Florida peanuts
because the bacteria apparently survive in
the soil in a normal three to four year peanut
rotation, and also on certain other legumes,
such as beggarweeds, alyceclover, hairy
indigo, and cowpeas. Partridge pea, a
common legume in some wooded areas, also
utilize the same strain of bacteria in the
nitrogen-fixing process. If the peanut base is
to be moved to a new farm, be sure to check
if there were some of the above legumes
growing on the land. If none had grown for
several years, an inoculant could be applied
at planting to insure good nodulation.

EBW

Planting Dates for Green Peanuts

Over the past few years, peanuts for the
fresh market have been planted south of the
normal production areas in Florida. These
peanuts are being planted at times that allow
harvest during a market window when
supplies of green peanuts are limited or non-
existent, which is primarily during the late


Liming Pastures


Sources of Hay









fall through the spring. Prices are naturally
higher during these periods, but the risk of
cold weather or frost during the growing
period is also greater. Even if frost is not a
problem, cold weather may greatly slow the
growth of peanuts enough that targeted
market windows are missed. There is little
information available on planting dates in
such areas because the appropriate studies
have not been conducted. In the absence of
such data, it is suggested that peanuts be
planted so that they would be expected to
mature before the date of the average first
freeze of the winter, and planted after the
last freeze of the winter. The grower should
also study weather records in the area of
planned production to learn the average
temperature patterns. If the daily low
temperatures are frequently in the 30's to the
low 50's, growth and development may be
slow even if the daily highs are in the 70's
and 80's. Naturally the prospects for price
will dictate the amount of risk that a grower
will accept.

EBW

Valencia Peanut Varieties

Many producers of green peanuts plant part
or all of their acreage to the valencia
varieties because of early maturity,
consumer demand, and the relative ease of
hand picking because the nuts are clustered
around the tap root. Several varieties, such
as New Mexico Valencia A, New Mexico
Valencia C, McRan, and Georgia Red, have
been the valencia varieties of choice and
have been satisfactory. A new variety,
Georgia Valencia, is now available and has
performed well in Florida tests. Pod yields
of Georgia Valencia in the 2001 test were
above, though not always statistically, those
of the other valencia varieties. Further
information will be available as more


experience is obtained with the variety. If
supplies of Georgia Valencia are not
adequate to meet demand, the other varieties
should be satisfactory.

EBW

Actigard for Tobacco Plant Beds and
Greenhouses

A request is being made to the Florida
Department of Agriculture for a Special
Local Need (SLN or state) label for Actigard
use on plant beds and greenhouses to reduce
the probability of tomato spotted wilt virus
in the field. The other flue-cured tobacco
producing states will also make similar
requests. If approved, Actigard will have a
third-party registration, which in this case
will be by the Flue-Cured Tobacco
Cooperative Stabilization Corporation, a
farmer-owned cooperative. This would
probably be the first use of a third party
registration for an agronomic crop in
Florida, although they are used in vegetable
crops. If a farmer wishes to use Actigard for
control of tomato spotted wilt virus, he
would have to obtain a label from the
cooperative before using the material. More
details will be available if the SLN request is
approved.

EBW

Tobacco Quota for 2003

The USDA has announced that the 2003
national flue-cured tobacco basic quota will
be 526.3 million pounds, a 9.5 percent
decrease from 2002. The effective quota,
which includes under- and over-marketings
and will vary by farm, will be about 540
million pounds, a 6 percent decrease from
2002. The price support level will be $1.663
in 2003, up 0.7 cents per pound from 2002.
The no-net-cost assessment will be 5 cents









fall through the spring. Prices are naturally
higher during these periods, but the risk of
cold weather or frost during the growing
period is also greater. Even if frost is not a
problem, cold weather may greatly slow the
growth of peanuts enough that targeted
market windows are missed. There is little
information available on planting dates in
such areas because the appropriate studies
have not been conducted. In the absence of
such data, it is suggested that peanuts be
planted so that they would be expected to
mature before the date of the average first
freeze of the winter, and planted after the
last freeze of the winter. The grower should
also study weather records in the area of
planned production to learn the average
temperature patterns. If the daily low
temperatures are frequently in the 30's to the
low 50's, growth and development may be
slow even if the daily highs are in the 70's
and 80's. Naturally the prospects for price
will dictate the amount of risk that a grower
will accept.

EBW

Valencia Peanut Varieties

Many producers of green peanuts plant part
or all of their acreage to the valencia
varieties because of early maturity,
consumer demand, and the relative ease of
hand picking because the nuts are clustered
around the tap root. Several varieties, such
as New Mexico Valencia A, New Mexico
Valencia C, McRan, and Georgia Red, have
been the valencia varieties of choice and
have been satisfactory. A new variety,
Georgia Valencia, is now available and has
performed well in Florida tests. Pod yields
of Georgia Valencia in the 2001 test were
above, though not always statistically, those
of the other valencia varieties. Further
information will be available as more


experience is obtained with the variety. If
supplies of Georgia Valencia are not
adequate to meet demand, the other varieties
should be satisfactory.

EBW

Actigard for Tobacco Plant Beds and
Greenhouses

A request is being made to the Florida
Department of Agriculture for a Special
Local Need (SLN or state) label for Actigard
use on plant beds and greenhouses to reduce
the probability of tomato spotted wilt virus
in the field. The other flue-cured tobacco
producing states will also make similar
requests. If approved, Actigard will have a
third-party registration, which in this case
will be by the Flue-Cured Tobacco
Cooperative Stabilization Corporation, a
farmer-owned cooperative. This would
probably be the first use of a third party
registration for an agronomic crop in
Florida, although they are used in vegetable
crops. If a farmer wishes to use Actigard for
control of tomato spotted wilt virus, he
would have to obtain a label from the
cooperative before using the material. More
details will be available if the SLN request is
approved.

EBW

Tobacco Quota for 2003

The USDA has announced that the 2003
national flue-cured tobacco basic quota will
be 526.3 million pounds, a 9.5 percent
decrease from 2002. The effective quota,
which includes under- and over-marketings
and will vary by farm, will be about 540
million pounds, a 6 percent decrease from
2002. The price support level will be $1.663
in 2003, up 0.7 cents per pound from 2002.
The no-net-cost assessment will be 5 cents









fall through the spring. Prices are naturally
higher during these periods, but the risk of
cold weather or frost during the growing
period is also greater. Even if frost is not a
problem, cold weather may greatly slow the
growth of peanuts enough that targeted
market windows are missed. There is little
information available on planting dates in
such areas because the appropriate studies
have not been conducted. In the absence of
such data, it is suggested that peanuts be
planted so that they would be expected to
mature before the date of the average first
freeze of the winter, and planted after the
last freeze of the winter. The grower should
also study weather records in the area of
planned production to learn the average
temperature patterns. If the daily low
temperatures are frequently in the 30's to the
low 50's, growth and development may be
slow even if the daily highs are in the 70's
and 80's. Naturally the prospects for price
will dictate the amount of risk that a grower
will accept.

EBW

Valencia Peanut Varieties

Many producers of green peanuts plant part
or all of their acreage to the valencia
varieties because of early maturity,
consumer demand, and the relative ease of
hand picking because the nuts are clustered
around the tap root. Several varieties, such
as New Mexico Valencia A, New Mexico
Valencia C, McRan, and Georgia Red, have
been the valencia varieties of choice and
have been satisfactory. A new variety,
Georgia Valencia, is now available and has
performed well in Florida tests. Pod yields
of Georgia Valencia in the 2001 test were
above, though not always statistically, those
of the other valencia varieties. Further
information will be available as more


experience is obtained with the variety. If
supplies of Georgia Valencia are not
adequate to meet demand, the other varieties
should be satisfactory.

EBW

Actigard for Tobacco Plant Beds and
Greenhouses

A request is being made to the Florida
Department of Agriculture for a Special
Local Need (SLN or state) label for Actigard
use on plant beds and greenhouses to reduce
the probability of tomato spotted wilt virus
in the field. The other flue-cured tobacco
producing states will also make similar
requests. If approved, Actigard will have a
third-party registration, which in this case
will be by the Flue-Cured Tobacco
Cooperative Stabilization Corporation, a
farmer-owned cooperative. This would
probably be the first use of a third party
registration for an agronomic crop in
Florida, although they are used in vegetable
crops. If a farmer wishes to use Actigard for
control of tomato spotted wilt virus, he
would have to obtain a label from the
cooperative before using the material. More
details will be available if the SLN request is
approved.

EBW

Tobacco Quota for 2003

The USDA has announced that the 2003
national flue-cured tobacco basic quota will
be 526.3 million pounds, a 9.5 percent
decrease from 2002. The effective quota,
which includes under- and over-marketings
and will vary by farm, will be about 540
million pounds, a 6 percent decrease from
2002. The price support level will be $1.663
in 2003, up 0.7 cents per pound from 2002.
The no-net-cost assessment will be 5 cents









per pound with half paid by the grower and
the other half paid by the purchaser. The
quota determination was based on a formula
that included a purchase intentions by
domestic manufacturers of 283.3 million
pounds, a 3-year average export of 254.7
million pounds, and negative 11.7 million
pounds for the reserve adjustment. The
Secretary of Agriculture did not make a
discretionary adjustment.

EBW

Managing Wild Radish in Wheat and
Other Small Grains

Wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum (often
called wild mustard or wild turnip) is a weed
found throughout the state of Florida, but is
especially prevalent in the north-central
region and the panhandle. It is one of the
worst weedy problems in small grain
production. Wild radish is considered a
winter annual species, germinating from
seed in the fall and setting seed in the spring.

Wild radish is a heavy competitor for
nitrogen, reducing production through yield
and test weight. This occurs during stem
elongation or bolting, when both the small
grain plant and the wild radish begins to
form the flower/seed head. Another serious
problem that is incurred is contamination of
the harvested grain. The seed pod of wild
radish does not fracture or rupture like a true
mustard, rather the seed pod breaks into
small segments. These segments are very
close to the size of wheat and are very
difficult to separate in a normal cleaning
process. Therefore, losses due to dockage
are commonly observed with wild radish
contaminated grain.

Wild radish control begins with proper
identification and early detection. The
cotyledon or 'seed leaves' of wild radish are


heart-shaped while the true leaves are
lanceolate with deep indentations or
segments. The leaves are often hairy and
have a bristly feel to the touch. Wild radish
will form a rosette of leaves in the fall and
winter months and elongate a flower stalk in
the late winter/spring, about the same time
as wheat. The flowers are pale yellow with
four petals/flower and on occasion maybe
white in color.

In wheat there are several herbicides that
will provide control of wild radish. The
most commonly used are the phenoxy
materials, primarily 2,4-D. This is often put
out with liquid nitrogen before jointing. 2,4-
D does a good job on radish but may cause
injury to the small grain if applied too close
to or during jointing. MCPA is another
phenoxy herbicide that provides good
control of smaller wild radish plants but
does not have the control on larger plants as
compared to 2,4-D. MCPA can be used
earlier than 2,4-D (3 tiller vs. 4 tiller for 2,4-
D) and is considered to be less injurious to
the small grain plant. Express (tribenuron)
and Harmony Extra (tribenuron +
thifensulfuron) can also be used in wheat
and will provide good control of wild radish.
Be sure to use a surfactant (non-ionic at
0.25%) with these products. Express is not
as active as Harmony Extra and should be
mixed with MCPA for control of larger
plants. The tank-mix of 1/6 oz. Express + 12
pt. MCPA has provided excellent control of
wild radish with minimal crop damage.
These materials can be applied from 2 tiller
through the 2nd node of jointing and maybe
mixed with liquid nitrogen. In rye and oats,
wild radish control is limited to the phenoxy
(2,4-D, MCPA) materials. Dicamba or
dicamba + 2,4-D (WeedMaster) may be used
for wild radish control in small grains for
temporary winter grazing, but are generally
not recommended for use in small grains










grown for grain yield due to problems with
seed fill. Do not use Express or Harmony
Extra on small grains for forage/grazing. Be
sure to follow grazing restrictions as listed
on the products containing 2,4-D or
dicamba.

GEM

Impact of Farm Bill on Row Crops

The language and final interpretation of the
farm bill is not complete and has left many
farmers with too little information to make
good decisions about which crops to plant
for the coming year. Cotton and peanuts
look like a toss up for profit potential.
Wheat and soybeans look very competitive
at current market price and cost of
production is much lower than for either
cotton or peanut. However, grain
production infrastructure has deteriorated
over the past 10 years with fewer grain
elevators, combines, and custom operators.
Some shift in acreage is expected for the
coming year due to the adverse harvest
season this fall.

DLW

Soil Test Depth For Long Term Strip Till
and No-till Fields

We normally recommend using two depths
of soil tests for fields that have not had deep
tillage for a number of years. A soil sample
that is from the top 2 inches to make sure pH
and calcium levels are not too high or low
and a normal 6 inch deep sample to
determine total amount so of nutrients


available in the root zone. We saw several
fields of strip tilled peanuts this year that
had severe bronzing due to manganese
deficiency because the pH in the top 2
inches was 7 or higher while the normal 6
inch soil sample showed everything to be in
the normal range. Some of these high pH
fields had a lower yield by as much as 1500
lbs./A. This condition could have been over
come by use of sulfur materials to lower the
surface pH or by use of manganese sulfate as
a foliar spray on peanuts. Other crops need
to be monitored as well since manganese
deficiencies are very common on row crops
in Florida.

DLW

Pesticide Update

Syngenta received tolerances for combined
residues of the insecticide thiamethoxam in
or on field corn grain/forage/stover
(0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm), sweet corn kernal plus
cob with husk removed/forage/stover
(0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm), and pop corn
grain/forage/stover (0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm).
(Federal Register, 11/1/02).

MAM


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.










grown for grain yield due to problems with
seed fill. Do not use Express or Harmony
Extra on small grains for forage/grazing. Be
sure to follow grazing restrictions as listed
on the products containing 2,4-D or
dicamba.

GEM

Impact of Farm Bill on Row Crops

The language and final interpretation of the
farm bill is not complete and has left many
farmers with too little information to make
good decisions about which crops to plant
for the coming year. Cotton and peanuts
look like a toss up for profit potential.
Wheat and soybeans look very competitive
at current market price and cost of
production is much lower than for either
cotton or peanut. However, grain
production infrastructure has deteriorated
over the past 10 years with fewer grain
elevators, combines, and custom operators.
Some shift in acreage is expected for the
coming year due to the adverse harvest
season this fall.

DLW

Soil Test Depth For Long Term Strip Till
and No-till Fields

We normally recommend using two depths
of soil tests for fields that have not had deep
tillage for a number of years. A soil sample
that is from the top 2 inches to make sure pH
and calcium levels are not too high or low
and a normal 6 inch deep sample to
determine total amount so of nutrients


available in the root zone. We saw several
fields of strip tilled peanuts this year that
had severe bronzing due to manganese
deficiency because the pH in the top 2
inches was 7 or higher while the normal 6
inch soil sample showed everything to be in
the normal range. Some of these high pH
fields had a lower yield by as much as 1500
lbs./A. This condition could have been over
come by use of sulfur materials to lower the
surface pH or by use of manganese sulfate as
a foliar spray on peanuts. Other crops need
to be monitored as well since manganese
deficiencies are very common on row crops
in Florida.

DLW

Pesticide Update

Syngenta received tolerances for combined
residues of the insecticide thiamethoxam in
or on field corn grain/forage/stover
(0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm), sweet corn kernal plus
cob with husk removed/forage/stover
(0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm), and pop corn
grain/forage/stover (0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm).
(Federal Register, 11/1/02).

MAM


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.










grown for grain yield due to problems with
seed fill. Do not use Express or Harmony
Extra on small grains for forage/grazing. Be
sure to follow grazing restrictions as listed
on the products containing 2,4-D or
dicamba.

GEM

Impact of Farm Bill on Row Crops

The language and final interpretation of the
farm bill is not complete and has left many
farmers with too little information to make
good decisions about which crops to plant
for the coming year. Cotton and peanuts
look like a toss up for profit potential.
Wheat and soybeans look very competitive
at current market price and cost of
production is much lower than for either
cotton or peanut. However, grain
production infrastructure has deteriorated
over the past 10 years with fewer grain
elevators, combines, and custom operators.
Some shift in acreage is expected for the
coming year due to the adverse harvest
season this fall.

DLW

Soil Test Depth For Long Term Strip Till
and No-till Fields

We normally recommend using two depths
of soil tests for fields that have not had deep
tillage for a number of years. A soil sample
that is from the top 2 inches to make sure pH
and calcium levels are not too high or low
and a normal 6 inch deep sample to
determine total amount so of nutrients


available in the root zone. We saw several
fields of strip tilled peanuts this year that
had severe bronzing due to manganese
deficiency because the pH in the top 2
inches was 7 or higher while the normal 6
inch soil sample showed everything to be in
the normal range. Some of these high pH
fields had a lower yield by as much as 1500
lbs./A. This condition could have been over
come by use of sulfur materials to lower the
surface pH or by use of manganese sulfate as
a foliar spray on peanuts. Other crops need
to be monitored as well since manganese
deficiencies are very common on row crops
in Florida.

DLW

Pesticide Update

Syngenta received tolerances for combined
residues of the insecticide thiamethoxam in
or on field corn grain/forage/stover
(0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm), sweet corn kernal plus
cob with husk removed/forage/stover
(0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm), and pop corn
grain/forage/stover (0.02/0.10/0.05 ppm).
(Federal Register, 11/1/02).

MAM


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; G. E. MacDonald, Weed Researcher, M. A. Mossler, Pest
Management Information Specialist, E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist. D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist.