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 Table of Contents
 Livestock and pasture toxicity...
 Coffee weed - poisonous plant
 Frosted sorghums
 Grass tetany in cattle
 Pasture renovation with cool season...
 Adjusting to the peanut progra...
 Peanut crop report
 Peanut marketing options
 Auction of tobacco equipment
 Supply of nematicides for...
 Tobacco market report
 Tobacco quota buyout proposals
 Tobacco quota outlook


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00029
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: December 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00029

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Livestock and pasture toxicity problems
        Page 2
    Coffee weed - poisonous plant
        Page 2
    Frosted sorghums
        Page 3
    Grass tetany in cattle
        Page 3
    Pasture renovation with cool season forages
        Page 4
    Adjusting to the peanut program
        Page 4
    Peanut crop report
        Page 5
    Peanut marketing options
        Page 5
    Auction of tobacco equipment
        Page 5
    Supply of nematicides for tobacco
        Page 6
    Tobacco market report
        Page 6
    Tobacco quota buyout proposals
        Page 6
    Tobacco quota outlook
        Page 6
Full Text





AGRONOMY


UNIVERSITY OF

;FLORIDA


NOTES


December 2002


EXTENSION
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences




DATES TO REMEMBER

December 7 Auction of Florida Tobacco Equipment-Starke





IN THIS ISSUE

FORAGE
Livestock and Pasture Toxicity Problems ....................................
Coffee W eed Poisonous Plant .. .........................................
Frosted Sorghums ......................................................
G rass Tetany in Cattle .. ...............................................
Pasture Renovation with Cool Season Forages ................................

PEANUT
Adjusting to the Peanut Program .....................
Peanut Crop Report .....................................................
Peanut M marketing Options .. ............................................

TOBACCO
Auction of Tobacco Equipm ent ... ........................................
Supply ofNematicides for Tobacco ........................................
Tobacco M market R report .. ..............................................
Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals .........................................
Tobacco Quota Outlook ...............................................


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to
provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension
Office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/ Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/ University of Florida/ Christine Taylor
Waddill, Director.










Livestock and Pasture Toxicity Problems

This is the time of year when producers need to
be concerned about certain animal toxicity
problems. Where the available forage is very
limited in a pasture, animals may start eating
certain poisonous plants that they have left
alone for most of the year. Last year, several
beef animals where lost due to the consumption
of coffee senna (coffee weed). This occurred
soon if not immediately after a frost. Available
forage in pastures was at a very low level and of
course had been frosted. The coffee weed may
have been more frost tolerant(still green) or the
frost may have changed the palatability (taste)
of the plants making them more acceptable to
the livestock. Ranchers should mow these
plants before available forage reaches a low
level and before frost. Other poisonous plants
such as lantana, or black nightshade can also be
a problem. Ranchers grazing the remnants of
sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass plantings
should be ready to remove animals from these
pastures when frost is predicted. After the
frosted sorghum plants have dried, they are safe
to graze. When gazing cool-season annual
grasses be aware of possible nitrate poisoning
and grass tetany. Accumulation of nitrates in
the plant to toxic levels occurs on highly
fertilized grass when certain climatic conditions
(continuous cloud cover, drought, etc) slows top
growth. Grass tetany is not strictly a toxicity
problem but might be more appropriately called
a deficiency problem.

CGC


Coffee Weed Poisonous Plant


There are two plants commonly called coffee
weed that can cause a problem; these are
sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and coffee senna
(Cassia occidentalis).

Both plants are summer annuals. Coffee senna
is very similar to sicklepod but has mostly 8 or
more leaflets rather than 4 to 6. The pods on
coffee senna are flattened while those of sickle


pod are nearly four-sided. Also, coffee senna
pods tend to be straighter and shorter than those
of sicklepod. The end of leaflets of coffee senna
are pointed whereas those of sicklepod tend to
be rounded. These plants are found throughout
the south but are more abundant on sandy soils
of the coastal plain, and are most abundant in
cultivated fields, roadsides, waste places and
open pine lands.

TOXICITY: The toxic principles have not been
clearly established. The seeds appear to exert
their toxicity upon the skeletal muscles, kidney,
and liver. The leaves and stem also contain
toxin, whether green or dry. Sicklepod is much
more prevalent but somewhat less toxic than
coffee senna. Animals can be poisoned by
consuming the plant in the field, in green chop,
in hay or if the seed is mixed in grain. Toxicity
has been observed in cattle. It should be
assumed that other animals are susceptible to
the effects of these plants.

SYMPTOMS: Diarrhea is usually the first
symptom observed. Later, the animals go off
feed, appear lethargic, and tremors appear in the
hind legs, indicating muscle degeneration. As
the muscle degeneration progresses, the urine
becomes dark and coffee-colored and the animal
becomes recumbent and is unable to rise. Death
often occurs within 12 hours after the animal
goes down. There is no fever.

TREATMENT: Once animals become
recumbent, treatment is usually ineffective.
Selenium and Vitamin E injections have been
used with variable results.

Most of the above information can be found in
the publication SP 57, "Poisonous Plants of the
Southeastern United States" which is available
from the University of Florida Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences for the cost of $4.00.


CGC










Livestock and Pasture Toxicity Problems

This is the time of year when producers need to
be concerned about certain animal toxicity
problems. Where the available forage is very
limited in a pasture, animals may start eating
certain poisonous plants that they have left
alone for most of the year. Last year, several
beef animals where lost due to the consumption
of coffee senna (coffee weed). This occurred
soon if not immediately after a frost. Available
forage in pastures was at a very low level and of
course had been frosted. The coffee weed may
have been more frost tolerant(still green) or the
frost may have changed the palatability (taste)
of the plants making them more acceptable to
the livestock. Ranchers should mow these
plants before available forage reaches a low
level and before frost. Other poisonous plants
such as lantana, or black nightshade can also be
a problem. Ranchers grazing the remnants of
sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass plantings
should be ready to remove animals from these
pastures when frost is predicted. After the
frosted sorghum plants have dried, they are safe
to graze. When gazing cool-season annual
grasses be aware of possible nitrate poisoning
and grass tetany. Accumulation of nitrates in
the plant to toxic levels occurs on highly
fertilized grass when certain climatic conditions
(continuous cloud cover, drought, etc) slows top
growth. Grass tetany is not strictly a toxicity
problem but might be more appropriately called
a deficiency problem.

CGC


Coffee Weed Poisonous Plant


There are two plants commonly called coffee
weed that can cause a problem; these are
sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and coffee senna
(Cassia occidentalis).

Both plants are summer annuals. Coffee senna
is very similar to sicklepod but has mostly 8 or
more leaflets rather than 4 to 6. The pods on
coffee senna are flattened while those of sickle


pod are nearly four-sided. Also, coffee senna
pods tend to be straighter and shorter than those
of sicklepod. The end of leaflets of coffee senna
are pointed whereas those of sicklepod tend to
be rounded. These plants are found throughout
the south but are more abundant on sandy soils
of the coastal plain, and are most abundant in
cultivated fields, roadsides, waste places and
open pine lands.

TOXICITY: The toxic principles have not been
clearly established. The seeds appear to exert
their toxicity upon the skeletal muscles, kidney,
and liver. The leaves and stem also contain
toxin, whether green or dry. Sicklepod is much
more prevalent but somewhat less toxic than
coffee senna. Animals can be poisoned by
consuming the plant in the field, in green chop,
in hay or if the seed is mixed in grain. Toxicity
has been observed in cattle. It should be
assumed that other animals are susceptible to
the effects of these plants.

SYMPTOMS: Diarrhea is usually the first
symptom observed. Later, the animals go off
feed, appear lethargic, and tremors appear in the
hind legs, indicating muscle degeneration. As
the muscle degeneration progresses, the urine
becomes dark and coffee-colored and the animal
becomes recumbent and is unable to rise. Death
often occurs within 12 hours after the animal
goes down. There is no fever.

TREATMENT: Once animals become
recumbent, treatment is usually ineffective.
Selenium and Vitamin E injections have been
used with variable results.

Most of the above information can be found in
the publication SP 57, "Poisonous Plants of the
Southeastern United States" which is available
from the University of Florida Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences for the cost of $4.00.


CGC










Frosted Sorghums

Sorghums, sudangrass, and johnsongrass will
produce prussic acid after a frost or freeze. The
frosted forage will produce large quantities of
prussic acid when the plant cells break down in
the cow's rumen. This may cause prussic acid
(HCN) poisoning.

If the forage is allowed to dry for one week or
longer it should be safe to consume. As the
plants dry, the toxic compound will be released
to the atmosphere as a gas. In the fall remove
animals from these pastures when frost is
eminent. [Pearl millet does not produce prussic
acid.]

Also do not allow animals to graze young
regrowth (south Florida) that may appear after
the tops have been killed by a frost. At any time
during the growing season, always allow plants
to reach a height of 18 to 24 inches before
grazing since the young plants (4-16 inches)
have a higher concentration of prussic acid, frost
or no frost, and can be dangerous.

Frosted sorghums can be harvested for silage.
The danger of prussic acid poisoning is
minimized since the forage is chopped coming
out of the field and then handled again when
taken out of the silo. This provides ample
opportunity for the toxin to escape to them
atmosphere. A light frost may even be helpful if
sorghum is harvested for silage since it will
allow the plant to dry down. The forage
sorghums often contain too high a level of
moisture when harvested direct (without
wilting) for silage.

Sorghums and other warm season annual grasses
that have received moderate to high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer and have been under drought
stress may contain toxic levels of nitrates. If
levels are high enough, nitrate poisoning can
occur. During ensiling the nitrate is partially
degraded. Silage crops containing high nitrate
levels should be checked for nitrates before the
silage is fed to livestock. Hay produced from
plants with toxic levels of nitrate should be used
cautiously because nitrate is stable in hay.


Drying or harvesting the plants as hay does not
get rid of nitrates. In some situations, the
potential for nitrate poisoning may be greater
than for prussic acid poisoning.

CGC

Grass Tetany in Cattle

Grass tetany sometimes called grass staggers or
hypomagnesemia, can be a serious problem in
Florida with cattle grazing small grain or
ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of
the disease is unknown, although it is always
associated with an imbalance in the mineral
components of blood serum, especially reduced
magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is
more severe when cattle are grazing young
forage, particularly the first flush of growth
during December and January. Once the forage
becomes more mature, the likelihood of
problems occurring is reduced. The disease is
apt to appear under conditions of nutritional
stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality
pasture may cause such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely
resemble those of milk fever or ketosis. These
include nervousness, lack of coordination,
muscular spasms, staggering and death. When
the disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be
called immediately to diagnose and to initiate
treatment. However, in beef herds, the
herdsman does not always have the opportunity
to observe the signs of the disease and affected
cattle may be found dead in the pasture.

Factors which have been associated with this
disease include low levels of magnesium (Mg)
and high protein and potassium levels in the
forage. Use dolomitic limestone, which
contains magnesium, to increase forage
magnesium levels if the level of soil magnesium
is low. On soil with a high pH level,
magnesium can be included with fertilizer
materials. Excess nitrogen in conjunction with
high levels of potassium fertilization tends to
reduce the magnesium level in most forage










Frosted Sorghums

Sorghums, sudangrass, and johnsongrass will
produce prussic acid after a frost or freeze. The
frosted forage will produce large quantities of
prussic acid when the plant cells break down in
the cow's rumen. This may cause prussic acid
(HCN) poisoning.

If the forage is allowed to dry for one week or
longer it should be safe to consume. As the
plants dry, the toxic compound will be released
to the atmosphere as a gas. In the fall remove
animals from these pastures when frost is
eminent. [Pearl millet does not produce prussic
acid.]

Also do not allow animals to graze young
regrowth (south Florida) that may appear after
the tops have been killed by a frost. At any time
during the growing season, always allow plants
to reach a height of 18 to 24 inches before
grazing since the young plants (4-16 inches)
have a higher concentration of prussic acid, frost
or no frost, and can be dangerous.

Frosted sorghums can be harvested for silage.
The danger of prussic acid poisoning is
minimized since the forage is chopped coming
out of the field and then handled again when
taken out of the silo. This provides ample
opportunity for the toxin to escape to them
atmosphere. A light frost may even be helpful if
sorghum is harvested for silage since it will
allow the plant to dry down. The forage
sorghums often contain too high a level of
moisture when harvested direct (without
wilting) for silage.

Sorghums and other warm season annual grasses
that have received moderate to high rates of
nitrogen fertilizer and have been under drought
stress may contain toxic levels of nitrates. If
levels are high enough, nitrate poisoning can
occur. During ensiling the nitrate is partially
degraded. Silage crops containing high nitrate
levels should be checked for nitrates before the
silage is fed to livestock. Hay produced from
plants with toxic levels of nitrate should be used
cautiously because nitrate is stable in hay.


Drying or harvesting the plants as hay does not
get rid of nitrates. In some situations, the
potential for nitrate poisoning may be greater
than for prussic acid poisoning.

CGC

Grass Tetany in Cattle

Grass tetany sometimes called grass staggers or
hypomagnesemia, can be a serious problem in
Florida with cattle grazing small grain or
ryegrass pastures. The problem is usually
confined to lactating cows. The exact cause of
the disease is unknown, although it is always
associated with an imbalance in the mineral
components of blood serum, especially reduced
magnesium levels. In Florida, the disease is
more severe when cattle are grazing young
forage, particularly the first flush of growth
during December and January. Once the forage
becomes more mature, the likelihood of
problems occurring is reduced. The disease is
apt to appear under conditions of nutritional
stress. Placing cattle on winter pasture directly
after being on frosted or other low quality
pasture may cause such a nutritional stress.

The symptoms of hypomagnesemia closely
resemble those of milk fever or ketosis. These
include nervousness, lack of coordination,
muscular spasms, staggering and death. When
the disease is suspected, a veterinarian should be
called immediately to diagnose and to initiate
treatment. However, in beef herds, the
herdsman does not always have the opportunity
to observe the signs of the disease and affected
cattle may be found dead in the pasture.

Factors which have been associated with this
disease include low levels of magnesium (Mg)
and high protein and potassium levels in the
forage. Use dolomitic limestone, which
contains magnesium, to increase forage
magnesium levels if the level of soil magnesium
is low. On soil with a high pH level,
magnesium can be included with fertilizer
materials. Excess nitrogen in conjunction with
high levels of potassium fertilization tends to
reduce the magnesium level in most forage










plants. Consequently, these fertilizer elements
should not be applied in excess on temporary
winter pastures. Follow recommendations
based on soil test results.

Grass tetany can be prevented by feeding
mineral supplements that contain magnesium.
Commercial mineral mixtures containing 10-
15% magnesium are available for feeding during
periods of increased grass tetany probability.
Cattle need to consume 6-12 ounces/head/day of
this mineral. (For additional information on this
problem, see the publication Agronomy Facts
SS-AGR-64 "Grass Tetany in Cattle).

CGC

Pasture Renovation with Cool Season
Forages

Pasture renovation has been defined as "The
improvement of a pasture by partial or complete
destruction of the sod, plus liming, fertilizing,
weed control, and seeding as may be required to
establish desirable forage plants." In Florida,
our pasture renovation programs usually start in
the fall with the plowing and planting of a cool
season annual such as ryegrass, small grain,
clover, or a combination of these. The
permanent pasture grass is then planted the next
year at the beginning of or during the summer
rainy season. The plowing or primary tillage
done in the fall allows the cool season forage
crop to be planted on a clean, tilled seed bed
which usually means more and earlier
production as compared to over seeding on a
sod. Tillage in the fall and again after the cool
season forage has stopped growing (May)
provides for more complete destruction of any
weeds and remnants of the old pasture sod. This
type of strategy should result in a clean, smooth,
well-prepared site for planting of the new
pasture.

A similar strategy has incorporated the use of a
herbicide in an attempt to insure complete kill of
certain weedy grasses. The herbicide Roundup'
has been used in late summer to kill the old
pasture sod and weedy plants such as smutgrass
and common bermudagrass. To be effective, the


herbicide must be applied before plant growth
slows. In the fall, a no-till (pasture drill) is then
used to plant the cool season forage into the
killed sod. This practice would conserve soil
moisture as compared to tillage, which could be
an advantage in getting the cool season crop
started. Producers should weigh the costs and
advantages before choosing one system over
another.

CGC

Adjusting to the Peanut Program

The many ramifications of the new peanut
program require that growers evaluate practices
and procedures that may affect potential profits
from growing the crop. This includes tax
implications from the quota buyout program to
selecting a marketing option. The deadline for
applying to participate in the quota buyout
passed on November 22, but for many growers
obtaining information for tax purposes on the
cost basis of the quota when they obtained it
may require some research and review of
records. The price per pound of quota at the
time of any purchase or inheritance will have to
be determined.

The deadline date for assigning the base to a
particular farm is approaching (March 31), and
thought needs to be given to maintaining a good
crop rotation on that farm. Also keep in mind
that the value of the land will likely increase
with the assignment of base, but unlike quota
the base cannot be separated from the land for
the life of the 2002 farm bill. Naturally if a
farmer assigns base to a farm other than his
own, he wants to make sure that proper lease
arrangements are made with the land owner so
that he will receive any countercyclical
payments. The base acres from all program
crops on a farm cannot exceed the acres of crop
land on that farm. The peanut production base
is determined by multiplying the peanut base
acres (average of 1998-2001 planted acres of
quota and additional peanuts) and the average
yield for the same years. The local FSA office
can provide this information. If the effective
price of peanuts plus the $36 fixed payment per










plants. Consequently, these fertilizer elements
should not be applied in excess on temporary
winter pastures. Follow recommendations
based on soil test results.

Grass tetany can be prevented by feeding
mineral supplements that contain magnesium.
Commercial mineral mixtures containing 10-
15% magnesium are available for feeding during
periods of increased grass tetany probability.
Cattle need to consume 6-12 ounces/head/day of
this mineral. (For additional information on this
problem, see the publication Agronomy Facts
SS-AGR-64 "Grass Tetany in Cattle).

CGC

Pasture Renovation with Cool Season
Forages

Pasture renovation has been defined as "The
improvement of a pasture by partial or complete
destruction of the sod, plus liming, fertilizing,
weed control, and seeding as may be required to
establish desirable forage plants." In Florida,
our pasture renovation programs usually start in
the fall with the plowing and planting of a cool
season annual such as ryegrass, small grain,
clover, or a combination of these. The
permanent pasture grass is then planted the next
year at the beginning of or during the summer
rainy season. The plowing or primary tillage
done in the fall allows the cool season forage
crop to be planted on a clean, tilled seed bed
which usually means more and earlier
production as compared to over seeding on a
sod. Tillage in the fall and again after the cool
season forage has stopped growing (May)
provides for more complete destruction of any
weeds and remnants of the old pasture sod. This
type of strategy should result in a clean, smooth,
well-prepared site for planting of the new
pasture.

A similar strategy has incorporated the use of a
herbicide in an attempt to insure complete kill of
certain weedy grasses. The herbicide Roundup'
has been used in late summer to kill the old
pasture sod and weedy plants such as smutgrass
and common bermudagrass. To be effective, the


herbicide must be applied before plant growth
slows. In the fall, a no-till (pasture drill) is then
used to plant the cool season forage into the
killed sod. This practice would conserve soil
moisture as compared to tillage, which could be
an advantage in getting the cool season crop
started. Producers should weigh the costs and
advantages before choosing one system over
another.

CGC

Adjusting to the Peanut Program

The many ramifications of the new peanut
program require that growers evaluate practices
and procedures that may affect potential profits
from growing the crop. This includes tax
implications from the quota buyout program to
selecting a marketing option. The deadline for
applying to participate in the quota buyout
passed on November 22, but for many growers
obtaining information for tax purposes on the
cost basis of the quota when they obtained it
may require some research and review of
records. The price per pound of quota at the
time of any purchase or inheritance will have to
be determined.

The deadline date for assigning the base to a
particular farm is approaching (March 31), and
thought needs to be given to maintaining a good
crop rotation on that farm. Also keep in mind
that the value of the land will likely increase
with the assignment of base, but unlike quota
the base cannot be separated from the land for
the life of the 2002 farm bill. Naturally if a
farmer assigns base to a farm other than his
own, he wants to make sure that proper lease
arrangements are made with the land owner so
that he will receive any countercyclical
payments. The base acres from all program
crops on a farm cannot exceed the acres of crop
land on that farm. The peanut production base
is determined by multiplying the peanut base
acres (average of 1998-2001 planted acres of
quota and additional peanuts) and the average
yield for the same years. The local FSA office
can provide this information. If the effective
price of peanuts plus the $36 fixed payment per










ton or the loan rate ($355) plus the $36 direct
payment for a crop year is less than the target
price of $495 per ton, then countercyclical
payments of 85 percent of the base will be
made. There are payment limitations.

Seed prices may also decline because of the
changes in the peanut program. Seed source and
quality may be a consideration for some
growers, and implications of variety and patent
protection may be of concern if seed are saved
from the 2002 crop. Be sure that there are no
infringements of these protections.

There are deadlines for making applications for
various programs and schedules for payments,
and the local FSA office could provide
information.

EBW

Peanut Crop Report

Estimates made in early November by the
USDA's Agricultural Statistics Service reflect
lower yield estimates than those made in
October. These lower estimates take into
account losses due to wet weather by either
preventing harvest or increasing harvest losses
through delayed harvest or greater disease
pressure. The November yield estimate for
Florida is 2500 pounds per acre, while the
national average is estimated at 2579 pounds per
acre. While the southeastern states are near the
middle in yield estimates, the southwestern
states are expecting moderately high yields and
the drought has contributed to low yields in the
Virginia-Carolina production area.

EBW

Peanut Marketing Options

Farmers are now getting experience with
marketing peanuts under the 2002 Farm Bill and
those experiences should be valuable in
planning future marketing. Marketing
assistance loans can be obtained through a
cooperative marketing association, a producer
cooperative, or the USDA's Farm Service


Agency. Generally a cooperative would handle
grading, storage, arrangements for marketing
assistance loans, and finally selling the peanuts.
The farmer may wish to handle these
arrangements and get his loan directly from the
FSA office for either on-farm or warehouse
stored peanuts. Marketing assistance loans are
nonrecourse loans that are provided by the
USDA Commodity Credit Corporation with the
peanuts being collateral. If the marketing
assistance loan rate is greater than the loan
repayment rate (posted weekly by the FSA), the
loan deficiency payment (LDP) becomes active
and the farmer can forego obtaining a loan
(which has a $45 fee) and receive a LDP equal
to that difference. The selection of a marketing
option may depend on the availability of on-
farm storage facilities or local warehouses,
convenience, costs associated with storage, and
many other factors. The local FSA office would
be a good source of information on the
possibilities of marketing peanuts, and the FSA
Fact Sheet at
peanut02.htm> would be useful.

EBW

Auction of Tobacco Equipment

The auction of tobacco equipment that the State
of Florida bought several months ago from
farmers that no longer needed it because of
quota reductions will be auctioned at the surplus
warehouse in Starke on December 7, 2002.
While the field equipment will be available for
inspection prior to the auction, the tobacco
barns will be sold by photograph because they
are still at their original location. Successful
bidders must remove their purchased equipment
by January 31, 2003, thus those Florida farmers
that sold barns can expect them to be moved by
that date. Florida farmers are not allowed to
buy the equipment for use in tobacco
production, because according to Florida Statue
Chapter Law 2000-128, Section 7: "No such
equipment may be sold, leased, or conveyed to
or for use by a person or entity who produces
tobacco or holds a quota for the production of
tobacco in the State of Florida." More










ton or the loan rate ($355) plus the $36 direct
payment for a crop year is less than the target
price of $495 per ton, then countercyclical
payments of 85 percent of the base will be
made. There are payment limitations.

Seed prices may also decline because of the
changes in the peanut program. Seed source and
quality may be a consideration for some
growers, and implications of variety and patent
protection may be of concern if seed are saved
from the 2002 crop. Be sure that there are no
infringements of these protections.

There are deadlines for making applications for
various programs and schedules for payments,
and the local FSA office could provide
information.

EBW

Peanut Crop Report

Estimates made in early November by the
USDA's Agricultural Statistics Service reflect
lower yield estimates than those made in
October. These lower estimates take into
account losses due to wet weather by either
preventing harvest or increasing harvest losses
through delayed harvest or greater disease
pressure. The November yield estimate for
Florida is 2500 pounds per acre, while the
national average is estimated at 2579 pounds per
acre. While the southeastern states are near the
middle in yield estimates, the southwestern
states are expecting moderately high yields and
the drought has contributed to low yields in the
Virginia-Carolina production area.

EBW

Peanut Marketing Options

Farmers are now getting experience with
marketing peanuts under the 2002 Farm Bill and
those experiences should be valuable in
planning future marketing. Marketing
assistance loans can be obtained through a
cooperative marketing association, a producer
cooperative, or the USDA's Farm Service


Agency. Generally a cooperative would handle
grading, storage, arrangements for marketing
assistance loans, and finally selling the peanuts.
The farmer may wish to handle these
arrangements and get his loan directly from the
FSA office for either on-farm or warehouse
stored peanuts. Marketing assistance loans are
nonrecourse loans that are provided by the
USDA Commodity Credit Corporation with the
peanuts being collateral. If the marketing
assistance loan rate is greater than the loan
repayment rate (posted weekly by the FSA), the
loan deficiency payment (LDP) becomes active
and the farmer can forego obtaining a loan
(which has a $45 fee) and receive a LDP equal
to that difference. The selection of a marketing
option may depend on the availability of on-
farm storage facilities or local warehouses,
convenience, costs associated with storage, and
many other factors. The local FSA office would
be a good source of information on the
possibilities of marketing peanuts, and the FSA
Fact Sheet at
peanut02.htm> would be useful.

EBW

Auction of Tobacco Equipment

The auction of tobacco equipment that the State
of Florida bought several months ago from
farmers that no longer needed it because of
quota reductions will be auctioned at the surplus
warehouse in Starke on December 7, 2002.
While the field equipment will be available for
inspection prior to the auction, the tobacco
barns will be sold by photograph because they
are still at their original location. Successful
bidders must remove their purchased equipment
by January 31, 2003, thus those Florida farmers
that sold barns can expect them to be moved by
that date. Florida farmers are not allowed to
buy the equipment for use in tobacco
production, because according to Florida Statue
Chapter Law 2000-128, Section 7: "No such
equipment may be sold, leased, or conveyed to
or for use by a person or entity who produces
tobacco or holds a quota for the production of
tobacco in the State of Florida." More










ton or the loan rate ($355) plus the $36 direct
payment for a crop year is less than the target
price of $495 per ton, then countercyclical
payments of 85 percent of the base will be
made. There are payment limitations.

Seed prices may also decline because of the
changes in the peanut program. Seed source and
quality may be a consideration for some
growers, and implications of variety and patent
protection may be of concern if seed are saved
from the 2002 crop. Be sure that there are no
infringements of these protections.

There are deadlines for making applications for
various programs and schedules for payments,
and the local FSA office could provide
information.

EBW

Peanut Crop Report

Estimates made in early November by the
USDA's Agricultural Statistics Service reflect
lower yield estimates than those made in
October. These lower estimates take into
account losses due to wet weather by either
preventing harvest or increasing harvest losses
through delayed harvest or greater disease
pressure. The November yield estimate for
Florida is 2500 pounds per acre, while the
national average is estimated at 2579 pounds per
acre. While the southeastern states are near the
middle in yield estimates, the southwestern
states are expecting moderately high yields and
the drought has contributed to low yields in the
Virginia-Carolina production area.

EBW

Peanut Marketing Options

Farmers are now getting experience with
marketing peanuts under the 2002 Farm Bill and
those experiences should be valuable in
planning future marketing. Marketing
assistance loans can be obtained through a
cooperative marketing association, a producer
cooperative, or the USDA's Farm Service


Agency. Generally a cooperative would handle
grading, storage, arrangements for marketing
assistance loans, and finally selling the peanuts.
The farmer may wish to handle these
arrangements and get his loan directly from the
FSA office for either on-farm or warehouse
stored peanuts. Marketing assistance loans are
nonrecourse loans that are provided by the
USDA Commodity Credit Corporation with the
peanuts being collateral. If the marketing
assistance loan rate is greater than the loan
repayment rate (posted weekly by the FSA), the
loan deficiency payment (LDP) becomes active
and the farmer can forego obtaining a loan
(which has a $45 fee) and receive a LDP equal
to that difference. The selection of a marketing
option may depend on the availability of on-
farm storage facilities or local warehouses,
convenience, costs associated with storage, and
many other factors. The local FSA office would
be a good source of information on the
possibilities of marketing peanuts, and the FSA
Fact Sheet at
peanut02.htm> would be useful.

EBW

Auction of Tobacco Equipment

The auction of tobacco equipment that the State
of Florida bought several months ago from
farmers that no longer needed it because of
quota reductions will be auctioned at the surplus
warehouse in Starke on December 7, 2002.
While the field equipment will be available for
inspection prior to the auction, the tobacco
barns will be sold by photograph because they
are still at their original location. Successful
bidders must remove their purchased equipment
by January 31, 2003, thus those Florida farmers
that sold barns can expect them to be moved by
that date. Florida farmers are not allowed to
buy the equipment for use in tobacco
production, because according to Florida Statue
Chapter Law 2000-128, Section 7: "No such
equipment may be sold, leased, or conveyed to
or for use by a person or entity who produces
tobacco or holds a quota for the production of
tobacco in the State of Florida." More










information on the auction can be found at the
auctioneer's web site:
.


EBW


Supply of Nematicides for Tobacco

The contact nematicide Nemacur is being
phased out by the manufacturer, which could
increase demand for the Telone II fumigant in
those areas that had heavy use of Nemacur. A
high percentage of Florida tobacco growers use
Telone II, so it may be a good idea to be sure
that dealers will have adequate supplies.

EBW

Tobacco Market Report

All flue-cured tobacco markets are now closed
with over 560 million pounds being sold.
Approximately 22 percent of the total crop was
sold at auction, with the rest being sold under
contract. Average prices for all auctions and
contract centers were $1.75 and $1.84 per
pound, respectively. There were two contract
centers, but no auctions in Florida, although
Florida and Georgia tobacco moves across state
state line to either auction markets or contract
centers. Of the 68 million pounds of tobacco
sold in Georgia and Florida, about 94 percent
was contracted, with the remainder being
auctioned. Over half of the 114 million pounds
that were auctioned went into the loan program.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

The current session of congress has ended with
no action being taken on the various bills that
deal with changes in the tobacco program,
including proposals to pay growers for their
quota and end that phase of the program. It is


expected that these bills will be considered
when the next congress convenes.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Outlook

The flue-cured tobacco quota for 2003 will be
announced by the USDA on December 16. The
quota is determined by adding the purchase
intentions of the domestic manufacturers
(announced on December 1) with the average of
the 2000-2003 exports ofnonmanufactured leaf,
and reserve adjustment for loan stocks held in
storage. The Secretary of Agriculture may
adjust the total up or down by three percent.
The reserve adjustment level was changed in the
2002 farm bill to larger of 60 million pounds or
10 percent of the 2002 basic quota. For the
2003 formula, the 60 million pound level will
apply. Approximately 59 million pounds of the
2002 crop were placed under loan, and at the
end of July about 14 million pounds of the 2001
crop were still in the loan program, but some
may be sold before the quota is determined.
Any amount that exceeds the reserve level of 60
million pounds, will be subtracted in the
formula determination. Another component of
the formula is the latest three-year export
average, and it is expected that it will be slightly
less than the figure used for the 2002 quota.
The third component of the quota formula,
purchase intentions, is largely unknown but will
be announced on December 1. If the purchase
intentions are the same as last year, 310 million
pounds, then the final basic quota for 2003
could be less than in 2002. Even so, the
effective quota for most of the states could be
greater than last year because nonmarketed 2002
quota can be carried forward. Since most
Florida growers sold all of their 2002 quota,
their effective quota may be very near the basic
quota.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist.










information on the auction can be found at the
auctioneer's web site:
.


EBW


Supply of Nematicides for Tobacco

The contact nematicide Nemacur is being
phased out by the manufacturer, which could
increase demand for the Telone II fumigant in
those areas that had heavy use of Nemacur. A
high percentage of Florida tobacco growers use
Telone II, so it may be a good idea to be sure
that dealers will have adequate supplies.

EBW

Tobacco Market Report

All flue-cured tobacco markets are now closed
with over 560 million pounds being sold.
Approximately 22 percent of the total crop was
sold at auction, with the rest being sold under
contract. Average prices for all auctions and
contract centers were $1.75 and $1.84 per
pound, respectively. There were two contract
centers, but no auctions in Florida, although
Florida and Georgia tobacco moves across state
state line to either auction markets or contract
centers. Of the 68 million pounds of tobacco
sold in Georgia and Florida, about 94 percent
was contracted, with the remainder being
auctioned. Over half of the 114 million pounds
that were auctioned went into the loan program.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

The current session of congress has ended with
no action being taken on the various bills that
deal with changes in the tobacco program,
including proposals to pay growers for their
quota and end that phase of the program. It is


expected that these bills will be considered
when the next congress convenes.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Outlook

The flue-cured tobacco quota for 2003 will be
announced by the USDA on December 16. The
quota is determined by adding the purchase
intentions of the domestic manufacturers
(announced on December 1) with the average of
the 2000-2003 exports ofnonmanufactured leaf,
and reserve adjustment for loan stocks held in
storage. The Secretary of Agriculture may
adjust the total up or down by three percent.
The reserve adjustment level was changed in the
2002 farm bill to larger of 60 million pounds or
10 percent of the 2002 basic quota. For the
2003 formula, the 60 million pound level will
apply. Approximately 59 million pounds of the
2002 crop were placed under loan, and at the
end of July about 14 million pounds of the 2001
crop were still in the loan program, but some
may be sold before the quota is determined.
Any amount that exceeds the reserve level of 60
million pounds, will be subtracted in the
formula determination. Another component of
the formula is the latest three-year export
average, and it is expected that it will be slightly
less than the figure used for the 2002 quota.
The third component of the quota formula,
purchase intentions, is largely unknown but will
be announced on December 1. If the purchase
intentions are the same as last year, 310 million
pounds, then the final basic quota for 2003
could be less than in 2002. Even so, the
effective quota for most of the states could be
greater than last year because nonmarketed 2002
quota can be carried forward. Since most
Florida growers sold all of their 2002 quota,
their effective quota may be very near the basic
quota.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist.










information on the auction can be found at the
auctioneer's web site:
.


EBW


Supply of Nematicides for Tobacco

The contact nematicide Nemacur is being
phased out by the manufacturer, which could
increase demand for the Telone II fumigant in
those areas that had heavy use of Nemacur. A
high percentage of Florida tobacco growers use
Telone II, so it may be a good idea to be sure
that dealers will have adequate supplies.

EBW

Tobacco Market Report

All flue-cured tobacco markets are now closed
with over 560 million pounds being sold.
Approximately 22 percent of the total crop was
sold at auction, with the rest being sold under
contract. Average prices for all auctions and
contract centers were $1.75 and $1.84 per
pound, respectively. There were two contract
centers, but no auctions in Florida, although
Florida and Georgia tobacco moves across state
state line to either auction markets or contract
centers. Of the 68 million pounds of tobacco
sold in Georgia and Florida, about 94 percent
was contracted, with the remainder being
auctioned. Over half of the 114 million pounds
that were auctioned went into the loan program.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

The current session of congress has ended with
no action being taken on the various bills that
deal with changes in the tobacco program,
including proposals to pay growers for their
quota and end that phase of the program. It is


expected that these bills will be considered
when the next congress convenes.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Outlook

The flue-cured tobacco quota for 2003 will be
announced by the USDA on December 16. The
quota is determined by adding the purchase
intentions of the domestic manufacturers
(announced on December 1) with the average of
the 2000-2003 exports ofnonmanufactured leaf,
and reserve adjustment for loan stocks held in
storage. The Secretary of Agriculture may
adjust the total up or down by three percent.
The reserve adjustment level was changed in the
2002 farm bill to larger of 60 million pounds or
10 percent of the 2002 basic quota. For the
2003 formula, the 60 million pound level will
apply. Approximately 59 million pounds of the
2002 crop were placed under loan, and at the
end of July about 14 million pounds of the 2001
crop were still in the loan program, but some
may be sold before the quota is determined.
Any amount that exceeds the reserve level of 60
million pounds, will be subtracted in the
formula determination. Another component of
the formula is the latest three-year export
average, and it is expected that it will be slightly
less than the figure used for the 2002 quota.
The third component of the quota formula,
purchase intentions, is largely unknown but will
be announced on December 1. If the purchase
intentions are the same as last year, 310 million
pounds, then the final basic quota for 2003
could be less than in 2002. Even so, the
effective quota for most of the states could be
greater than last year because nonmarketed 2002
quota can be carried forward. Since most
Florida growers sold all of their 2002 quota,
their effective quota may be very near the basic
quota.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist.










information on the auction can be found at the
auctioneer's web site:
.


EBW


Supply of Nematicides for Tobacco

The contact nematicide Nemacur is being
phased out by the manufacturer, which could
increase demand for the Telone II fumigant in
those areas that had heavy use of Nemacur. A
high percentage of Florida tobacco growers use
Telone II, so it may be a good idea to be sure
that dealers will have adequate supplies.

EBW

Tobacco Market Report

All flue-cured tobacco markets are now closed
with over 560 million pounds being sold.
Approximately 22 percent of the total crop was
sold at auction, with the rest being sold under
contract. Average prices for all auctions and
contract centers were $1.75 and $1.84 per
pound, respectively. There were two contract
centers, but no auctions in Florida, although
Florida and Georgia tobacco moves across state
state line to either auction markets or contract
centers. Of the 68 million pounds of tobacco
sold in Georgia and Florida, about 94 percent
was contracted, with the remainder being
auctioned. Over half of the 114 million pounds
that were auctioned went into the loan program.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Buyout Proposals

The current session of congress has ended with
no action being taken on the various bills that
deal with changes in the tobacco program,
including proposals to pay growers for their
quota and end that phase of the program. It is


expected that these bills will be considered
when the next congress convenes.

EBW

Tobacco Quota Outlook

The flue-cured tobacco quota for 2003 will be
announced by the USDA on December 16. The
quota is determined by adding the purchase
intentions of the domestic manufacturers
(announced on December 1) with the average of
the 2000-2003 exports ofnonmanufactured leaf,
and reserve adjustment for loan stocks held in
storage. The Secretary of Agriculture may
adjust the total up or down by three percent.
The reserve adjustment level was changed in the
2002 farm bill to larger of 60 million pounds or
10 percent of the 2002 basic quota. For the
2003 formula, the 60 million pound level will
apply. Approximately 59 million pounds of the
2002 crop were placed under loan, and at the
end of July about 14 million pounds of the 2001
crop were still in the loan program, but some
may be sold before the quota is determined.
Any amount that exceeds the reserve level of 60
million pounds, will be subtracted in the
formula determination. Another component of
the formula is the latest three-year export
average, and it is expected that it will be slightly
less than the figure used for the 2002 quota.
The third component of the quota formula,
purchase intentions, is largely unknown but will
be announced on December 1. If the purchase
intentions are the same as last year, 310 million
pounds, then the final basic quota for 2003
could be less than in 2002. Even so, the
effective quota for most of the states could be
greater than last year because nonmarketed 2002
quota can be carried forward. Since most
Florida growers sold all of their 2002 quota,
their effective quota may be very near the basic
quota.

EBW


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
similar products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist.