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 Table of Contents
 Cotton harvest late in the...
 Price for transgenic technology...
 New peanut varieties
 Protection of peanut patents and...
 Tobacco barn insulation remova...
 Tobacco buyout proposals
 Tobacco plant bed fumigation
 Tobacco varieties for 2003
 Publications
 October crop report


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00028
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: November 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00028

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Cotton harvest late in the season
        Page 2
    Price for transgenic technology in cotton
        Page 2
    New peanut varieties
        Page 2
    Protection of peanut patents and varieties
        Page 3
    Tobacco barn insulation removal
        Page 3
    Tobacco buyout proposals
        Page 3
    Tobacco plant bed fumigation
        Page 3
    Tobacco varieties for 2003
        Page 3
    Publications
        Page 4
    October crop report
        Page 4
Full Text





AGRONOMY


.,*. UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
EXTENSION
l Fr.. .,n.j.4,,. I., S .. S.......


NOTES


November 2002


IN THIS ISSUE


COTTON
Cotton H harvest Late in the Season ........................................ .......................................... 2
Price for Transgenic Technology in Cotton ............................. .............................................. 2

PEANUT
New Peanut Varieties ................................ ........... ................................ 2
Protection of Peanut Patents and Varieties......................................... .............................. 3

TOBACCO
Tobacco Barn Insulation Rem oval ........................................ .......................................... 3
T tobacco B uyout P proposals ...................................................... ............................................... 3
Tobacco Plant B ed Fum igation ........................................... ............................................. 3
T tobacco V varieties for 2003 .................................................... ................................................ 3

MISCELLANEOUS
Publications .................. ................. ...... ........ 4
O ctob er C rop R ep o rt ................................................................................ .............................. 4


DATES TO REMEMBER

November 10-14 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings Indianapolis, IN


PAGE


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









Cotton Harvest Late in the Season

Many fields of cotton will end up being picked late this year
due to unfavorable weather in the early part of harvest.
Harvest should be delayed until dew has dried and the rela-
tive humidity is below 70%. This means that picking can-
not start until about 11:00 A.M. Fewer acres can be picked
in a day during November than during September due to
fewer daylight hours and fewer hours with low humidity.
Cotton that is picked with some dew should be placed on a
trailer and not in modules. Moisture and temperature should
be checked if cotton of questionable moisture was placed in
a module. Module temperatures should be monitored for
the first five days. Temperature will normally increase dur-
ing this period as much as 20 degrees F. However, after 3-4
days the temperature rise should stop and begin to decrease.
If the temperature continues to increase, high moisture in
the module is creating the heat. If the temperature reaches
120 degrees F, the module should be ginned immediately; if
the module temperature stays 20 degrees F higher than the
air temperature for longer than 3-5 days, the module should
be ginned.

DLW

Price for Transgenic Technology in Cotton

The input-trait biotechnology sets the price for new genetic
technology. The Roundup Ready herbicide tolerance and
Bt insect resistance traits incorporated into cotton were priced
to match the cost of the chemical treatments that they were
substituted for. However, in many of our studies, the advan-
tages of the transgenic traits outweigh the cost of the tech-
nology ($32/A cost and $75/A return). Other factors, in-
cluding easier management and greater insurance benefits,
are added benefits to the technology. Since over 80% of the
cotton grown in the U.S. is transgenic, it is assumed that
growers are benefitting from this technology.

DLW

New Peanut Varieties

Six new peanut varieties have been released by the Univer-
sity of Florida and seed should be available for limited plant-
ing in 2003. Three of them, Carver, Hull, and Norden, are
general release varieties and seed should be available from
various seed dealers. The other three varieties, Andru II,
DP-1, and GP-1, are licensed to Anderson's Peanut Com-
pany, Damascus Peanut Company, and Golden Peanut Com-
pany, respectively. Seed would be available through dealers
for these respective companies. Four of the new varieties,
Hull, Norden, Andru II, and GP-1, are high oleic peanuts.

Carver is a medium maturity variety that has better resis-
tance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and white mold


than Georgia Green, and has some resistance to
cylindrocladium black rot (CBR), limb rot, and late leaf
spot. It has a runner growth habit with a prominent center
stem and has excellent yield potential. Seed supplies will
be limited in 2003. The variety is named for Dr. W. A.
Carver, a University of Florida peanut breeder who re-
leased or co-released the Dixie Runner, Early Runner, and
Florigiant varieties during the 1940's to 1960's.

Hull is a late-maturity variety with resistance to TSWV
and late leaf spot similar to C-99R. It has white mold
resistance that is equal to or better than C-99R, and has
good resistance to CBR and some resistance to root-knot
nematodes. Hull produces less vine growth than C-99R,
but has a similar jumbo-runner seed size. This is the first
late-maturity high oleic variety, and was named after Dr.
Fred Hull, a University of Florida geneticist and peanut
breeder who began the first peanut breeding program in
the United States in 1928.

Norden is a medium maturity variety that has the high
oleic characteristic, and is intended to be a replacement
for SunOleic 97R. Norden produces good yields and in
Florida has better TSWV resistance than Georgia Green.
This variety also has resistance to white mold, leaf spot,
and rhizoctonia limb rot. Seed size of Norden is larger
than for Georgia Green. This variety was named for Dr.
A. J. Norden, a University of Florida peanut breeder who
released the Florunner variety and also was the primary
early developer of the high oleic characteristic in peanuts.

Andru II is an early maturity variety, but not as early as
Andru 93. Compared to Georgia Green, it has equal or
better resistance to TSWV and white mold, and also has
about equal yields. Andru II has the high oleic character-
istic. This variety is licensed to Anderson's Peanut Com-
pany.

DP-1 is a late maturity variety and has the best combined
resistance to TSWV, late leaf spot, and white mold that is
available in any peanut variety. It has a seed size similar
to Florunner and vine growth is less than that of C-99R.
Seed are marketed through Damascus Peanut Company,
but will be limited in 2003.

GP-1 is an early maturity variety with high oleic chemis-
try. Since GP-1 has lower resistance to TSWV than Geor-
gia Green, it should not be planted in areas that normally
have severe outbreaks of this disease. The seed size of
GP-1 is larger than that of Georgia Green. Golden Peanut
company has the marketing contract for this variety.

More information will be available on the performance of
these varieties as soon as the 2002 research results are
available.

EBW









Cotton Harvest Late in the Season

Many fields of cotton will end up being picked late this year
due to unfavorable weather in the early part of harvest.
Harvest should be delayed until dew has dried and the rela-
tive humidity is below 70%. This means that picking can-
not start until about 11:00 A.M. Fewer acres can be picked
in a day during November than during September due to
fewer daylight hours and fewer hours with low humidity.
Cotton that is picked with some dew should be placed on a
trailer and not in modules. Moisture and temperature should
be checked if cotton of questionable moisture was placed in
a module. Module temperatures should be monitored for
the first five days. Temperature will normally increase dur-
ing this period as much as 20 degrees F. However, after 3-4
days the temperature rise should stop and begin to decrease.
If the temperature continues to increase, high moisture in
the module is creating the heat. If the temperature reaches
120 degrees F, the module should be ginned immediately; if
the module temperature stays 20 degrees F higher than the
air temperature for longer than 3-5 days, the module should
be ginned.

DLW

Price for Transgenic Technology in Cotton

The input-trait biotechnology sets the price for new genetic
technology. The Roundup Ready herbicide tolerance and
Bt insect resistance traits incorporated into cotton were priced
to match the cost of the chemical treatments that they were
substituted for. However, in many of our studies, the advan-
tages of the transgenic traits outweigh the cost of the tech-
nology ($32/A cost and $75/A return). Other factors, in-
cluding easier management and greater insurance benefits,
are added benefits to the technology. Since over 80% of the
cotton grown in the U.S. is transgenic, it is assumed that
growers are benefitting from this technology.

DLW

New Peanut Varieties

Six new peanut varieties have been released by the Univer-
sity of Florida and seed should be available for limited plant-
ing in 2003. Three of them, Carver, Hull, and Norden, are
general release varieties and seed should be available from
various seed dealers. The other three varieties, Andru II,
DP-1, and GP-1, are licensed to Anderson's Peanut Com-
pany, Damascus Peanut Company, and Golden Peanut Com-
pany, respectively. Seed would be available through dealers
for these respective companies. Four of the new varieties,
Hull, Norden, Andru II, and GP-1, are high oleic peanuts.

Carver is a medium maturity variety that has better resis-
tance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and white mold


than Georgia Green, and has some resistance to
cylindrocladium black rot (CBR), limb rot, and late leaf
spot. It has a runner growth habit with a prominent center
stem and has excellent yield potential. Seed supplies will
be limited in 2003. The variety is named for Dr. W. A.
Carver, a University of Florida peanut breeder who re-
leased or co-released the Dixie Runner, Early Runner, and
Florigiant varieties during the 1940's to 1960's.

Hull is a late-maturity variety with resistance to TSWV
and late leaf spot similar to C-99R. It has white mold
resistance that is equal to or better than C-99R, and has
good resistance to CBR and some resistance to root-knot
nematodes. Hull produces less vine growth than C-99R,
but has a similar jumbo-runner seed size. This is the first
late-maturity high oleic variety, and was named after Dr.
Fred Hull, a University of Florida geneticist and peanut
breeder who began the first peanut breeding program in
the United States in 1928.

Norden is a medium maturity variety that has the high
oleic characteristic, and is intended to be a replacement
for SunOleic 97R. Norden produces good yields and in
Florida has better TSWV resistance than Georgia Green.
This variety also has resistance to white mold, leaf spot,
and rhizoctonia limb rot. Seed size of Norden is larger
than for Georgia Green. This variety was named for Dr.
A. J. Norden, a University of Florida peanut breeder who
released the Florunner variety and also was the primary
early developer of the high oleic characteristic in peanuts.

Andru II is an early maturity variety, but not as early as
Andru 93. Compared to Georgia Green, it has equal or
better resistance to TSWV and white mold, and also has
about equal yields. Andru II has the high oleic character-
istic. This variety is licensed to Anderson's Peanut Com-
pany.

DP-1 is a late maturity variety and has the best combined
resistance to TSWV, late leaf spot, and white mold that is
available in any peanut variety. It has a seed size similar
to Florunner and vine growth is less than that of C-99R.
Seed are marketed through Damascus Peanut Company,
but will be limited in 2003.

GP-1 is an early maturity variety with high oleic chemis-
try. Since GP-1 has lower resistance to TSWV than Geor-
gia Green, it should not be planted in areas that normally
have severe outbreaks of this disease. The seed size of
GP-1 is larger than that of Georgia Green. Golden Peanut
company has the marketing contract for this variety.

More information will be available on the performance of
these varieties as soon as the 2002 research results are
available.

EBW









Cotton Harvest Late in the Season

Many fields of cotton will end up being picked late this year
due to unfavorable weather in the early part of harvest.
Harvest should be delayed until dew has dried and the rela-
tive humidity is below 70%. This means that picking can-
not start until about 11:00 A.M. Fewer acres can be picked
in a day during November than during September due to
fewer daylight hours and fewer hours with low humidity.
Cotton that is picked with some dew should be placed on a
trailer and not in modules. Moisture and temperature should
be checked if cotton of questionable moisture was placed in
a module. Module temperatures should be monitored for
the first five days. Temperature will normally increase dur-
ing this period as much as 20 degrees F. However, after 3-4
days the temperature rise should stop and begin to decrease.
If the temperature continues to increase, high moisture in
the module is creating the heat. If the temperature reaches
120 degrees F, the module should be ginned immediately; if
the module temperature stays 20 degrees F higher than the
air temperature for longer than 3-5 days, the module should
be ginned.

DLW

Price for Transgenic Technology in Cotton

The input-trait biotechnology sets the price for new genetic
technology. The Roundup Ready herbicide tolerance and
Bt insect resistance traits incorporated into cotton were priced
to match the cost of the chemical treatments that they were
substituted for. However, in many of our studies, the advan-
tages of the transgenic traits outweigh the cost of the tech-
nology ($32/A cost and $75/A return). Other factors, in-
cluding easier management and greater insurance benefits,
are added benefits to the technology. Since over 80% of the
cotton grown in the U.S. is transgenic, it is assumed that
growers are benefitting from this technology.

DLW

New Peanut Varieties

Six new peanut varieties have been released by the Univer-
sity of Florida and seed should be available for limited plant-
ing in 2003. Three of them, Carver, Hull, and Norden, are
general release varieties and seed should be available from
various seed dealers. The other three varieties, Andru II,
DP-1, and GP-1, are licensed to Anderson's Peanut Com-
pany, Damascus Peanut Company, and Golden Peanut Com-
pany, respectively. Seed would be available through dealers
for these respective companies. Four of the new varieties,
Hull, Norden, Andru II, and GP-1, are high oleic peanuts.

Carver is a medium maturity variety that has better resis-
tance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and white mold


than Georgia Green, and has some resistance to
cylindrocladium black rot (CBR), limb rot, and late leaf
spot. It has a runner growth habit with a prominent center
stem and has excellent yield potential. Seed supplies will
be limited in 2003. The variety is named for Dr. W. A.
Carver, a University of Florida peanut breeder who re-
leased or co-released the Dixie Runner, Early Runner, and
Florigiant varieties during the 1940's to 1960's.

Hull is a late-maturity variety with resistance to TSWV
and late leaf spot similar to C-99R. It has white mold
resistance that is equal to or better than C-99R, and has
good resistance to CBR and some resistance to root-knot
nematodes. Hull produces less vine growth than C-99R,
but has a similar jumbo-runner seed size. This is the first
late-maturity high oleic variety, and was named after Dr.
Fred Hull, a University of Florida geneticist and peanut
breeder who began the first peanut breeding program in
the United States in 1928.

Norden is a medium maturity variety that has the high
oleic characteristic, and is intended to be a replacement
for SunOleic 97R. Norden produces good yields and in
Florida has better TSWV resistance than Georgia Green.
This variety also has resistance to white mold, leaf spot,
and rhizoctonia limb rot. Seed size of Norden is larger
than for Georgia Green. This variety was named for Dr.
A. J. Norden, a University of Florida peanut breeder who
released the Florunner variety and also was the primary
early developer of the high oleic characteristic in peanuts.

Andru II is an early maturity variety, but not as early as
Andru 93. Compared to Georgia Green, it has equal or
better resistance to TSWV and white mold, and also has
about equal yields. Andru II has the high oleic character-
istic. This variety is licensed to Anderson's Peanut Com-
pany.

DP-1 is a late maturity variety and has the best combined
resistance to TSWV, late leaf spot, and white mold that is
available in any peanut variety. It has a seed size similar
to Florunner and vine growth is less than that of C-99R.
Seed are marketed through Damascus Peanut Company,
but will be limited in 2003.

GP-1 is an early maturity variety with high oleic chemis-
try. Since GP-1 has lower resistance to TSWV than Geor-
gia Green, it should not be planted in areas that normally
have severe outbreaks of this disease. The seed size of
GP-1 is larger than that of Georgia Green. Golden Peanut
company has the marketing contract for this variety.

More information will be available on the performance of
these varieties as soon as the 2002 research results are
available.

EBW








Protection of Peanut Patents and Varieties

Peanut growers and seed processors who are considering sav-
ing, shelling, and perhaps selling seed should be aware of
possible restrictions on certain varieties. Most, if not all,
peanut varieties released in recent years are protected under
a federal program based on the Plant Variety Protection Act.
This law was originally passed in 1970 and allowed the de-
veloper of a variety to have exclusive rights for seed sales
for a specified number of years. The developer could give
permission to others to produce and sell seed of the variety,
usually through contracts that involved royalty payments.
An exception allowed a farmer to save seed to plant the same
acreage on his farm the next year, and if he was prevented
from planting them, he could sell them to others. In 1994
the law was amended to prohibit the sale of the saved seed,
but the farmer could still plant them. The Plant Variety Pro-
tection program is administered by the USDA and more in-
formation, including a list of peanut and other crop varieties
that have such protection can be found on their web site:
http://www.ams.usda.gov/science/pvpo/pvp.htm

In addition to plant variety protection, patents may also be
granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to
a person who invents a product or process that is novel. This
includes living organisms or parts of organisms, and patents
have been used extensively for genes that are used to de-
velop transgenic or genetically modified varieties. Although
there are no transgenic peanut varieties, the University of
Florida holds patents 5,922,390; 6,063,984; and 6,121,472
which cover seed, products, and oil that have the high oleic
characteristic. A full description of these patents canbe found
through the patent office web site: http://www.uspto.gov
These patents cover the six high-oleic peanut varieties that
the University of Florida has released, plus those released
by other states or companies. Unlike the provisions of the
Plant Variety Protection Act, a farmer cannot save seed of
these varieties, even for his own use. Farmers who have
grown transgenic cotton, soybeans, corn, or other crops are
familiar with these restrictions. Permission to produce, pro-
cess, and sell seed of the patented varieties is usually granted
through contracts or licenses that involve royalty payments.

Further information is available in the Agronomy publica-
tion, Peanut Variety Protection, SS-AGR-186.


EBW


Tobacco Barn Insulation Removal

A few years ago farmers had to certify to the USDA's Farm
Service Agency that tobacco cured in their barns did not con-
tact insulation, or that insulation could not get mixed into
the cured leaf. The primary source of contamination from
insulation was from the spray-on type, where the loading or
unloading of racks or boxes could result in pieces of the in-


sulation breaking off and getting mixed with the tobacco.
This certification is no longer required, but some buyers re-
port finding pieces of insulation as tobacco is being pro-
cessed. Unfortunately it is very difficult to remove insula-
tion from the tobacco, therefore prevention would be the most
effective means of avoiding a problem. Even if insulation
has been removed from the walls, the insulation on the top
of the barn can break off due to aging and disturbance, re-
sulting in pieces of insulation falling into the boxes or on top
of the racks and then remaining in the tobacco as it is baled.
Before the next curing season, growers should inspect all of
their barns for exposed insulation and if present, either re-
move it or cover it to prevent the possibility of it contami-
nating the tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Several bills have been introduced in congress that would
eliminate the tobacco quota system and pay growers for their
quota. Some of the bills include FDA authority over tobacco
products. Others propose the FDA authority, but make no
mention of a quota buyout. It is generally believed that there
are too many other pressing matters for any action to be taken
before the end of the year, but that the tobacco buyout bills
could be considered next year.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Fumigation

Plant beds are normally fumigated in November or Decem-
ber. For best results the beds should have all plant residue
thoroughly mixed with the soil in time for it to decompose
before fumigation. Disk the soil prior to fumigation for more
complete movement of the gas through the soil. If the soil is
dry, irrigate a few days ahead of fumigation so that the weed
seed will be softened and thereby be killed more easily by
the fumigant. Fumigate early enough to allow a 14-day aera-
tion period between cover removal and seeding if the fumi-
gant contains chloropicrin, as will be the case with most prod-
ucts. Chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as quickly
as methyl bromide and residues can prevent germination of
the tobacco seed.


EBW


Tobacco Varieties for 2003

Complete information is not yet available as to varieties that
will be offered for sale to plant the 2003 crop. Many of the
older varieties would still be suitable in many situations. For
fields that are not infested with black shank, K 326 is still a
reliable variety and will produce good yields of high quality
leaf, and is relatively easy to grow and cure. If protection








Protection of Peanut Patents and Varieties

Peanut growers and seed processors who are considering sav-
ing, shelling, and perhaps selling seed should be aware of
possible restrictions on certain varieties. Most, if not all,
peanut varieties released in recent years are protected under
a federal program based on the Plant Variety Protection Act.
This law was originally passed in 1970 and allowed the de-
veloper of a variety to have exclusive rights for seed sales
for a specified number of years. The developer could give
permission to others to produce and sell seed of the variety,
usually through contracts that involved royalty payments.
An exception allowed a farmer to save seed to plant the same
acreage on his farm the next year, and if he was prevented
from planting them, he could sell them to others. In 1994
the law was amended to prohibit the sale of the saved seed,
but the farmer could still plant them. The Plant Variety Pro-
tection program is administered by the USDA and more in-
formation, including a list of peanut and other crop varieties
that have such protection can be found on their web site:
http://www.ams.usda.gov/science/pvpo/pvp.htm

In addition to plant variety protection, patents may also be
granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to
a person who invents a product or process that is novel. This
includes living organisms or parts of organisms, and patents
have been used extensively for genes that are used to de-
velop transgenic or genetically modified varieties. Although
there are no transgenic peanut varieties, the University of
Florida holds patents 5,922,390; 6,063,984; and 6,121,472
which cover seed, products, and oil that have the high oleic
characteristic. A full description of these patents canbe found
through the patent office web site: http://www.uspto.gov
These patents cover the six high-oleic peanut varieties that
the University of Florida has released, plus those released
by other states or companies. Unlike the provisions of the
Plant Variety Protection Act, a farmer cannot save seed of
these varieties, even for his own use. Farmers who have
grown transgenic cotton, soybeans, corn, or other crops are
familiar with these restrictions. Permission to produce, pro-
cess, and sell seed of the patented varieties is usually granted
through contracts or licenses that involve royalty payments.

Further information is available in the Agronomy publica-
tion, Peanut Variety Protection, SS-AGR-186.


EBW


Tobacco Barn Insulation Removal

A few years ago farmers had to certify to the USDA's Farm
Service Agency that tobacco cured in their barns did not con-
tact insulation, or that insulation could not get mixed into
the cured leaf. The primary source of contamination from
insulation was from the spray-on type, where the loading or
unloading of racks or boxes could result in pieces of the in-


sulation breaking off and getting mixed with the tobacco.
This certification is no longer required, but some buyers re-
port finding pieces of insulation as tobacco is being pro-
cessed. Unfortunately it is very difficult to remove insula-
tion from the tobacco, therefore prevention would be the most
effective means of avoiding a problem. Even if insulation
has been removed from the walls, the insulation on the top
of the barn can break off due to aging and disturbance, re-
sulting in pieces of insulation falling into the boxes or on top
of the racks and then remaining in the tobacco as it is baled.
Before the next curing season, growers should inspect all of
their barns for exposed insulation and if present, either re-
move it or cover it to prevent the possibility of it contami-
nating the tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Several bills have been introduced in congress that would
eliminate the tobacco quota system and pay growers for their
quota. Some of the bills include FDA authority over tobacco
products. Others propose the FDA authority, but make no
mention of a quota buyout. It is generally believed that there
are too many other pressing matters for any action to be taken
before the end of the year, but that the tobacco buyout bills
could be considered next year.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Fumigation

Plant beds are normally fumigated in November or Decem-
ber. For best results the beds should have all plant residue
thoroughly mixed with the soil in time for it to decompose
before fumigation. Disk the soil prior to fumigation for more
complete movement of the gas through the soil. If the soil is
dry, irrigate a few days ahead of fumigation so that the weed
seed will be softened and thereby be killed more easily by
the fumigant. Fumigate early enough to allow a 14-day aera-
tion period between cover removal and seeding if the fumi-
gant contains chloropicrin, as will be the case with most prod-
ucts. Chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as quickly
as methyl bromide and residues can prevent germination of
the tobacco seed.


EBW


Tobacco Varieties for 2003

Complete information is not yet available as to varieties that
will be offered for sale to plant the 2003 crop. Many of the
older varieties would still be suitable in many situations. For
fields that are not infested with black shank, K 326 is still a
reliable variety and will produce good yields of high quality
leaf, and is relatively easy to grow and cure. If protection








Protection of Peanut Patents and Varieties

Peanut growers and seed processors who are considering sav-
ing, shelling, and perhaps selling seed should be aware of
possible restrictions on certain varieties. Most, if not all,
peanut varieties released in recent years are protected under
a federal program based on the Plant Variety Protection Act.
This law was originally passed in 1970 and allowed the de-
veloper of a variety to have exclusive rights for seed sales
for a specified number of years. The developer could give
permission to others to produce and sell seed of the variety,
usually through contracts that involved royalty payments.
An exception allowed a farmer to save seed to plant the same
acreage on his farm the next year, and if he was prevented
from planting them, he could sell them to others. In 1994
the law was amended to prohibit the sale of the saved seed,
but the farmer could still plant them. The Plant Variety Pro-
tection program is administered by the USDA and more in-
formation, including a list of peanut and other crop varieties
that have such protection can be found on their web site:
http://www.ams.usda.gov/science/pvpo/pvp.htm

In addition to plant variety protection, patents may also be
granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to
a person who invents a product or process that is novel. This
includes living organisms or parts of organisms, and patents
have been used extensively for genes that are used to de-
velop transgenic or genetically modified varieties. Although
there are no transgenic peanut varieties, the University of
Florida holds patents 5,922,390; 6,063,984; and 6,121,472
which cover seed, products, and oil that have the high oleic
characteristic. A full description of these patents canbe found
through the patent office web site: http://www.uspto.gov
These patents cover the six high-oleic peanut varieties that
the University of Florida has released, plus those released
by other states or companies. Unlike the provisions of the
Plant Variety Protection Act, a farmer cannot save seed of
these varieties, even for his own use. Farmers who have
grown transgenic cotton, soybeans, corn, or other crops are
familiar with these restrictions. Permission to produce, pro-
cess, and sell seed of the patented varieties is usually granted
through contracts or licenses that involve royalty payments.

Further information is available in the Agronomy publica-
tion, Peanut Variety Protection, SS-AGR-186.


EBW


Tobacco Barn Insulation Removal

A few years ago farmers had to certify to the USDA's Farm
Service Agency that tobacco cured in their barns did not con-
tact insulation, or that insulation could not get mixed into
the cured leaf. The primary source of contamination from
insulation was from the spray-on type, where the loading or
unloading of racks or boxes could result in pieces of the in-


sulation breaking off and getting mixed with the tobacco.
This certification is no longer required, but some buyers re-
port finding pieces of insulation as tobacco is being pro-
cessed. Unfortunately it is very difficult to remove insula-
tion from the tobacco, therefore prevention would be the most
effective means of avoiding a problem. Even if insulation
has been removed from the walls, the insulation on the top
of the barn can break off due to aging and disturbance, re-
sulting in pieces of insulation falling into the boxes or on top
of the racks and then remaining in the tobacco as it is baled.
Before the next curing season, growers should inspect all of
their barns for exposed insulation and if present, either re-
move it or cover it to prevent the possibility of it contami-
nating the tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Several bills have been introduced in congress that would
eliminate the tobacco quota system and pay growers for their
quota. Some of the bills include FDA authority over tobacco
products. Others propose the FDA authority, but make no
mention of a quota buyout. It is generally believed that there
are too many other pressing matters for any action to be taken
before the end of the year, but that the tobacco buyout bills
could be considered next year.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Fumigation

Plant beds are normally fumigated in November or Decem-
ber. For best results the beds should have all plant residue
thoroughly mixed with the soil in time for it to decompose
before fumigation. Disk the soil prior to fumigation for more
complete movement of the gas through the soil. If the soil is
dry, irrigate a few days ahead of fumigation so that the weed
seed will be softened and thereby be killed more easily by
the fumigant. Fumigate early enough to allow a 14-day aera-
tion period between cover removal and seeding if the fumi-
gant contains chloropicrin, as will be the case with most prod-
ucts. Chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as quickly
as methyl bromide and residues can prevent germination of
the tobacco seed.


EBW


Tobacco Varieties for 2003

Complete information is not yet available as to varieties that
will be offered for sale to plant the 2003 crop. Many of the
older varieties would still be suitable in many situations. For
fields that are not infested with black shank, K 326 is still a
reliable variety and will produce good yields of high quality
leaf, and is relatively easy to grow and cure. If protection








Protection of Peanut Patents and Varieties

Peanut growers and seed processors who are considering sav-
ing, shelling, and perhaps selling seed should be aware of
possible restrictions on certain varieties. Most, if not all,
peanut varieties released in recent years are protected under
a federal program based on the Plant Variety Protection Act.
This law was originally passed in 1970 and allowed the de-
veloper of a variety to have exclusive rights for seed sales
for a specified number of years. The developer could give
permission to others to produce and sell seed of the variety,
usually through contracts that involved royalty payments.
An exception allowed a farmer to save seed to plant the same
acreage on his farm the next year, and if he was prevented
from planting them, he could sell them to others. In 1994
the law was amended to prohibit the sale of the saved seed,
but the farmer could still plant them. The Plant Variety Pro-
tection program is administered by the USDA and more in-
formation, including a list of peanut and other crop varieties
that have such protection can be found on their web site:
http://www.ams.usda.gov/science/pvpo/pvp.htm

In addition to plant variety protection, patents may also be
granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to
a person who invents a product or process that is novel. This
includes living organisms or parts of organisms, and patents
have been used extensively for genes that are used to de-
velop transgenic or genetically modified varieties. Although
there are no transgenic peanut varieties, the University of
Florida holds patents 5,922,390; 6,063,984; and 6,121,472
which cover seed, products, and oil that have the high oleic
characteristic. A full description of these patents canbe found
through the patent office web site: http://www.uspto.gov
These patents cover the six high-oleic peanut varieties that
the University of Florida has released, plus those released
by other states or companies. Unlike the provisions of the
Plant Variety Protection Act, a farmer cannot save seed of
these varieties, even for his own use. Farmers who have
grown transgenic cotton, soybeans, corn, or other crops are
familiar with these restrictions. Permission to produce, pro-
cess, and sell seed of the patented varieties is usually granted
through contracts or licenses that involve royalty payments.

Further information is available in the Agronomy publica-
tion, Peanut Variety Protection, SS-AGR-186.


EBW


Tobacco Barn Insulation Removal

A few years ago farmers had to certify to the USDA's Farm
Service Agency that tobacco cured in their barns did not con-
tact insulation, or that insulation could not get mixed into
the cured leaf. The primary source of contamination from
insulation was from the spray-on type, where the loading or
unloading of racks or boxes could result in pieces of the in-


sulation breaking off and getting mixed with the tobacco.
This certification is no longer required, but some buyers re-
port finding pieces of insulation as tobacco is being pro-
cessed. Unfortunately it is very difficult to remove insula-
tion from the tobacco, therefore prevention would be the most
effective means of avoiding a problem. Even if insulation
has been removed from the walls, the insulation on the top
of the barn can break off due to aging and disturbance, re-
sulting in pieces of insulation falling into the boxes or on top
of the racks and then remaining in the tobacco as it is baled.
Before the next curing season, growers should inspect all of
their barns for exposed insulation and if present, either re-
move it or cover it to prevent the possibility of it contami-
nating the tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Several bills have been introduced in congress that would
eliminate the tobacco quota system and pay growers for their
quota. Some of the bills include FDA authority over tobacco
products. Others propose the FDA authority, but make no
mention of a quota buyout. It is generally believed that there
are too many other pressing matters for any action to be taken
before the end of the year, but that the tobacco buyout bills
could be considered next year.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Fumigation

Plant beds are normally fumigated in November or Decem-
ber. For best results the beds should have all plant residue
thoroughly mixed with the soil in time for it to decompose
before fumigation. Disk the soil prior to fumigation for more
complete movement of the gas through the soil. If the soil is
dry, irrigate a few days ahead of fumigation so that the weed
seed will be softened and thereby be killed more easily by
the fumigant. Fumigate early enough to allow a 14-day aera-
tion period between cover removal and seeding if the fumi-
gant contains chloropicrin, as will be the case with most prod-
ucts. Chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as quickly
as methyl bromide and residues can prevent germination of
the tobacco seed.


EBW


Tobacco Varieties for 2003

Complete information is not yet available as to varieties that
will be offered for sale to plant the 2003 crop. Many of the
older varieties would still be suitable in many situations. For
fields that are not infested with black shank, K 326 is still a
reliable variety and will produce good yields of high quality
leaf, and is relatively easy to grow and cure. If protection








Protection of Peanut Patents and Varieties

Peanut growers and seed processors who are considering sav-
ing, shelling, and perhaps selling seed should be aware of
possible restrictions on certain varieties. Most, if not all,
peanut varieties released in recent years are protected under
a federal program based on the Plant Variety Protection Act.
This law was originally passed in 1970 and allowed the de-
veloper of a variety to have exclusive rights for seed sales
for a specified number of years. The developer could give
permission to others to produce and sell seed of the variety,
usually through contracts that involved royalty payments.
An exception allowed a farmer to save seed to plant the same
acreage on his farm the next year, and if he was prevented
from planting them, he could sell them to others. In 1994
the law was amended to prohibit the sale of the saved seed,
but the farmer could still plant them. The Plant Variety Pro-
tection program is administered by the USDA and more in-
formation, including a list of peanut and other crop varieties
that have such protection can be found on their web site:
http://www.ams.usda.gov/science/pvpo/pvp.htm

In addition to plant variety protection, patents may also be
granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to
a person who invents a product or process that is novel. This
includes living organisms or parts of organisms, and patents
have been used extensively for genes that are used to de-
velop transgenic or genetically modified varieties. Although
there are no transgenic peanut varieties, the University of
Florida holds patents 5,922,390; 6,063,984; and 6,121,472
which cover seed, products, and oil that have the high oleic
characteristic. A full description of these patents canbe found
through the patent office web site: http://www.uspto.gov
These patents cover the six high-oleic peanut varieties that
the University of Florida has released, plus those released
by other states or companies. Unlike the provisions of the
Plant Variety Protection Act, a farmer cannot save seed of
these varieties, even for his own use. Farmers who have
grown transgenic cotton, soybeans, corn, or other crops are
familiar with these restrictions. Permission to produce, pro-
cess, and sell seed of the patented varieties is usually granted
through contracts or licenses that involve royalty payments.

Further information is available in the Agronomy publica-
tion, Peanut Variety Protection, SS-AGR-186.


EBW


Tobacco Barn Insulation Removal

A few years ago farmers had to certify to the USDA's Farm
Service Agency that tobacco cured in their barns did not con-
tact insulation, or that insulation could not get mixed into
the cured leaf. The primary source of contamination from
insulation was from the spray-on type, where the loading or
unloading of racks or boxes could result in pieces of the in-


sulation breaking off and getting mixed with the tobacco.
This certification is no longer required, but some buyers re-
port finding pieces of insulation as tobacco is being pro-
cessed. Unfortunately it is very difficult to remove insula-
tion from the tobacco, therefore prevention would be the most
effective means of avoiding a problem. Even if insulation
has been removed from the walls, the insulation on the top
of the barn can break off due to aging and disturbance, re-
sulting in pieces of insulation falling into the boxes or on top
of the racks and then remaining in the tobacco as it is baled.
Before the next curing season, growers should inspect all of
their barns for exposed insulation and if present, either re-
move it or cover it to prevent the possibility of it contami-
nating the tobacco.

EBW

Tobacco Buyout Proposals

Several bills have been introduced in congress that would
eliminate the tobacco quota system and pay growers for their
quota. Some of the bills include FDA authority over tobacco
products. Others propose the FDA authority, but make no
mention of a quota buyout. It is generally believed that there
are too many other pressing matters for any action to be taken
before the end of the year, but that the tobacco buyout bills
could be considered next year.

EBW

Tobacco Plant Bed Fumigation

Plant beds are normally fumigated in November or Decem-
ber. For best results the beds should have all plant residue
thoroughly mixed with the soil in time for it to decompose
before fumigation. Disk the soil prior to fumigation for more
complete movement of the gas through the soil. If the soil is
dry, irrigate a few days ahead of fumigation so that the weed
seed will be softened and thereby be killed more easily by
the fumigant. Fumigate early enough to allow a 14-day aera-
tion period between cover removal and seeding if the fumi-
gant contains chloropicrin, as will be the case with most prod-
ucts. Chloropicrin does not dissipate from the soil as quickly
as methyl bromide and residues can prevent germination of
the tobacco seed.


EBW


Tobacco Varieties for 2003

Complete information is not yet available as to varieties that
will be offered for sale to plant the 2003 crop. Many of the
older varieties would still be suitable in many situations. For
fields that are not infested with black shank, K 326 is still a
reliable variety and will produce good yields of high quality
leaf, and is relatively easy to grow and cure. If protection








from potato virus-Y is desired and black shank is not present,
NC 55 should be a satisfactory variety as it is very similar to
K 326. For those farms infested with black shank, NC 71,
NC 72, Speight 179, and others would provide protection
from the disease and would produce good yields. If both
black shank and tobacco mosaic virus are concerns, NC 297
would be a good choice. A new variety, NC 291, has resis-
tance to potato virus-Y, tobacco mosaic virus, and to black
shank. Other information on variety selection should be
available in the near future.

EBW
Publications

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2002
SS-AGR-72 Basic Cultural Practices for Flue-Cured
Tobacco


SS-AGR-73 Growing Tobacco in the Home Garden
SS-AGR-74 Basic Cultural Practices for Peanuts
SS-AGR-75 Management of Late-Maturing Peanut
Varieties
SS-AGR-77 An Overview of the Florida Rice Industry
SS-AGR-78 Milling and Marketing of Florida Rice

The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SS-AGR-186 Peanut Variety Protection
SS-AGR-187 Producing Quality Peanut Seed

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click
on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or Find
Publication No.). You will get a listing of publications. Please
be sure to check the date in the footnote on the first page to be
sure it is the most up-to-date publication for that topic.


October Crop Report

The USDA Agricultural Statistics Service made the following acreage and yield estimates for the 2002 crop based on conditions
as of October 1:


EBW


Acres for Harvest (x 1000) Yield per Acre

Crop Florida United States Florida United States

Peanuts 92 1360.5 2900 lb 2757 lb

Sugarcane 455 1022.6 36.4 ton 34.6 ton

Tobacco 4.8 432.0 2600 lb 2040 lb


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist; and M. A. Mossler, Pesticide Information Specialist.








from potato virus-Y is desired and black shank is not present,
NC 55 should be a satisfactory variety as it is very similar to
K 326. For those farms infested with black shank, NC 71,
NC 72, Speight 179, and others would provide protection
from the disease and would produce good yields. If both
black shank and tobacco mosaic virus are concerns, NC 297
would be a good choice. A new variety, NC 291, has resis-
tance to potato virus-Y, tobacco mosaic virus, and to black
shank. Other information on variety selection should be
available in the near future.

EBW
Publications

The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2002
SS-AGR-72 Basic Cultural Practices for Flue-Cured
Tobacco


SS-AGR-73 Growing Tobacco in the Home Garden
SS-AGR-74 Basic Cultural Practices for Peanuts
SS-AGR-75 Management of Late-Maturing Peanut
Varieties
SS-AGR-77 An Overview of the Florida Rice Industry
SS-AGR-78 Milling and Marketing of Florida Rice

The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.

SS-AGR-186 Peanut Variety Protection
SS-AGR-187 Producing Quality Peanut Seed

You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) or Keyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click
on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or Find
Publication No.). You will get a listing of publications. Please
be sure to check the date in the footnote on the first page to be
sure it is the most up-to-date publication for that topic.


October Crop Report

The USDA Agricultural Statistics Service made the following acreage and yield estimates for the 2002 crop based on conditions
as of October 1:


EBW


Acres for Harvest (x 1000) Yield per Acre

Crop Florida United States Florida United States

Peanuts 92 1360.5 2900 lb 2757 lb

Sugarcane 455 1022.6 36.4 ton 34.6 ton

Tobacco 4.8 432.0 2600 lb 2040 lb


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist; and M. A. Mossler, Pesticide Information Specialist.