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 Table of Contents
 Average composition of food reserves...
 Domesticated cotton
 Collect soil samples from...
 Cool season pasture legumes
 Planting bahiagrass in the...
 Drying peanuts in cool weather
 Growing Virginia peanuts
 On-farm peanut storage
 Peanut yields
 Nitrosamine levels in tobacco
 Tobacco marketing report
 Tobacco plant bed preparation
 September crop report
 Tobacco marketing report
 Small grain planting for dove...
 Publications


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Agronomy notes
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066352/00027
 Material Information
Title: Agronomy notes
Uniform Title: Agronomy notes (Gainesville, Fl.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: October 2002
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agronomy -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
General Note: Description based on: January 1971; title from caption.
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000956365
notis - AER9014
System ID: UF00066352:00027

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Average composition of food reserves for crops grown in Florida
        Page 2
    Domesticated cotton
        Page 2
    Collect soil samples from pastures
        Page 2
    Cool season pasture legumes
        Page 2
    Planting bahiagrass in the Fall
        Page 2
    Drying peanuts in cool weather
        Page 3
    Growing Virginia peanuts
        Page 3
    On-farm peanut storage
        Page 3
    Peanut yields
        Page 3
    Nitrosamine levels in tobacco
        Page 3
    Tobacco marketing report
        Page 4
    Tobacco plant bed preparation
        Page 4
    September crop report
        Page 4
    Tobacco marketing report
        Page 4
    Small grain planting for dove hunting
        Page 5
    Publications
        Page 5
Full Text






AGRONOMY


*,*. UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
EXTENSION
1, ..r,,, ....r... n.A .4,JA ,,. I I.. ... S. ... -


NOTES


October 2002


IN THIS ISSUE


COTTON
Average Composition of Food Reserves for Crops Grown in Florida ........................................ 2
D o m estimated C otto n ................................................................................ .............................. 2

FORAGE
C collect Soil Sam ples from Pastures ......................................... .............................................. 2
C ool-Season Pasture L egum es ............................................... ................................................ 2
Planting B ahiagrass in the F all............................................... ................................................ 2

PEANUT
D trying Peanuts in C ool W weather ............................................. ............................................... 3
G row ing V irginia P eanuts ....................................................... ............................................... 3
O n-F arm P eanut Storage .......................................................... .............................................. 3
Peanut Y fields .................. ................. ...... ........ 3

TOBACCO
N itrosam ine L levels in Tobacco ............................................... ............................................... 3
T tobacco M marketing R eport...................................................... ............................................... 4
T tobacco Plant B ed Preparation ............................................... ............................................... 4

MISCELLANEOUS
Septem ber C rop R report ......................................................................... .......................... 4
Pesticide U update ............................... .......... ... ................... 4
Small Grain Planting for Dove Hunting ............................................ .............................. 5
P u b licatio n s ....... ........................................................................................... .......... ....... 5


DATES TO REMEMBER

October 15-17 Sunbelt Agricultural Expo Moultrie, GA
November 10-14 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings Indianapolis, IN


PAGE


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and
other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining
other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Director.









AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FOOD
RESERVES FOR CROPS GROWN IN
FLORIDA

Cotton seed are often used as a livestock feed after ginning.
Prices should be checked for one source of energy or pro-
tein over others since it can vary tremendously. The follow-
ing data shows the average percent composition of carbohy-
drate (starch), fat and protein from seeds of crops grown in
Florida:


Carbohydrate Fat Protein

Corn 75 5 11

Oats 66 8 13

Wheat 75 2 12

Cotton 15 33 39

Soybean 26 17 37

Peanut 12 48 31


DLW


DOMESTICATED COTTON

The Old World cotton varieties are still being cultivated in
some areas of Africa and Asia but have mainly been replaced
by New World cotton varieties that are superior in yield and
various quality aspects. The Old World varieties do not even
compare well with primitive New World cultivars in lint yield
or quality. Modem cultivars of Gossypium barbadense (ex-
tra-long staple, pima, or Egyptian) is grown in Africa, Asia,
China, and the U.S. and is noted for long, strong, fine fibers.
This lint is ideal for specialized uses. The origin of elite G.
barbadense cultivars began as the development of sea is-
land cotton in coastal Georgia and South Carolina as well as
West Indies. However, the sea island industry collapsed due
to the boll weevil by the early 1920's. Gossypium hirsutum
makes up about 90% of the world's annual cotton produc-
tion and is referred to as upland cotton. Most of these culti-
vars were developed in the southern U. S. and have shorter
fiber length and less strength than pima varieties, but yield
better and are more economically viable. There are many
other species of cotton but none with the importance of G.
hirsutum or barbadense.

DLW

COLLECT SOIL SAMPLES FROM PASTURES

Soil samples collected in late October and November can be
analyzed and results returned in time to plan for February


and March applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough so that
samples can be collected without interference from exces-
sive moisture.
CGC

COOL-SEASON PASTURE LEGUMES

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their growth as
well as that of the accompanying grass. Thus, they can be
used to replace part of the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The le-
gumes not only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the quality of the pas-
ture in that they are often more digestible and have a higher
level of protein than a pure grass pasture.

Cool-season legumes planted in a warm season perennial
grass pasture extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool temperatures when
most of the warm season grasses will have essentially stopped
growing and the top growth may even be killed by frost.

The most critical factor in growing legumes is water. They
can only be grown in soils with good water holding capac-
ity, high water table, or irrigated soils. This restricts the use
of cool-season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest and to certain irrigated areas in the peninsula.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in Florida are
alfalfa, white clover, red clover, crimson clover, arrowleaf
clover and sweet clover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be seen grow-
ing in waste areas or along the roadsides.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture, some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain and/or
ryegrass and fertilizer, spreading all in one application in the
fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is consider-
able risk involved as far as the establishment of the bahiagrass
is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting from seed
that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze or due to
competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some seed may be carried over through the win-
ter and germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the
cool season forages may result in loss of these seedlings.
This is especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed
and is allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage.
There is competition for light, moisture, and nutrients. For
successful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late
spring drought.
CGC









AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FOOD
RESERVES FOR CROPS GROWN IN
FLORIDA

Cotton seed are often used as a livestock feed after ginning.
Prices should be checked for one source of energy or pro-
tein over others since it can vary tremendously. The follow-
ing data shows the average percent composition of carbohy-
drate (starch), fat and protein from seeds of crops grown in
Florida:


Carbohydrate Fat Protein

Corn 75 5 11

Oats 66 8 13

Wheat 75 2 12

Cotton 15 33 39

Soybean 26 17 37

Peanut 12 48 31


DLW


DOMESTICATED COTTON

The Old World cotton varieties are still being cultivated in
some areas of Africa and Asia but have mainly been replaced
by New World cotton varieties that are superior in yield and
various quality aspects. The Old World varieties do not even
compare well with primitive New World cultivars in lint yield
or quality. Modem cultivars of Gossypium barbadense (ex-
tra-long staple, pima, or Egyptian) is grown in Africa, Asia,
China, and the U.S. and is noted for long, strong, fine fibers.
This lint is ideal for specialized uses. The origin of elite G.
barbadense cultivars began as the development of sea is-
land cotton in coastal Georgia and South Carolina as well as
West Indies. However, the sea island industry collapsed due
to the boll weevil by the early 1920's. Gossypium hirsutum
makes up about 90% of the world's annual cotton produc-
tion and is referred to as upland cotton. Most of these culti-
vars were developed in the southern U. S. and have shorter
fiber length and less strength than pima varieties, but yield
better and are more economically viable. There are many
other species of cotton but none with the importance of G.
hirsutum or barbadense.

DLW

COLLECT SOIL SAMPLES FROM PASTURES

Soil samples collected in late October and November can be
analyzed and results returned in time to plan for February


and March applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough so that
samples can be collected without interference from exces-
sive moisture.
CGC

COOL-SEASON PASTURE LEGUMES

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their growth as
well as that of the accompanying grass. Thus, they can be
used to replace part of the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The le-
gumes not only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the quality of the pas-
ture in that they are often more digestible and have a higher
level of protein than a pure grass pasture.

Cool-season legumes planted in a warm season perennial
grass pasture extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool temperatures when
most of the warm season grasses will have essentially stopped
growing and the top growth may even be killed by frost.

The most critical factor in growing legumes is water. They
can only be grown in soils with good water holding capac-
ity, high water table, or irrigated soils. This restricts the use
of cool-season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest and to certain irrigated areas in the peninsula.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in Florida are
alfalfa, white clover, red clover, crimson clover, arrowleaf
clover and sweet clover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be seen grow-
ing in waste areas or along the roadsides.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture, some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain and/or
ryegrass and fertilizer, spreading all in one application in the
fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is consider-
able risk involved as far as the establishment of the bahiagrass
is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting from seed
that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze or due to
competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some seed may be carried over through the win-
ter and germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the
cool season forages may result in loss of these seedlings.
This is especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed
and is allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage.
There is competition for light, moisture, and nutrients. For
successful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late
spring drought.
CGC









AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FOOD
RESERVES FOR CROPS GROWN IN
FLORIDA

Cotton seed are often used as a livestock feed after ginning.
Prices should be checked for one source of energy or pro-
tein over others since it can vary tremendously. The follow-
ing data shows the average percent composition of carbohy-
drate (starch), fat and protein from seeds of crops grown in
Florida:


Carbohydrate Fat Protein

Corn 75 5 11

Oats 66 8 13

Wheat 75 2 12

Cotton 15 33 39

Soybean 26 17 37

Peanut 12 48 31


DLW


DOMESTICATED COTTON

The Old World cotton varieties are still being cultivated in
some areas of Africa and Asia but have mainly been replaced
by New World cotton varieties that are superior in yield and
various quality aspects. The Old World varieties do not even
compare well with primitive New World cultivars in lint yield
or quality. Modem cultivars of Gossypium barbadense (ex-
tra-long staple, pima, or Egyptian) is grown in Africa, Asia,
China, and the U.S. and is noted for long, strong, fine fibers.
This lint is ideal for specialized uses. The origin of elite G.
barbadense cultivars began as the development of sea is-
land cotton in coastal Georgia and South Carolina as well as
West Indies. However, the sea island industry collapsed due
to the boll weevil by the early 1920's. Gossypium hirsutum
makes up about 90% of the world's annual cotton produc-
tion and is referred to as upland cotton. Most of these culti-
vars were developed in the southern U. S. and have shorter
fiber length and less strength than pima varieties, but yield
better and are more economically viable. There are many
other species of cotton but none with the importance of G.
hirsutum or barbadense.

DLW

COLLECT SOIL SAMPLES FROM PASTURES

Soil samples collected in late October and November can be
analyzed and results returned in time to plan for February


and March applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough so that
samples can be collected without interference from exces-
sive moisture.
CGC

COOL-SEASON PASTURE LEGUMES

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their growth as
well as that of the accompanying grass. Thus, they can be
used to replace part of the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The le-
gumes not only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the quality of the pas-
ture in that they are often more digestible and have a higher
level of protein than a pure grass pasture.

Cool-season legumes planted in a warm season perennial
grass pasture extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool temperatures when
most of the warm season grasses will have essentially stopped
growing and the top growth may even be killed by frost.

The most critical factor in growing legumes is water. They
can only be grown in soils with good water holding capac-
ity, high water table, or irrigated soils. This restricts the use
of cool-season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest and to certain irrigated areas in the peninsula.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in Florida are
alfalfa, white clover, red clover, crimson clover, arrowleaf
clover and sweet clover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be seen grow-
ing in waste areas or along the roadsides.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture, some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain and/or
ryegrass and fertilizer, spreading all in one application in the
fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is consider-
able risk involved as far as the establishment of the bahiagrass
is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting from seed
that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze or due to
competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some seed may be carried over through the win-
ter and germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the
cool season forages may result in loss of these seedlings.
This is especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed
and is allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage.
There is competition for light, moisture, and nutrients. For
successful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late
spring drought.
CGC









AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FOOD
RESERVES FOR CROPS GROWN IN
FLORIDA

Cotton seed are often used as a livestock feed after ginning.
Prices should be checked for one source of energy or pro-
tein over others since it can vary tremendously. The follow-
ing data shows the average percent composition of carbohy-
drate (starch), fat and protein from seeds of crops grown in
Florida:


Carbohydrate Fat Protein

Corn 75 5 11

Oats 66 8 13

Wheat 75 2 12

Cotton 15 33 39

Soybean 26 17 37

Peanut 12 48 31


DLW


DOMESTICATED COTTON

The Old World cotton varieties are still being cultivated in
some areas of Africa and Asia but have mainly been replaced
by New World cotton varieties that are superior in yield and
various quality aspects. The Old World varieties do not even
compare well with primitive New World cultivars in lint yield
or quality. Modem cultivars of Gossypium barbadense (ex-
tra-long staple, pima, or Egyptian) is grown in Africa, Asia,
China, and the U.S. and is noted for long, strong, fine fibers.
This lint is ideal for specialized uses. The origin of elite G.
barbadense cultivars began as the development of sea is-
land cotton in coastal Georgia and South Carolina as well as
West Indies. However, the sea island industry collapsed due
to the boll weevil by the early 1920's. Gossypium hirsutum
makes up about 90% of the world's annual cotton produc-
tion and is referred to as upland cotton. Most of these culti-
vars were developed in the southern U. S. and have shorter
fiber length and less strength than pima varieties, but yield
better and are more economically viable. There are many
other species of cotton but none with the importance of G.
hirsutum or barbadense.

DLW

COLLECT SOIL SAMPLES FROM PASTURES

Soil samples collected in late October and November can be
analyzed and results returned in time to plan for February


and March applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough so that
samples can be collected without interference from exces-
sive moisture.
CGC

COOL-SEASON PASTURE LEGUMES

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their growth as
well as that of the accompanying grass. Thus, they can be
used to replace part of the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The le-
gumes not only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the quality of the pas-
ture in that they are often more digestible and have a higher
level of protein than a pure grass pasture.

Cool-season legumes planted in a warm season perennial
grass pasture extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool temperatures when
most of the warm season grasses will have essentially stopped
growing and the top growth may even be killed by frost.

The most critical factor in growing legumes is water. They
can only be grown in soils with good water holding capac-
ity, high water table, or irrigated soils. This restricts the use
of cool-season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest and to certain irrigated areas in the peninsula.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in Florida are
alfalfa, white clover, red clover, crimson clover, arrowleaf
clover and sweet clover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be seen grow-
ing in waste areas or along the roadsides.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture, some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain and/or
ryegrass and fertilizer, spreading all in one application in the
fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is consider-
able risk involved as far as the establishment of the bahiagrass
is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting from seed
that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze or due to
competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some seed may be carried over through the win-
ter and germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the
cool season forages may result in loss of these seedlings.
This is especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed
and is allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage.
There is competition for light, moisture, and nutrients. For
successful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late
spring drought.
CGC









AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FOOD
RESERVES FOR CROPS GROWN IN
FLORIDA

Cotton seed are often used as a livestock feed after ginning.
Prices should be checked for one source of energy or pro-
tein over others since it can vary tremendously. The follow-
ing data shows the average percent composition of carbohy-
drate (starch), fat and protein from seeds of crops grown in
Florida:


Carbohydrate Fat Protein

Corn 75 5 11

Oats 66 8 13

Wheat 75 2 12

Cotton 15 33 39

Soybean 26 17 37

Peanut 12 48 31


DLW


DOMESTICATED COTTON

The Old World cotton varieties are still being cultivated in
some areas of Africa and Asia but have mainly been replaced
by New World cotton varieties that are superior in yield and
various quality aspects. The Old World varieties do not even
compare well with primitive New World cultivars in lint yield
or quality. Modem cultivars of Gossypium barbadense (ex-
tra-long staple, pima, or Egyptian) is grown in Africa, Asia,
China, and the U.S. and is noted for long, strong, fine fibers.
This lint is ideal for specialized uses. The origin of elite G.
barbadense cultivars began as the development of sea is-
land cotton in coastal Georgia and South Carolina as well as
West Indies. However, the sea island industry collapsed due
to the boll weevil by the early 1920's. Gossypium hirsutum
makes up about 90% of the world's annual cotton produc-
tion and is referred to as upland cotton. Most of these culti-
vars were developed in the southern U. S. and have shorter
fiber length and less strength than pima varieties, but yield
better and are more economically viable. There are many
other species of cotton but none with the importance of G.
hirsutum or barbadense.

DLW

COLLECT SOIL SAMPLES FROM PASTURES

Soil samples collected in late October and November can be
analyzed and results returned in time to plan for February


and March applications of lime and fertilizer. In October
and November, pastures are usually dry enough so that
samples can be collected without interference from exces-
sive moisture.
CGC

COOL-SEASON PASTURE LEGUMES

Legumes used in pastures fix nitrogen for their growth as
well as that of the accompanying grass. Thus, they can be
used to replace part of the fertilizer nitrogen cost. The le-
gumes not only provide nitrogen but contribute to the total
growth or yield. They usually increase the quality of the pas-
ture in that they are often more digestible and have a higher
level of protein than a pure grass pasture.

Cool-season legumes planted in a warm season perennial
grass pasture extend the grazing season. These plants will
continue to grow and produce feed at cool temperatures when
most of the warm season grasses will have essentially stopped
growing and the top growth may even be killed by frost.

The most critical factor in growing legumes is water. They
can only be grown in soils with good water holding capac-
ity, high water table, or irrigated soils. This restricts the use
of cool-season legumes in Florida to the clay soils of the
northwest and to certain irrigated areas in the peninsula.

Cool season legumes that have been grown in Florida are
alfalfa, white clover, red clover, crimson clover, arrowleaf
clover and sweet clover. Several other minor legumes have
been grown in "food plots" for deer and can be seen grow-
ing in waste areas or along the roadsides.

CGC

PLANTING BAHIAGRASS IN THE FALL

In order to establish a bahiagrass pasture, some producers
may desire to mix bahiagrass seed with a small grain and/or
ryegrass and fertilizer, spreading all in one application in the
fall. This might save on planting cost, but there is consider-
able risk involved as far as the establishment of the bahiagrass
is concerned. The bahiagrass seedlings resulting from seed
that germinate in the fall may be lost due to a freeze or due to
competition for light and moisture by the cool season for-
age. If the bahiagrass seed that was planted has enough dor-
mant seed, some seed may be carried over through the win-
ter and germinate in the spring. Again, competition from the
cool season forages may result in loss of these seedlings.
This is especially true if the cool season forage is not grazed
and is allowed to accumulate for harvest as hay or silage.
There is competition for light, moisture, and nutrients. For
successful establishment of bahiagrass it is best to plant on a
clean-tilled seedbed in the early summer when rainfall is plen-
tiful or perhaps in the early spring well ahead of the late
spring drought.
CGC








DRYING PEANUTS IN COOL WEATHER

The general rule of thumb for the temperature to use in
drying peanuts is to heat the air only 15-20 degrees above
the ambient, but not exceed 95 degrees. Drying the pea-
nuts at a faster rate can cause the skin of the peanut seed to
separate from the kernel during shelling and also contrib-
ute to the cotyledons splitting apart. This damage is gener-
ally done at the start of drying when the peanuts are at a
higher moisture level. During the early part of the drying
season, the thermostat is usually set at 95 degrees during
the day and may be lowered slightly at night. As the tem-
peratures drop in October and November, it is more impor-
tant to lower the thermostat at night to a level that will not
cause skin separation.

EBW

GROWING VIRGINIA PEANUTS

There may some interest in Florida for growing Virginia
market-type peanuts, since the acreage in the traditional pro-
duction areas of North Carolina and Virginia was reduced
in 2002. This reduction may not occur again in 2003, but if
it does, other areas may consider growing them to meet
possible market demands for the bright-hull large peanuts.
Texas produces considerable acres of these peanuts. Florida
growers with sandy soils have also produced them very
successfully in the past. Production costs are usually higher
than for runner peanuts, because irrigation and high levels
of gypsum application are needed for consistent results, and
seed costs will be greater. If prices paid for bright hull
Virginia peanuts are adequate, Florida growers may want
to consider this option.

EBW

ON-FARM PEANUT STORAGE

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm, they should be pro-
tected from insects, moisture increases, mice, squirrels, and
other rodents. All storage areas should be cleaned thor-
oughly to get rid of old peanuts or trash. An insecticide
should be sprayed on the peanuts as they are loaded into
the storage trailers or bins, and inspections should be made
to determine if re-treatment is needed. The peanuts should
be stored at less than 10 percent moisture, and moisture
should be checked as needed. Blowing air through or over
the stored peanuts during the afternoon of dry days may be
adequate to keep the moisture at a safe level. Be sure that
the fans are not run at night or during rainy periods. Birds,
mice, squirrels, and other animals can damage unprotected
peanuts.

EBW


PEANUT YIELDS


It appears that in some areas, tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) may be a factor that will reduce peanut yields be-
low earlier expectations. While there are no known prac-
tices that will eliminate TSWV as a problem, several prac-
tices have been shown to reduce the severity of losses. Vari-
ety selection, planting date, plant stands, twin rows, use of
Thimet at planting, and use of strip tillage have been shown
to affect the level of TSWV infections. Growers should plan
to incorporate as many of these practices as possible in their
2003 production program in an effort to reduce losses. Strip
tillage would be one of the first practices to initiate because
of the need to plant a cover crop. If the peanut base has not
yet been assigned to a particular farm, be sure to make that
decision before initiating the strip tillage program.

EBW

NITROSAMINE LEVELS IN TOBACCO

There are reports that nitrosamine or TSNA levels were
higher than expected in some flue-cured tobacco that was
sold in 2002, even though the recent move to retrofit curing
barns with indirect fire burners was an effort to reduce such
levels. It is true that the average nitrosamine level of all
tobacco is considerably below that obtained a few years ago
with direct fire combustion, but isolated lots of tobacco were
above the expected level. Ideally the level would be zero,
and this is obtained in many cases, with levels of 0.1 ppm or
slightly above not being of much concern. One possible
source of the problem could be that the heat exchanger or
flue pipes that carry the combustion gases in retrofitted barns
may be cracked, thus allowing combustion gases to enter the
curing chamber and react with the tobacco to form nitro-
samines. Until instruments to directly detect combustion
gases in the barn become readily available, a visual inspec-
tion of the heat exchanger and associated flue pipes for cracks
or leaks would be the only means of finding out if this is a
possible source of the problem. Although unlikely, combus-
tion gases could enter the curing chamber via the intake vents
for the internal barn fan that circulates the heated air through
the tobacco. This could occur if the stack is so short that
combustion gases are released from the stack at a point near
the intake vent, or from another engine, such as a tractor or
irrigation pump.

If it is determined that combustion gases are not contribut-
ing to the problem, them microbial activity could be the
source. Micro-organisms that attack tobacco, such as the
bacteria that cause barn rot, also form nitrosamines, and there-
fore could be a major source of the problem. In the field
during wet conditions, these bacteria cause hollow stalk or
jelly rot, which is a watery and smelly rot of the stalk pith or
of the leaf midribs. Often there will be a black midrib of
affected leaves. The bacteria are generally present in the
soil and enter the stalk pith or leaf midribs through mechani-








DRYING PEANUTS IN COOL WEATHER

The general rule of thumb for the temperature to use in
drying peanuts is to heat the air only 15-20 degrees above
the ambient, but not exceed 95 degrees. Drying the pea-
nuts at a faster rate can cause the skin of the peanut seed to
separate from the kernel during shelling and also contrib-
ute to the cotyledons splitting apart. This damage is gener-
ally done at the start of drying when the peanuts are at a
higher moisture level. During the early part of the drying
season, the thermostat is usually set at 95 degrees during
the day and may be lowered slightly at night. As the tem-
peratures drop in October and November, it is more impor-
tant to lower the thermostat at night to a level that will not
cause skin separation.

EBW

GROWING VIRGINIA PEANUTS

There may some interest in Florida for growing Virginia
market-type peanuts, since the acreage in the traditional pro-
duction areas of North Carolina and Virginia was reduced
in 2002. This reduction may not occur again in 2003, but if
it does, other areas may consider growing them to meet
possible market demands for the bright-hull large peanuts.
Texas produces considerable acres of these peanuts. Florida
growers with sandy soils have also produced them very
successfully in the past. Production costs are usually higher
than for runner peanuts, because irrigation and high levels
of gypsum application are needed for consistent results, and
seed costs will be greater. If prices paid for bright hull
Virginia peanuts are adequate, Florida growers may want
to consider this option.

EBW

ON-FARM PEANUT STORAGE

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm, they should be pro-
tected from insects, moisture increases, mice, squirrels, and
other rodents. All storage areas should be cleaned thor-
oughly to get rid of old peanuts or trash. An insecticide
should be sprayed on the peanuts as they are loaded into
the storage trailers or bins, and inspections should be made
to determine if re-treatment is needed. The peanuts should
be stored at less than 10 percent moisture, and moisture
should be checked as needed. Blowing air through or over
the stored peanuts during the afternoon of dry days may be
adequate to keep the moisture at a safe level. Be sure that
the fans are not run at night or during rainy periods. Birds,
mice, squirrels, and other animals can damage unprotected
peanuts.

EBW


PEANUT YIELDS


It appears that in some areas, tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) may be a factor that will reduce peanut yields be-
low earlier expectations. While there are no known prac-
tices that will eliminate TSWV as a problem, several prac-
tices have been shown to reduce the severity of losses. Vari-
ety selection, planting date, plant stands, twin rows, use of
Thimet at planting, and use of strip tillage have been shown
to affect the level of TSWV infections. Growers should plan
to incorporate as many of these practices as possible in their
2003 production program in an effort to reduce losses. Strip
tillage would be one of the first practices to initiate because
of the need to plant a cover crop. If the peanut base has not
yet been assigned to a particular farm, be sure to make that
decision before initiating the strip tillage program.

EBW

NITROSAMINE LEVELS IN TOBACCO

There are reports that nitrosamine or TSNA levels were
higher than expected in some flue-cured tobacco that was
sold in 2002, even though the recent move to retrofit curing
barns with indirect fire burners was an effort to reduce such
levels. It is true that the average nitrosamine level of all
tobacco is considerably below that obtained a few years ago
with direct fire combustion, but isolated lots of tobacco were
above the expected level. Ideally the level would be zero,
and this is obtained in many cases, with levels of 0.1 ppm or
slightly above not being of much concern. One possible
source of the problem could be that the heat exchanger or
flue pipes that carry the combustion gases in retrofitted barns
may be cracked, thus allowing combustion gases to enter the
curing chamber and react with the tobacco to form nitro-
samines. Until instruments to directly detect combustion
gases in the barn become readily available, a visual inspec-
tion of the heat exchanger and associated flue pipes for cracks
or leaks would be the only means of finding out if this is a
possible source of the problem. Although unlikely, combus-
tion gases could enter the curing chamber via the intake vents
for the internal barn fan that circulates the heated air through
the tobacco. This could occur if the stack is so short that
combustion gases are released from the stack at a point near
the intake vent, or from another engine, such as a tractor or
irrigation pump.

If it is determined that combustion gases are not contribut-
ing to the problem, them microbial activity could be the
source. Micro-organisms that attack tobacco, such as the
bacteria that cause barn rot, also form nitrosamines, and there-
fore could be a major source of the problem. In the field
during wet conditions, these bacteria cause hollow stalk or
jelly rot, which is a watery and smelly rot of the stalk pith or
of the leaf midribs. Often there will be a black midrib of
affected leaves. The bacteria are generally present in the
soil and enter the stalk pith or leaf midribs through mechani-








DRYING PEANUTS IN COOL WEATHER

The general rule of thumb for the temperature to use in
drying peanuts is to heat the air only 15-20 degrees above
the ambient, but not exceed 95 degrees. Drying the pea-
nuts at a faster rate can cause the skin of the peanut seed to
separate from the kernel during shelling and also contrib-
ute to the cotyledons splitting apart. This damage is gener-
ally done at the start of drying when the peanuts are at a
higher moisture level. During the early part of the drying
season, the thermostat is usually set at 95 degrees during
the day and may be lowered slightly at night. As the tem-
peratures drop in October and November, it is more impor-
tant to lower the thermostat at night to a level that will not
cause skin separation.

EBW

GROWING VIRGINIA PEANUTS

There may some interest in Florida for growing Virginia
market-type peanuts, since the acreage in the traditional pro-
duction areas of North Carolina and Virginia was reduced
in 2002. This reduction may not occur again in 2003, but if
it does, other areas may consider growing them to meet
possible market demands for the bright-hull large peanuts.
Texas produces considerable acres of these peanuts. Florida
growers with sandy soils have also produced them very
successfully in the past. Production costs are usually higher
than for runner peanuts, because irrigation and high levels
of gypsum application are needed for consistent results, and
seed costs will be greater. If prices paid for bright hull
Virginia peanuts are adequate, Florida growers may want
to consider this option.

EBW

ON-FARM PEANUT STORAGE

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm, they should be pro-
tected from insects, moisture increases, mice, squirrels, and
other rodents. All storage areas should be cleaned thor-
oughly to get rid of old peanuts or trash. An insecticide
should be sprayed on the peanuts as they are loaded into
the storage trailers or bins, and inspections should be made
to determine if re-treatment is needed. The peanuts should
be stored at less than 10 percent moisture, and moisture
should be checked as needed. Blowing air through or over
the stored peanuts during the afternoon of dry days may be
adequate to keep the moisture at a safe level. Be sure that
the fans are not run at night or during rainy periods. Birds,
mice, squirrels, and other animals can damage unprotected
peanuts.

EBW


PEANUT YIELDS


It appears that in some areas, tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) may be a factor that will reduce peanut yields be-
low earlier expectations. While there are no known prac-
tices that will eliminate TSWV as a problem, several prac-
tices have been shown to reduce the severity of losses. Vari-
ety selection, planting date, plant stands, twin rows, use of
Thimet at planting, and use of strip tillage have been shown
to affect the level of TSWV infections. Growers should plan
to incorporate as many of these practices as possible in their
2003 production program in an effort to reduce losses. Strip
tillage would be one of the first practices to initiate because
of the need to plant a cover crop. If the peanut base has not
yet been assigned to a particular farm, be sure to make that
decision before initiating the strip tillage program.

EBW

NITROSAMINE LEVELS IN TOBACCO

There are reports that nitrosamine or TSNA levels were
higher than expected in some flue-cured tobacco that was
sold in 2002, even though the recent move to retrofit curing
barns with indirect fire burners was an effort to reduce such
levels. It is true that the average nitrosamine level of all
tobacco is considerably below that obtained a few years ago
with direct fire combustion, but isolated lots of tobacco were
above the expected level. Ideally the level would be zero,
and this is obtained in many cases, with levels of 0.1 ppm or
slightly above not being of much concern. One possible
source of the problem could be that the heat exchanger or
flue pipes that carry the combustion gases in retrofitted barns
may be cracked, thus allowing combustion gases to enter the
curing chamber and react with the tobacco to form nitro-
samines. Until instruments to directly detect combustion
gases in the barn become readily available, a visual inspec-
tion of the heat exchanger and associated flue pipes for cracks
or leaks would be the only means of finding out if this is a
possible source of the problem. Although unlikely, combus-
tion gases could enter the curing chamber via the intake vents
for the internal barn fan that circulates the heated air through
the tobacco. This could occur if the stack is so short that
combustion gases are released from the stack at a point near
the intake vent, or from another engine, such as a tractor or
irrigation pump.

If it is determined that combustion gases are not contribut-
ing to the problem, them microbial activity could be the
source. Micro-organisms that attack tobacco, such as the
bacteria that cause barn rot, also form nitrosamines, and there-
fore could be a major source of the problem. In the field
during wet conditions, these bacteria cause hollow stalk or
jelly rot, which is a watery and smelly rot of the stalk pith or
of the leaf midribs. Often there will be a black midrib of
affected leaves. The bacteria are generally present in the
soil and enter the stalk pith or leaf midribs through mechani-








DRYING PEANUTS IN COOL WEATHER

The general rule of thumb for the temperature to use in
drying peanuts is to heat the air only 15-20 degrees above
the ambient, but not exceed 95 degrees. Drying the pea-
nuts at a faster rate can cause the skin of the peanut seed to
separate from the kernel during shelling and also contrib-
ute to the cotyledons splitting apart. This damage is gener-
ally done at the start of drying when the peanuts are at a
higher moisture level. During the early part of the drying
season, the thermostat is usually set at 95 degrees during
the day and may be lowered slightly at night. As the tem-
peratures drop in October and November, it is more impor-
tant to lower the thermostat at night to a level that will not
cause skin separation.

EBW

GROWING VIRGINIA PEANUTS

There may some interest in Florida for growing Virginia
market-type peanuts, since the acreage in the traditional pro-
duction areas of North Carolina and Virginia was reduced
in 2002. This reduction may not occur again in 2003, but if
it does, other areas may consider growing them to meet
possible market demands for the bright-hull large peanuts.
Texas produces considerable acres of these peanuts. Florida
growers with sandy soils have also produced them very
successfully in the past. Production costs are usually higher
than for runner peanuts, because irrigation and high levels
of gypsum application are needed for consistent results, and
seed costs will be greater. If prices paid for bright hull
Virginia peanuts are adequate, Florida growers may want
to consider this option.

EBW

ON-FARM PEANUT STORAGE

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm, they should be pro-
tected from insects, moisture increases, mice, squirrels, and
other rodents. All storage areas should be cleaned thor-
oughly to get rid of old peanuts or trash. An insecticide
should be sprayed on the peanuts as they are loaded into
the storage trailers or bins, and inspections should be made
to determine if re-treatment is needed. The peanuts should
be stored at less than 10 percent moisture, and moisture
should be checked as needed. Blowing air through or over
the stored peanuts during the afternoon of dry days may be
adequate to keep the moisture at a safe level. Be sure that
the fans are not run at night or during rainy periods. Birds,
mice, squirrels, and other animals can damage unprotected
peanuts.

EBW


PEANUT YIELDS


It appears that in some areas, tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) may be a factor that will reduce peanut yields be-
low earlier expectations. While there are no known prac-
tices that will eliminate TSWV as a problem, several prac-
tices have been shown to reduce the severity of losses. Vari-
ety selection, planting date, plant stands, twin rows, use of
Thimet at planting, and use of strip tillage have been shown
to affect the level of TSWV infections. Growers should plan
to incorporate as many of these practices as possible in their
2003 production program in an effort to reduce losses. Strip
tillage would be one of the first practices to initiate because
of the need to plant a cover crop. If the peanut base has not
yet been assigned to a particular farm, be sure to make that
decision before initiating the strip tillage program.

EBW

NITROSAMINE LEVELS IN TOBACCO

There are reports that nitrosamine or TSNA levels were
higher than expected in some flue-cured tobacco that was
sold in 2002, even though the recent move to retrofit curing
barns with indirect fire burners was an effort to reduce such
levels. It is true that the average nitrosamine level of all
tobacco is considerably below that obtained a few years ago
with direct fire combustion, but isolated lots of tobacco were
above the expected level. Ideally the level would be zero,
and this is obtained in many cases, with levels of 0.1 ppm or
slightly above not being of much concern. One possible
source of the problem could be that the heat exchanger or
flue pipes that carry the combustion gases in retrofitted barns
may be cracked, thus allowing combustion gases to enter the
curing chamber and react with the tobacco to form nitro-
samines. Until instruments to directly detect combustion
gases in the barn become readily available, a visual inspec-
tion of the heat exchanger and associated flue pipes for cracks
or leaks would be the only means of finding out if this is a
possible source of the problem. Although unlikely, combus-
tion gases could enter the curing chamber via the intake vents
for the internal barn fan that circulates the heated air through
the tobacco. This could occur if the stack is so short that
combustion gases are released from the stack at a point near
the intake vent, or from another engine, such as a tractor or
irrigation pump.

If it is determined that combustion gases are not contribut-
ing to the problem, them microbial activity could be the
source. Micro-organisms that attack tobacco, such as the
bacteria that cause barn rot, also form nitrosamines, and there-
fore could be a major source of the problem. In the field
during wet conditions, these bacteria cause hollow stalk or
jelly rot, which is a watery and smelly rot of the stalk pith or
of the leaf midribs. Often there will be a black midrib of
affected leaves. The bacteria are generally present in the
soil and enter the stalk pith or leaf midribs through mechani-








DRYING PEANUTS IN COOL WEATHER

The general rule of thumb for the temperature to use in
drying peanuts is to heat the air only 15-20 degrees above
the ambient, but not exceed 95 degrees. Drying the pea-
nuts at a faster rate can cause the skin of the peanut seed to
separate from the kernel during shelling and also contrib-
ute to the cotyledons splitting apart. This damage is gener-
ally done at the start of drying when the peanuts are at a
higher moisture level. During the early part of the drying
season, the thermostat is usually set at 95 degrees during
the day and may be lowered slightly at night. As the tem-
peratures drop in October and November, it is more impor-
tant to lower the thermostat at night to a level that will not
cause skin separation.

EBW

GROWING VIRGINIA PEANUTS

There may some interest in Florida for growing Virginia
market-type peanuts, since the acreage in the traditional pro-
duction areas of North Carolina and Virginia was reduced
in 2002. This reduction may not occur again in 2003, but if
it does, other areas may consider growing them to meet
possible market demands for the bright-hull large peanuts.
Texas produces considerable acres of these peanuts. Florida
growers with sandy soils have also produced them very
successfully in the past. Production costs are usually higher
than for runner peanuts, because irrigation and high levels
of gypsum application are needed for consistent results, and
seed costs will be greater. If prices paid for bright hull
Virginia peanuts are adequate, Florida growers may want
to consider this option.

EBW

ON-FARM PEANUT STORAGE

If peanuts are to be stored on the farm, they should be pro-
tected from insects, moisture increases, mice, squirrels, and
other rodents. All storage areas should be cleaned thor-
oughly to get rid of old peanuts or trash. An insecticide
should be sprayed on the peanuts as they are loaded into
the storage trailers or bins, and inspections should be made
to determine if re-treatment is needed. The peanuts should
be stored at less than 10 percent moisture, and moisture
should be checked as needed. Blowing air through or over
the stored peanuts during the afternoon of dry days may be
adequate to keep the moisture at a safe level. Be sure that
the fans are not run at night or during rainy periods. Birds,
mice, squirrels, and other animals can damage unprotected
peanuts.

EBW


PEANUT YIELDS


It appears that in some areas, tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV) may be a factor that will reduce peanut yields be-
low earlier expectations. While there are no known prac-
tices that will eliminate TSWV as a problem, several prac-
tices have been shown to reduce the severity of losses. Vari-
ety selection, planting date, plant stands, twin rows, use of
Thimet at planting, and use of strip tillage have been shown
to affect the level of TSWV infections. Growers should plan
to incorporate as many of these practices as possible in their
2003 production program in an effort to reduce losses. Strip
tillage would be one of the first practices to initiate because
of the need to plant a cover crop. If the peanut base has not
yet been assigned to a particular farm, be sure to make that
decision before initiating the strip tillage program.

EBW

NITROSAMINE LEVELS IN TOBACCO

There are reports that nitrosamine or TSNA levels were
higher than expected in some flue-cured tobacco that was
sold in 2002, even though the recent move to retrofit curing
barns with indirect fire burners was an effort to reduce such
levels. It is true that the average nitrosamine level of all
tobacco is considerably below that obtained a few years ago
with direct fire combustion, but isolated lots of tobacco were
above the expected level. Ideally the level would be zero,
and this is obtained in many cases, with levels of 0.1 ppm or
slightly above not being of much concern. One possible
source of the problem could be that the heat exchanger or
flue pipes that carry the combustion gases in retrofitted barns
may be cracked, thus allowing combustion gases to enter the
curing chamber and react with the tobacco to form nitro-
samines. Until instruments to directly detect combustion
gases in the barn become readily available, a visual inspec-
tion of the heat exchanger and associated flue pipes for cracks
or leaks would be the only means of finding out if this is a
possible source of the problem. Although unlikely, combus-
tion gases could enter the curing chamber via the intake vents
for the internal barn fan that circulates the heated air through
the tobacco. This could occur if the stack is so short that
combustion gases are released from the stack at a point near
the intake vent, or from another engine, such as a tractor or
irrigation pump.

If it is determined that combustion gases are not contribut-
ing to the problem, them microbial activity could be the
source. Micro-organisms that attack tobacco, such as the
bacteria that cause barn rot, also form nitrosamines, and there-
fore could be a major source of the problem. In the field
during wet conditions, these bacteria cause hollow stalk or
jelly rot, which is a watery and smelly rot of the stalk pith or
of the leaf midribs. Often there will be a black midrib of
affected leaves. The bacteria are generally present in the
soil and enter the stalk pith or leaf midribs through mechani-








cal, insect, or disease wounds. The field disease is more of a
problem on over-fertilized crops during rainy weather, and
if the diseased leaves are harvested, it can develop rapidly in
the curing barn, where it is called barn rot. The tobacco
begins to rot and turns black, with an undesirable odor. Grad-
ers refer to barn rot as oxidized tobacco, and it is heavily
discounted, if even purchased. The disease stops as the to-
bacco leaves dry from the curing. Lower leaves are gener-
ally more damaged than upper leaves, probably because they
have a higher moisture content and are nearer the soil. Ob-
servations indicate that upper leaves may show more dis-
ease if harvested soon after a blowing rain. If growers had
considerable barn rot, or oxidized tobacco, and did not re-
move it prior to baling, nitrosamine levels could be high if
the probe removed a sample from the oxidized portion of the
bale. There are no chemical controls for this bacterial dis-
ease, so cultural practices such as avoiding over-fertiliza-
tion, preventing mechanical, insect, or other wounds of stalks
or leaves, harvesting only healthy leaves when they are ma-
ture and dry, and following a curing schedule to get to leaf
and stem drying stages as quickly as possible without set-
ting the green color are the best means of reducing prob-
lems. The longer the tobacco is in the coloring stage, the
longer the disease can develop. During baling, be sure to
remove any black or oxidized leaves to reduce the likeli-
hood of price discounts or a total refusal by buyers to pur-
chase the tobacco.


EBW


to decompose. Disking and turning the plant bed soil in Oc-
tober will allow the residue to decompose before fumiga-
tion. Undecomposed residue can interfere with movement
of the fumigant throughout the soil and result in weed and
disease problems. If there is little or no rain, irrigation may
be needed to help decompose the residue. Also it may be
advisable to redisk the area to keep new weeds from becom-
ing established before the final preparation before fumiga-
tion.
EBW

SEPTEMBER CROP REPORT

The USDA Agricultural Statistics Service made the follow-
ing acreage and yield estimates for the 2002 crop based on
conditions as of September 1:


Acres for Harvest Yield per Acre
(x 1000)
Crop Florida United Florida United
States States
Peanuts 92 1360.5 2900 lb 2808 lb
Sugarcane 455 1024.1 36.4 ton 34.4 ton
Tobacco 4.8 435.5 2800 lb 2037 lb


EBW


PESTICIDE UPDATE


TOBACCO MARKETING REPORT

Both receiving points in Florida are now closed, and the
Georgia receiving points and auctions will soon be closed.
Florida and Georgia tobacco move freely across the state
line. The Florida receiving stations handled 9,743,276
pounds, which brought an average price of $187.91 per cwt.
Through October 3, the Southern Marketing Area, which
includes Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and the Border
Belt of North Carolina, handled 38,270.066 pounds at auc-
tion and 136,716,268 at the contract centers, at average prices
per cwt of $171.19 and $183.62, respectively. Forthe United
States, almost 80 million pounds have been sold at auction
and almost 382 million pounds have been delivered to the
contract centers. Contracted tobacco has received almost 10
cents more per pound than auctioned tobacco. Prices at the
Stabilization Marketing Centers have been almost 4 cents
above that of the independent auctions. Based on the Sep-
tember crop report, about 60 million pounds are yet to be
sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED PREPARATION

If not started already, preparation of plant beds should begin
in October, especially if there is considerable plant residue


On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
40DF (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPAReg. # 279-3194) for
weed control in cotton and rice. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 9/
5/02).

On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
EC (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPA Reg. # 279-3241) for
weed control in cotton and rice.

On September 6, FDACS approved two Special Local Need
registrations ([24(c)] regarding the restricted-use herbicide
atrazine. Syngenta's Aatrex 4L and Nine-O (EPAReg. #
100-497 and 100-585, respectively) were issued the EPA
SLN numbers of FL-020001 and FL-020002, respectively.
These registrations give guidance for plant back restrictions
for crops grown on muck soil. (FDACS letters of 9/6/02).

BASF received tolerances for combined residues of the her-
bicide imazethapyr and its metabolites in or on crayfish and
sheep/horse/cattle/hog/goat meat byproducts at 0.1 ppm.
(Federal Register, 8/29/02).

The EPA announced in the August 21, 2002 edition of the
Federal Register that the Monsanto Company has obtained








cal, insect, or disease wounds. The field disease is more of a
problem on over-fertilized crops during rainy weather, and
if the diseased leaves are harvested, it can develop rapidly in
the curing barn, where it is called barn rot. The tobacco
begins to rot and turns black, with an undesirable odor. Grad-
ers refer to barn rot as oxidized tobacco, and it is heavily
discounted, if even purchased. The disease stops as the to-
bacco leaves dry from the curing. Lower leaves are gener-
ally more damaged than upper leaves, probably because they
have a higher moisture content and are nearer the soil. Ob-
servations indicate that upper leaves may show more dis-
ease if harvested soon after a blowing rain. If growers had
considerable barn rot, or oxidized tobacco, and did not re-
move it prior to baling, nitrosamine levels could be high if
the probe removed a sample from the oxidized portion of the
bale. There are no chemical controls for this bacterial dis-
ease, so cultural practices such as avoiding over-fertiliza-
tion, preventing mechanical, insect, or other wounds of stalks
or leaves, harvesting only healthy leaves when they are ma-
ture and dry, and following a curing schedule to get to leaf
and stem drying stages as quickly as possible without set-
ting the green color are the best means of reducing prob-
lems. The longer the tobacco is in the coloring stage, the
longer the disease can develop. During baling, be sure to
remove any black or oxidized leaves to reduce the likeli-
hood of price discounts or a total refusal by buyers to pur-
chase the tobacco.


EBW


to decompose. Disking and turning the plant bed soil in Oc-
tober will allow the residue to decompose before fumiga-
tion. Undecomposed residue can interfere with movement
of the fumigant throughout the soil and result in weed and
disease problems. If there is little or no rain, irrigation may
be needed to help decompose the residue. Also it may be
advisable to redisk the area to keep new weeds from becom-
ing established before the final preparation before fumiga-
tion.
EBW

SEPTEMBER CROP REPORT

The USDA Agricultural Statistics Service made the follow-
ing acreage and yield estimates for the 2002 crop based on
conditions as of September 1:


Acres for Harvest Yield per Acre
(x 1000)
Crop Florida United Florida United
States States
Peanuts 92 1360.5 2900 lb 2808 lb
Sugarcane 455 1024.1 36.4 ton 34.4 ton
Tobacco 4.8 435.5 2800 lb 2037 lb


EBW


PESTICIDE UPDATE


TOBACCO MARKETING REPORT

Both receiving points in Florida are now closed, and the
Georgia receiving points and auctions will soon be closed.
Florida and Georgia tobacco move freely across the state
line. The Florida receiving stations handled 9,743,276
pounds, which brought an average price of $187.91 per cwt.
Through October 3, the Southern Marketing Area, which
includes Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and the Border
Belt of North Carolina, handled 38,270.066 pounds at auc-
tion and 136,716,268 at the contract centers, at average prices
per cwt of $171.19 and $183.62, respectively. Forthe United
States, almost 80 million pounds have been sold at auction
and almost 382 million pounds have been delivered to the
contract centers. Contracted tobacco has received almost 10
cents more per pound than auctioned tobacco. Prices at the
Stabilization Marketing Centers have been almost 4 cents
above that of the independent auctions. Based on the Sep-
tember crop report, about 60 million pounds are yet to be
sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED PREPARATION

If not started already, preparation of plant beds should begin
in October, especially if there is considerable plant residue


On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
40DF (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPAReg. # 279-3194) for
weed control in cotton and rice. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 9/
5/02).

On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
EC (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPA Reg. # 279-3241) for
weed control in cotton and rice.

On September 6, FDACS approved two Special Local Need
registrations ([24(c)] regarding the restricted-use herbicide
atrazine. Syngenta's Aatrex 4L and Nine-O (EPAReg. #
100-497 and 100-585, respectively) were issued the EPA
SLN numbers of FL-020001 and FL-020002, respectively.
These registrations give guidance for plant back restrictions
for crops grown on muck soil. (FDACS letters of 9/6/02).

BASF received tolerances for combined residues of the her-
bicide imazethapyr and its metabolites in or on crayfish and
sheep/horse/cattle/hog/goat meat byproducts at 0.1 ppm.
(Federal Register, 8/29/02).

The EPA announced in the August 21, 2002 edition of the
Federal Register that the Monsanto Company has obtained








cal, insect, or disease wounds. The field disease is more of a
problem on over-fertilized crops during rainy weather, and
if the diseased leaves are harvested, it can develop rapidly in
the curing barn, where it is called barn rot. The tobacco
begins to rot and turns black, with an undesirable odor. Grad-
ers refer to barn rot as oxidized tobacco, and it is heavily
discounted, if even purchased. The disease stops as the to-
bacco leaves dry from the curing. Lower leaves are gener-
ally more damaged than upper leaves, probably because they
have a higher moisture content and are nearer the soil. Ob-
servations indicate that upper leaves may show more dis-
ease if harvested soon after a blowing rain. If growers had
considerable barn rot, or oxidized tobacco, and did not re-
move it prior to baling, nitrosamine levels could be high if
the probe removed a sample from the oxidized portion of the
bale. There are no chemical controls for this bacterial dis-
ease, so cultural practices such as avoiding over-fertiliza-
tion, preventing mechanical, insect, or other wounds of stalks
or leaves, harvesting only healthy leaves when they are ma-
ture and dry, and following a curing schedule to get to leaf
and stem drying stages as quickly as possible without set-
ting the green color are the best means of reducing prob-
lems. The longer the tobacco is in the coloring stage, the
longer the disease can develop. During baling, be sure to
remove any black or oxidized leaves to reduce the likeli-
hood of price discounts or a total refusal by buyers to pur-
chase the tobacco.


EBW


to decompose. Disking and turning the plant bed soil in Oc-
tober will allow the residue to decompose before fumiga-
tion. Undecomposed residue can interfere with movement
of the fumigant throughout the soil and result in weed and
disease problems. If there is little or no rain, irrigation may
be needed to help decompose the residue. Also it may be
advisable to redisk the area to keep new weeds from becom-
ing established before the final preparation before fumiga-
tion.
EBW

SEPTEMBER CROP REPORT

The USDA Agricultural Statistics Service made the follow-
ing acreage and yield estimates for the 2002 crop based on
conditions as of September 1:


Acres for Harvest Yield per Acre
(x 1000)
Crop Florida United Florida United
States States
Peanuts 92 1360.5 2900 lb 2808 lb
Sugarcane 455 1024.1 36.4 ton 34.4 ton
Tobacco 4.8 435.5 2800 lb 2037 lb


EBW


PESTICIDE UPDATE


TOBACCO MARKETING REPORT

Both receiving points in Florida are now closed, and the
Georgia receiving points and auctions will soon be closed.
Florida and Georgia tobacco move freely across the state
line. The Florida receiving stations handled 9,743,276
pounds, which brought an average price of $187.91 per cwt.
Through October 3, the Southern Marketing Area, which
includes Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and the Border
Belt of North Carolina, handled 38,270.066 pounds at auc-
tion and 136,716,268 at the contract centers, at average prices
per cwt of $171.19 and $183.62, respectively. Forthe United
States, almost 80 million pounds have been sold at auction
and almost 382 million pounds have been delivered to the
contract centers. Contracted tobacco has received almost 10
cents more per pound than auctioned tobacco. Prices at the
Stabilization Marketing Centers have been almost 4 cents
above that of the independent auctions. Based on the Sep-
tember crop report, about 60 million pounds are yet to be
sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED PREPARATION

If not started already, preparation of plant beds should begin
in October, especially if there is considerable plant residue


On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
40DF (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPAReg. # 279-3194) for
weed control in cotton and rice. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 9/
5/02).

On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
EC (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPA Reg. # 279-3241) for
weed control in cotton and rice.

On September 6, FDACS approved two Special Local Need
registrations ([24(c)] regarding the restricted-use herbicide
atrazine. Syngenta's Aatrex 4L and Nine-O (EPAReg. #
100-497 and 100-585, respectively) were issued the EPA
SLN numbers of FL-020001 and FL-020002, respectively.
These registrations give guidance for plant back restrictions
for crops grown on muck soil. (FDACS letters of 9/6/02).

BASF received tolerances for combined residues of the her-
bicide imazethapyr and its metabolites in or on crayfish and
sheep/horse/cattle/hog/goat meat byproducts at 0.1 ppm.
(Federal Register, 8/29/02).

The EPA announced in the August 21, 2002 edition of the
Federal Register that the Monsanto Company has obtained








cal, insect, or disease wounds. The field disease is more of a
problem on over-fertilized crops during rainy weather, and
if the diseased leaves are harvested, it can develop rapidly in
the curing barn, where it is called barn rot. The tobacco
begins to rot and turns black, with an undesirable odor. Grad-
ers refer to barn rot as oxidized tobacco, and it is heavily
discounted, if even purchased. The disease stops as the to-
bacco leaves dry from the curing. Lower leaves are gener-
ally more damaged than upper leaves, probably because they
have a higher moisture content and are nearer the soil. Ob-
servations indicate that upper leaves may show more dis-
ease if harvested soon after a blowing rain. If growers had
considerable barn rot, or oxidized tobacco, and did not re-
move it prior to baling, nitrosamine levels could be high if
the probe removed a sample from the oxidized portion of the
bale. There are no chemical controls for this bacterial dis-
ease, so cultural practices such as avoiding over-fertiliza-
tion, preventing mechanical, insect, or other wounds of stalks
or leaves, harvesting only healthy leaves when they are ma-
ture and dry, and following a curing schedule to get to leaf
and stem drying stages as quickly as possible without set-
ting the green color are the best means of reducing prob-
lems. The longer the tobacco is in the coloring stage, the
longer the disease can develop. During baling, be sure to
remove any black or oxidized leaves to reduce the likeli-
hood of price discounts or a total refusal by buyers to pur-
chase the tobacco.


EBW


to decompose. Disking and turning the plant bed soil in Oc-
tober will allow the residue to decompose before fumiga-
tion. Undecomposed residue can interfere with movement
of the fumigant throughout the soil and result in weed and
disease problems. If there is little or no rain, irrigation may
be needed to help decompose the residue. Also it may be
advisable to redisk the area to keep new weeds from becom-
ing established before the final preparation before fumiga-
tion.
EBW

SEPTEMBER CROP REPORT

The USDA Agricultural Statistics Service made the follow-
ing acreage and yield estimates for the 2002 crop based on
conditions as of September 1:


Acres for Harvest Yield per Acre
(x 1000)
Crop Florida United Florida United
States States
Peanuts 92 1360.5 2900 lb 2808 lb
Sugarcane 455 1024.1 36.4 ton 34.4 ton
Tobacco 4.8 435.5 2800 lb 2037 lb


EBW


PESTICIDE UPDATE


TOBACCO MARKETING REPORT

Both receiving points in Florida are now closed, and the
Georgia receiving points and auctions will soon be closed.
Florida and Georgia tobacco move freely across the state
line. The Florida receiving stations handled 9,743,276
pounds, which brought an average price of $187.91 per cwt.
Through October 3, the Southern Marketing Area, which
includes Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and the Border
Belt of North Carolina, handled 38,270.066 pounds at auc-
tion and 136,716,268 at the contract centers, at average prices
per cwt of $171.19 and $183.62, respectively. Forthe United
States, almost 80 million pounds have been sold at auction
and almost 382 million pounds have been delivered to the
contract centers. Contracted tobacco has received almost 10
cents more per pound than auctioned tobacco. Prices at the
Stabilization Marketing Centers have been almost 4 cents
above that of the independent auctions. Based on the Sep-
tember crop report, about 60 million pounds are yet to be
sold.

EBW

TOBACCO PLANT BED PREPARATION

If not started already, preparation of plant beds should begin
in October, especially if there is considerable plant residue


On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
40DF (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPAReg. # 279-3194) for
weed control in cotton and rice. (FDACS PREC Agenda, 9/
5/02).

On July 25, FDACS registered FMC Corporation's Aim
EC (carfentrazone) herbicide (EPA Reg. # 279-3241) for
weed control in cotton and rice.

On September 6, FDACS approved two Special Local Need
registrations ([24(c)] regarding the restricted-use herbicide
atrazine. Syngenta's Aatrex 4L and Nine-O (EPAReg. #
100-497 and 100-585, respectively) were issued the EPA
SLN numbers of FL-020001 and FL-020002, respectively.
These registrations give guidance for plant back restrictions
for crops grown on muck soil. (FDACS letters of 9/6/02).

BASF received tolerances for combined residues of the her-
bicide imazethapyr and its metabolites in or on crayfish and
sheep/horse/cattle/hog/goat meat byproducts at 0.1 ppm.
(Federal Register, 8/29/02).

The EPA announced in the August 21, 2002 edition of the
Federal Register that the Monsanto Company has obtained









approval of its Bollgard II cotton, which produces the
Cry2Ab and CrylAc proteins. (Federal Register, 8/21/02).

MAM

SMALL GRAIN PLANTING FOR DOVE
HUNTING

The question about surface seeding of small grains keeps
surfacing! The following is adapted from the Small Grain
Production guide, SS-AGR-45.

Small grain seeding must be done as a normal agricultural
practice, which could include planting into a prepared seed-
bed, drilled, harrowed or dragged after seeding, or planting
with a no-till drill. The only time that it is recommended
that small grain be surface seeded is prior to leaf drop of
soybean or before defoliating cotton. The normal seeding
rates per acre are listed [in SS-AGR-45] for grain and for
grazing. Surface sowing at high rates of seed without incor-
porating is not a normal agricultural practice and would be
considered baiting if done in this manner. The normal seed-
ing rates of small grain do not usually attract large numbers
of birds. Therefore, it would be advisable to plant other crops
such as corn or millet in the summer that could be mowed
down prior to opening of [dove] hunting season to have ad-
equate feed to attract birds.

CGC


PUBLICATIONS


The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2002

The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.


SS-AGR-181
SS-AGR-182
SS-AGR-183
SS-AGR-184


SS-AGR-185
SSAGR177


2002 Cotton Defoliation and Harvest Guide
Soybean Production in Florida
Florakirk Bermudagrass
Sustainability Aspects of Precision
Agriculture for Row Crops in Florida and
the Southeast U.S.
Conservation Tillage Peanut Production
Silage Harvesting, Storing and Feeding


You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) orKeyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click
on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or Find
PublicationNo.). You will get a listing of publications. Please
be sure to check the date in the footnote on the first page to be
sure it is the most up-to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist; and M. A. Mossler, Pesticide Information Specialist.









approval of its Bollgard II cotton, which produces the
Cry2Ab and CrylAc proteins. (Federal Register, 8/21/02).

MAM

SMALL GRAIN PLANTING FOR DOVE
HUNTING

The question about surface seeding of small grains keeps
surfacing! The following is adapted from the Small Grain
Production guide, SS-AGR-45.

Small grain seeding must be done as a normal agricultural
practice, which could include planting into a prepared seed-
bed, drilled, harrowed or dragged after seeding, or planting
with a no-till drill. The only time that it is recommended
that small grain be surface seeded is prior to leaf drop of
soybean or before defoliating cotton. The normal seeding
rates per acre are listed [in SS-AGR-45] for grain and for
grazing. Surface sowing at high rates of seed without incor-
porating is not a normal agricultural practice and would be
considered baiting if done in this manner. The normal seed-
ing rates of small grain do not usually attract large numbers
of birds. Therefore, it would be advisable to plant other crops
such as corn or millet in the summer that could be mowed
down prior to opening of [dove] hunting season to have ad-
equate feed to attract birds.

CGC


PUBLICATIONS


The following publications have been recently UPDATED
and are available through EDIS. PDF files for these publi-
cations are also available.

SS-AGR-84 Fall Forage Update 2002

The following NEWpublications are available through EDIS.
A PDF file for each publication is also available.


SS-AGR-181
SS-AGR-182
SS-AGR-183
SS-AGR-184


SS-AGR-185
SSAGR177


2002 Cotton Defoliation and Harvest Guide
Soybean Production in Florida
Florakirk Bermudagrass
Sustainability Aspects of Precision
Agriculture for Row Crops in Florida and
the Southeast U.S.
Conservation Tillage Peanut Production
Silage Harvesting, Storing and Feeding


You can find EDIS at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. Once that
screen fully loads, find the box that says Integrated Data-
base Search Engine. Type in the publication number (ex-
ample: SSAGR01) orKeyword (example: Bahiagrass). Click
on the appropriate button below (Find Keywords or Find
PublicationNo.). You will get a listing of publications. Please
be sure to check the date in the footnote on the first page to be
sure it is the most up-to-date publication for that topic.


The use of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warrant of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar
products.
Prepared by: J. M. Bennett, Chairman; C. G. Chambliss, Extension Agronomist; E. B. Whitty, Extension Agronomist; D. L. Wright, Extension
Agronomist; and M. A. Mossler, Pesticide Information Specialist.